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Sample records for fabrication facility decommissioning

  1. Systematization of nuclear fuel facility decommissioning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugitsue, Noritake [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, the nature of all decommissioning works is clarified and, as an information base for planning the promotion of efficiency of a work, the Decommissioning Engineering System is being developed. The Decommissioning Engineering System consists of a function for performing work support for a decommissioning, a function for gathering information results of the decommissioning technology and a general evaluation function for the decommissioning plan on the basis of facilities information collected by three-dimensional CAD. (author)

  2. About decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosche, Dieter [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Klein, K. [Badenwerk AG, Kalrsruhe (Germany); Vollradt, Juergen [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The IAEA organised an International Symposium in 1978, which dealt with the main aspects of decommissioning nuclear plants. Sufficient practical experiences and elaborated decommissioning concepts and techniques are already available. Unsolvable problems or only solvable with tremendous efforts of time and expenses are according to the opinion of experts not to be expected. Important statements concern above all the dose load of the decommissioning staff and the costs for decommissioning.

  3. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  4. University of Virginia Reactor Facility Decommissioning Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, P. F.; Lundberg, L. A.; Benneche, P. E.; Mulder, R. U.; Steva, D. P.

    2003-02-24

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility started accelerated decommissioning in 2002. The facility consists of two licensed reactors, the CAVALIER and the UVAR. This paper will describe the progress in 2002, remaining efforts and the unique organizational structure of the project team.

  5. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  6. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  9. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  10. Decommissioning the UHTREX Reactor Facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Elder, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Ultra-High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) facility was constructed in the late 1960s to advance high-temperature and gas-cooled reactor technology. The 3-MW reactor was graphite moderated and helium cooled and used 93% enriched uranium as its fuel. The reactor was run for approximately one year and was shut down in February 1970. The decommissioning of the facility involved removing the reactor and its associated components. This document details planning for the decommissioning operations which included characterizing the facility, estimating the costs of decommissioning, preparing environmental documentation, establishing a system to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in the facility. Work to decommission the facility began in 1988 and was completed in September 1990 at a cost of $2.9 million. The facility was released to Department of Energy for other uses in its Los Alamos program.

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  12. Standard Guide for Preparing Characterization Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide applies to developing nuclear facility characterization plans to define the type, magnitude, location, and extent of radiological and chemical contamination within the facility to allow decommissioning planning. This guide amplifies guidance regarding facility characterization indicated in ASTM Standard E 1281 on Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Plans. This guide does not address the methodology necessary to release a facility or site for unconditional use. This guide specifically addresses: 1.1.1 the data quality objective for characterization as an initial step in decommissioning planning. 1.1.2 sampling methods, 1.1.3 the logic involved (statistical design) to ensure adequate characterization for decommissioning purposes; and 1.1.4 essential documentation of the characterization information. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate saf...

  13. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  14. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and

  15. The Study on Domestic and Foreign Cases for Decommissioning of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ye Ji; Hhu, Joo Youn; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study was able to analyze domestic and foreign cases, and collect data on the approximate amount of waste and time required time; however, data on applied technology, input manpower, required cost, and waste disposal method was insufficient. DPRK activities such as nuclear weapon development or nuclear testing not only threaten our country's security but also have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation and security in the international society. Therefore, denuclearization of the DPRK is prior task that is essential to peace on the Korean Peninsula. The fundamental purpose of denuclearization of the DPRK is to safely decommission facilities related to developing nuclear weapons and to depose related radioactive waste and nuclear materials. Understanding descriptive references and physical properties of the facility and its purpose important for decommissioning nuclear facilities. Although it was impossible to collect data on DPRK nuclear facilities to perform complete decommissioning, we were able to understand the process used at DPRK nuclear facilities with open source data. This study has been conducted to establish overall measures for decommissioning DPRK nuclear facilities. DPRK nuclear facilities in this study include a IRT- 2000 type nuclear research reactor, a 5 MWe graphite moderated reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, and a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, which are considered as facilities that produce or manufacture nuclear materials needed for nuclear weapons or related to such activities.

  16. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  17. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project for the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. and others

    2006-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete safely and successfully the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 (KRR-1) and the Korean Research Reactor no.2 (KRR-2), and uranium conversion plant (UCP). The dismantling of the reactor hall of the KRR-2 was planned to complete till the end of 2004, but it was delayed because of a few unexpected factors such as the development of a remotely operated equipment for dismantling of the highly radioactive parts of the beam port tubes. In 2005, the dismantling of the bio-shielding concrete structure of the KRR-2 was finished and the hall can be used as a temporary storage space for the radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of the KRR-1 and KRR-2. The cutting experience of the shielding concrete by diamond wire saw and the drilling experience by a core boring machine will be applied to another nuclear facility dismantling. An effective management tool of the decommissioning projects, named DECOMIS, was developed and the data from the decommissioning projects were gathered. This system provided many information on the daily D and D works, waste generation, radiation dose, etc., so an effective management of the decommissioning projects is expected from next year. The operation experience of the uranium conversion plant as a nuclear fuel cycle facility was much contributed to the localization of nuclear fuels for both HWR and PWR. It was shut down in 1993 and a program for its decontamination and dismantling was launched in 2001 to remove all the contaminated equipment and to achieve the environment restoration. The decommissioning project is expected to contribute to the development of the D and D technologies for the other domestic fuel cycle facilities and the settlement of the new criteria for decommissioning of the fuel cycle related facilities.

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  19. CEA decommissioning strategy and program for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, E.; Cerdan, G. [Legacy and Clean-up Directorate, Nuclear Energy Division, French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA/Siege, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France)

    2003-07-01

    The CEA's experience of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities goes back many decades and relates to many installations of very different types. The first substantial operations began in the sixties and seventies, and included, for instance, the first plutonium plant at Fontenay-aux-Roses (total decommissioning) and a number of small research reactors and critical mock-ups such as Cesar and Peggy at Cadarache, and Minerve at Fontenay-aux-Roses. Some twenty facilities were dealt with by 2000, corresponding to around half of all the nuclear facilities permanently closed, beginning with the decommissioning of facility AT1 at La Hague, the pilot plant used by the CEA in the seventies for the reprocessing of spent fuel from fast neutron reactors in March 2001 and ending with the demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule, on 19 July this year. During the nineties, decommissioning was scaled back and few of the operations in progress were completed. The end of the decade saw a slowdown which was a consequence of financial difficulties, as the CEA had not yet set aside sufficient funds to cover the work, even though, between 1993 and 1999, part of the necessary resources had been provided under an agreement with the industrial partners EDF and Cogema. At the present time, the situation is rapidly improving both as concerns organisational and financial issues for the CEA and as concerns the regulations and the management of waste for all the organisations involved. First of all, for the different problems associated with radioactive clean-up faced by its research centres, the efforts made by the CEA in the field of organisation and planning since the beginning of the nineties have led to the drawing up of an overall multi-year plan referred to as the 'CEA civil centre radioactive clean-up plan' and the appointment of the Legacy and Clean-up Directorate to act as the client and be in charge of application of the plan relating not only to decommissioning of the

  20. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  2. Development of decommissioning management system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities (DECMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    In making a plan of decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, it is important to optimize the plan on the standpoint of a few viewpoints, that is, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost (they are called evaluation indexes). In the midst of decommissioning, the decommissioning plan would be modified suitably to optimize the evaluation indexes adjusting to progress of the decommissioning. The decommissioning management code (DECMAN), that is support system on computer, has been developed to assist the decommissioning planning. The system calculates the evaluation indexes quantitatively. The system consists of three fundamental codes, facility information database code, technical know-how database code and index evaluation code, they are composed using Oracle' database and 'G2' expert system. The functions of the system are as follows. (1) Facility information database code. Information of decommissioning facility and its rooms, machines and pipes in the code. (2) Technical know-how database code. Technical Information of tools to use in decommissioning work, cutting, dose measure, and decontamination are there. (3) Index evaluation code. User build decommissioning program using above two database codes. The code evaluates five indexes, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost, on planning decommissioning program. Results of calculation are shown in table, chart, and etc. (author)

  3. Accidental safety analysis methodology development in decommission of the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Jae, M. S.; Seong, J. H.; Shin, S. H.; Cheong, S. J.; Pae, J. H.; Ang, G. R.; Lee, J. U. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of a nuclear reactor cost about 20% of construction expense and production of nuclear wastes during decommissioning makes environmental issues. Decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Korea is in a just beginning stage, lacking clear standards and regulations for decommissioning. This work accident safety analysis in decommissioning of the nuclear facility can be a solid ground for the standards and regulations. For source term analysis for Kori-1 reactor vessel, MCNP/ORIGEN calculation methodology was applied. The activity of each important nuclide in the vessel was estimated at a time after 2008, the year Kori-1 plant is supposed to be decommissioned. And a methodology for risk analysis assessment in decommissioning was developed.

  4. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  5. The role of the IAEA in international guidance and assistance on decommissioning of small nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laraia, M., E-mail: m.laraia@iaea.or [IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The IAEA has included decommissioning in its regular programmes since the early 1970 decade. Since 1985, decommissioning has been considered as a separate programme within the IAEA. Decommissioning has become a topic of great interest to many countries because of the large number of facilities that have reached or are nearing the end of their operating lifetime. Until recently, attention was focused on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and to less extent, other large nuclear facilities like nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Quite a few countries, however, are now being faced with the decommissioning of research reactors and other small non-reactor facilities, which are prevailing in most of our Member States. This factor demands equal attention in IAEA programmes. Not unlike IAEA publications, most of existing technical literature on decommissioning addresses technological and other aspects in decontamination and dismantling of large nuclear facilities. It should however be noted that most nuclear facilities are smaller -in size and complexity- and may present a lower radiological risk in decommissioning than the larger facilities. Such facilities e.g. small research reactors, critical assemblies, biological and medical laboratories, factories manufacturing radioactive products etc. are often located in countries where decommissioning experience and related resources are often limited. The risk here is that even minimum requirements and strategies be disregarded in decommissioning of these facilities resulting in unnecessary costs, delays, and possible safety concerns in the course of decontamination and dismantling activities. Besides, guidance on decommissioning of larger facilities can be misleading for smaller facilities. This paper provides an update on current and foreseen IAEA activities in the field of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities. Most IAEA activities can be included into the following two categories: drafting technical and safety

  6. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  7. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  8. DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN GERMANY - STATUS AT BMBF SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, R.; Komorowski, K.

    2002-02-25

    In a period of approximately 40 years prior to 1994, the German Federal Government had spent about {approx} 15 billion to promote nuclear technology. These funds were earmarked for R&D projects as well as demonstration facilities which took up operation between 1960 and 1980. These BMBF (Federal Ministry for Research) facilities were mainly located at the sites of the federal research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe (the research reactors AVR, FR2, FRJ-1, KNK, and MZFR, the pilot reprocessing plant WAK) but included also the pilot plants SNR-300 and THTR-300 for fast breeder and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor development, respectively, and finally the salt mine Asse which had been used for waste emplacement prior to conversion into an underground research laboratory. In the meantime, almost all of these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling. This is mainly due to the facts that R&D needs are satisfied or do not exist any more and that, secondly, the lack of political consensus led to the cancellation of advanced nuclear technology.

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  10. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  11. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meek, N.C.; Ingram, S.; Page, J. [BNFL Environmental Services (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] {yields} [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] {yields} [Identify work packages] {yields} [Set up WBS to level 3] {yields} [Assign work packages] {yields} [Update WBS to level 4] {yields}[Develop cost model] {yields} [Develop logic network] {yields} [Develop risk management procedure] ] {yields

  12. Lessons Learned from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility Decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA has been conducting decommissioning activities at its PBRF for the last decade. As a result of all this work there have been several lessons learned both good and bad. This paper presents some of the more exportable lessons.

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Europe. Status December 2014; Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen in Europa. Stand: Dezember 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, Boris; Imielski, Przemyslaw [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Kuehn, Kerstin; Rehs, Bernd

    2015-05-15

    The report on decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities in Europe (status December 2014) summarizes the reasons and plans for decommissioning, the regulations and responsibilities, the decommissioning strategies and the finalized decommissioning projects. The specific activities are described for Armenia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, UK, Italy, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Hungary and Belarus.

  14. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[USDOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards, Washington, DC (United States). Systems Analysis and Standards Div.; Gillette, J.; Jackson, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.

  15. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  16. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  17. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant at Winfrith Technolgy Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, M.G.A. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    The Alpha Materials Laboratory (Building A52) at Winfrith contained a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant which had a capability of producing 10 te/yr of pelleted/compacted fuel and was in operation from 1962 until 1980, when the requirement for this type of fuel in the UK diminished, and the plant became surplus to requirements. A program to develop decommissioning techniques for plutonium plants was started in 1983, addressing the following aspects of alpha plant decommissioning: (1) Re-usable containment systems, (2) Strippable coating technology, (3) Mobile air filtration plant, (4) Size reduction primarily using cold cutting, (5) techniques, (6) Waste packing, and (7) Alpha plant decommissioning methodology. The technology developed has been used to safely and efficiently decommission radioactive plant and equipment including Pu contaminated glove boxes. (63 glove boxes to date) The technology has been widely adopted in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. This paper outlines the general strategies adopted and techniques used for glove box decommissioning in building A52.

  18. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  19. Standard Guide for Environmental Monitoring Plans for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the development or assessment of environmental monitoring plans for decommissioning nuclear facilities. This guide addresses: (1) development of an environmental baseline prior to commencement of decommissioning activities; (2) determination of release paths from site activities and their associated exposure pathways in the environment; and (3) selection of appropriate sampling locations and media to ensure that all exposure pathways in the environment are monitored appropriately. This guide also addresses the interfaces between the environmental monitoring plan and other planning documents for site decommissioning, such as radiation protection, site characterization, and waste management plans, and federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and guidance. This guide is applicable up to the point of completing D&D activities and the reuse of the facility or area for other purposes.

  20. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  1. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory. Descriptions and cost assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, K.

    2001-01-01

    The report is the result of a project initiated by Risø National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives anassessment of the work to be done and the ......The report is the result of a project initiated by Risø National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives anassessment of the work to be done...... and the costs incurred. Three decommissioning scenarios were considered with decay times of 10, 25 and 40 years for the DR 3 reactor. The assessments conclude, however, that there will not be much to gain by allowing forthe longer decay periods; some operations still will need to be performed remotely....... Furthermore, the report describes some of the legal and licensing framework for the decommissioning and gives an assessment of the amounts of radioactive waste to betransferred to a Danish repository. For a revision of the cost estimate for the decommissioning of the research Reactor DR 3 please consult...

  2. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory. Descriptions and cost assessment[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt [ed.

    2001-02-01

    The report is the result of a project initiated by Risoe National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives an assessment of the work to be done and the costs incurred. Three decommissioning scenarios were considered with decay times of 10, 25 and 40 years for the DR 3 reactor. The assessments conclude, however, that there will not be much to gain by allowing for the longer decay periods; some operations still will need to be performed remotely. Furthermore, the report describes some of the legal and licensing framework for the decommissioning and gives an assessment of the amounts of radioactive waste to be transferred to a Danish repository. (au)

  3. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  4. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  5. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  6. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  7. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  10. Standard Guide for Preparing Waste Management Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses the development of waste management plans for potential waste streams resulting from decommissioning activities at nuclear facilities, including identifying, categorizing, and handling the waste from generation to final disposal. 1.2 This guide is applicable to potential waste streams anticipated from decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities whose operations were governed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State license, under Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, or Department of Defense (DoD) regulations. 1.3 This guide provides a description of the key elements of waste management plans that if followed will successfully allow for the characterization, packaging, transportation, and off-site treatment or disposal, or both, of conventional, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams. 1.4 This guide does not address the on-site treatment, long term storage, or on-site disposal of these potential waste streams. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address ...

  11. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  16. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  17. Neutron transport calculation for Activation Evaluation for Decommissioning of PET cyclotron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhara, Fumiyoshi; Kuroyanagi, Makoto; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Hajime; Toyoda, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the state of activation in a cyclotron facility used for the radioisotope production of PET diagnostics, we measured the neutron flux by using gold foils and TLDs. Then, the spatial distribution of neutrons and induced activity inside the cyclotron vault were simulated with the Monte Calro calculation code for neutron transport and DCHAIN-SP for activation calculation. The calculated results are in good agreement with measured values within factor 3. Therefore, the adaption of the advanced evaluation procedure for activation level is proved to be important for the planning of decommissioning of these facilities.

  18. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  19. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  20. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  1. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  2. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  4. Decontamination techniques for decommissioning nuclear cycle facilities COGEMA experience and R and R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decobert, G.; Bordie, J. C. [COGEMA FCR/DSDP, St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Faury, M.; Fournel, B. [Commissariat aa l' Energie Atomique, CEN Cadarache DESD/SEP/LETD, Paul lez Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    All industrial nuclear facilities have a limited life-time. Then, dismantling at different levels of these facilities occurs and has to be done without endangering decommissioning staff, public and environment. Decontamination is an important procedure and is often used ina dismantling operation. It doesn't noly reduce irradiation dose for workers during decommissioning operations, according to the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, but also has the potential for waste downgrading in order to achieve lower disposal costs. The COGEMA group which is world-leader in the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium prospecting to spent fuel reprocessing and recycling (including refining, conversion, enrichment of natural uranium, manufacturing of nuclear fuels and waste conditioning) has already been involved in nuclear clean-up and decommissioning programs and participates in several R and D projects with the CEA (Commissariat aa l'Energie Atomique). This paper will present first some example of the experience acquired on COGEMA and the CEA sites: - COGEMA La Hague reprocessing plant operating and heavy maintenance experience. - COGEMA Marcoule UP1 decommissioning feed-back experience. - Various CEA decommissioning operations. The experience acquired in the plant during operation clearly shows that, for most chemical equipment, conventional rinsing ensures sufficient internal decontamination to allow dismantling. Nevertheless, some specific equipment will require more aggressive reactants to lower the final dose rate. At this stage, the choice for a process is done step. Preliminary information is needed such as the physical state of the installation, the nature of the support, the radioactive inventory and its history whenever possible. After carrying inactive and active testing at a pilot level on the most promising processes, particular attention have to be put on the generated waste. (volume, treatment and final repository). COGEMA is developing a

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  6. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poderis, Reed J. [NSTec; King, Rebecca A. [NSTec

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  9. Fixed-Price Subcontracting for Decontamination and Decommissioning of Small Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, M. A.; Julius, J. F. K.; McKenna, M. K.

    2002-02-26

    Abandoned facilities were decontaminated and decommissioned in preparation for final remediation of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facilities varied in age from approximately 5 years to more than 40 years, with radiological conditions ranging from clean to highly contaminated with fission products. A fixed-price subcontract (FPSC) was awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Management and Integration (M&I) contractor for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of these facilities. Included in the FPSC scope were the following: preparation of pre-D&D regulatory documentation; demolition of surface structures to slab; stabilization of below-grade structures; waste management and disposal; and preparation of post-D&D regulatory documentation. Using stand-off techniques to the extent possible, building structures and ancillary equipment were prepared for demolition and demolished. A fixative coating system was used in conjunction with continuous water misting to control airborne contamination. Demolition waste consisted of two major streams: clean construction and demolition waste and low-level (radioactive) waste. The debris was size-reduced and packaged, again via remote means. At all times during the D&D, personnel safety, environmental compliance, and as low as reasonably achievable exposure considerations were paramount. Upon completion of D&D activities, each site was inspected and accepted by the M&I contractor. This project is a success story for fixed-price subcontracting of D&D work under DOE's M&I arrangement.

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  11. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  12. Review Of Decommissioning Experience In Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities at Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Vendroux, M. [CODEM GIE, BP 21004, 30201 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France); Berlan, C. [COGEMA Reprocessing Business Unit, 2, rue Paul Dautier - BP.4, 78141 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2003-07-01

    Final shutdown and decontamination, dismantling, and legacy waste retrieval programs are currently in progress at the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in southern France. They began in 1998 and will continue until about 2040. CODEM is the funding, decision-making and inspection organization for these decommissioning operations, COGEMA is the nuclear operator and the industrial contractor. After an overview of the facilities, the project and the participants, most significant operations are discussed in greater detail. High activity levels and the presence of large quantities of {alpha}-emitters complicate operating and waste treatment conditions. The major issues impacting cost-effectiveness-scenario, waste removal and project organization will be highlighted in the conclusion.

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  14. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  15. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

  16. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others

    1999-03-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  17. General framework and basis of decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Marco general y bases de los desmantelamientos de las instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, N.; Correa, C.

    2013-07-01

    This article summarizes the legal framework defining the strategies, the main activities and the basic responsibilities and roles of the various agents involved in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain. It also describes briefly the most relevant projects and activities already developed and/or ongoing nowadays, which have positioned Spain within the small group of countries having an integrated and proved experience and know how in this particular field. (Author)

  18. Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide defines the process for developing a strategy for dispositioning concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. It outlines a 10-step method to evaluate disposal options for radioactively contaminated concrete. One of the steps is to complete a detailed analysis of the cost and dose to nonradiation workers (the public); the methodology and supporting data to perform this analysis are detailed in the appendices. The resulting data can be used to balance dose and cost and select the best disposal option. These data, which establish a technical basis to apply to release the concrete, can be used in several ways: (1) to show that the release meets existing release criteria, (2) to establish a basis to request release of the concrete on a case-by-case basis, (3) to develop a basis for establishing release criteria where none exists. 1.2 This standard guide is based on the “Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Sites,” (1) from ...

  19. Prioritization methodology for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a study case on the Iraq former nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjies, Adnan; Abbas, Mohammed; Monken Fernandes, Horst; Wong, Melanie; Coates, Roger

    2013-05-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site being Al-Tuwaitha. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: i) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment ii) a range of sensitivity analyses and iii) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest risk among the evaluated ones, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, and a relatively large group of lower risk facilities and sites. The initial order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It has to be considered the Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. USE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR SRS REACTOR FACILITY IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING - 11620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Waymer, J.; Matheny, D.; Singh, D.

    2010-12-07

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The Savannah River Site 105-P and 105-R Reactor Facility ISD requires about 250,000 cubic yards of grout to fill the below grade structure. The fills are designed to prevent subsidence, reduce water infiltration, and isolate contaminated materials. This work is being performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act (CERCLA) action and is part of the overall soil and groundwater completion projects for P- and R-Areas. Cementitious materials were designed for the following applications: (1) Below grade massive voids/rooms: Portland cement-based structural flowable fills for - Bulk filling, Restricted placement and Underwater placement. (2) Special below grade applications for reduced load bearing capacity needs: Cellular portland cement lightweight fill (3) Reactor vessel fills that are compatible with reactive metal (aluminum metal) components in the reactor vessels: Calcium sulfoaluminate flowable fill, and Magnesium potassium phosphate flowable fill. (4) Caps to prevent water infiltration and intrusion into areas with the highest levels of radionuclides: Portland cement based shrinkage compensating concrete. A system engineering approach was used to identify functions and requirements of the fill and capping materials. Laboratory testing was performed to identify candidate formulations and develop final design mixes. Scale-up testing was performed to verify material production and placement as well as fresh and cured properties. The 105-P and 105-R ISD projects are currently in progress and are expected to be complete in 2012. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) grout mixes

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  2. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O' Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  3. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  4. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L. [and others

    1997-03-05

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D&D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D&D Focus Area`s approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD`s awarded by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP`s selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP`s Plant 1 D&D Project which was an ongoing D&D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D&D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D&D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D&D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of {open_quotes}winners.{close_quotes} All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP`s baseline D&D strategy.

  5. Ecological aspects of decommissioning and decontamination of facilities on the Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H.; Klepper, E.L.

    1976-06-01

    The Hanford environment and biota are described in relation to decommissioning of obsolescent facilities contaminated with low-levels of radioactive materials. The aridity at Hanford limits both the productivity and diversity of biota. Both productivity and diversity are increased when water is added, as for example on the margins of ponds. Certain plants, especially Salsola kali (Russian thistle or tumbleweed), are avid accumulators of minerals and will accumulate radioactive materials if their roots come into contact with contaminated soils. Data on concentration ratios (pCi per gDW of plant/pCi per gDW soil) are given for several native plants for long-lived radionuclides. Plants are generally more resistant than animals to ionizing radiation so that impacts of high-level radiation sources would be expected to occur primarily in the animals. Mammals and birds are discussed along with information on where they are to be found on the Reservation and what role they may play in the long-term management of radioactive wastes. Food habits of animals are discussed and plants which are palatable to common herbivores are listed. Food chains leading to man are shown to be very limited, including a soil-plant-mule deer-man path for terrestrial sites and a pond-waterfowl-man pathway for pond sites. Retention basins are discussed as an example of how an ecologically sound decommissioningprogram might be planned. Finally, burial of large volumes of low-level wastes can probably be done if barriers to biological invasion are provided.

  6. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  7. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  8. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.

  9. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs.

  10. Environmental survey near a decommissioning nuclear facility: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville - Environmental survey near a nuclear facility undergoing decommissioning: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Chauveau, J.L. [EDF CIDEN, Division Environnement, 154 Avenue Thiers, 69458 Lyon (France); Pourcelot, L.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Cossonnet, P.C. [IRSN, LERCM Cadarache and LMRE Orsay (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 1572-CEA/CNRS/UVQS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    and adapts it to the specific radionuclides generated by the decommissioning phase. Some results from the terrestrial monitoring of the decommissioning site of Creys-Malville are presented here. Data highlight the very weak influence of gaseous discharges during all the operating phases and the decommissioning of the facility. Since the beginning (1985) to the end of plant operation (1998), tritium detected in the terrestrial environment near the Creys-Malville site (some Bq.L{sup -1} to a few tens of Bq.L{sup -1}) is almost exclusively linked to the global fall-out of nuclear bomb tests. During decommissioning operations, most of the observed environmental values remain very close to the ambient levels measured in zones not influenced by radioactive releases from nuclear activities i.e. 1 to 10 Bq.L{sup -1} (depending on the nature of the samples analyzed). In connection with the specific decommissioning operations, a slight influence of discharges had been briefly observed in the terrestrial environment; the measured concentrations were from 1 to 18 Bq.L{sup -1} for free water tritium, and from 1 to 11 Bq.L{sup -1} for organically bound tritium. (authors)

  11. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Summary of some Recent Work on Financial Planning for Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, Staffan (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The new European Union Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) together with the new standard and the increased awareness of the implications of the statements on Environmental liabilities in the IFRS/IA high-light the need for appropriate planning for decommissioning including cost estimations and waste fund management. These new regulations and standards are in some respects more stringent than the strictly nuclear rules. Consequently, The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has sought communication with non-nuclear actors in the area, including the participation in the recent meeting Environmental Economics and Investment Assessment 11, 27-30 May, 2008, Cadiz, Spain. The present compilation of publications on decommissioning and associated cost calculations in Sweden was prompted by these contacts. The compilation comprises 14 reports published during the last four years

  13. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  14. National Ignition Facility Target Design and Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R C; Kozioziemski, B J; Nikroo, A; Wilkens, H L; Bhandarkar, S; Forsman, A C; Haan, S W; Hoppe, M L; Huang, H; Mapoles, E; Moody, J D; Sater, J D; Seugling, R M; Stephens, R B; Takagi, M; Xu, H W

    2007-12-10

    The current capsule target design for the first ignition experiments at the NIF Facility beginning in 2009 will be a copper-doped beryllium capsule, roughly 2 mm in diameter with 160-{micro}m walls. The capsule will have a 75-{micro}m layer of solid DT on the inside surface, and the capsule will driven with x-rays generated from a gold/uranium cocktail hohlraum. The design specifications are extremely rigorous, particularly with respect to interfaces, which must be very smooth to inhibit Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. This paper outlines the current design, and focuses on the challenges and advances in capsule fabrication and characterization; hohlraum fabrication, and D-T layering and characterization.

  15. The calculation and estimation of wastes generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayame, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of planning the low-level radioactive waste management program (LLW management program). The aim of this investigation was contributed to compile the radioactive waste database of JNC's LLW management program. All nuclear facilities of the Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center were investigated in this work. The wastes generated by the decommissioning of each nuclear facility were classified into radioactive waste and others (exempt waste and non-radioactive waste), and the amount of the wastes was estimated. The estimated amounts of radioactive wastes generated by decommissioning of the nuclear facilities are as follows. (1) Tokai works: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of the Tokai works is about 1,079,100 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 15,400 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 1,063,700 ton. (2) Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center is about 112,500 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 7,800 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 104,700 ton. (author)

  16. The SSI regulations on planning before and during decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Foereskrifter om planering infoer och under avveckling av kaerntekniska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efraimsson, Henrik; Lund, Ingemar

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the considerations of the SSI in connection with the promulgation of Regulations on planning before and during decommissioning of nuclear facilities (SSI FS 2002:4). A summary of received comments on the issued draft regulations, including judgements of the SSI, is included.

  17. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities at the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podlaha Josef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear Research Institute Rez has been a leading institution in all areas of nuclear R&D in the Czech Republic since it was established in 1955. After more than 50 years of activities in the field, there are some environmental liabilities that need to be remedied. The remediation of old environmental liabilities concerning the Nuclear Research Institute is the only ongoing decommissioning project in the Czech Republic. The nature of these environmental liabilities is very specific and requires special remediation procedures. The process begun in 2003 and is expected to be finished by 2014.

  18. Radiological survey support activities for the decommissioning of the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor Facility, Ames, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-09-01

    At the request of the Engineering Support Division of the US Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office and in accordance with the programmatic overview/certification responsibilities of the Department of Energy Environmental and Safety Engineering Division, the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological Survey Group conducted a series of radiological measurements and tests at the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor located in Ames, Iowa. These measurements and tests were conducted during 1980 and 1981 while the reactor building was being decontaminated and decommissioned for the purpose of returning the building to general use. The results of these evaluations are included in this report. Although the surface contamination within the reactor building could presumably be reduced to negligible levels, the potential for airborne contamination from tritiated water vapor remains. This vapor emmanates from contamination within the concrete of the building and should be monitored until such time as it is reduced to background levels. 2 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 44 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, is also the remedial action contractor. Building 44 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building was not contaminated; it complies with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  20. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 1 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 1 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath and adjacent to the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  1. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 18 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 18 was found to be radiologically contaminated; the building was not contaminated. The soil was remediated in accordance with identified standards. Building 18 and the underlying soil can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  2. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 34 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, was also the remedial action contractor. Building 34 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1996. The soil area within the footprint of the building was analyzed and found to be not contaminated. The area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual closeout report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  3. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  4. Remediation of subsurface and groundwater contamination with uranium from fuel fabrication facilities at Hanau (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, Olaf; Thierfeldt, Stefan [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Hummel, Lothar [TUV Sud AG, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents aspects of site decommissioning and clearance of a former fuel fabrication facility (development and production of fuel assemblies for research reactors and HTR) at Hanau (Germany). The main pathways for environmental contamination were deposition on soil surface and topsoil and pollution of deep soil and the aquifer by waste water channel leakage. Soil excavation could be done by classical excavator techniques. An effective removal of material from the saturated zone was possible by using advanced drilling techniques. A large amount of demolished building structure and excavated soil had to be classified. Therefore the use of conveyor detector was necessary. Nearly 100000 Mg of material (excavated soil and demolished building material) were disposed of at an underground mine. A remaining volume of 700 m{sup 3} was classified as radioactive waste. Site clearance started in 2006. Groundwater remediation and monitoring is still ongoing, but has already provided excellent results by reducing the remaining Uranium considerably. (authors)

  5. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas facilities: a comparative assessment of different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Paul; Vanner, Robin; Firebrace, James

    2006-06-01

    A material and energy flow analysis, with corresponding financial flows, was carried out for different decommissioning scenarios for the different elements of an offshore oil and gas structure. A comparative assessment was made of the non-financial (especially environmental) outcomes of the different scenarios, with the reference scenario being to leave all structures in situ, while other scenarios envisaged leaving them on the seabed or removing them to shore for recycling and disposal. The costs of each scenario, when compared with the reference scenario, give an implicit valuation of the non-financial outcomes (e.g. environmental improvements), should that scenario be adopted by society. The paper concludes that it is not clear that the removal of the topsides and jackets of large steel structures to shore, as currently required by regulations, is environmentally justified; that concrete structures should certainly be left in place; and that leaving footings, cuttings and pipelines in place, with subsequent monitoring, would also be justified unless very large values were placed by society on a clear seabed and trawling access.

  6. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1B: Citations with abstracts, sections 10 through 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1A: Citations with abstracts, sections 1 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  9. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  10. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  11. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent

  12. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  13. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  14. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  15. Fiber Fabrication Facility for Non-Oxide and Specialty Glasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Unique facility for the research, development, and fabrication of non-oxide and specialty glasses and fibers in support of Navy/DoD programs. DESCRIPTION:...

  16. 国外铀矿冶设施的退役治理%Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘英杰; 徐乐昌; 薛建新; 袁柏祥

    2012-01-01

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing,and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater.and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized.%系统论述了国外铀矿冶设施退役的治理技术,包括铀尾矿库覆盖治理、铀尾矿的排水固结、矿山废水和污染地下水治理等,并分析了相关的治理费用,强调了加强退役治理技术研究与国际交流与合作的必要性.

  17. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility. [For decommissioned stainless steel equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J. L.; Younger, A. F.

    1980-06-02

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests.

  18. AERIAL DELIVERY DESIGN AND FABRICATION FACILITY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Skilled personnel are equipped to design and develop various prototype airdrop items. This facility has all classes of sewing machines, ranging from lightweight to...

  19. DECOMMISSIONING OF THE 247-F FUEL MANUFACTURING FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J; Stephen Chostner, S

    2007-05-22

    Building 247-F at SRS was a roughly 110,000 ft{sup 2} two-story facility designed and constructed during the height of the cold war naval buildup to provide additional naval nuclear fuel manufacturing capacity in early 1980s. The building layout is shown in Fig. 1. A photograph of the facility is shown in Fig. 2. The manufacturing process employed a wide variety of acids, bases, and other hazardous materials. As the cold war wound down, the need for naval fuel declined. Consequently, the facility was shut down and underwent initial deactivation. All process systems were flushed with water and drained using the existing process drain valves. However, since these drains were not always installed at the lowest point in piping and equipment systems, a significant volume of liquid remained after initial deactivation was completed in 1990. At that time, a non-destructive assay of the process area identified approximately 17 (+/- 100%) kg of uranium held up in equipment and piping.

  20. Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility, Interim Response Action, Final Implementation Document for Decommissioning, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-18

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF THE IRA 2. SITE INVENTORY - TANKS, PIPING, BUILDINGS, ASBEST , DEBRIS, DRUMS 3. PLAN OF ACTION - TRANSFER OF UNTREATED WASTEWATER...Response Action (IRA) H at thte Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility (HBSF) located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Commerce City , Colorado. It was...LOCATION MAP Commerce CIty , Colorado 1A U) Cl)) zr LU .i I 0< 9< z (’ICM ..w co ai >. r 0) IC., Z C’) ________________0 W jl cor cliB destruction of

  1. Fixatives Used for Decommissioning and Maintenance of Radiological Facilities – 17537

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick; Fox, Don; Reese, Stephen; Banford, Anthony; Dodds, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom (UK) National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have been collaborating for several years on materials and methods for the fogged/misted introduction of fixatives into radiologically contaminated facilities. The objective of the project is to deliver a process for reducing airborne radiological and/or mercury contamination and affixing loose contamination in place, thereby reducing contamination risk to employees and decreasing D&D cost and schedule. The developed process provides a reliable, unmanned method of introducing a coating that captures and fixes contamination in place within facilities. The INL coating, termed FX2, has undergone extensive non-radiological testing, including determination that it is non-flammable, affixes contamination and flows well through unusual geometries (testing at Florida International University). A series of non-active fogging trials for activity knock/tie-down application have been completed at NNL Workington on behalf of Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These trials performed by the NNL employed commercially available agricultural fogging equipment and the INL’s knock/tie-down latex formulation (FX-2). This testing successfully demonstrated the ability of the fogging devices to successfully spray the FX-2 formulation within various scenarios, and prepared the project for a radioactive trial. The INL has also developed a mercury vapor reducing form of the coating termed FX-Hg, which has shown great promise in laboratory studies.

  2. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Karen M. [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Kmetz, Thomas F.; Smith, Sandra B.; Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    US DOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  3. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  4. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  5. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  6. US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project, final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 36 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 36 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  7. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  8. DUPIC fuel fabrication in shielded facilities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, W.K.; Kim, S.S.; Yang, M.S.; Park, H.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong-ku, Taejon City (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The DUPIC(Direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) fuel cycle is to directly refabricate the CANDU fuel from spent PWR fuel materials by thermal and mechanical processes without wet reprocessing process. The concept was proposed and termed DUPIC in joint research program between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the US Departments of State in 1992. The DUPIC fuel cycle has many advantages over direct disposal or wet reprocessing and MOX fuel cycle in terms of proliferation resistance, reduction of spent fuel accumulation and uranium resource utilization, etc. Since the material in the DUPIC fuel fabrication process is highly radioactive due to no separation of uranium, plutonium and fission products, which is an intrinsic characteristic of the DUPIC process, all fabrication and characterization processes should be performed remotely in highly shielded hot cell facilities. KAERI has developed the remote fuel fabrication equipment and has successfully completed the installation of them in the shielded facilities, called DFDF (DUPIC Fuel Development Facility), at KAERI in early 2000. Based on the fuel fabrication technologies, including powder treatment, pelletizing and laser welding, KAERI has successfully fabricated DUPIC fuel pellets and elements with various design specifications to evaluate the performance of DUPIC fuel through irradiation tests at the HANARO research reactor. This paper describes KAERI's progress in DUPIC fuel fabrication. (author)

  9. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaoning [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Tian, Mingwei [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Qu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunqu@126.com [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Zhu, Shifeng [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Guo, Xiaoqing [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Han, Guangting [Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); and others

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  10. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  11. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  12. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  13. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Determinacion de Uranio en Muestras Procedentes del Desmantelamiento de Instalaciones de la Primera Parte del Cielo del Combustible Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Angeles, A.

    2000-07-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  14. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period.

  15. Decommissioning Project for the Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T. (and others)

    2009-02-15

    In 2008, tried to complete the whole decommissioning project of KRR-1 and KRR-2 and preparing work for memorial museum of KRR-1 reactor. Now the project is delayed for 3 months because of finding unexpected soil contamination around facility and treatment of. To do final residual radioactivity assessment applied by MARSSIM procedure. Accumulated decommissioning experiences and technologies will be very usefully to do decommissioning other nuclear related facility. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the dismantled carbon steel waste are being performed and the lagoon 1 sludge waste is being treated this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities decommissioning. The lagoon sludge treatment technology is the first applied technology in the actual field and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country.

  16. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  17. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  18. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  19. Facile fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zelin; Jiang, Changcheng; Cheng, Huhu; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Gaoquan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2012-04-10

    Macroscopic graphene fibers with strength comparable to carbon nanotube yarns have been fabricated with a facile dimensionally-confined hydrothermal strategy from low-cost, aqueous graphite oxide suspensions, which is shapable, weavable, and has a density of less than 1/7 conventional carbon fibers. In combination with the easy in situ and post-synthesis functionalization, the highly flexible graphene fibers can be woven into smart textiles.

  20. Project management for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities; Projektmanagement fuer Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Joerg; Wilhelm, Oliver [ENBW Kernkraft GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Seizer, Burkhard; Schuetz, Tobias [Drees und Sommer, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is executed in a classic project manner as it is known from other construction projects. It is obvious to use the known portfolio of project management tools. The complexity that is created by the large size of the project in combination with safety requirements of the nuclear industry has to be handled. Complexity can only be managed addressing two main drivers: Prioritization and speed (agility) in project execution. Prioritization can be realized by applying tools like Earned Value Management. A high speed of project execution is established by applying Agile Management like SCRUM-methods. This method is adopted in the context of the cooperation ''Complex Projects'' to the needs of nuclear industry.

  1. US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 52 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabacher, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Building 52 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  2. Facile Fabrication of Ultrafine Copper Nanoparticles in Organic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegert Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A facile chemical reduction method has been developed to fabricate ultrafine copper nanoparticles whose sizes can be controlled down to ca. 1 nm by using poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as the stabilizer and sodium borohyrdride as the reducing agent in an alkaline ethylene glycol (EG solvent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results and UV–vis absorption spectra demonstrated that the as-prepared particles were well monodispersed, mostly composed of pure metallic Cu nanocrystals and extremely stable over extended period of simply sealed storage.

  3. KONTEC 2013. 11{sup th} international symposium on 'Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning waste' and 11{sup th} BMBF status report on 'Decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities'; KONTEC 2013. 11. internationales Symposium 'Konditionierung radioaktiver Betriebs- und Stilllegungsabfaelle' einschliesslich 11. Statusbericht des BMBF 'Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen'. Veranstaltungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    KONTEC 2013 was held in Dresden on 13 to 15 March 2013. The 11{sup th} event organized under this heading dealt with the subjects of 'Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Waste' and 'Decommissioning and Demolition of Nuclear Facilities' including the R and D Status Report by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on the same subject. The conference was attended by an international audience from 19 countries. The program included plenary sessions on these 4 key topics: - Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning. - Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities. - Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes. - Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). These sessions were accompanied by poster sessions and short presentations under the heading of 'Kontec Direct.' The best presentations of the categories Plenary Session Presentation, Poster Presentation and Kontec-Direct have been awarded. In detail, 'Dismantling of Russian nuclear powered submarines' by Detlef Mietann, 'Requalification of 'Old Packages' for the Konrad Repository Described for the Model Case of Packages from Storage Annex A and Repackaging of Containers Holding Compacts in Hall 2 of the GNS Plant' by Martina Koessler, Sebastian Schwall and Pascal Budriks, and 'Electrochemical process development for cleaning organic, C-14-labelled waste solutions' by Hans-Juergen Friedrich. (orig.)

  4. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  5. Project for the restoration and decommissioning of the Enusa facility at Saelices el Chico (Salamanca); Proyecto de restauracion y clausura del centro de Enusa en Saelices el Chico (Salamanca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo Sanchez, R.; Criado Martin, M.; Ruiz Sanchez-Porro, J.

    2009-07-01

    The project for the restoration and decommissioning of the centre belonging to the national uranium company Empresa Nacional del Uranio (Enusa) in Saelices el Chico is the largest restoration project of all those involving nuclear fuel cycle radioactive facilities in Spain, and one of the largest in the mining sector in Spain and the European Union. This article describes the process applied to date and the actions foreseen for implementation in the future. (Author)

  6. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory. Descriptions and cost assessment. Danish summary[Denmark]; Dekommissionering af Risoes nukleare anlaeg - vurdering af opgaver og omkostninger. Dansk sammenfatning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2001-02-01

    The report gives a brief description of relevant aspects of the decommissioning of all nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, including the necessary operations to be performed and the associated costs. Together with a more detailed report, written in English, this report is the result of a project initiated by Risoe in the summer of 2000. The English report has undergone an international review, the results of which are summarised in the present report. (au)

  7. Environmental assessment for the decommissioning and decontamination of contaminated facilities at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research University of California, Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) was established in 1958 at its present location by the Atomic Energy Commission. Research at LEHR originally focused on the health effects from chronic exposures to radionuclides, primarily strontium 90 and radium 226, using beagles to simulate radiation effects on humans. In 1988, pursuant to a memorandum of agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California, DOE`s Office of Energy Research decided to close out the research program, shut down LEHR, and turn the facilities and site over to the University of California, Davis (UCD) after remediation. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of LEHR will be managed by the San Francisco Operations Office (SF) under DOE`s Environmental Restoration Program. This environmental assessment (EA) addresses the D&D of four site buildings and a tank trailer, and the removal of the on-site cobalt 60 (Co-60) source. Future activities at the site will include D&D of the Imhoff building and the outdoor dog pens, and may include remediation of underground tanks, and the landfill and radioactive disposal trenches. The remaining buildings on the LEHR site are not contaminated. The environmental impacts of the future activities cannot be determined at this time because the extent of contamination has not yet been ascertained. The impacts of these future activities (including the cumulative impacts of the future activities and those addressed in this EA) will be addressed in future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation.

  8. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-03-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  10. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part I. Fuel descriptions and fabrication processes, P. O. 1236909 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; Miller, C.L.

    1978-12-01

    The report presents information on foreign nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Fuel descriptions and fuel fabrication information for three basic reactor types are presented: The information presented for LWRs assumes that Pu--U Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) will be used as fuel.

  11. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P. O. 1236909. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design.

  12. Development of higher-ranking standards with respect to fire protection for nuclear facilities in the area decommissioning and disposal; Entwicklung eines uebergeordneten Standards im Hinblick auf Brandschutzmassnahmen fuer kerntechnische Anlagen im Bereich Stilllegung und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, Maxi; Sonneborn, Volker; Dilger, Matthias; Traichel, Anke [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Safety Engineering and Assessment

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of NPP decommissioning and dismantling besides operational waste the large components have to be processes. The licensing of conditioning and storage facilities at the site requires the fulfillment of protection targets, especially the protection of the public and the environment from radioactivity. This contribution deals with the fire as internal incident. The analysis includes deterministic and probabilistic methods. The project is aimed to the development of a fire protection concept according differing national requirements and the adaption of a probabilistic fire risk analysis for non-reactor nuclear facilities.

  13. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  14. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  15. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  16. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  17. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... issuance of the guide (74 FR 36780). The comment period closed on September 21, 2009. The staff's responses... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities... Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This...

  18. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  19. Structure and Function Design for Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning Information Database%核设施退役信息数据库的结构与功能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永阔; 宋怡; 吴小天; 刘震

    2014-01-01

    核设施退役工程是一项不仅需要考虑拆除(毁)设备、建筑物,还要考虑辐射影响和核废物处理的复杂工程,其拆除(毁)工作具有高危险、高污染的特点,因此建立针对核设施退役项目的信息系统辅助退役工程很有意义。本文通过收集退役活动数据(设备物资数据、源项数据、辐射剂量数据等)设计退役信息数据库,开发了基于退役数据库的信息管理系统,该系统可对数据库中各类信息数据(照片、图纸、辐射数据、时间等)进行录入、删除、修改、查询等基本操作,并根据各类数据处理流程的特点分功能模块进行相应数据信息的管理,并对不同数据信息进行分析。该系统可提升退役过程中的管理能力,优化工程安排,减少作业人员所受辐射剂量,是顺利进行退役活动的必要基础。%The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a radioactive and high-risk project which has to consider the effect of radiation and nuclear waste disposal ,so the informa-tion system of nuclear facilities decommissioning project must be established to ensure the safety of the project .In this study ,by collecting the decommissioning activity data , the decommissioning database was established ,and based on the database ,the decom-missioning information database (DID) was developed .The DID can perform some basic operations ,such as input ,delete ,modification and query of the decommissioning infor-mation data ,and in accordance with processing characteristics of various types of infor-mation data ,it can also perform information management with different function mod-els .On this basis ,analysis of the different information data will be done .The system is helpful for enhancing the management capability of the decommissioning process and optimizing the arrangements of the project , it also can reduce radiation dose of theworkers ,so the system is quite necessary for

  20. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple

  1. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  2. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  3. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  4. Gaseous Mercury Monitoring at a Complex Source: The Las Cuevas Decommissioned Mining Complex and Current Hg Storage Facility (Almadén District, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, P. L.; Esbri, J. M.; Llanos, W. R.; Oyarzun, R.; Martinez-Coronado, A.; Grupo de Estudios En Minería Y Medioambiente-Gemm

    2010-12-01

    The Las Cuevas decommissioned mining complex was the third in importance in the world’s largest mercury mining district: Almadén (south-central Spain). Mining took place during two well differentiated periods: 1. Roman time; and 2. From 1982 to 2000. In 2004 the mine was transformed into a mercury storage and handling facility, away from urban areas. Furthermore, the area served as a test site for the design and implementation of a mercury safe storage vessel, a study funded by European LIFE-Env programme (Project MERSADE, LIFE06 ENV/ES/PREP/03) (Llanos et al., 2010). On this basis, Las Cuevas site can be regarded as a complex source of atmospheric mercury for the local environmental compartments, including emissions from the plant activity, partly reclamated old mineral dumps, contaminated soils, and other minor sources, such as cavities produced by mine collapse. We studied the emissions with two LUMEX RA-915+ Hg analyzers, one LUMEX RA-915Light device and a complete TEKRAN equipment, including Mercury Speciation Unit (model 1130) and Particulate Mercury Unit (Model 1135). Data has been treated with ISC-AERMOD program, in order to obtain models for contamination plumes derived from Las Cuevas whole area. The results confirm the mercury storage facility as the main local source for mercury, releasing some 3,15 kg Hg y-1, whereas contaminated soils and reclamated dumps represent local minor sources. Over 99,9% of local atmospheric mercury is Gaseous Elemental Mercury, with Reactive Gaseous Mercury representing 0,25 per mil, and particulate bound mercury, 1,8 per mil. Citation: Llanos, W.; Higueras, P.; Oyarzun, R.; Esbrí, J.M.; López-Berdonces, M.A.; García-Noguero, E.M.; Martínez-Coronado, A. (2010) A preliminary environmental assessment at the site of the European prototype installation of a safe deposit for surplus mercury from industry: The Las Cuevas mining complex, Almadén District, Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 4901-4905.

  5. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  6. An outsider`s view of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, T. [The Independent and The Independent on Sunday Newspapers, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry`s forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK).

  7. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  8. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  9. Operation and dismantling report 2004 for Danish Decommissioning; Drifts- og afviklingsrapport 2004 - Dansk Dekommissionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report describes the operations at Danish Decommissioning (DD) that are essential for the nuclear inspection authorities' assessment of safety related issues. The report presents an account of safety and of the work at DD, including the decommissioning projects in 2004 for the nuclear facilities. The radioactive waste treatment facility in operation is described, and inspection and maintenance reports of the nuclear facilities prepared for decommissioning are presented. (ln)

  10. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In practice, decommissioning waste volume can be estimated appropriately by finding the differences between prediction and actual operation and considering the operational problem or supplementary matters. So in the nuclear developed countries such as U.S. or Japan, the decommissioning waste volume is predicted on the basis of the experience in their own decommissioning projects. Because of the contamination caused by radioactive material, decontamination activity and management of radio-active waste should be considered in decommissioning of nuclear facility unlike the usual plant or facility. As the decommissioning activity is performed repeatedly, data for similar activities are accumulated, and optimal strategy can be achieved by comparison with the predicted strategy. Therefore, a variety of decommissioning experiences are the most important. In Korea, there is no data on the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants yet. However, KAERI has accumulated the basis decommissioning data of nuclear facility through decommissioning of research reactor (KRR-2) and uranium conversion plant (UCP). And DECOMMIS(DECOMMissioning Information Management System) was developed to provide and manage the whole data of decommissioning project. Two codes, FAC code and WBS code, were established in this process. FAC code is the one which is classified by decommissioning target of nuclear facility, and WBS code is classified by each decommissioning activity. The reason why two codes where created is that the codes used in DEFACS (Decommissioning Facility Characterization management System) and DEWOCS (Decommissioning Work-unit productivity Calculation System) are different from each other, and they were classified each purpose. DEFACS which manages the facility needs the code that categorizes facility characteristics, and DEWOCS which calculates unit productivity needs the code that categorizes decommissioning waste volume. KAERI has accumulated decommissioning data of KRR

  11. Environmental assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment on the proposed decontamination and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania. Based on the environmental assessment, which is available to the public on request, the Department has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required. The proposed action is to decontaminate and decommission the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division fuel fabrication facilities (the Plutonium Laboratory - Building 7, and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory - Building 8). Decontamination and decommissioning of the facilities would require removal of all process equipment, the associated service lines, and decontamination of the interior surfaces of the buildings so that the empty buildings could be released for unrestricted use. Radioactive waste generated during these activities would be transported in licensed containers by truck for disposal at the Department's facility at Hanford, Washington. Useable non-radioactive materials would be sold as excess material, and non-radioactive waste would be disposed of by burial as sanitary landfill at an approved site.

  12. Design and implementation of the decontamination and dismantling technology retrieval system for decommissioned nuclear facilities%核设施退役去污拆除工艺检索系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双宇; 刘永阔; 李梦堃; 晁楠

    2015-01-01

    核设施退役工程实施过程主要包括去污、切割和拆除。去污、切割和拆除又包含了多种不同的技术方法,这些技术原理不同,效果不同,代价也不同。因此,有必要开发一个针对核设施退役工程实施技术的检索系统。在此开发了一个核设施退役去污拆除工艺检索系统,通过对数据库中的信息进行简单的检索,根据输入的检索条件得到满足检索要求的检索信息,从而使使用者了解退役去污、切割和拆除技术等的相关信息。开发的工艺检索系统能够实现对去污技术、拆除技术、拆除工具和防护工具的添加、管理和检索操作以及法律规程浏览和数据管理等。该系统能够为核设施退役工程决策和实施过程中提供理论依据和辅助决策,以便更好地辅助核设施退役工程的实施。%The implementation process of a nuclear facility decommissioning project mainly includes decontamina⁃tion, cutting and removal. These processes also contain a variety of technical methods and principles, which have different effects and costs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a retrieval system for the nuclear facility decommis⁃sioning project. This study developed a retrieval system for the process of decommissioning, decontamination, and demolition of nuclear facilities. The system can simply retrieve the database and get the information that satisfies the retrieval requirement according to the input retrieval condition, so that users can learn the relevant information a⁃bout the decommissioning decontamination, cutting and removal technology, etc. This system can realize the adding, management and retrieval operations of the decontamination technology, demolition technology, demolition tools and protection tools, and browse of laws and regulations, and data management, etc. This system is able to provide a theoretical basis and make auxiliary decisions for nuclear facility

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  14. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N.

    2009-02-15

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  15. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  16. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Sun, Kaikai; Hu, Xili; Wang, Yujiao; Xu, Xiaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  17. Facile Fabrication of Multifunctional Hybrid Silk Fabrics with Controllable Surface Wettability and Laundering Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengxiang; Yang, Huiyu; Liu, Xin; Chen, Dongzhi; Xiao, Xingfang; Liu, Keshuai; Li, Jing; Cheng, Fan; Dong, Binhai; Zhou, Yingshan; Guo, Zhiguang; Qin, Yong; Wang, Shimin; Xu, Weilin

    2016-03-02

    To obtain a hydrophobic surface, TiO2 coatings are deposited on the surface of silk fabric using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to realize a hierarchical roughness structure. The surface morphology and topography, structure, and wettability properties of bare silk fabric and TiO2-coated silk fabrics thus prepared are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), scanning probe microscope (SPM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), static water contact angles (WCAs), and roll-off angles, respectively. The surfaces of the silk fabrics with the TiO2 coatings exhibit higher surface roughnesses compared with those of the bare silk fabric. Importantly, the hydrophobic and laundering durability properties of the TiO2-coated silk fabrics are largely improved by increasing the thickness of the ALD TiO2 coating. Meanwhile, the ALD process has a litter effect on the service performance of silk fabric. Overall, TiO2 coating using an ALD process is recognized as a promising approach to produce hydrophobic surfaces for elastic materials.

  18. Target fabrication for the POLAR experiment on the Orion laser facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Spindloe; D.Wyatt; D.Haddock; I.East; J.E.Cross; C.N.Danson; E.Falize; J.M.Foster; M.Koenig; G.Gregori

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of a suite of laser targets by the Target Fabrication group in the Central Laser Facility(CLF), STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the first academic-access experiment on the Orion laser facility(Hopps et al., Appl. Opt. 52, 3597–3601(2013)) at Atomic Weapons Establishment(AWE). This experiment, part of the POLAR project(Falize et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 81–85(2011); Busschaert et al., New J. Phys. 15, 035020(2013)),studied conditions relevant to the radiation-hydrodynamic processes occurring in a remarkable class of astrophysical star systems known as magnetic cataclysmic variables. A large number of complex fabrication technologies and research and development activities were required to field a total of 80 high-specification targets. Target design and fabrication procedures are described and initial alignment and characterization data are discussed.

  19. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  20. Facile Fabrication of Multifunctional Aramid Nanofiber Films by Spin Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jing; Liu, Lehao; Zhao, Xing; Shang, Yudong; Zhao, Tingkai; Li, Tiehu

    2016-11-01

    Polymer matrices with excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability and other features are highly demanded for the effective utilization within nanocomposites. Here, we fabricate free-standing aramid nanofiber films via spin coating of an aramid nanofiber/dimethyl sulfoxide solution. Compared with traditional film fabrication methods, this process is time-saving and also able to easily tune the thickness of the films. The resultant films show greatly improved stretchability than that of Kevlar threads and relatively high mechanical strength. Typically, these films with a thickness of 5.5 µm show an ultimate strength of 182 MPa with an ultimate tensile strain of 10.5%. We also apply a finite element modeling to simulate the strain and strength distributions of the films under uniaxial tension, and the results of the simulation are in accordance with the experimental data. Furthermore, the aramid nanofiber films exhibit outstanding thermostability (decomposition at 550 °C under N2 atmosphere and 500 °C in air) and chemical inertness, which would endure acid and alkali. The simple method demonstrated here provides an important way to prepare high-performance aramid nanofiber films for designing new composite systems.

  1. Facile fabrication of properties-controllable graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Hongkyw; Kim, Ki-Chul; Jeong, Hu Young; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Jin Tae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Hyunsu; Choi, Choon-Gi

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has been received a considerable amount of attention as a transparent conducting electrode (TCE) which may be able to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) to overcome the significant weakness of the poor flexibility of ITO. Given that graphene is the thinnest 2-dimensional (2D) material known, it shows extremely high flexibility, and its lateral periodic honeycomb structure of sp2-bonded carbon atoms enables ~2.3% of incident light absorption per layer. However, there is a trade-off between the electrical resistance and the optical transmittance, and the fixed absorption rate in graphene limits is use when fabricating devices. Therefore, a more efficient method which continuously controls the optical and electrical properties of graphene is needed. Here, we introduce a method which controls the optical transmittance and the electrical resistance of graphene through various thicknesses of the top Cu layers with a Cu/Ni metal catalyst structure used to fabricate a planar mesh pattern of single and multi-layer graphene. We exhibit a continuous transmittance change from 85% (MLG) to 97.6% (SLG) at an incident light wavelength of 550 nm on graphene samples simultaneously grown in a CVD quartz tube. We also investigate the relationships between the sheet resistances.

  2. Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Low-cost Cu flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) are fabricated by facile nanosecond laser ablation. The fabricated Cu FTCEs show excellent opto-electrical properties (transmittance: 83%, sheet resistance: 17.48 Ω sq-1) with outstanding mechanical durability. Successful demonstration of a touch-screen panel confirms the potential applicability of Cu FTCEs to the flexible optoelectronic devices.

  3. Facile fabrication of a superamphiphobic surface on the copper substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

    2012-02-01

    A simple solution-immersion technique was developed for the fabrication of a superamphiphobic surface on the copper sheet. Hierarchical structure composed of nanorod arrays and microflowers was formed on the copper surface by an alkali assistant oxidation process; after fluorination, the surface became super-repellent toward water and several organic liquids possessing much lower surface tension than that of water, such as hexadecane. Such superamphiphobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of their special surface chemicals and microscopic structures, which allows for the formation of a composite interface with all probing liquids tested. We also discuss the effects of surface chemical constituent and geometrical structure on hydrophobicity and oleophobicity; such information allows us to engineer surfaces with specific oleophobic behavior. Additionally, the stability of the composite interface on the created superamphiphobic surface is studied by the compression and immersion test.

  4. Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Superconducting RF Cavity Fabrication, Processing and 2 K Characterization at RRCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S. C.; Raghavendra, S.; Jain, V. K.; Puntambekar, A.; Khare, P.; Dwivedi, J.; Mundra, G.; Kush, P. K.; Shrivastava, P.; Lad, M.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-02-01

    An extensive infrastructure facility is being established at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) for a proposed 1 GeV, high intensity superconducting proton linac for Indian Spallation Neutron Source. The proton linac will comprise of a large number of superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities ranging from low beta spoke resonators to medium and high beta multi-cell elliptical cavities at different RF frequencies. Infrastructure facilities for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and performance characterization at 2 K are setup to take-up manufacturing of large number of cavities required for future projects of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). RRCAT is also participating in a DAE’s approved mega project on “Physics and Advanced technology for High intensity Proton Accelerators” under Indian Institutions-Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). In the R&D phase of IIFC program, a number of high beta, fully dressed multi-cell elliptical SCRF cavities will be developed in collaboration with Fermilab. A dedicated facility for SCRF cavity fabrication, tuning and processing is set up. SCRF cavities developed will be characterized at 2K using a vertical test stand facility, which is already commissioned. A Horizontal Test Stand facility has also been designed and under development for testing a dressed multi-cell SCRF cavity at 2K. The paper presents the infrastructure facilities setup at RRCAT for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and testing at 2K.

  5. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  6. Facile fabrication of egg white macroporous sponges for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh; Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Bonakdar, Shahin; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Marsano, Anna; Aghdami, Nasser; Scherberich, Arnaud; Baharvand, Hossein; Martin, Ivan

    2015-10-28

    The availability of 3D sponges combining proper biochemical, biophysical, and biomechanical properties with enhanced capacity of in vivo engraftment and vascularization is crucial in regenerative medicine. A simple process is developed to generate macroporous scaffolds with a well-defined architecture of interconnected pores from chicken egg white (EW), a material with protein- and growth factor-binding features which has not yet been employed in regenerative medicine. The physicomechanical properties and degradation rates of the scaffold are finely tuned by using varying concentrations of the cross-linker, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, without alteration of the biochemical traits. In vitro, EW scaffolds supported active metabolism, proliferation, and migration of human dermal fibroblasts, thereby generating uniform cellular constructs. In vivo, subcutaneous implantation in mice reveals negligible immune reaction and efficient cell and tissue ingrowth. Angiogenesis into EW scaffolds is enhanced as compared to standard collagen type I sponges used as reference material, likely due to significantly higher adsorption of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. In summary, a material is presented derived by facile processing of a highly abundant natural product. Due to the efficient subcutaneous engraftment capacity, the sponges can find utilization for soft tissue regeneration.

  7. Facile fabrication of nanofluidic diode membranes using anodic aluminium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Wildhaber, Fabien; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Bertsch, Arnaud; Brugger, Juergen; Renaud, Philippe

    2012-09-21

    Active control of ion transport plays important roles in chemical and biological analytical processes. Nanofluidic systems hold the promise for such control through electrostatic interaction between ions and channel surfaces. Most existing experiments rely on planar geometry where the nanochannels are generally very long and shallow with large aspect ratios. Based on this configuration the concepts of nanofluidic gating and rectification have been successfully demonstrated. However, device minimization and throughput scaling remain significant challenges. We report here an innovative and facile realization of hetero-structured Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2) (Si) nanopore array membranes by using pattern transfer of self-organized nanopore structures of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). Thanks to the opposite surface charge states of Al(2)O(3) (positive) and SiO(2) (negative), the membrane exhibits clear rectification of ion current in electrolyte solutions with very low aspect ratios compared to previous approaches. Our hetero-structured nanopore arrays provide a valuable platform for high throughput applications such as molecular separation, chemical processors and energy conversion.

  8. 78 FR 9431 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Order Approving Indirect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0081; Docket No. 70-3098; Construction Authorization No. CAMOX-001] Shaw AREVA MOX... Construction Authorization I Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (MOX Services) holds Construction ] Authorization (CA) CAMOX-001 for construction of a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the...

  9. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice.... Introduction The NRC has received, by letter dated February 8, 2011, an amendment request from Shaw AREVA...

  10. Operation of N Reactor and Fuels Fabrication Facilities, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Benton County, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    Environmental data, calculations and analyses show no significant adverse radiological or nonradiological impacts from current or projected future operations resulting from N Reactor, Fuels Fabrication and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities. Nonoccupational radiation exposures resulting from 1978 N Reactor operations are summarized and compared to allowable exposure limits.

  11. Operation of N Reactor and Fuels Fabrication Facilities, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Benton County, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    Environmental data, calculations and analyses show no significant adverse radiological or nonradiological impacts from current or projected future operations resulting from N Reactor, Fuels Fabrication and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities. Nonoccupational radiation exposures resulting from 1978 N Reactor operations are summarized and compared to allowable exposure limits.

  12. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  13. Consideration of ISDC for Decommissioning Cost Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, they decided to update the Yellow Book, and began to update it by analyzing user experiences. They found that several countries have adopted the proposed standardized cost structure for the production of cost estimates directly or for mapping national estimates onto a common structure. They also made conclusions that more detailed advice should be given on the use of the standardized structure and on the definition of cost items to avoid ambiguity. The revised cost structure, to be known as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), was published in 2012. The standardized cost structure developed in the report may be used for estimating the costs of decommissioning of any type of nuclear facility. We analyzed this standardized cost structure (ISDC) and applied it to DECOMMIS which was developed by KAERI. The appropriate estimation system for domestic application was examined by comparing the estimation results. KAERI made WBS code in DECOMMIS and data obtained during decommissioning work of KRR2 and UCP. Recently the IAEA updated the decommissioning cost items and its structure by ISDC. The cost estimation items of the DECOMMIS were applied to ISDC structure. For applying, the ISDC code compared with WBS code of DECOMMIS as on text of the activity name from daily report basis. The mapping result of the ISDC items to WBS code of the DECOMMIS is much different. AS results of this study that it need the corresponding cost category which classified in accordance with the national standard price estimates.

  14. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  15. Experience Practices on Decontamination Activity in NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju; Sohn, Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) involves various technical and administrative activities for a utility to terminate its license, which allows the plant site to be released from the regulatory control (site release). Decontamination activity in NPP decommissioning is one of the main technical activities to be performed during the decommissioning. The decontamination at decommissioning sites is usually performed due to several reasons such as reducing personnel dose and disposal costs, and cleanup to meet license termination requirements by using physical or chemical removal techniques proven through the previous experience practices. This paper introduces the best and worst practices for the decontamination activities collected from the decommissioning operational experiences through the implementation of nuclear decommissioning projects around the world. Review of the experiences of decontamination shows that it is important to conduct an advanced planning for optimized implementation of decontamination taking into considering site specific conditions such as operating time, reactor type, system, and so on. Also, a review of newer decontamination methods is necessary to safely and economically decommission the nuclear facility.

  16. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  17. Lessons Learned for Decommissioning Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Wook; Kim, Young-gook; Kim, Hee-keun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the U.S. nuclear industrial's some key lessons learned especially for decommissioning planning based on which well informed decommissioning planning can be carried out. For a successful decommissioning, it is crucial to carry out a well-organized decommissioning planning before the decommissioning starts. This paper discussed four key factors which should be decided or considered carefully during the decommissioning planning period with introduction of related decommissioning lessons learned of U.S. nuclear industry. Those factors which have been discussed in this paper include the end state of a site, the overall decommissioning strategy, the management of the spent fuels, and the spent fuel pool island. Among them, the end state of a site should be decided first as it directs the whole decommissioning processes. Then, decisions on the overall decommissioning strategy (DECON vs. SAFSTOR) and the management of the spent fuels (wet vs. dry) should follow. Finally, the spent fuel pool island should be given due consideration because its implementation will result in much cost saving. Hopefully, the results of this paper would provide useful inputs to performing the decommissioning planing for the Kori unit 1.

  18. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

  19. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  20. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D D Program.

  1. Record of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition (D and D) workshop: A new focus for technology development, opportunities for industry/government collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedick, R.C.; Bossart, S.J.; Hart, P.W.

    1995-07-01

    This workshop was held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia, on July 11--12, 1995. The workshop sought to establish a foundation for continued dialogue between industry and the DOE to ensure that industry`s experiences, lessons learned, and recommendations are incorporated into D and D program policy, strategy, and plans. The mission of the D and D Focus Area is to develop improved technologies, processes and products, to characterize, deactivate, survey, maintain, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of DOE surplus structures, buildings, and contents. The target is a five-to-one return on investment through cost avoidance. The cornerstone of the D and D focus area activities is large-scale demonstration projects that actually decontaminate, decommission, and dispose of a building. The aim is to demonstrate innovative D and D technologies as part of an ongoing DOE D and D project. OTD would pay the incremental cost of demonstrating the innovative technologies. The goal is to have the first demonstration project completed within the next 2 years. The intent is to select projects, or a project, with visible impact so all of the stakeholders know that a building was removed, and demonstrate at a scale that is convincing to the customers in the EM program so they feel comfortable using it in subsequent D and D projects. The plan is to use a D and D integrating contractor who can then use the expertise in this project to use in jobs at other DOE sites.

  2. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 5 - FUEL CHANEL DECOMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  4. Microstructured surfaces engineered using biological templates: a facile approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN LOSIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of microstructured surfaces using biological templates was investigated with the aim of exploring of a facile and low cost approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces with superhydrophobic properties. Two soft lithographic techniques, i.e., replica moulding and nano-imprinting, were used to replicate the surfaces of a biological substrate. Leaves of the Agave plant (Agave attenuate, a cost-free biological template, were used as a model of a biosurface with superhydrophobic properties. The replication process was performed using two polymers: an elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS, and a polyurethane (PU based, UV-curable polymer (NOA 60. In the first replication step, negative polymer replicas of the surface of leaves were fabricated, which were used as masters to fabricate positive polymer replicas by moulding and soft imprinting. The pattern with micro and nanostructures of the surface of the leaf possesses superhydrophobic properties, which was successfully replicated into both polymers. Finally, the positive replicas were coated with a thin gold film and modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to verify the importance of the surface chemistry on the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated structures. Wetting (contact angle and structural (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterisation was performed to confirm the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated surfaces (> 150°, as well as the precision and reproducibility of the replication process.

  5. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  6. Optimized SU-8 Processing for Low-Cost Microstructures Fabrication without Cleanroom Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia C. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study and optimization of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8 microstructures through a low-cost process and without the need for cleanroom facility is presented in this paper. It is demonstrated that the Ultraviolet Rays (UV exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB industry, can replace the more expensive and less available equipment, as the Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Moreover, high transparency masks, printed in a photomask, are used, instead of expensive chromium masks. The fabrication of well-defined SU-8 microstructures with aspect ratios more than 20 is successfully demonstrated with those facilities. The viability of using the gray-scale technology in the photomasks for the fabrication of 3D microstructures is also reported. Moreover, SU-8 microstructures for different applications are shown throughout the paper.

  7. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.; Harms, N.L.

    1981-02-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities at low-enriched uranium (LEU) conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. This report presents the results and conclusions of those analyses. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at LEU conversion and fuel fabrication facilities must take into account a variety of practical problems and constraints. One of the key concerns is the problem of flow verification, especially product verification. The objective of this report is to help put the problem of flow verification in perspective by presenting the results of some specific calculations of inspection effort and probability of detection for various product measurement strategies. In order to provide quantitative information about the advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies, eight specific cases were examined.

  8. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  9. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2}/polymer nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hengzhen [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Zhang Xia, E-mail: zhangxia0307@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Zhang Pingyu; Zhang Zhijun [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorine-free superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2}/polymer composite coatings are fabricated by a simple spin-coating method without any surface chemical modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SiO{sub 2}/polymer coatings show long-term stability in the condition of continuous contact with corrosive water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating can be fabricated on various metal substrates to prevent metal from corrosion. - Abstract: We have developed a facile spin-coating method to prepare water-repellent SiO{sub 2}/polymer composite coating without any surface chemical modification. The wettability can be adjusted by controlling the content of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The coating demonstrates sustainable superhydrophobicity in the condition of continuous contact with corrosive liquids. Importantly, the coating can be fabricated on various metal substrates to prevent metal from corrosion.

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Detailed appendices are presented under the following headings: reference PWR facility description, reference PWR site description, estimates of residual radioactivity, alternative methods for financing decommissioning, radiation dose methodology, generic decommissioning activities, intermediate dismantlement activities, safe storage and deferred dismantlement activities, compilation of unit cost factors, and safety assessment details.

  11. Guideline to Estimate Decommissioning Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Oh, Jaeyoung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The primary objective of this work is to provide guidelines to estimate the decommissioning cost as well as the stakeholders with plausible information to understand the decommissioning activities in a reasonable manner, which eventually contribute to acquiring the public acceptance for the nuclear power industry. Although several cases of the decommissioning cost estimate have been made for a few commercial nuclear power plants, the different technical, site-specific and economic assumptions used make it difficult to interpret those cost estimates and compare them with that of a relevant plant. Trustworthy cost estimates are crucial to plan a safe and economic decommissioning project. The typical approach is to break down the decommissioning project into a series of discrete and measurable work activities. Although plant specific differences derived from the economic and technical assumptions make a licensee difficult to estimate reliable decommissioning costs, estimating decommissioning costs is the most crucial processes since it encompasses all the spectrum of activities from the planning to the final evaluation on whether a decommissioning project has successfully been preceded from the perspective of safety and economic points. Hence, it is clear that tenacious efforts should be needed to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  12. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  13. 核设施退役产生的污染物料的再循环再利用%Recycle and Reuse of Radioactively Contaminated Materials from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永仙; 梁宇; 安凯媛; 崔安熙; 董毅漫

    2013-01-01

    简要阐述了核设施退役过程产生的主要污染物料---金属和混凝土的再循环和再利用情况,包括染物料的产生情况、再循环再利用途径、再循环再利用可参考的标准,以及几种污染物料的再循环再利用技术,以期对我国今后核设施退役产生的污染物料的管理提供技术支持。%The paper describes briefly the information on the recycle and reuse of radioactive materials (mainly metal and concrete ) arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities ,including the arisings of radioac-tively contaminated materials ,the opportunities of the recycle and reuse ,the factors influencing the practice of recycle and reuse of radioactive materials ,the approaches to recycle and reuse of radioactive materials .It may provide technological support for the management of radioactive materials .

  14. General data relating to the arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste required under Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This document submitted by the Danish Government has been produced to satisfy the requirements of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty as recommended by the Commission of the European Communities (Annex 2 of Commission Recommendation 1999/829/Euratom of 6 December 1999). The above Recommendations include the dismantling of nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants in the list of operations to which Article 37 applies. Under paragraph 5.1 of the Recommendation, a submission of General Data in respect of such dismantling operations is only necessary when the proposed authorised limits and other requirements are less restrictive than those in force when the plant was operational. However, in the case of Risoe National Laboratory, no previous submission of general data has been made under Article 37 and no Opinion given by the Commission on a plan for the disposal of radioactive waste. For this reason, general data are submitted in respect of the proposed dismantling operations, even though no change to a less restrictive authorisation is envisaged at this time. This submission is for the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, which are owned by the Danish Government and managed by a Board of Governors for the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. (BA)

  15. Fabrication of the helical field coil components for the advanced toroidal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, M.J.; Whitson, J.C.; Banks, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication techniques used to manufacture the major components of the helical field (HF) coil segments for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) are described. The major components of an HF coil segment are 14 water-cooled, copper conductors and a T-shaped stainless steel support member (or ''tee''). Twenty-four of these segments were used in the fabrication of two coils for the ATF experiment. The helical shape, accurate position requirements, large size, and potential for high cost required unique approaches to the fabrication of these components. One method of fabrication was to use 44-mm-thick (standard size) plate to form the base and leg of the tee and to join the sections by welding. Because of the tolerance requirements, a thicker plate (70 mm) was used and then contour machined to the final shape. The second approach, conducted in parallel with the first, was to cast the tee as a single piece. The first attempts were to make the casting larger than required, then machine it to final size and shape. The cost of machining either the welded tee or the cast tee was extremely high, so several prototypes were fabricated until a cast tee that required no contour machining was produced. The shape and positional requirements were also the major problems in fabricating the copper conductors, or turns. The approach taken was to make an accurate fixture and position the turns in the fixture, then anneal to remove residual stresses and form the copper turns to the shape of the fixture. The lessons learned in pursuing these fabrication methods are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Facile fabrication of mesoporous silica micro-jets with multi-functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, D; Hortelao, A C; Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R; Hirscher, M; Hahn, K; Ma, X; Sánchez, S

    2017-09-11

    Self-propelled micro/nano-devices have been proved as powerful tools in various applications given their capability of both autonomous motion and on-demand task fulfilment. Tubular micro-jets stand out as an important member in the family of self-propelled micro/nano-devices and are widely explored with respect to their fabrication and functionalization. A few methods are currently available for the fabrication of tubular micro-jets, nevertheless there is still a demand to explore the fabrication of tubular micro-jets made of versatile materials and with the capability of multi-functionalization. Here, we present a facile strategy for the fabrication of mesoporous silica micro-jets (MSMJs) for tubular micromotors which can carry out multiple tasks depending on their functionalities. The synthesis of MSMJs does not require the use of any equipment, making it facile and cost-effective for future practical use. The MSMJs can be modified inside, outside or both with different kinds of metal nanoparticles, which provide these micromotors with a possibility of additional properties, such as the anti-bacterial effect by silver nanoparticles, or biochemical sensing based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by gold nanoparticles. Because of the high porosity, high surface area and also the easy surface chemistry process, the MSMJs can be employed for the efficient removal of heavy metals in contaminated water, as well as for the controlled and active drug delivery, as two proof-of-concept examples of environmental and biomedical applications, respectively. Therefore, taking into account the new, simple and cheap method of fabrication, highly porous structure, and multiple functionalities, the mesoporous silica based micro-jets can serve as efficient tools for desired applications.

  17. Fabrication of dielectrophoretic microfluidic chips using a facile screen-printing technique for microparticle trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Wei Hong; Li, Zedong; Hu, Jie; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Xu, Feng; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-10-01

    Trapping of microparticles finds wide applications in numerous fields. Microfluidic chips based on a dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique hold several advantages for trapping microparticles, such as fast result processing, a small amount of sample required, high spatial resolution, and high accuracy of target selection. There is an unmet need to develop DEP microfluidic chips on different substrates for different applications in a low cost, facile, and rapid way. This study develops a new facile method based on a screen-printing technique for fabrication of electrodes of DEP chips on three types of substrates (i.e. polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), poly(ethylene terephthalate) and A4 paper). The fabricated PMMA-based DEP microfluidic chip was selected as an example and successfully used to trap and align polystyrene microparticles in a suspension and cardiac fibroblasts in a cell culture solution. The developed electrode fabrication method is compatible with different kinds of DEP substrates, which could expand the future application field of DEP microfluidic chips, including new forms of point-of care diagnostics and trapping circulating tumor cells.

  18. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Planning; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011 / Rules and... Decommissioning Planning AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is amending its regulations to improve decommissioning planning...

  19. Deconstructing energy use in microelectronics manufacturing: an experimental case study of a MEMS fabrication facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Matthew S; Gutowski, Timothy G

    2010-06-01

    Semiconductors are quite energy intensive to manufacture on the basis of energy required per mass of material processed. This analysis draws on original data from a case study of the Analog Devices Micromachined Products Division MEMS fabrication facility to examine the consequence of process rate on the energy intensity of semiconductor manufacturing. We trace the impact of process rate on energy intensity at different length scales, first presenting top-down data, then results of a bottom-up study, and concluding with individual process analyses. Interestingly, while production increased by almost a factor of 2 over the course of the study, energy demand remained virtually constant. At its most efficient, 270 kWh of electricity were required per six inch wafer in the manufacture of the MEMS devices produced at the fabrication facility. In part, the large amount of energy required per unit output is a function of the preponderance of energy used by support equipment; our data show that the facility support equipment is responsible for 58% of total energy requirements.

  20. Facile fabrication of the porous three-dimensional regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhengbing; Wen, Jianchuan [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao, Jinrong, E-mail: yaoyaojr@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yusu [Otology and Skull Base Surgery Department, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shao, Zhengzhong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, we report a new facile method to fabricate porous three-dimensional regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) scaffolds through n-butanol- and freezing-induced conformation transition and phase separation. The effects of RSF concentration, freezing temperature and n-butanol addition on the microstructure, the secondary structures of silk fibroin and apparent mechanical properties of the RSF scaffolds were investigated by SEM, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR spectra and mechanical testing, respectively. By adjusting the RSF concentration and n-butanol addition, the pore size of the scaffold could be controlled in the range from of 10 μm to 350 μm with 84%–98% of porosity. The tensile strength of the wet scaffold reached the maximum of 755.2 ± 33.6 kPa when the concentration of RSF solution was increased to 15% w/w. Moreover, post-treatment with ethanol further induced conformation transition of RSF from random coil or helix to β-sheet. The porous scaffolds prepared by this facile and energy-saving method with good biocompatibility will have great potential for application in tissue engineering. Highlights: • A new facile and energy-saving method to fabricate porous silk fibroin scaffolds; • Freeze-drying step (a typical high energy consuming process) is unnecessary; • Morphology and mechanical properties of scaffolds were easily controlled; • Ethanol post-treatment can be used to tune the degradation behavior.

  1. Fabrication of Meter-Scale Laser Resistant Mirrors for the National Ignition Facility, a Fusion Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Weinzapfel, C L; Rigatti, A L; Oliver, J B; Taniguchi, J; Bevis, R P; Rajasansi, J S

    2003-07-07

    Large-aperture laser-resistant mirrors are required for the construction of the National Ignition Facility, a 1.8 MJ laser. In order to fabricate the 1408 mirrors, a development program was started in 1994 to improve coating quality, manufacturing rate, and lower unit cost. New technologies and metrology tools were scaled to meter size for facilitization in 1999 at Spectra-Physics and the Laboratory of Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Pilot production, to fabricate 5-10% of each component, commenced in 2001 and full production rates were achieved in 2002. Coating production will be completed in 2008 with the coating of 460 m{sup 2} of high-damage-threshold precision coatings on 100 tons of BK7 glass with yields exceeding 90%.

  2. A facile approach towards fabrication of super hydrophobic surface from functionalized silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, M.; Jalil, M.; Zulfiqar, U.; Husain, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    A facile and cost effective method for fabrication of super hydrophobic surface on a glass substrate is studied. The surface is fabricated from surface functionalized silica particles, synthesized by sol-gel process with the average size of 200±10nm. These particles were functionalized with stearic acid to induce hydrophobicity followed by coating on a glass substrate. After coating, substrate was dried to remove excess solvent. The drying temperature was optimized and its effect on contact angle of hydrophobic surface was studied. It was observed that surface exhibits higher contact angle with increased drying temperature till the decomposition temperature of Stearic acid. Silica particles were characterized by using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis was performed with Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) while the coated surface was studied using SEM and Contact Angle (CA) measurement.

  3. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Anuar, Abul Adli, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Idris, Hairul Nizam, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ba' an, Rohyiza, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  4. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  5. Production planning and control for semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities modeling, analysis, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mönch, Lars; Mason, Scott J

    2012-01-01

    Over the last fifty-plus years, the increased complexity and speed of integrated circuits have radically changed our world. Today, semiconductor manufacturing is perhaps the most important segment of the global manufacturing sector. As the semiconductor industry has become more competitive, improving planning and control has become a key factor for business success. This book is devoted to production planning and control problems in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities. It is the first book that takes a comprehensive look at the role of modeling, analysis, and related information systems

  6. Facile method for fabrication of surfactant-free concentrated CeO2 sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B.; Teplonogova, Maria A.; Ivanova, Olga S.; Shekunova, Taisiya O.; Ivonin, Ivan V.; Baranchikov, Alexander Ye; Ivanov, Vladimir K.

    2017-05-01

    We report a facile method for fabrication of highly concentrated electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions containing ultra-small cerium (IV) oxide crystallites having a narrow size distribution (3-5 nm according to x-ray diffraction, and 10-30 nm according to dynamic light scattering). The proposed method comprises hydrothermal treatment of ceric ammonium nitrate aqueous solutions having concentrations over 0.2 M, in the temperature range of 80-100 °C, and the formation of nanoceria sediments, which can be easily peptized in both protic (water, isopropanol) and aprotic (DMF) media, forming stable and transparent CeO2 sols.

  7. Facile fabrication of AgNPs/(PVA/PEI) nanofibers: high electrochemical efficiency and durability for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Wang, LiNa; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2013-11-15

    A novel, facile and green approach for the fabrication of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and glucose detection biosensor using water-stable PVA and PVA/PEI nanofibers decorated with AgNPs by combining an in situ reduction approach and electrospinning technique has been demonstrated. Small, uniform and well-dispersed AgNPs embedded in the PVA nanofibers and immobilized on functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers indicate the highly sensitive detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of 5 μM and exhibit a fast response, broad linear range, low detection limit and excellent stability and reusability.

  8. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I (Process Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    6 Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK...Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  10. Estimating Radon Flux and Environmental Radiation Dose from Decommissioning Uranium Mill Tailings and Mining Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case study on uranium mine No.765 of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), the paper briefly describes disposal program and effect of decommissioning uranium mine/mill facilities and quantitatively evaluates radon fluxes and doses to man of gaseous airborne pathway from mill tailings and mining debris before and after decommissioning, including annual individual effective dose to critical groups and annual collective effective dose to the population within 80 km region of the facilities.

  11. Facile fabrication of BiVO4 nanofilms with controlled pore size and their photoelectrochemical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenchen; Jiao, Zhengbo; Li, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Bi, Yingpu

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures.We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06584d

  12. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.; Scotti, K. S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  13. Development of the advanced PHWR technology -Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jung Yung; Lee, Sung Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule and to develop the instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1997, the detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994 as the second year of the first phase in implementing this project. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed, so the manufacturing process has been accomplished by the preparation of QA procedure manual, machining and assembling, test and inspection. In the area of instrumented capsule technology development, mock-ups of capsule and supporting system have been designed and fabricated for the development of the in-pile test technology. It has been confirmed that the capsule and supporting system are compatible with the HANARO operating conditions and structural requirements. Capsule supporting system has been installed in the HANARO. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. 36 figs, 18 tabs, 21 refs. (Author).

  14. Facile and cost-effective fabrication of patternable superhydrophobic surfaces via salt dissolution assisted etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Yoo, Jaewon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely low wettability have attracted attention globally along with their remarkable characteristics such as anti-icing, anti-sticking, and self-cleaning. In this study, a facile and cost-effective approach of fabricating patternable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can be applied on various substrates (including large area and 3D curvilinear substrates), is proposed with a salt-dissolution-assisted etching process. This novel proposal is environmentally benign (entirely water-based and fluorine-free process). The only required ingredients to realize superhydrophobic surfaces are commercially available salt particles, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and water. No expensive equipment or complex process control is needed. The fabricated superhydrophobic surface shows high static contact angle (∼151°) and a low sliding angle (∼6°), which correspond to the standards of superhydrophobicity. This surface also shows corrosive liquids (acid/alkali)-resistant characteristics. Moreover, the self-cleaning ability of the fabricated surfaces is explored. As a proof-of-concept application of the present approach, the spatially controllable superhydrophobic patterns on flat/curvilinear substrates are directly drawn with a minimum feature size of 500 μm without the use of expensive tooling, dies, or lithographic masks.

  15. A new soft lithographic route for the facile fabrication of hydrophilic sandwich microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bi, Xiaodong; Yu, Jianzhao; Ren, Carolyn L; Liu, Zhen

    2012-08-01

    Manufacturing materials are an essential element for the fabrication of microfluidic chips. PDMS, the most widely used polymeric material, is associated with apparent disadvantages such as hydrophobic nature, while other materials also suffer from some limitations. In this paper, a new soft lithographic route was proposed for the facile manufacturing of hydrophilic sandwich microchips, using bisphenol A based epoxy acrylate (BABEA) as a new patterning material. The BABEA copolymers are hydrophilic, highly transparent in visible range while highly untransparent when the wavelength is less than 290 nm, and of high replication fidelity. By combining with appropriate monomers, including glycidyl methacrylate, methylmethacrylate, and acrylic acid, the copolymers contain active functional groups, which allows for easy postmodification for desirable functional units. A fabrication procedure was proposed for manufacturing hybrid quartz/BABEA copolymer/quartz microchips. In the procedure, no micromachining equipments, wet etching, or imprinting techniques were involved, making the fabrication approach applicable in ordinary chemistry laboratories. The performance of the prepared microchips was demonstrated in terms of CIEF with UV-whole channel imaging detection. The hydrophilic microchannel ensures stable focusing while the polymeric middle layer acts as a perfectly aligned optical slit for whole channel UV absorbance detection.

  16. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  17. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  18. Power Plant decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažeika Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On a first attempt, the determination of 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations in basic operational waste (spent ion-exchange resins and perlite mixture, in decommissioning waste (construction concrete, sand, stainless steel and serpentinite and irradiated graphite from the Ignalina NPP has been performed. The samples for measurement of the specific activity of 14C and 36Cl were obtained from the selected places, where the highest values of the dose rate and the activity concentrations of gamma emitters were found. The performed study of the total 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations was based on estimated chemical forms of 14C (inorganic and organic compounds and 36Cl as Cl- ion. The tested methods used in this study were found to be suitable for estimation of activity concentrations of measured radionuclides.

  19. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  20. Subsoil exploration of the estimated building site for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report, as the result of subsoil exploration, is to provide basic design data of structural plan for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility that is builded on Duckjin 150, Yusong, Taejeon, Korea, and provide basic data for execution of work. The soft rock level of estimated building site is deep(18.0m:BH-1, 20.5m:BH-2, 25.5m:BH-3) and the hard rock level of it is very deep (33.0m:BH-1, 46.0m:BH-2, 34.5m:BH-3) , for structural design, the hard rock shall be the bottom of foundation. 9 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  1. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modification by aluminate coupling agent which reduced the surface energy greatly, was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method adopted is relatively simple, facile, and cost-effective and can potentially be applied to large water-repellent surface coatings.

  2. Facile fabrication processes for hydrogel-based microfluidic devices made of natural biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yuya; Yamada, Masumi; Yamada, Emi; Iwase, Masaki; Seki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We present facile strategies for the fabrication of two types of microfluidic devices made of hydrogels using the natural biopolymers, alginate, and gelatin as substrates. The processes presented include the molding-based preparation of hydrogel plates and their chemical bonding. To prepare calcium-alginate hydrogel microdevices, we suppressed the volume shrinkage of the alginate solution during gelation using propylene glycol alginate in the precursor solution along with sodium alginate. In addition, a chemical bonding method was developed using a polyelectrolyte membrane of poly-L-lysine as the electrostatic glue. To prepare gelatin-based microdevices, we used microbial transglutaminase to bond hydrogel plates chemically and to cross-link and stabilize the hydrogel matrix. As an application, mammalian cells (fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells) were cultivated on the microchannel surface to form three-dimensional capillary-embedding tissue models for biological research and tissue engineering. PMID:24803964

  3. A Facile Fabrication of Silver-Coated Copper Nanowires by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a general strategy to fabricate silver-coated copper nanowires by a galvanic replacement, which is guided by the chemical principle that metal ions (silver ions with a relatively high reduction potential can galvanically etch nanostructure made from a less metal (copper. Well-dispersed and high-yielded copper nanowires were initially synthesized and then introduced into silver-ammonia solution for the growth of silver nanocrystals on the nanowire surfaces under vigorous oscillation. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope revealed that the silver nanocrystals were uniformly distributed on the copper nanowire surfaces to form Cu-Ag heterostructures. The concentration of silver-ammonia solution and the time of replacement reaction determine the size and density of the silver nanocrystals. Our investigation might pave the way to the synthesis of other bimetallic nanostructures via a facile, fast, and economical route.

  4. Subsoil exploration of the estimated building site for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report, as the result of subsoil exploration, is to provide basic design data of structural plan for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility that is builded on Duckjin 150, Yusong, Taejeon, Korea, and provide basic data for execution of work. The soft rock level of estimated building site is deep(18.0m:BH-1, 20.5m:BH-2, 25.5m:BH-3) and the hard rock level of it is very deep (33.0m:BH-1, 46.0m:BH-2, 34.5m:BH-3) , for structural design, the hard rock shall be the bottom of foundation. 9 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  5. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  6. A facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon and three-layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Jin, Haibao; Zhu, Shenmin; Liu, Yunchun; Long, Mingce; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-08-17

    Herein, we report a new and facile method for fabricating TiO(2)@mesoporous carbon hybrid materials. Uniform polydopamine (PDA) layers were coated onto the surface of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and TiO(2) nanorods (TNDs) through the spontaneous adhesion and self-polymerization of dopamine during the dipping process. Core-shell mesoporous carbon nanotubes with TiO(2) nanorods or nanoparticles encapsulated inside (TiO(2)@MC) were then obtained by transforming PDA layers into carbonaceous ones through calcination in nitrogen at 800 °C. The thickness of the mesoporous carbon layers is tens of nanometers and can be controlled by adjusting the coated PDA layers through the self-polymerization reaction time. In addition, three-layered nanocomposites of TiO(2)@MC@MO (MO, metal oxide) can be readily prepared by utilizing PDA layers in TNTs@PDA or TNDs@PDA to adsorb the metal ions, followed by the calcination process.

  7. Facile Fabrication of Composite Membranes with Dual Thermo- and pH-Responsive Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Luo, Feng; Liu, Yu-Qiong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2017-04-11

    Facile fabrication of novel functional membranes with excellent dual thermo- and pH-responsive characteristics has been achieved by simply designing dual-layer composite membranes. pH-Responsive poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymers and polystyrene blended with thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogels are respectively used to construct the top layer and bottom layer of composite membranes. The stretching/coiling conformation changes of the P4VP chains around the pKa (~3.5-4.5) provide the composite membranes with extraordinary pH-responsive characteristics, and the volume phase transitions of PNIPAM nanogels at the pore/matrix interfaces in the bottom layer around the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT, ~33 oC) provide the composite membranes with great thermo-responsive characteristics. The microstructures, permeability performances and dual stimuli-responsive characteristics can be well tuned by adjusting the content of PNIPAM nanogels and the thickness of the PS-b-P4VP top layer. The water fluxes of the composite membranes can be changed in order of magnitude by changing the environment temperature and pH, and the dual thermo- and pH-responsive permeation performances of the composite membranes are satisfactorily reversible and reproducible. The membrane fabrication strategy in this work provides valuable guidance for further development of dual stimuli-responsive membranes or even multi stimuli-responsive membranes.

  8. A facile electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yi [State Key Lab of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Rd. 8, Xindu District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China); He, Yi, E-mail: chemheyi@swpu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Rd. 8, Xindu District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China); Luo, Pingya, E-mail: luopy@swpu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Rd. 8, Xindu District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Bo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610500 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile fabrication of superhydrophobic film was obtained on carbon steel. • Composition of superhydrophobic film is iron palmitate. • The film exhibits excellent chemical stability and good self-cleaning effect. • Corrosion of C45 steel is significantly inhibited with superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic Fe film with hierarchical micro/nano papillae structures is prepared on C45 steel surface by one-step electrochemical method. The superhydrophobic surface was measured with a water contact angle of 160.5 ± 0.5° and a sliding angle of 2 ± 0.5°. The morphology of the fabricated surface film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the surface structure seems like accumulated hierarchical micro-nano scaled particles. Furthermore, according to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical composition of surface film was iron complex with organic acid. Besides, the electrochemical measurements showed that the superhydrophobic surface improved the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution significantly. The superhydrophobic layer can perform as a barrier and provide a stable air–liquid interface which inhibit penetration of corrosive medium. In addition, the as-prepared steel exhibited an excellent self-cleaning ability that was not favor to the accumulation of contaminants.

  9. Facile fabrication of hierarchical ZnO microstructures assisted with PAMPSA and enhancement of green emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Cun, Tangxiang; Zuo, Wenbin; Liu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of hierarchically microstructured flower-like ZnO by a facile and single-step procedure involving poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) assisted aqueous chemical method. The shapes and sizes can be controlled just by varying the concentrations of the water-soluble polymer. When a suitable PAMPAS concentration was utilized, uniform well-defined and mono-dispersed chrysanthemum-like ZnO microstructures based on nanorod building blocks were obtained. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical structure was presented. The structured studies using XRD, HRTEM and SAED reveal these ZnO nanorods are composed of a single phase nature with wurtzite structure and grow along with the c-axis. FTIR spectrum indicated the incorporation of a trace of PAMPSA into ZnO crystals. HRTEM, Raman and XPS analyses showed that the hierarchical ZnO microstructures contain high concentration of oxygen vacancies which enable them exhibiting a significant intense deep-level emission centered at green luminescence in its photoluminescence spectra. They also show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of methylene blue. It is hoped that the present work may provide a simple method to fabricate ZnO hierarchical microstructures and a positive relationship among polar plane, oxygen vacancy and green emission.

  10. Facile fabrication of magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite gel for methylene blue removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guisheng; Zhang, Faai; Cheng, Zehong; Zhou, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a simple method to fabricate magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (mCMS/PVA) composite gel. The obtained mCMS/PVA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The application of mCMS/PVA as an adsorbent for removal of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated. Benefiting from the combined merits of carboxymethyl starch and magnetic gel, the mCMS/PVA simultaneously exhibited excellent adsorption property toward MB and convenient magnetic separation capability. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption performance of mCMS/PVA adsorbent were investigated systematically. The adsorption process of mCMS/PVA for MB fitted pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich isotherm. Moreover, desorption experiments revealed that the mCMS/PVA adsorbent could be well regenerated in ethanol solution without obvious compromise of removal efficiency even after eight cycles of desorption/adsorption. Considering the facile fabrication process and robust adsorption performance, the mCMS/PVA composite gel has great potential as a low cost adsorbent for environmental decontamination.

  11. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  12. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  13. A facile method to fabricate hydrogels with microchannel-like porosity for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Joshua; Han, Li-Hsin; Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are widely used as three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds due to their tissue-like water content, as well as their tunable physical and chemical properties. Hydrogel-based scaffolds are generally associated with nanoscale porosity, whereas macroporosity is highly desirable to facilitate nutrient transfer, vascularization, cell proliferation and matrix deposition. Diverse techniques have been developed for introducing macroporosity into hydrogel-based scaffolds. However, most of these methods involve harsh fabrication conditions that are not cell friendly, result in spherical pore structure, and are not amenable for dynamic pore formation. Human tissues contain abundant microchannel-like structures, such as microvascular network and nerve bundles, yet fabricating hydrogels containing microchannel-like pore structures remains a great challenge. To overcome these limitations, here we aim to develop a facile, cell-friendly method for engineering hydrogels with microchannel-like porosity using stimuli-responsive microfibers as porogens. Microfibers with sizes ranging 150-200 μm were fabricated using a coaxial flow of alginate and calcium chloride solution. Microfibers containing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were encapsulated within a 3D gelatin hydrogel, and then exposed to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution at varying doses and duration. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed effective dissolution of alginate microfibers after EDTA treatment, leaving well-defined, interconnected microchannel structures within the 3D hydrogels. Upon release from the alginate fibers, HEK cells showed high viability and enhanced colony formation along the luminal surfaces of the microchannels. In contrast, HEK cells in non-EDTA treated control exhibited isolated cells, which remained entrapped in alginate microfibers. Together, our results showed a facile, cell-friendly process for dynamic microchannel formation within hydrogels, which may

  14. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology.

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  16. Technologies for Minimization of Radioactive Waste During Operating and Decommissioning for Nuclear Facilities%核设施运行及退役中的废物最小化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳维宏

    2011-01-01

    核设施的运行及退役不可避免会产生放射性废物,废物管理的代价以及对公众、工作人员和对环境的危害取决于废物的数量及废物中所含的放射性核素,在核燃料循环过程中进行废物最小化管理是降低这些影响的-项必须的活动.在有些国家,废物最小化已作为-项国策.本文介绍了放射性废物最小化的环境效益及核设施运行和退役过程中废物最小化的方法,重点介绍了已研发的部分有效的废物最小化技术.通过总结美国等发达国家的放射性废物最小化的经验,提出了如何在我国实现放射性废物最小化的建议.%It is inevitable to generate a diverse range of radioactive waste which has to be managed in a safe manner to be acceptable to the public and the environment during operating and decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The cost of waste management, the risks to the public and employees, and the detriment to the environment are dependent on the quantity and radioactive content of the waste generated. Waste minimization is a necessary activity needed to reduce the impact from nuclear fuel cycle operations and it is included in the national policy in many a country. The environmental benefits and the methods for the radioactive waste minimization were introduced, and the resultful techniques that had been developed in the world were mainly presented. What's more,through summarizing the achievements and experiences of the radioactive waste minimization from U. S. A. and other developed countries, the paper puts forward how to bring about radioactive waste minimization in China.

  17. Revised cost estimate for the decommissioning of the reactor DR3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes a revision of the cost estimate for the decommissioning of the research Reactor DR 3 as described in the report Risø-R-1250(EN). Decommissioning of the Nuclear Facilities at Risø National Laboratory. Edited by Kurt Lauridsen. Therevision has been performed by the planning group...... in the Risø Decommissioning Department, and has been carried out as a discussion and evaluation of procedures methods and necessary resources to overcome the different phases of the the decommissioningtask of the Reactor....

  18. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  19. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and...

  20. Facile fabrication of TiO2-graphene composite with enhanced photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peining; Peining, Zhu; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Shengjie, Peng; Shengyuan, Yang; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication of one-dimensional TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite by a facile and one-step method of electrospinning. The unique nanostructured composite showed a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties in comparison to TiO(2) as demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cells and photodegradation of methyl orange.

  1. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FORTHE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE FUEL CHANNELS IN THECANDU NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of theseinstallations has become one of the 21stcentury’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently,depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualifiedengineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is toplace a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility topublic health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility iswithin acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is todeliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmentalprotection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmentalradiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is notconsidered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is torecover the geographic site to its original condition.

  3. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  4. SGDes project. Decommissioning management system of Enresa; Proyecto SGDes. Sistema de Gestion de Desmantelamiento de Enresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Lopez, M.; Julian, A. de

    2013-03-01

    ENRESA, the public company responsible for managing radioactive waste produced in spain and nuclear facilities decommissioning work, has developed a management information system (SGDes) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, critical for the company. SGDes system is capable of responding to operational needs for efficient, controlled and secure way. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both the human and technological point of view. (Author)

  5. Comparison of different strategies for decommissioning a tritium laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylst, Kris, E-mail: Kris.Dylst@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Slachmuylders, Frederik; Gilissen, Bart [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Decontamination to below the free release limits is very labour intensive. ► Disposing of contaminated steel to a nuclear melting facility is cost effective. ► It can be advantageous to invest in decontamination of non-steel materials. -- Abstract: Between 2003 and 2009 two rooms that served as tritium laboratory at SCK• CEN and its ventilation system were decommissioned. Initially, the decommissioning strategy was to free release as much materials as possible. However, due to the imposed free release limit this was very labour intensive. Timing restrictions forced us to use a different strategy for the ventilation system. Most of the steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility. As a result there was a significant decrease in the required man labour. For the second laboratory room a similar strategy as for the ventilation was used: contaminated steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility and other materials that could not be easily decontaminated were disposed of as nuclear waste. At the expense of extra waste generation compared to the first laboratory the decommissioning was done using merely one third of the man hours. Comparison of the used strategies indicated opportunities for cost optimization. Even in absence of time constraints it is best to foresee a safe disposal of metals to a nuclear melting facility, whilst it is worth to invest in the labour intensive decontamination of the other materials to free release them.

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  7. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  8. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  9. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-03-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g-1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup.

  10. A facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon and three-layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Jin, Haibao; Zhu, Shenmin; Liu, Yunchun; Long, Mingce; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-08-01

    Herein, we report a new and facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon hybrid materials. Uniform polydopamine (PDA) layers were coated onto the surface of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and TiO2 nanorods (TNDs) through the spontaneous adhesion and self-polymerization of dopamine during the dipping process. Core-shell mesoporous carbon nanotubes with TiO2 nanorods or nanoparticles encapsulated inside (TiO2@MC) were then obtained by transforming PDA layers into carbonaceous ones through calcination in nitrogen at 800 °C. The thickness of the mesoporous carbon layers is tens of nanometers and can be controlled by adjusting the coated PDA layers through the self-polymerization reaction time. In addition, three-layered nanocomposites of TiO2@MC@MO (MO, metal oxide) can be readily prepared by utilizing PDA layers in TNTs@PDA or TNDs@PDA to adsorb the metal ions, followed by the calcination process.

  11. Spectral X-ray Radiography for Safeguards at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2017-04-20

    The methods currently used by the International Atomic Energy Agency to account for nuclear materials at fuel fabrication facilities are time consuming and require in-field chemistry and operation by experts. Spectral X-ray radiography, along with advanced inverse algorithms, is an alternative inspection that could be completed noninvasively, without any in-field chemistry, with inspections of tens of seconds. The proposed inspection system and algorithms are presented here. The inverse algorithm uses total variation regularization and adaptive regularization parameter selection with the unbiased predictive risk estimator. Performance of the system is quantified with simulated X-ray inspection data and sensitivity of the output is tested against various inspection system instabilities. Material quantification from a fully-characterized inspection system is shown to be very accurate, with biases on nuclear material estimations of < 0.02%. It is shown that the results are sensitive to variations in the fuel powder sample density and detector pixel gain, which increase biases to 1%. Options to mitigate these inaccuracies are discussed.

  12. A Facile Strategy to Fabricate Multishape Memory Polymers with Controllable Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglong; Hua, Wenqiang; Feng, Jiachun

    2016-08-01

    A facile blending strategy to fabricate multishape memory polymers (SMPs) with only one sort of phase transition material has been reported. In this work, olefin block copolymer (OBC) and styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene (SEBS), which are both physically crosslinked, are blended with crystalline paraffin together. Due to the different interactions between polymer matrices and paraffin, the paraffin penetrated in OBC and SEBS exhibit separated melting transitions. It is quite interesting that merely paraffin distributed in OBC also shows two distinct melting transitions with enough OBC content in composites. Therefore, excellent quadruple shape memory effect can be achieved with a maximum of three melting transitions. Furthermore, through adjusting the polymer species and content, the mechanical and rheological properties can be conveniently tuned to a great extent. Compared with the reported strategies, this simple and controllable method sheds light on rapid design of multi-SMPs using inexpensive raw materials, which greatly paves the way for multi-SMPs from laboratory to factory.

  13. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g−1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup. PMID:28332612

  14. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning... a document is referenced. The NUREG-1307, Revision 15 is available electronically under...

  15. Preliminary decommissioning plan for Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels); Preliminaer avvecklingsplan foer Clab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatter, Patrik; Wikstroem, Nina [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, Bengt [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In the The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's Regulations SSI FS 2002:04 and The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations SKI FS 2004:1 it is stated that the owner of a nuclear facility must have a preliminary plan for decommissioning of the plant. The present report is a preliminary plan for decommissioning the Central interim storage for spent fuels (Clab). Clab will be decommissioned when all spent fuels and reactor core components have been sent to final disposal. The time for the decommissioning is dependent on the time for phasing out the last Swedish nuclear reactor. At present it is thought that Clab will remain in operation until after year 2050. During the work with this project, nothing has been found that indicates that decommissioning Clab could be more complicated than other plants whose decommissioning is closer in time. On the contrary, smaller radiation doses to the personnel are expected, as well as limited amounts of low and medium activity waste. This plan will be updated and more detailed as the time for decommissioning approaches.

  16. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D&D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D&D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S&M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D&D Program.

  17. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  18. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  19. Evaluation of the UCP Decommissioning Activities in 2008 using DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Park, J. H; Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    In early 1992, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) decided that the operation of the Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) would be stopped due to a relatively higher production cost than that of the international market. The conversion plant has been shut down and minimally maintained for the prevention of a contamination by a deterioration of the equipment and the lagoon. In 2000, the decommissioning was finally decided upon and a decommissioning program was launched to complete the following tasks by 2010 with the total budget, 10 million US dollars: planning and assessment of the environmental impact; dismantling of the pipes, tanks, vessels and equipment for a canning or reuse; decontamination of the dismantled metal wastes for release, decontamination of the building for an reuse as an another experimental facility, and the treatment of the sludge waste and the demolition of the lagoon. The decommissioning works started in 2004. The Uranium Conversion Plant building is composed 3 stories and the floor area is 2,950 m{sup 2}. The equipment and facilities consist of chemical reactors such as a dissolver and FBR, tanks, pumps, pipes, and electric and electronic equipment. The radiological conditions before a dismantling were as follows; radiation dose 3x10{sup -4}{approx}3x10{sup -2} mSv/hr, surface contamination of equipment and structure 0.001{approx}3.6 Bq/cm{sup 2}, and surface contamination of concrete 0.01{approx}1.4 Bq/cm{sup 2}. The lagoon is used for store the waste water which generated during an operation. The lagoon consists of two artificial ponds constructed by a concrete structure with a lubber coating and the surface area is 760 m{sup 2}. Total weight of the sludge is about 330 tons. The major compounds are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and natural uranium of 1 wt%. Radiological conditions were as follows; radiation dose 1x10{sup -4}{approx}3x10{sup -3} mSv/hr. The DECOMMIS, which is the data base

  20. Facile Fabrication of Multi-hierarchical Porous Polyaniline Composite as Pressure Sensor and Gas Sensor with Adjustable Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Jin-Tao; Jia, Xian-Sheng; Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ning, Xin; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-08-01

    A multi-hierarchical porous polyaniline (PANI) composite which could be used in good performance pressure sensor and adjustable sensitivity gas sensor has been fabricated by a facile in situ polymerization. Commercial grade sponge was utilized as a template scaffold to deposit PANI via in situ polymerization. With abundant interconnected pores throughout the whole structure, the sponge provided sufficient surface for the growth of PANI nanobranches. The flexible porous structure helped the composite to show high performance in pressure detection with fast response and favorable recoverability and gas detection with adjustable sensitivity. The sensing mechanism of the PANI/sponge-based flexible sensor has also been discussed. The results indicate that this work provides a feasible approach to fabricate efficient sensors with advantages of low cost, facile preparation, and easy signal collection.

  1. Nanoporous Silver Film Fabricated by Oxygen Plasma: A Facile Approach for SERS Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoxiong; Trujillo, Michael J; Camden, Jon P

    2016-09-14

    Nanoporous metal films are promising substrates for surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement, owing to their homogeneity, large surface area, and abundant hot-spots. Herein, a facile procedure was developed to fabricate nanoporous Ag film on various substrate surfaces. Thermally deposited Ag film was first treated with O2 plasma, resulting in porous Ag/AgxO film (AgxO-NF) with nanoscale feature. Sodium citrate was then used to reduce AgxO to Ag, forming nanoporous Ag film (AgNF) with similar morphology. The AgNF substrate demonstrates 30-fold higher Raman intensity than Ag film over polystyrene nanospheres (d = 600 nm) using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as the sensing molecule. Comparing with ordinary Raman measurement on 4-MBA solution, an enhancement factor of ∼6 × 10(6) was determined for AgNF. The AgNF substrate was evaluated for benzoic acid, 4-nitrophenol, and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, showing high SERS sensitivity for chemicals that bind weakly to Ag surface and molecules with relatively small Raman cross section at micromolar concentration. In addition to its simplicity, the procedure can be applied to various materials such as transparency film, filter paper, hard polystyrene film, and aluminum foil, revealing similar Raman sensitivity. By testing the durability of the substrate, we found that the AgxO films can be stored in ambient conditions for more than 90 days and still deliver the same SERS intensity if the films are treated with sodium citrate before use. These results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach for mass production of low-cost, sensitive, and durable SERS substrates. The transferable nature of these AgNF to different flexible surfaces also allows their easy integration with other sensing schemes.

  2. Facile Fabrication of ZnO/TiO2 Heterogeneous Nanofibres and Their Photocatalytic Behaviour and Mechanism towards Rhodamine B

    OpenAIRE

    JiaDong Chen; WeiSha Liao; Ying Jiang; DanNi Yu; MeiLing Zou; Han Zhu; Ming Zhang; MingLiang Du

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) hybrid photocatalysts in the form of nanofibres were fabricated by a facile method using electrospinning followed by a calcination process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the morphology and structure of the heterogeneous nanofi‐ bres. The photocatalytic performances were evaluated via the ...

  3. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  4. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  5. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  6. Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.S. Azzam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanoclay composites were fabricated using the synthesized poly 6-(3-aminophenoxy hexane-1-thiol, poly 8-(3-aminophenoxy octane-1-thiol and poly 10-(3-aminophenoxy decane-1-thiol surfactants with gold nanoparticles. The polymeric thiol surfactants were first assembled on gold nanoparticles and then impregnated into the clay matrix. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Transmission microscope (TEM were used to characterize the fabricated nanoclay composites. The results showed that the polymeric thiol surfactants assembled on gold nanoparticles are located in the interlayer space of the clay mineral and affected the clay structure.

  7. A study on source term assessment and waste disposal requirement of decontamination and decommissioning for the TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Kyung JIn; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Gyu Seup; Shin, Byoung Sun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The objective and necessity of the project : TRIGA is the first nuclear facility that decide to decommission and decontamination in our nation. As we estimate the expected life of nuclear power generation at 30 or 40 years, the decommissioning business should be conducted around 2010, and the development of regulatory technique supporting it should be developed previously. From a view of decommissioning and decontamination, the research reactor is just small in scale but it include all decommissioning and decontamination conditions. So, the rules by regulatory authority with decommissioning will be a guide for nuclear power plant in the future. The basis of regulatory technique required when decommissioning the research reactor are the radiological safety security and the data for it. The source term is very important condition not only for security of worker but for evaluating how we dispose the waste is appropriate for conducting the middle store and the procedure after it when the final disposal is considered. The content and the scope in this report contain the procedure of conducting the assessment of the source term which is most important in understanding the general concept of the decommissioning procedure of the decommissioning and decontamination of TRIGA research reactor. That is, the sampling and measuring method is presented as how to measure the volume of the radioactivity of the nuclear facilities. And also, the criterion of classifying the waste occurred in other countries and the site release criteria which is the final step of decommissioning and decontamination presented through MARSSIM. Finally, the program to be applicable through comparing the methods of our nation and other countries ones is presented as plan for disposal of the waste in the decommissioning.

  8. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING WORKSHOP REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Lee, P.; Gladden, J.; Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Urland, C.; Reynolds, E.

    2009-06-30

    In recognition of the increasing attention being focused on In Situ Decommissioning (ISD or entombment) as an acceptable and beneficial decommissioning end state, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is developing guidance for the implementation of ISD of excess facilities within the DOE complex. Consistent with the overarching DOE goals for increased personnel and environmental safety, reduced technical uncertainties and risks, and overall gains in efficiencies and effectiveness, EM's Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-23) initiated efforts to identify the technical barriers and technology development needs for the optimal implementation of ISD. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), as the EM Corporate Laboratory, conducted an ISD Technology Needs Workshop to identify the technology needs at DOE sites. The overall goal of the workshop was to gain a full understanding of the specific ISD technical challenges, the technologies available, and those needing development. The ISD Workshop was held December 9-10, 2008 in Aiken, SC. Experienced decommissioning operations personnel from Richland Operations Office (RL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) along with scientists and engineers specific expertise were assembled to identify incremental and 'game changing' solutions to ISD technology challenges. The workshop and follow-up activities yielded 14 technology needs statements and the recommendation that EM-23 prioritize and pursue the following specific technology development and deployment actions. For each action, the recommended technology acquisition mechanisms (competitive solicitation (CS) or direct funding (TCR)) are provided. Activities that are time critical for ISD projects, or require unique capabilities that reside in the DOE Laboratory system will be funded directly to those institutions. Activities that have longer lead times and

  9. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Safety and cost information were developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing plant with characteristics similar to the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The main process building, spent fuel receiving and storage station, liquid radioactive waste storage tank system, and a conceptual high-level waste-solidification facility were postulated to be decommissioned. The plant was conceptually decommissioned to three decommissioning states or modes; layaway, protective storage, and dismantlement. Assuming favorable work performance, the elapsed time required to perform the decommissioning work in each mode following plant shutdown was estimated to be 2.4 years for layaway, 2.7 years for protective storage, and 5.2 years for dismantlement. In addition to these times, approximately 2 years of planning and preparation are required before plant shutdown. Costs, in constant 1975 dollars, for decommissioning were estimated to be $18 million for layaway, $19 million for protective storage and $58 million for dismantlement. Maintenance and surveillance costs were estimated to be $680,000 per year after layaway and $140,000 per year after protective storage. The combination mode of protective storage followed by dismantlement deferred for 10, 30, and 100 years was estimated to cost $64 million, $67 million and $77 million, respectively, in nondiscounted total 1975 dollars. Present values of these costs give reduced costs as dismantlement is deferred. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to the members of the public from airborne releases from normal decommissioning activities were estimated to be less than 11 man-rem.

  11. Tests and analyses on the laboratory equipment in fuel-fabrication mockup test facility (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, T.; Gunji, Y.; Kikumo, H.; Okamoto, N.; Murakami, T.; Sato, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-11-01

    A rotary press has been manufactured for trial use of fabricating nuclear-fuel pellets, which is compact and superior in processing capacity compared to conventional reciprocating presses, and its performance tests were done. Tests include (1) finding out of problems in the equipment maintenance, (2) a comparative test of rotary and reciprocating presses in pellet fabrication, (3) an injection test of dry-recovered fuel powders, and (4) a confirmation test for process holdup of the fuel powders in the equipment. To evaluate the applicability to MOX (uranium and plutonium mixed oxide) fuel fabrication, 0 - 40 weight % of dry-recovered powders obtained from sintered uranium pellets was added to the raw materials of uranium powders to make the pellets. Some recommendations based on the present testing results in designing large scale MOX fuel fabricating machines are given. (S. Ohno)

  12. Facile Fabrication of a Polyethylene Mesh for Oil/Water Separation in a Complex Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyi; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cunming; Jiang, Lei

    2016-09-14

    Low cost, eco-friendly, and easily scaled-up processes are needed to fabricate efficient oil/water separation materials, especially those useful in harsh environments such as highly acidic, alkaline, and salty environments, to deal with serious oil spills and industrial organic pollutants. Herein, a highly efficient oil/water separation mesh with durable chemical stability was fabricated by simply scratching and pricking a conventional polyethylene (PE) film. Multiscaled morphologies were obtained by this scratching and pricking process and provided the mesh with a special wettability performance termed superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low water adhesion, while the inert chemical properties of PE delivered chemical etching resistance to the fabricated mesh. In addition to a highly efficient oil/corrosive liquid separation, the fabricated PE mesh was also reusable and exhibited ultrafast oil/water separation solely by gravity. The easy operation, chemical durability, reusability, and efficiency of the novel PE mesh give it high potential for use in industrial and consumer applications.

  13. FLUOR HANFORD DECOMMISSIONING UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2008-04-21

    Fluor Hanford is completing D&D of the K East Basin at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State this spring, with demolition expected to begin in June. Located about 400 yards from the Columbia River, the K East Basin is one of two indoor pools that formerly contained irradiated nuclear fuel, radioactive sludge and tons of contaminated debris. In unique and path-breaking work, workers finished removing the spent fuel from the K Basins in 2004. In May 2007, workers completed vacuuming the sludge into containers in the K East Basin, and transferring it into containers in the K West Basin. In December, they finished vacuuming the remainder of K West Basin sludge into these containers. The K East Basin was emptied of its radioactive inventory first because it was more contaminated than the K West Basin, and had leaked in the past. In October 2007, Fluor Hanford began physical D&D of the 8,400-square foot K East Basin by pouring approximately 14-inches of grout into the bottom of it. Grout is a type of special cement used for encasing waste. Two months later, Fluor Hanford workers completed sluicing contaminated sand from the large filter that had sieved contaminants from the basin water for more than 50 years. Next, they poured grout into the filter housing and the vault that surrounds the filter, as well as into ion exchange columns that also helped filter basin water. For a six-week period in February and March, personnel drained the approximately one million gallons of contaminated water from the K East Basin. The effort required more than 200 tanker truck loads that transported the water to an effluent treatment facility for treatment and then release. A thin fixative was also applied to the basin walls as the water was removed to hold residual contamination in place. As soon as the water was out of the basin, Fluor pumped in approximately 18 feet of 'controlled density fill' material (somewhat

  14. Rosie - mobile robot worksystem for decommissioning and dismantling operations. Final report, April 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. has undertaken development of an advanced remote worksystem - Rosie - specifically designed to meet the challenges of performing a wide range of decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) operations in nuclear environments. The Rosie worksystem includes a locomotor, heavy manipulator, operator console, and control system for remote operations. The locomotor is a highly mobile platform with tether management and hydraulic power onboard. The heavy manipulator is a high-payload, long-reach boom used to deploy a wide variety of tools and/or sensors into the work area. Rosie`s advanced control system, broad work capabilities, and hardening/reliability for hazardous duty make it a new and unique capability that facilitates completion of significant cleanup projects throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) and private sector. Endurance testing of the first Rosie system from September 1995 to March 1996 has proven its capabilities and appropriateness for D&D applications. Design enhancements were incorporated into the second Rosie system to improve and add features necessary for deployment at a DOE facility decommissioning. This second Rosie unit was deployed to the Argonne National Laboratory`s CP-5 reactor facility in early December 1996, and it is currently being used in the decommissioning of the reactor there. This report will overview this second Rosie system and the design enhancements made to it based on the lessons learned during the design, fabrication, and testing of the first Rosie system. The Rosie system has been designed to be a versatile and adaptable tool that can be used in many different applications in D&D work at nuclear facilities. It can carry a wide variety of tooling, sensors, and other robotic equipment at the tip of its heavy manipulator, and it can deploy those items to many different hazardous work areas. Rosie`s capabilities and system design address the need for durability and reliability in these environments.

  15. Facile fabrication of three-dimensional TiO2 structures for highly efficient perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Segeun; Yoon, Jungjin; Ha, Kyungyeon; Kim, Min-cheol; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Sang Moon; Kang, Seong Min; Park, Sei Jin; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-04-01

    The capability of fabricating three dimensional (3-D) nanostructures with desired morphology is a key to realizing effective light-harvesting strategy in optical applications. In this work, we report a novel 3-D nanopatterning technique that combines ion-assisted aerosol lithography (IAAL) and soft lithography that serves as a facile method to fabricate 3-D nanostructures. Aerosol nanoparticles can be assembled into desired 3-D nanostructures via ion-induced electrostatic focusing and antenna effects from charged nanoparticle structures. Replication of the structures with a polymeric mold allows high throughput fabrication of 3-D nanostructures with various liquid-soluble materials. 3-D flower-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was prepared using the reported technique and utilized for fabricating 3-D nanopatterned mesoporous TiO2 layer, which was employed as the electron transport layer in perovskite solar cells. By incorporating the 3-D nanostructures, absorbed photon-to-current efficiency of >95% at 650 nm wavelength and overall power conversion efficiency of 15.96% were achieved. The enhancement can be attributed to an increase in light harvesting efficiency in a broad wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm and more efficient charge collection from enlarged interfacial area between TiO2 and perovskite layers. This hybrid nanopatterning technique has demonstrated to be an effective method to create textures that increase light harvesting and charge collection with 3-D nanostructures in solar cells.

  16. Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hao; Wei, Yang; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Du, Guangqing; Yong, Jiale; Hou, Xun

    2016-11-01

    We report a direct fabrication of an omnidirectional negative microlens array on a curved substrate by a femtosecond laser enhanced chemical etching process, which is utilized as a molding template for duplicating bioinspired compound eyes. The femtosecond laser treatment of the curved glass substrate employs a common x-y-z stage without rotating the sample surface perpendicular to the laser beam, and uniform, omnidirectional-aligned negative microlenses are generated after a hydrofluoric acid etching. Using the negative microlens array on the concave glass substrate as a molding template, we fabricate an artificial compound eye with 3000 positive microlenses of 95-μm diameter close-packed on a 5-mm polymer hemisphere. Compared to the transferring process, the negative microlenses directly fabricated on the curved mold by our method are distortion-free, and the duplicated artificial eye presents clear and uniform imaging capabilities. This work provides a facile and efficient route to the fabrication of microlenses on any curved substrates without complicated alignment and motion control processes, which has the potential for the development of new microlens-based devices and systems.

  17. Green and facile fabrication of carbon aerogels from cellulose-based waste newspaper for solving organic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shenjie; Sun, Qingfeng; Zheng, Huanhuan; Li, Jingpeng; Jin, Chunde

    2016-01-20

    Carbon-based aerogel fabricated from waste biomass is a potential absorbent material for solving organic pollution. Herein, the lightweight, hydrophobic and porous carbon aerogels (CAs) have been synthesized through freezing-drying and post-pyrolysis by using waste newspaper as the only raw materials. The as-prepared CAs exhibited a low density of 18.5 mg cm(-3) and excellent hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132° and selective absorption for organic reagents. The absorption capacity of CA for organic compounds can be 29-51 times its own weight. Moreover, three methods (e.g., squeezing, combustion, and distillation) can be employed to recycle CA and harvest organic pollutants. Combined with waste biomass as raw materials, green and facile fabrication process, excellent hydrophobicity and oleophilicity, CA used as an absorbent material has great potential in application of organic pollutant solvents absorption and environmental protection.

  18. Toward the Facile and Ecofriendly Fabrication of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells via Thiol Coadsorbent Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Yaw; Li, Chen-Hei; Chiang, Ya-Han; Chen, Chia-Hung; Li, Pei-Ni

    2016-07-27

    This paper reports a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on a combination of aqueous CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and thiol coadsorbents. The photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were found to be dependent on the type and concentration of the thiol coadsorbent. The incorporation of thiol coadsorbents results in improved JSC and VOC because (1) they provide disulfide reductants during the QD sensitization process and (2) the coadsorbent molecules are anchored on the TiO2 surface, thus affecting the movement of the conduction band of TiO2. To the best of the our knowledge, this is the first demonstrated use of various thiol coadsorbents as reducing agents in the fabrication of high-efficiency QDSSCs. CuInS2 QDSSCs fabricated with the assistance of thioglycolic acid coadsorbents exhibited efficiencies as high as 5.90%, which is 20 times higher than that of the control device without thiol coadsorbents (0.29%). In addition, the photovoltaic properties of a device fabricated using the colloidal CuInS2 QDs coated with different bifunctional linkers were investigated for comparison. The versatility of this facile fabrication process was demonstrated in the preparation of solar cells sensitized with aqueous AgInS2 or CdSeTe QDs. The AgInS2 QDSSC showed a conversion efficiency of 2.72%, which is the highest reported for Ag-based metal sulfides QDSSCs thus far.

  19. Decommissioning analysis of the scrapers in the NSRL Linac using depth profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽娟; 李裕熊; 李为民; 陈裕凯; 任广益

    2015-01-01

    For a high-energy electron facility, estimates of induced radioactivity in materials are of considerable impor-tance to ensure that the exposure of personnel and the environment remains as low as reasonably achievable. In addition, accurate predictions of induced radioactivity are essential to the design, operation, and decommission-ing of a high-energy electron linear accelerator. In the case of the 200-MeV electron linac of the National Syn-chrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), the electrons are accelerated by five acceleration tubes and collimated by copper scrapers. The scrapers, which play a vital role in protecting the acceleration cavity, are bombarded by many electrons over a long-term operation, which causes a significant amount of induced radioactivity. Re-cently, the NSRL Linac is the first high-energy electron linear accelerator in China to be out of commission. Its decommissioning is highly significant for obtaining decommissioning experience. This paper focuses on the measurement of induced radioactivity on the fourth scraper, where the electron energy was 158 MeV. The radionuclides were classified according to their half-lives. Such a classification provides a reliable basis for the formulation of radiation protection and facility decommissioning. To determine the high-radioactivity area and to facilitate the decommissioning process, the slicing method was applied in this study. The specific activity of 60Co in each slice was measured at a cooling time of ten months, and the results were compared with the predictions generated by Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The trend of the measured results is in good agreement with the normalized simulation results. The slicing simulation using Monte Carlo method is useful for the de-termination of high-radiation areas and proper material handling protocols and, therefore, lays a foundation for the accumulation of decommissioning experience.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 2 - FUEL CHANNEL PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, costeffective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning.The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 4 - FUEL CHANNEL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, costeffective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 3 - FUEL CHANNEL REFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  3. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  4. High-transparency, self-standable gel-SLIPS fabricated by a facile nanoscale phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Issei; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-02-12

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) that were both highly transparent and free-standing (self-standability) were fabricated by an extremely simple process using non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) of a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/di-n-butyl phthalate solution. We call these "Gel-SLIPS" because the porous PVDF-HFP film fabricated using the NIPS process has been used as a gel electrolyte in a lithium-ion battery. In previous reports, SLIPS fabrication required complex processes, high annealing temperatures, and drying. Gel-SLIPS can be fabricated from the adjusted solution and the lubricant at room temperature and pressure in 5 min by squeegee, cast, or dip methods. NIPS is based on a quick phase separation process in situ, and reduction of the surface energy is not required because of the considerable fluorine in PVDF-HFP. Moreover, because of the flexible nanonetwork structure of PVDF-HFP, Gel-SLIPS exhibited self-standability and high transmittance (>87% at 600 nm). Gel-SLIPS is thus highly versatile in terms of the fabrication process and film characteristics.

  5. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of a partially melted ice particle cloud facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Jared T.

    High altitude ice crystal clouds created by highly convective storm cells are dangerous to jet transport aircraft because the crystals are ingested into the compressor section, partially melt, accrete, and cause roll back or flame out. Current facilities to test engine particle icing are not ideal for fundamental mixed-phase ice accretion experiments or do not generate frozen droplet clouds under representative conditions. The goal of this research was to develop a novel facility capable of testing fundamental partially melted ice particle icing physics and to collect ice accretion data related to mixed-phase ice accretion. The Penn State Icing Tunnel (PSIT) has been designed and fabricated to conduct partially melted ice particle cloud accretion. The PSIT generated a cloud with air assisted atomizing nozzles. The water droplets cool from the 60psi pressure drop as the water exited the nozzle and fully glaciate while flowing in the -11.0°C tunnel air flow. The glaciated cloud flowed through a duct in the center of the tunnel where hot air was introduced. The temperature of the duct was regulated from 3.3°C to 24°C which melted particle the frozen particle from 0% to 90%. The partially melted particle cloud impinged on a temperature controlled flat plate. Ice accretion data was taken for a range of duct temperature from 3.3°C to 24°C and plate temperature from -4.5°C to 7.0°C. The particle median volumetric diameter was 23mum, the total water content was 4.5 g/m 3, the specific humidity was 1.12g/kg, and the wet bulb temperature ranged from 1.0°C to 7.0°C depending on the duct temperature. The boundaries between ice particle bounce off, ice accretion, and water run off were determined. When the particle were totally frozen and the plate surface was below freezing, the ice particle bounced off as expected. Ice accretion was seen for all percent melts tested, but the plate temperature boundary between water runoff and ice accretion increased from 0°C at 8

  6. ISS Additive Manufacturing Facility for On-Demand Fabrication in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Made in Space has completed a preliminary design review of the Additive Manufacturing Facility. During the first half of Phase 1, the design went through conceptual...

  7. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  8. A facile method of fabricating PbBi alloy nanowires with controlled component proportion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue-wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Lab for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); He, Zhao-cheng; Li, Ju-shan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yuan, Zhi-hao, E-mail: zhyuan@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A method of high temperature melting is developed to fabricate PbBi nanowires. • The composition controllable and homogeneous PbBi nanowires can be synthesized. • The component proportion is controlled by adjusting electrodeposition time. • Pores of AAO play an important role during the formation of alloy nanowires. - Abstract: The ability of controlled component proportion for metallic alloy nanowires is still rather limited even after well over a decade of intensive research efforts. Here, a very simple method of high temperature melting in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates is developed to fabricate low melting point metallic alloy nanowires, in which the component proportion of elements can be controlled by adjusting electrodeposition time in the separate electrolytes. Taking the fabrication of PbBi alloy nanowires as example, we show how to control the uniform composition and component proportion of metallic alloy nanowires. The PbBi alloy nanowire arrays with three different atomic ratios of Bi–10 at.%, 30 at.%, 80 at.% respectively are successfully fabricated. The morphologies and composition of PbBi alloy nanowires are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzer, and the crystal structures are determined by X-ray diffractometer. These results of experiments indicate that the composition controllable and homogeneous alloy nanowire arrays can be synthesized using this new method.

  9. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  10. A facile fabrication of nitrogen-doped electrospun In2O3 nanofibers with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Miao, Fujun; Wang, Kexin; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis demonstrates to be an effective approach for eliminating most types of environment contaminants and for producing hydrogen. Herein, a facile synthesis route combining electrospinning technique and thermal treatment method under NH3 atmosphere has been presented as a straightforward protocol for the fabrication of nitrogen-doped In2O3 (N-In2O3) nanofibers, the nitrogen content of which can be well controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. Photocatalytic tests show that the N-In2O3 nanofibers demonstrate an improved degradation rate of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2O3 nanofibers under visible-light irradiation. This can be attributed to the nitrogen atom introducing at interstitial sites as well as the generation of oxygen vacancy on the surface of In2O3 nanofibers, resulting in the enhanced utilization of visible light for the N-In2O3 nanofibers. Furthermore, the obtained N-In2O3 nanofibers with the advantage of ultra-long one-dimensional nanostructures can be recycled several times by facile sedimentation and hence present almost no decrease in photocatalytic activity indicative of a well regeneration capability. Therefore, the as-fabricated nitrogen-doped In2O3 nanofibers as a promising photocatalyst present good photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant in waste water for practical application.

  11. Fabrication of patterned flexible graphene devices via facile direct transfer of as-grown bi-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heun; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Yoon, Jangyeol [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kuk Ki; Park, Seung Min [Department of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeong Sook, E-mail: jeongsha@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Patterned bi-layer graphene was directly transferred onto various polymer substrates by using micro-contact printing technique. • Coating of dimethylformamide onto the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp enhanced the adhesion between the bi-layer graphene and the PDMS stamp. • Patterned graphene devices showed mechanically stable electrical properties upon repeated bending cycles. - Abstract: We report on the fabrication of patterned flexible graphene devices via a facile direct transfer of bi-layer graphene grown on alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrate, and the use of Ag nanowire stickers as flexible electrodes. Patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps coated with vaporized dimethylformamide (DMF) are utilized to transfer as-grown graphene directly onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The facile direct transfer is attributed to the enhanced adhesion of the bi-layer graphene to PDMS, due to DMF-coating, as well as the weak adhesion between the bi-layer graphene and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. In this way, flexible patterned graphene devices have been fabricated with Ag nanowire stickers as electrodes. Stable electrical conduction characteristics were measured over repetitive bending with a bending radius down to 5 mm.

  12. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning phase-out and decommissioning of nuclear power plants worldwide. Included are case histories of the dismantling process, hazardous waste management, site monitoring, and economic aspects of the phase-out. Examples include European, Chinese, Eastern European, and United States facilities. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning phase-out and decommissioning of nuclear power plants worldwide. Included are case histories of the dismantling process, hazardous waste management, site monitoring, and economic aspects of the phase-out. Examples include European, Chinese, Eastern European, and United States facilities. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Facile fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membrane for highly flexible supercapacitors via in-situ phase separation of polyethersulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Ran, Fen; Shen, Kuiwen; Yang, Yunlong; Wu, Jiayu; Niu, Xiaoqin; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a facile method based on in-situ phase-separation was developed for the fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membranes for highly flexible supercapacitors. The structures and morphologies of the prepared electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements; and the electrochemical behaviors were examined in 2 M KOH solution. SEM and FTIR characterizations reveal that activated carbon was imbedded into the polymer membrane of polyethersulfone to form a uniform and flexible hybrid membrane. When the thin polymer-carbon membrane (PCM) was used as an electrode material for supercapacitor, a high specific capacitance of 169.4 Fg-1 was obtained at a current density of 0.5 Ag-1 along with good long-term cycle life of 94.6% capacity retention after 2000 charging-discharging cycles. Benefiting from these merits, the as-fabricated PCM//PCM cell shows an excellent electrochemical property. These results suggest a promising route towards the fabrication of highly flexible electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

  15. Facile Fabrication of Composition-Tuned Ru-Ni Bimetallics in Ordered Mesoporous Carbon for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Fuwei [ChinaU - Petroleum; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-02-04

    Bimetallic catalysts are of great importance due to their unique catalytic properties. However, their conventional synthesis requires tedious multistep procedures and prolonged synthetic time, and the resulting bimetallics usually disperse unevenly and show poor stability. It is challenging to develop a facile and step-economic synthetic methodology for highly efficient bimetallic catalysts. In this study, we report an elegant metal complex-involved multicomponent assembly route to highly efficient Ru–Ni bimetallics in ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC). The fabrication of composition-tuned Ru–Ni bimetallics in OMC (RuxNi1–x–OMC, x = 0.5–0.9) was facilely realized via in situ construction of CTAB-directed cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium–nickel–silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. The resulting RuxNi1–x–OMC materials are in-depth characterized with X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, and X-ray absorption fine structure. This facile fabrication method renders homogeneously dispersed Ru–Ni bimetallics embedded in the mesoporous carbonaceous framework and creates a highly active and stable Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL), a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide application in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. A high TOF (>2000 h–1) was obtained, and the Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst could be used at least 15 times without obvious loss of its catalytic performance.

  16. Perforated nanocap array: Facile fabrication process and efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering with fluorescence suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Huang Li-Qing; Tong Hui-Min; Zhai Li-Peng; Yuan Lin; Zhao Li-Hua; Zhang Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Recently,individual reduced-symmetry metal nanostructures and their plasmonic properties have been studied extensively.However,little attention has been paid to the approach to fabricating ordered reduced-symmetry metal nanostructure arrays.In this paper,a novel perforated silver nanocap array with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and fluorescence suppression is reported.The array is fabricated by electron beam evaporating Ag onto the perforated barrier layer side of a hard anodization (HA) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template.The morphology and optical property of the perforated silver nanocap array are characterized by an atomic force microscope (AFM),a scanning electron microscope (SEM),and absorption spectra.The results of SERS measurements reveal that the perforated silver nanocap array offers high SERS activity and fluorescence suppression compared with an imperforated silver nanocap array.

  17. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics from water-processable nanomaterials and their facile fabrication approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba; Andersson, Mats; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film photovoltaics based on bulk-heterojunction donor-acceptor combinations have received significant interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-scale solution processing. However, current state-of-the-art cells utilise materials soluble mainly in halogenated solvents which pose processing challenges due to their toxicity and thus environmental hazards. In this contribution, we look at various nanomaterials, and alternative processing of these solar cells using environmentally friendly solvents, and review recently reported different strategies and approaches that are making inroads in this field. Specifically, we focus on the use of water-dispersible donors and acceptors, use of aqueous solvents for fabrication and discuss the merits of the two main approaches of water-processable solar cells; namely, through the use of water-soluble materials and the use of aqueous dispersion rather than a solution, as well as review some of the recent advances in alternative fabrication techniques.

  18. Facile Method to Fabricate Highly Thermally Conductive Graphite/PP Composite with Network Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changping; Ni, Haiying; Chen, Jun; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-03

    Thermally conductive polymer composites have aroused significant academic and industrial interest for several decades. Herein, we report a novel fabrication method of graphite/polypropylene (PP) composites with high thermal conductivity in which graphite flakes construct a continuous thermally conductive network. The thermal conductivity coefficient of the graphite/PP composites is markedly improved to be 5.4 W/mK at a graphite loading of 21.2 vol %. Such a great improvement of the thermal conductivity is ascribed to the occurrence of orientations of crystalline graphite flakes with large particles around PP resin particles and the formation of a perfect thermally conductive network. The model of Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) is adopted to interpret the outstanding thermally conductive property of the graphite/PP composites. This work provides a guideline for the easy fabrication of thermally conductive composites with network structures.

  19. Facile fabrication of dendritic silver structures and their surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jisheng Yang; Zhengdong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to fabricate silver dendrites by Cu reducing Ag+ in AgNO3 solution. The growth speed, morphologies and structures of the silver dendrites strongly depend on AgNO3 concentration and reaction time. The silver dendrites were formed from nanosheets and the crystal structure is face-centered cubic. Rhodamine 6G was used as probe molecule to show that the silver dendrites have high sensitivity to surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy response.

  20. Facile fabrication of biocompatible PLGA drug-carrying microspheres by O/W pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengjiang; Wang, Chaoyang; Liu, Hao; Zou, Shengwen; Tong, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    This study is focused on the preparation of Ibuprofen (IBU) loaded micrometer-sized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and process variables on the size, drug loading and release during preparation of formulation. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated via a combined system of "Pickering-type" emulsion route and solvent volatilization method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using SiO(2) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier and a dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) solution of PLGA as an oil phase. The SiO(2) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated by the evaporation of CH(2)Cl(2) in situ, and then bare-PLGA microspheres were prepared by removal of the SiO(2) nanoparticles using HF aqueous solution. The two types of microspheres were characterized in terms of size, component and morphology using scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared, optical microscope, and so on. Moreover, IBU was encapsulated into the hybrid beads by dispersing them in the CH(2)Cl(2) solution of PLGA in the fabrication process. The sustained release could be obtained due to the barrier of the polymeric matrix (PLGA). More over, the release curves were nicely fitted by the Weibull equation and the release followed Fickian diffusion. The combined system of Pickering emulsion and solvent volatilization opens up a new route to fabricate a variety of microspheres. The resulting microspheres may find applications as delivery vehicles for biomolecules, drugs, cosmetics and living cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile fabrication of a lotus-effect composite coating via wrapping silica with polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Changhong, E-mail: suchhnju@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Material Science, School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zhangzou Road 22, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A lotus-effect coating was fabricated by wrapping micro-silica and nano-silica with polyurethane (PU) and subsequent spraying. The coating shows the similar self-cleaning property as lotus leaves: the contact angle is as large as 168 deg. and the sliding angle is as low as 0.5 deg. Surface morphology of the coating was studied with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composite coating shows the similar structure as lotus leaves.

  2. Advanced Splicing and High-Resolution Imaging Facility for High Power PCF Laser Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    TOTAL: PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Amado Velazquez 0.00 Amy Van Newkirk 0.00 Alex Sincore 0.00 0.00 3...the reporting period N/A (2) Student/Supported Personnel Metrics for this Reporting Period (a) Graduate Students: 3 1. Amado Velazquez 2...fiber post-processing. A picture of the laboratory is shown in Fig. 2. Figure 2. PhD student Amado Velazquez fabricating fiber pump combiners

  3. Directional Trans-Planar and Different In-Plane Water Transfer Properties of Composite Structured Bifacial Fabrics Modified by a Facile Three-Step Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxin Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrics with moisture management properties are strongly expected to benefit various potential applications in daily life, industry, medical treatment and protection. Here, a bifacial fabric with dual trans-planar and in-plane liquid moisture management properties was reported. This novel fabric was fabricated to have a knitted structure on one face and a woven structure on the other, contributing to the different in-plane water transfer properties of the fabric. A facile three-step plasma treatment was used to enrich the bifacial fabric with asymmetric wettability and liquid absorbency. The plasma treated bifacial fabric allowed forced water to transfer from the hydrophobic face to hydrophilic face, while it prevented water to spread through the hydrophobic face when water drops were placed on the hydrophilic face. This confirmed one-way water transport capacity of the bifacial fabric. Through the three-step plasma treatment, the fabric surface was coated with a Si-containing thin film. This film contributed to the hydrophobic property, while the physical properties of the fabrics such as stiffness and color were not affected. This novel fabric can potentially be used to design and manufacture functional and smart textiles with tunable moisture transport properties.

  4. Bacteriological quality of fabrics washed at lower-than-standard temperatures in a hospital laundry facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, R R; Manchester, J T; Mellor, M T

    1983-02-01

    We determined whether the bacteriological quality of fabrics cleaned in a hospital laundry could be maintained at wash temperatures lower than 75 degrees C by the use of economically reasonable formulas and wash conditions. Three groups of bacteria were examined to determine bacteriological quality: aerobic, nonexacting chemoorganotrophs, staphylococci, and total coliforms. The distribution of bacteria on soiled fabric was patchy, with staphylococci and total coliforms ranging from less than 0.1 to greater than 4 X 10(3) CFU/cm2 and chemoorganotrophs ranging from less than 0.1 to greater than 5 X 10(5) CFU/cm2. The washing process routinely produced fabric containing less than 1 CFU/cm2. Low-temperature (47.8 to 60.0 degrees C) wash procedures eliminated all bacterial groups at least as effectively as did high-temperature procedures. The effectiveness of bacterial density reduction at low temperature was augmented by increased concentrations of bleach. Successful low-temperature washing such as that shown here may save both energy and money for hospitals.

  5. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  6. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-25

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning.

  7. SPS WANF Dismantling: A Large Scale-Decommissioning Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, S; Conan, N; De Paoli, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fumey, S; Gaillard, H; Grenard, J L; Grenier, D; Pardons, A; Paulat, E; Seraphin, Y; Tavlet, M; Theis, C; Vincke, H

    2011-01-01

    The operation of the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) was halted in 1998. In 2010 a large scale-decommissioning of this facility was conducted. Besides CERN’s commitment to remove non-operational facilities, the additional motivation was the use of the installation (underground tunnels and available infrastructure) for the new HiRadMat facility, which is designed to study the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams on accelerator components and materials. The removal of 800 tons of radioactive equipment and the waste management according to the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles were two major challenges. This paper describes the solutions implemented and the lessons learnt confirming that the decommissioning phase of a particle accelerator must be carefully studied as from the design stage.

  8. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  9. Thermal Performance of a Customized Multilayer Insulation (MLI). Design and Fabrication of Test Facility Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and assembly of hardware for testing the performance of a customized multilayer insulation are discussed. System components described include the thermal payload simulator, the modified cryoshroud, and a tank back pressure control device designed to maintain a constant liquid boiling point during the thermal evaluation of the multilayer insulation. The thermal payload simulator will provide a constant temperature surface in the range of 20.5 to 417K (37 to 750R) for the insulated tank to view. The cryoshroud was modified to establish a low temperature black body cavity while limiting liquid hydrogen usage to a minimum feasible rate.

  10. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic coatings from silica-based nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yonggang; Wang, Qihua

    2010-10-01

    This study develops a one-step technique to synthesize various super water-repellent coatings with addition of modified silica nanoparticles. Surface topography observation showed that stacking of spherical silica nanoparticles formed primary surface roughness. The wettability of the products was investigated. It was found that the as-prepared surface possesses superhydrophobic properties not only for pure water but also for corrosive water under both acidic and basic conditions. The silica-based nanocomposite coatings can be fabricated on glass substrates and other functional engineering material surfaces, such as copper, iron, aluminum alloy, to form self-cleaning coatings.

  11. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-15

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  12. Efficient removal of antibiotics in a fluidized bed reactor by facile fabricated magnetic powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqing; Yang, Qunfeng; Xu, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaomei; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Powdered activated carbons (PACs) with micrometer size are showing great potential for enabling and improving technologies in water treatment. The critical problem in achieving practical application of PAC involves simple, effective fabrication of magnetic PAC and the design of a feasible reactor that can remove pollutants and recover the adsorbent efficiently. Herein, we show that such materials can be fabricated by the combination of PAC and magnetic Fe3O4 with chitosan-Fe hydrogel through a simple co-precipitation method. According to the characterization results, CS-Fe/Fe3O4/PAC with different micrometers in size exhibited excellent magnetic properties. The adsorption of tetracycline was fast and efficient, and 99.9% removal was achieved in 30 min. It also possesses good usability and stability to co-existing ions, organics, and different pH values due to its dispersive interaction nature. Finally, the prepared CS-Fe/Fe3O4/PAC also performed well in the fluidized bed reactor with electromagnetic separation function. It could be easily separated by applying a magnetic field and was effectively in situ regenerated, indicating a potential of practical application for the removal of pollutants from water.

  13. Facile design of ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide membranes for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Huang, Hao; Fan, Xingce; Hou, Xiangyu; Yin, Yin; Li, Wan; Si, Lifang; Nan, Haiyan; Wang, Huaiyu; Mei, Yongfeng; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are efficient templates for the fabrication of patterned nanostructures. Herein, a three-step etching method to control the morphology of AAO is described. The morphological evolution of the AAO during phosphoric acid etching is systematically investigated and a nonlinear growth mechanism during unsteady-state anodization is revealed. The thickness of the AAO can be quantitatively controlled from ∼100 nm to several micrometers while maintaining the tunablity of the pore diameter. The AAO membranes are robust and readily transferable to different types of substrates to prepare patterned plasmonic nanoarrays such as nanoislands, nanoclusters, ultra-small nanodots, and core–satellite superstructures. The localized surface plasmon resonance from these nanostructures can be easily tuned by adjusting the morphology of the AAO template. The custom AAO template provides a platform for the fabrication of low-cost and large-scale functional nanoarrays suitable for fundamental studies as well as applications including biochemical sensing, imaging, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics.

  14. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R. C.; Wu, J.; Hau, N. Y.; Chang, Y. H.; Feng, S. P.; Li, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm2 with stable metal performance.

  15. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Klein, M

    1998-07-01

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed.

  16. Comparative analysis of the Oskarshamn 3 and Barsebaeck site decommissioning studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Bertil (Bewon, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden)); Joensson, Lars-Olof (Barsebaeck Kraft AB, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    Several projects concerning the decommissioning of different types of nuclear facilities have shown that technical methods and equipment are available today for safe dismantling of nuclear facilities of any type or size. However, comparison of individual cost estimates for specific facilities exhibit relatively large variations, and several studies have tried to identify the reasons for these variations. Analysis has shown that decommissioning cost estimates vary depending on a number of factors, including: the boundary conditions and strategy chosen; the cost items taken into account; the origin of the cost estimate; the methodology applied; the political-administrative framework; and the way contingencies are included. In this study, a comparison has been made between two decommissioning studies in the same country, with more or less same decommissioning schedule and with similar overall ideas on cost estimates. However, the two studies had from the start a different focus and different objectives. One study is intended as a reference study for all BWRs in Sweden, while the other focuses on a full site decommissioning. Furthermore, one of the studies is based on direct dismantling and the other on deferred dismantling. A great deal of work therefore had to be devoted in the present study to giving the studies comparable structures and boundary conditions using the OECD/NEA cost estimate structure. The boundary conditions in each of the studies have been thoroughly evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the differences have been explained. In the end, values have been set in the quantitative analysis to verify that the studies could be compared, within the accuracy of what is defined in the industry as a 'budgetary estimate'. Differences still exist relating to what has been included in the studies and to the decommissioning plans and the resulting inventory from site characterization. Such differences must be accepted as long as it is clear

  17. Facile Fabrication of Tumor Redox-Sensitive Nanoassemblies of Small-Molecule Oleate Prodrug as Potent Chemotherapeutic Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Sun, Jin; Sun, Bingjun; Liu, Dan; Miao, Lei; Goodwin, Tyler Jay; Huang, Leaf; He, Zhonggui

    2016-12-01

    The conjugate of paclitaxel (PTX) and docosahexaenoic acid has entered into clinical trials. However, the most recent clinical outcomes fell short of expectations, due to the extremely slow drug release from the hydrophobic conjugates. Herein, a novel prodrug-based nanoplatform self-assembled by the disulfide bond linked conjugates of PTX and oleic acid for rapid and differential release of PTX in tumor cells is reported. This redox-responsive prodrug-nanosystem demonstrates multiple therapeutic advantages, including one-step facile fabrication, high drug-loading efficiency (56%, w/w), on-demand drug release responding to redox stimuli, as well as favorable cellular uptake and biodistribution. These advantages result in significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo, with the tumor almost completely disappearing in mice. Such a uniquely engineered prodrug-nanosystem has great potential to be used as potent chemotherapeutic nanomedicine in clinical cancer therapy.

  18. Hydrophobic and high transparent honeycomb diamond-like carbon thin film fabricated by facile self-assembled nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai-Yu; Wei, Da-Hua; Lin, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Yao, Yeong-Der; Lin, Hong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we take advantage of a facile fabrication technique called self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANSL) combining with proper two-step reactive ion etching (RIE) method and radio frequency (RF) sputtering deposition process for manufacturing honeycomb diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film structures with hydrophobic and high transparent properties. It is found that the DLC thin films deposited on clean glass substrates at the RF power of 100 W with the surface roughness (Ra) of 2.08 nm and the ID/IG ratio of 1.96 are realized. With a fill-factor of 0.691, the honeycomb DLC patterned thin film shows the best transmittance performance of 87% in the wavelength of visible light, and the optimized contact angle measurement is ˜108°. Compared with the pure DLC thin film and original glass substrate, the hydrophobic property of the patterned DLC films is significantly improved by 80 and 160%, respectively.

  19. Facile Fabrication of ZnO/TiO2 Heterogeneous Nanofibres and Their Photocatalytic Behaviour and Mechanism towards Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaDong Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO hybrid photocatalysts in the form of nanofibres were fabricated by a facile method using electrospinning followed by a calcination process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were employed to investigate the morphology and structure of the heterogeneous nanofi‐ bres. The photocatalytic performances were evaluated via the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB under irradiation with UV light. Due to the low recombination rate of photo-induced charge carriers, the high utilization efficiency of UV light and the large contact area with the target molecules, the ZnO/TiO2 hybrid nanofibres exhibit‐ ed high catalytic activity towards the Rhodamine B, and the amount of Zn(OAc2 in the precursor of these nanofibres played an important role in determining the photo decom‐ position performance.

  20. Facile fabrication, characterization, and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation performance of highly oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Wang, Ning; Hou, Yang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Guohua

    2009-11-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were successfully fabricated using ethanol and water mixture electrolytes (40 vol% ethanol and 0.2 wt% hydrofluoric acid) by a facile electrochemical anodization method. The as-prepared nanotube arrays were grown perpendicular to the titanium substrate with about 90 nm in diameter, 20 nm in wall thickness, and around 500 nm in length. The formation mechanism of the samples is briefly discussed. A blue shift in the spectrum of UV-Vis absorption was observed with respect to a piece of the sol-gel derived TiO2 film. Moreover, photocurrent response and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation were adopted to evaluate the photoelectrocatalytic properties of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. We demonstrate that the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays possess much better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the sol-gel derived TiO2 film and good stability.

  1. A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shisen; Sun, Yaojie; Lin, Yandan; You, Bo

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a facile coating technique to fabricate the light diffusing film with hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The coating was prepared by different ratio of light-diffusing particles (LDP)/polyacrylates composites via in situ radical polymerization, with the H2SO4 and vinyl triethoxysilane (A-151) pretreatment made the LDP better dispersed and incorporated with polyacrylate polymer chains. When the mass ratio (LDP/polyacrylate) was 0.5, the film obtained the highest light-diffusing effect and more than 90% transmittance due to the formation of hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The light diffusing films have excellent anti-glare property if applied to LED light system.

  2. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  3. A facile fabrication of alginate microbubbles using a gas foaming reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Shiang; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chang, Wan-Ru; Wang, Yi-Ling; Yang, Chih-Hui

    2013-08-12

    Microbubble particles have been extensively utilized as temporal templates for various biomedical applications. This study proposes a facile strategy to obtain microbubble-containing alginate particles (i.e., microbubbles inside alginate gel particles, called alginate microbubbles). The chemical reaction of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and oxygen was utilized to form microbubbles within alginate particles. Uniform alginate particles were obtained by a stable needle-based droplet formation process. Kinetic reaction of gas formation was monitored for 2% alginate particles. The gas formation increased with the concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (1-5 wt%) and hydrogen peroxide (0-36.5 wt%).

  4. A Facile Fabrication of Alginate Microbubbles Using a Gas Foaming Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbubble particles have been extensively utilized as temporal templates for various biomedical applications. This study proposes a facile strategy to obtain microbubble-containing alginate particles (i.e., microbubbles inside alginate gel particles, called alginate microbubbles. The chemical reaction of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and oxygen was utilized to form microbubbles within alginate particles. Uniform alginate particles were obtained by a stable needle-based droplet formation process. Kinetic reaction of gas formation was monitored for 2% alginate particles. The gas formation increased with the concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (1–5 wt% and hydrogen peroxide (0–36.5 wt%.

  5. Planning, organizational and management issues in moving from operation to decommissioning and their impact on waste management; Temas de planificacion, organizacion y gestion asociados con la transicion de la fase operativa a la clausura y su impacto sobre la gestion de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laraia, M.

    2001-07-01

    The transition from a nuclear facility's operating phase to decommissioning is critical. A number of modifications are required during this period to adapt the facility to new objectives and requirements. There are various activities to prepare for implementation of the decommissioning strategy that may be started before final plant closure or immediately afterwards: these serve to support the decommissioning planning process and ease the burden of operating requirements. (Author)

  6. Facile fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs using nanopatterned cell sheets and magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Nisa; Choi, Eunpyo; Perla, Mikael; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We report a simple and versatile method for in vitro fabrication of scaffold-free tissue-engineered constructs with predetermined cellular alignment, by combining magnetic cell levitation with thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) based cell sheet engineering technique. The TNFS based nanotopography provides contact guidance cues for regulation of cellular alignment and enables cell sheet transfer, while magnetic nanoparticles facilitate the magnetic levitation of the cell sheet. The temperature-mediated change in surface wettability of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), substratum enables the spontaneous detachment of cell monolayers, which can then be easily manipulated through use of a ring or disk shaped magnet. Our developed platform could be readily applicable to production of tissue-engineered constructs containing complex physiological structures for the study of tissue structure-function relationships, drug screening, and regenerative medicine.

  7. Facile fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs using nanopatterned cell sheets and magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Nisa; Choi, Eunpyo; Perla, Mikael; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2017-02-17

    We report a simple and versatile method for in vitro fabrication of scaffold-free tissue-engineered constructs with predetermined cellular alignment, by combining magnetic cell levitation with thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) based cell sheet engineering technique. The TNFS based nanotopography provides contact guidance cues for regulation of cellular alignment and enables cell sheet transfer, while magnetic nanoparticles facilitate the magnetic levitation of the cell sheet. The temperature-mediated change in surface wettability of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), substratum enables the spontaneous detachment of cell monolayers, which can then be easily manipulated through use of a ring or disk shaped magnet. Our developed platform could be readily applicable to production of tissue-engineered constructs containing complex physiological structures for the study of tissue structure-function relationships, drug screening, and regenerative medicine.

  8. Facile Fabrication of Micro-Nano Structured Triboelectric Nanogenerator with High Electric Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Li, Baozhang; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Chunye

    2015-07-01

    In this article, a new method is used to fabricate a high-performance triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), which is convenient and cost-effective. A polyformaldehyde (POM) film with novel structures is prepared through electrospinning and is combined with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film to assemble micro-nano structured TENG. The short-circuit current ( I s) and open-circuit voltage ( V o) of the TENG are up to 0.4343 mA and 236.8 V, respectively, and no significant change is observed by applying different frequencies of external impact forces from 1 to 10 Hz. Finally, we successfully drive an electrochromic device (ECD) directly using TENG within just 2 min for the first time.

  9. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic ZnO/polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing, Yongquan [College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, Guangxi (China); Zheng, Yansheng, E-mail: zhyansh88@163.com [College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, Guangxi (China); Lushan College of Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545616, Guangxi (China); Hu, Chuanbo; Wang, Yong; He, Yi [College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, Guangxi (China); Gong, Yong [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000, Sichuan (China); Mo, Qian [College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, Guangxi (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we report a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating modified-ZnO/polystyrene superhydrophobic surface on the cotton textiles. The surface wettability and topology of coating were characterized by contact angle measurement, Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results showed that the hydrophobic -CH{sub 3} and -CF{sub 2}- group was introduced into ZnO particles via modification, the ZnO nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. When the weight ratio of modified-ZnO to polystyrene was 7:3, the ZnO/polystyrene composite coating contact angle was 158°, coating surface with hierarchical micro/nano structures. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic cotton texiles have a very extensive application prospect in water–oil separation.

  10. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  11. Facile fabrication of Pickering emulsion polymerized polystyrene/laponite composite nanoparticles and their electrorheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jae; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-03-15

    Polystyrene (PS)/laponite composite nanoparticles were fabricated using a surfactant-free Pickering emulsion polymerization method, in which emulsions of styrene dispersed in water were stabilized by hydrophilic laponite modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The PS/laponite nanoparticles, of which their surface was covered compactly by laponite clay platelets, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed their chemical composition, crystallographic structure, and thermal properties and weight loss percentage of the laponite located on the surface of the PS particle, respectively. When an external electrical field was applied, the chain-like structure of the laponite coated nano-sized PS particle exhibiting electrorheological characteristics was observed by optical microscopy. The electrorheological performance of the bulk properties was also examined using a rotational rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator.

  12. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, e-mail: lainetti@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  13. Facile fabrication of PEDOT:PSS/polythiophenes bilayered nanofilms on pure organic electrodes and their thermoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Congcong; Xu, Jingkun; Song, Haijun; Lu, Baoyang; Jiang, Fengxing; Zhou, Weiqiang; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Qinglin

    2013-12-26

    A pure organic PEDOT:PSS nanofilm was used as a working electrode for the first time to electrodeposit polymer films of polythiophene (PTh) and its derivatives in a boron trifluoride diethyl ether (BFEE) solution, fabricating a novel generation of bilayered nanofilms. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrated good electrochemical stability of the as-formed films. Structures and surface morphologies were systematically investigated by the characterizations of cross-section SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM, and AFM. The resulting films revealed stable and enhanced thermoelectric (TE) performances. The electrical conductivity values of PEDOT:PSS/PTh, PEDOT:PSS/P3MeT, and PEDOT:PSS/P3HT nanofilms were determined to be 123.9, 136.5, and 200.5 S cm(-1), respectively. The power factor reached up to be a maximum value of 5.79 μW m(-1) k(-2). Thus, this technique offers a facile approach to a class of bilayered nanofilms, and it may provide a general strategy for fabricating a new generation of conducting polymers for more practical applications.

  14. A facile approach to fabricate Au nanoparticles loaded SiO{sub 2} microspheres for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: mingyitjucu@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO{sub 2}@Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO{sub 2}@Au particles with different size of SiO{sub 2} cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO{sub 2}@Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO{sub 2} microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO{sub 2} microspheres. SiO{sub 2}@Au particles can be also prepared from SiO{sub 2} microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO{sub 2} or other microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres.

  15. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2015-08-10

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert and based on the recent work in biomimetic water collection, this work reported a facile, easy-to-operate, and low-cost method for the fabrication of hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surface toward highly efficient fog water collection. The essence of the method is incorporating a (super)hydrophobically modified metal-based gauze onto the surface of a hydrophilic polystyrene (PS) flat sheet by a simple lab oven-based thermal pressing procedure. The produced hybrid patterned surfaces consisted of PS patches sitting within the holes of the metal gauzes. The method allows for an easy control over the pattern dimension (e.g., patch size) by varying gauze mesh size and thermal pressing temperature, which is then translated to an easy optimization of the ultimate fog water collection efficiency. Given the low-cost and wide availability of both PS and metal gauze, this method has a great potential for scaling-up. The results showed that the hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surfaces with a similar pattern size to Stenocara beetles’s back pattern produced significantly higher fog collection efficiency than the uniformly (super)hydrophilic or (super)hydrophobic surfaces. This work contributes to general effort in fabricating wettability patterned surfaces and to atmospheric water collection for direct portal use.

  16. Highly Stretchable, Ultrasensitive, and Wearable Strain Sensors Based on Facilely Prepared Reduced Graphene Oxide Woven Fabrics in an Ethanol Flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biao; Wen, Yanwei; Hong, Tao; Xie, Zhongshuai; Yuan, Guoliang; Ji, Qingmin; Jia, Hongbing

    2017-09-11

    The recent booming development of wearable electronics urgently calls for high-performance flexible strain sensors. To date, it is still a challenge to manufacture flexible strain sensors with superb sensitivity and a large workable strain range simultaneously. Herein, a facile, quick, cost-effective, and scalable strategy is adopted to fabricate novel strain sensors based on reduced graphene oxide woven fabrics (GWF). By pyrolyzing commercial cotton bandages coated with graphene oxide (GO) sheets in an ethanol flame, the reduction of GO and the pyrolysis of the cotton bandage template can be synchronously completed in tens of seconds. Due to the unique hierarchical structure of the GWF, the strain sensor based on GWF exhibits large stretchability (57% strain) with high sensitivity, inconspicuous drift, and durability. The GWF strain sensor is successfully used to monitor full-range (both subtle and vigorous) human activities or physical vibrational signals of the local environment. The present work offers an effective strategy to rapidly prepare low-cost flexible strain sensors with potential applications in the fields of wearable electronics, artificial intelligence devices, and so forth.

  17. Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticle on zein ultrafine fibers and their application for catechol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Dawei; Li, Guohui; Luo, Lei; Ullah, Naseeb; Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn; Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: flhuang@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: (A) Formation mechanism of A-CZNF and (B) reaction principle and formation mechanism of A-CZUF biosensor. - Highlights: • We utilized the hydrophobic protein nanofibers to fabricate a laccase-based biosensor for the first time. • The composite containing gold nanoparticles was prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method, which is a novel nanomaterial. • It is noticeable that the laccase biosensor showed a high electrochemical response and electrochemical activity toward catechol. • The novel biosensor will offer a simple, convenient and high efficient method for detecting polyphenolic compounds in environment. - Abstract: A novel laccase biosensor based on a new composite of laccase–gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers (CZUF) has been fabricated for catechol determination in real solution samples. Firstly, crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers containing gold nanoparticles (A-CZUF) were prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as reducing and crosslinking agent. A smooth morphology and relative average distribution of A-CZUF were depicted by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that PEI molecules attached to the surface of the zein ultrafine fibers via the reaction of functional groups between PEI and glyoxal. The results obtained from ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV–vis spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for A-CZUF confirmed the existence of Au NPS coated on the surface of CZUF. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to detect the electrochemical performance of the proposed biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor possessed a high sensitive detection to catechol, which was attributed to the direct electron transfer (DET

  18. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong; Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion and single alternating hot-cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl2 ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl2 ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot-cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss ( T 5%) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  19. Hazard categorization for 300 area N reactor fuel fabrication and storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    A final hazard categorization has been prepared for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports'' (DOE 1992). Prior to using the hazard category methodology, hazard classifications were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual, WHC-CM-4-46, ''Safety Analysis Manual'', Chapter 4.0, ''Hazard Classification.'' A hazard classification (Huang 1995) was previously prepared for the FSS in accordance with WHC-CM-4-46. The analysis lead to the conclusion that the FSS should be declared a Nuclear facility with a Moderate Hazard Class rating. The analysis and results contained in the hazard classification can be used to provide additional information to support other safety analysis documentation. Also, the hazard classification provides analyses of the toxicological hazards inherent with the FSS inventory: whereas, a hazard categorization prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, considers only the radiological component of the inventory.

  20. Facile fabrication of graphene oxide-wrapped alumina particles and their electrorheological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.L. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.J., E-mail: hjchoi@inha.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Leong, Y.K. [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide wrapped alumina (GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites were synthesized by a facile titration method using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloid as a titrant. The positively-charged Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared by adjusting the pH, followed by wrapping with negative GO particles via electrostatic attractions. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were wrapped completely with homogeneous GO sheets, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence of the coexistence of GO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composites. The resulting GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites exhibited electrorheological (ER) properties when dispersed in silicone oil, highlighting the potential engineering applications for GO/metal oxide systems. - Highlights: • GO wrapped alumina composites are synthesized via a facile titration method. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloid acts as a titrant, being prepared by adjusting the pH value. • Negative GO wrapped on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles assembly via an electrostatic attraction. • GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites reveal electrorheological characteristics under electric field.

  1. Facile fabrication of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres film on transparent FTO glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lei, Bing-Xin; Hou, Yuan-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Liang, Chao-Lun; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2010-02-15

    Hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres consisting of nanosheets on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates are successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal synthesis process. The as-prepared novel microsphere films were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Moreover, SnO(2) nanoparticles with 30-80 nm in size covered on the surface of nanosheets/microspheres were also obtained by optimizing the hydrothermal reaction temperature, time, or volume ratio of acetylacetone/H(2)O. The detailed investigations disclose the experimental parameters, such as acetylacetone, NH(4)F, and seed layer play important roles in the morphology of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres on the FTO glass. The formation process of SnO(2) microspheres is also proposed based on the observations of time dependent samples.

  2. A bonnet and fluid jet polishing facility for optics fabrication related to the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    A robotic polishing machine has been implemented at INAF-Brera Astronomical Observatory within the T-REX project. The facility, IRP1200 by Zeeko Ltd., consists of a 7-axis computer-controlled polishing/forming machine capable of producing precision surfaces on several optical materials. The machine enables two methods, the bonnet and the fluid jet polishing. We report on the results of the standard bonnet polishing machine acceptance tests that have been completed at our site. We intend to use the machine to support development and production programs related to the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), in particular, for making part of the optics of the Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) module.

  3. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles useful for fabrication of high-conductivity elements for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuning; Wu, Yiliang; Ong, Beng S

    2005-03-16

    A facile synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles having a particle size of <10 nm is described. The synthesis involved reduction of silver acetate with a substituted hydrazine, such as PhNHNH2, in the presence of a 1-alkylamine, such as C16H33NH2, in toluene at 25-60 degrees C. Spin-coated thin films or printed electronic features of alkylamine-stabilized silver nanoparticles could be easily converted at 120-160 degrees C into highly conductive films or elements with conductivity of 2-4 x 104 S cm-1. Organic thin-film transistors with printed silver source/drain electrodes of this nature exhibited field-effect transistor properties which are similar to those of the devices using vacuum-deposited silver electrodes.

  4. Overview on the target fabrication facilities at ELI-NP and ongoing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, C. C.; Leca, V.; Popa, D.; Cernaianu, M. O.; Stutman, D.

    2016-10-01

    Along with the development of petawatt class laser systems, the interaction between high power lasers and matter flourished an extensive research, with high-interest applications like: laser nuclear physics, proton radiography or cancer therapy. The new ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics) petawatt laser facility, with 10PW and ~ 1023W/cm2 beam intensity, is one of the innovative projects that will provide novel research of fundamental processes during light-matter interaction. As part of the ELI-NP facility, Targets Laboratory will provide the means for in-house manufacturing and characterization of the required targets (mainly solid ones) for the experiments, in addition to the research activity carried out in order to develop novel target designs with improved performances. A description of the Targets Laboratory with the main pieces of equipment and their specifications are presented. Moreover, in view of the latest progress in the target design, one of the proposed strategies for the forthcoming experiments at ELI-NP is also described, namely: ultra-thin patterned foil of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated with a carbon-based ultra-low density layer. The carbon foam which behaves as a near-critical density plasma, will allow the controlled-shaping of the laser pulse before the main interaction with the solid foil. Particular emphasis will be directed towards the target's design optimization, by simulation tests and tuning the key-properties (thickness/length, spacing, density foam, depth, periodicity etc.) which are expected to have a crucial effect on the laser-matter interaction process.

  5. Facile one-step fabrication of magnetite particles under mild hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keerthana, D. Shanthini; Namratha, K. [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); Byrappa, K., E-mail: kbyrappa@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); Yathirajan, H.S. [Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India); DOS in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 6 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Hydrophilic magnetite particles for biological applications were synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of D-Glucose as both reducing and capping agent in a facile, one-step, low energy and environmentally friendly route. The role of D-Glucose as a reducing agent in the formation of magnetite particles under mild hydrothermal conditions has been investigated. The absence of D-Glucose results in the formation of hematite. The magnetite particles synthesized were characterized using powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometery (VSM). The influence of the quantity of D-Glucose used and the reaction duration on the formation of magnetite were studied. DLS and HR-SEM results show that the size of the particles was in nano- to micron range. The antioxidant potency of the particles was confirmed using DPPH assay, where 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used as a source of free radicals. Hence the magnetite particles obtained could be considered for the use in various biological applications. - Highlights: • Magnetite and hematite particles were synthesized using hydrothermal route. • The reactants and experimental parameters were optimized to get single phase magnetite particles. • The role of D-Glucose as a reducing and capping agent is discussed. • The magnetite particles showed very good free radical scavenging ability. • The authors report a simple, facile, one-step method using hydrated ferric salt as a single iron precursor.

  6. Au/ZnO nanocomposites: Facile fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hang; Ming, Hai; Zhang, Hengchao; Li, Haitao; Pan, Keming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Fang; Gong, Jingjing [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Au nanoparticles supported on highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO nanowires (Au/ZnO hybrids) have been successfully fabricated through a simple wet chemical method, which were first used for photodegradation of gas-phase benzene. Compared with bare ZnO nanowires, the as-prepared Au/ZnO hybrids were found to possess higher photocatalytic activity for degradation of benzene under UV and visible light (degradation efficiencies reach about 56.0% and 33.7% after 24 h under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively). Depending on excitation happening on ZnO semiconductor or on the surface plasmon band of Au, the efficiency and operating mechanism are different. Under UV light irradiation, Au nanoparticles serve as an electron buffer and ZnO nanowires act as the reactive sites for benzene degradation. When visible light is used as the light irradiation source, Au nanoparticles act as the light harvesters and photocatalytic sites alongside of charge-transfer process, simultaneously. -- Graphical abstract: Under visible light irradiation, Au nanoparticles, which are supported on ZnO nanowires, dominate their catalytic properties in gas-phase degradation benzene reaction. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites that Au nanoparticles supported on ZnO nanowires were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au/ZnO composites were firstly used as effective photocatalysts for benzene degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two operating mechanisms were proposed depending on excitation wavelength.

  7. Facile Fabrication of a Gold Nanocluster-Based Membrane for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a simple and rapid method to synthesize red luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs with high quantum yield (QY, ~16%, excellent photostability and biocompatibility. Next, we fabricated a solid membrane by loading the as-prepared AuNCs in an agar matrix. Different from nanomaterials dispersed in solution, the AuNCs-based solid membrane has distinct advantages including convenience of transportation, while still maintaining strong red luminescence, and relatively long duration storage without aggregation. Taking hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a typical example, we then employed the AuNCs as a luminescent probe and investigated their sensing performance, either in solution phase or on a solid substrate. The detection of H2O2 could be achieved in wide concentration ranges over 805 nM–1.61 mM and 161 μM–19.32 mM in solution and on a solid membrane, respectively, with limits of detection (LOD of 80 nM and 20 μM. Moreover, the AuNCs-based membrane could also be used for visual detection of H2O2 in the range of 0–3.22 mM. In view of the convenient synthesis route and attractive luminescent properties, the AuNCs-based membrane presented in this work is quite promising for applications such as optical sensing, fluorescent imaging, and photovoltaics.

  8. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  9. Facile fabrication of mesoporous ZnO nanospheres for the controlled delivery of captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrudeen, Haja Bava; Tsibouklis, John; Reddy, Boreddy S. R.

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, to formulate captopril in a hierarchical porous structure of ZnO nanospheres by means of the soluble-starch-insertion method, state of drug carrier delivery toward oral route and the mode of delivery in suitable medium. Mesoporous ZnO nanospheres were synthesized by simple soluble-starch-insertion method, followed by loading of captopril using ultrasonic force. The materials were characterized by PXRD, SEM, FESEM, TEM, TGA, FT-IR, and BET analyses, and biocompatibility studies. Captopril-loaded porous ZnO nanospheres were evaluated as in vitro drug-release studies and its kinetic models. Crystallite plane arrangement, functional groups, materials morphology, and porosity of porous ZnO nanospheres were confirmed. Larger surface area and distribution in constrained pores on its surface make the nanospheres suitable for high drug loading of captopril. The ZnO nanocrystallites have given porous properties on the spherical surface leads to the drug adsorption. The loading and release studies (in vitro in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids) have shown that both were affected by the mesoporous nanospheres' surface properties of the ZnO materials and its biocompatibility has also been proved. Therefore, the in vitro experiments have indicated the considerable promise of mesoporous ZnO nanospheres, fabricated by the soluble-starch-insertion method acting as a biocompatible carrier for the controlled delivery of captopril in oral route of administration.

  10. Facile fabrication of mesoporous ZnO nanospheres for the controlled delivery of captopril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakrudeen, Haja Bava [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Industrial Chemistry Laboratory (India); Tsibouklis, John [University of Portsmouth, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (United Kingdom); Reddy, Boreddy S. R., E-mail: induchem2000@yahoo.com [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Industrial Chemistry Laboratory (India)

    2013-03-15

    In the present study, to formulate captopril in a hierarchical porous structure of ZnO nanospheres by means of the soluble-starch-insertion method, state of drug carrier delivery toward oral route and the mode of delivery in suitable medium. Mesoporous ZnO nanospheres were synthesized by simple soluble-starch-insertion method, followed by loading of captopril using ultrasonic force. The materials were characterized by PXRD, SEM, FESEM, TEM, TGA, FT-IR, and BET analyses, and biocompatibility studies. Captopril-loaded porous ZnO nanospheres were evaluated as in vitro drug-release studies and its kinetic models. Crystallite plane arrangement, functional groups, materials morphology, and porosity of porous ZnO nanospheres were confirmed. Larger surface area and distribution in constrained pores on its surface make the nanospheres suitable for high drug loading of captopril. The ZnO nanocrystallites have given porous properties on the spherical surface leads to the drug adsorption. The loading and release studies (in vitro in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids) have shown that both were affected by the mesoporous nanospheres' surface properties of the ZnO materials and its biocompatibility has also been proved. Therefore, the in vitro experiments have indicated the considerable promise of mesoporous ZnO nanospheres, fabricated by the soluble-starch-insertion method acting as a biocompatible carrier for the controlled delivery of captopril in oral route of administration.Graphical Abstract.

  11. A facile electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; He, Yi; Luo, Pingya; Chen, Xi; Liu, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Superhydrophobic Fe film with hierarchical micro/nano papillae structures is prepared on C45 steel surface by one-step electrochemical method. The superhydrophobic surface was measured with a water contact angle of 160.5 ± 0.5° and a sliding angle of 2 ± 0.5°. The morphology of the fabricated surface film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the surface structure seems like accumulated hierarchical micro-nano scaled particles. Furthermore, according to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical composition of surface film was iron complex with organic acid. Besides, the electrochemical measurements showed that the superhydrophobic surface improved the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution significantly. The superhydrophobic layer can perform as a barrier and provide a stable air-liquid interface which inhibit penetration of corrosive medium. In addition, the as-prepared steel exhibited an excellent self-cleaning ability that was not favor to the accumulation of contaminants.

  12. Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticle on zein ultrafine fibers and their application for catechol biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Dawei; Li, Guohui; Luo, Lei; Ullah, Naseeb; Wei, Qufu; Huang, Fenglin

    2015-02-01

    A novel laccase biosensor based on a new composite of laccase-gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers (CZUF) has been fabricated for catechol determination in real solution samples. Firstly, crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers containing gold nanoparticles (A-CZUF) were prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as reducing and crosslinking agent. A smooth morphology and relative average distribution of A-CZUF were depicted by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that PEI molecules attached to the surface of the zein ultrafine fibers via the reaction of functional groups between PEI and glyoxal. The results obtained from ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for A-CZUF confirmed the existence of Au NPS coated on the surface of CZUF. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to detect the electrochemical performance of the proposed biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor possessed a high sensitive detection to catechol, which was attributed to the direct electron transfer (DET) facilitated by Au NPs and high catalytic ability obtained from laccase. In addition, the proposed biosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability and selectivity.

  13. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  14. Controllable and facile fabrication of Fe nanoparticles/nanochains and their magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hongzhe, E-mail: tanghongzhe@buaa.edu.cn [Ecole Centrale de Pekin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Xiaotong; Wu, Zhe [Ecole Centrale de Pekin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yu; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Pernod, Philippe [Joint International Laboratory LEMAC – IEMN/UMR-CNRS 8520, Ecole Centrale de Lille, Lille 59651 (France)

    2015-03-01

    Fe nanoparticles and nanochains were prepared by a simple, accessible and pollution-free chemical reduction method. When the concentrations of addition agent NaOH and reagents were changed, the microstructure of Fe nanoparticles and Fe nanochains were distinctive. The magnetic properties of samples were researched, and the influence of the concentration of NaOH and Fe{sup 2+} on the microstructure and the magnetic properties of samples has been discussed detailedly. The control of magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles and nanochains has been realized by adjusting the microstructure via changing the concentration of reagents and addition agent. - Highlights: • Controllable fabrication of Fe nanoparticles and nanochains has been realized by a simple and pollution-free method. • The microstructure of Fe nanoparticles and Fe nanochains is influenced by the concentration of NaOH and reagents. • NaOH can be used to control the magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles and nanochains. • Concentration of reagents has effect on the magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles and nanochains. • The coercivity of Fe nanoparticles is lower than that of Fe nanochains.

  15. Decommissioning of an irradiation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, A.G. [Radiation Protection and Safety Services, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Distributed throughout hospital, research establishments in the United Kingdom and many other countries are Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines used for either research purposes or treatment of patients for radiotherapy. These Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines are loaded with radioactive sources of either Cobalt 60 or Caesium 137. The activity of these sources can range from 1 Terabecquerel up to 100 Terabecquerels or more. Where it is possible to load the radioactive sources without removal from the shielded container into a transport package which is suitable for transport decommissioning of a Teletherapy machine is not a major exercise. When the radioactive sources need to be unloaded from the Irradiation Unit or Teletherapy machine the potential exists for very high levels of radiation. The operation outlined in the paper involved the transfer from an Irradiation Unit to a transport package of two 3.25 Terabecquerel sources of Cobalt 60. The operation of the removal and transfer comes within the scope of the United Kingdom Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 which were made following the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This paper illustrates a safe method for this operation and how doses received can be kept within ALARA. (author)

  16. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: a facile method of fabrication and color-center counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer T; Loncar, Marko; Bakr, Osman M

    2013-12-07

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He(+) beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them.

  17. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: a facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L.; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer T.; Loncar, Marko; Bakr, Osman M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them.

  18. Facile fabrication and selective detection for cysteine of xylan/Au nanoparticles composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiong; Shen, Zuguang; Liu, Pai; Zhao, Lihong; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-04-20

    This work reported a facile and green method to prepare highly stable and uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), using biopolymer xylan as stabilizing and reducing agent. Full characterizations were performed and the results revealed that AuNPs were well dispersed with the diameters of 10-30nm. The optimal condition was as follows: the ratio of xylan to HAuCl4 was 150mg:15mg, reaction temperature was 80°C and reaction time was 40min. The xylan/AuNPs composite exhibited highly selective and sensitive sensing of cysteine in aqueous solution, it could distinguish cysteine among dozens kinds of amino acids, and the limit of detection (LOD) for cysteine was calculated as 0.57μM. Besides, the xylan/AuNPs composite was applied for Cys detection in human serum. This study provides a new way for high-value utilization of the rich biomass resource and a cheap, rapid and simple method for Cys detection in real biological samples.

  19. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi

    2013-01-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Facile fabrication of CeO2 hollowmicrospheres with yeast as bio-templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟广宇; 魏清莲; 黄永民

    2015-01-01

    CeO2 hollow microspheres were prepared through a facile method by using yeast cells as bio-templates. The yeast pro-vided a solid frame for the deposition of cerium hydroxide to form the hybrid Ce(OH)3@yeast precursor. The resulting CeO2 hollow microspheres were obtained by calcining the precursor. The products were characterized by field emission scanning electron micros-copy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). It was found that the products fully retained the morphology of the yeast cells and the size of the hollow microspheres was about 1.5–2μm. The catalytic test results showed that the as-obtained hollow CeO2 microspheres possessed a higher catalytic activity in CO oxidation than the commercial CeO2, which attributed to their higher surface area, hollow structure and superior reducibility. This study provided a promising route for the preparation of a variety of other inorganic hollow microspheres.

  1. Facile fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated silica: a sorbent for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Xiao-Shui; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-07-19

    In this study, a facile hydrothermal reduction strategy was developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated silica (SiO2@rGO). Compared with other conventional methods for the synthesis of SiO2@rGO, the proposed strategy endowed the obtained SiO2@rGO with larger amount of immobilized rGO. The prepared functionalized silica shows remarkable adsorption capacity toward chlorophenols (CPs) and peptides. When it was used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, a superior recovery could be obtained compared to commercial sorbents, such as C18 silica, graphitized carbon black and carbon nanotubes. Based on these, the prepared material was used as SPE sorbent for the enrichment of CPs, and a method for the analysis of CPs in water samples was established by coupling SPE with high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (SPE-HPLC/UV). In addition, the obtained SiO2@rGO was further successfully extended to the enrichment of peptides in bovine serum albumin (BSA) digests.

  2. Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane microspheres by a facile and green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yen; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-05-01

    Two different compositions of water-based biodegradable polyurethane (PU) in the form of homogeneous nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using biodegradable polyesters as the soft segment. The first PU (PU01) was based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and the second PU (PU02) was based on 40% PCL diol and 60% polyethylene butylene adipate diol. The PU NP dispersions with different solid contents were sprayed into liquid nitrogen and resuspended in water to generate elastic microspheres (50-60 µm) with different nanoporosities. In vitro degradation analysis revealed that microspheres of PU02 (i.e., PU02 MS) degraded faster than those of PU01 (PU01 MS). Methylene blue was encapsulated during microsphere formation and the release was investigated. Microspheres made from a lower content (10%) of PU02 dispersion (i.e., PU02 MS_10) showed a greater burst release of methylene blue in 6 h, whereas those made from a higher content (30%) of PU01 dispersion (i.e., PU01 MS_30) revealed a prolonged release with a significantly lower burst release. Biocompatibility evaluation using L929 fibroblasts demonstrated that cells were attached and proliferated on microspheres after 24 h. On the other hand, microspheres may further self-assemble into films and scaffolds. Surface modification of microspheres by chitosan may modify the self-assembly behavior of microspheres. Microspheres could be stacked to form scaffolds with different macroporosities. Fibroblasts were successfully seeded and grown in the microsphere-stacked scaffolds. We concluded that the biodegradable and elastic microspheres may be facilely produced from a green and sustainable process with potential applications in drug release and three-dimensional cell culture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Facile fabrication of ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride for RhB photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Anfeng; Janik, Michael J.; Li, Keyan; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2017-02-01

    Ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitrides were prepared by directly condensing the uniform mixtures of melamine and KIT-6. After removal of the KIT-6 sacrificial template, the carbon nitrides were characterized with TEM, N2 physical adsorption, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, UV-vis and PL spectrometries, and tested for their RhB photocatalytic degradation activity. Together, these characterizations confirmed the as-prepared tunable mesoporous materials with enhanced charge separation efficiency and superior photocatalytic performance. Compared with a conventional bulk g-C3N4, ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 exhibits a larger specific surface area of 279.3 m2/g and a pore size distribution about 4.0 nm and 13.0 nm. Meanwhile, the reduced bandgap energy of 2.77 eV and lower photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination frequency were evidenced by UV-Vis and PL spectra. The RhB photocatalytic degradation activity maximizes with a mass ratio of KIT-6/melamine of 80% (KCN80), and the kinetic constant reaches 0.0760 min-1 which is 16 times higher than that of the bulk sample. Reusability of KCN80 was demonstrated by a lack of evident deactivation after three consecutive reaction periods. The direct condensation of the KIT-6 and melamine mixture does not require pre-casting of the precursor into the pore system of the templates. Owing to its high product yield, improved SBET, reduced bandgap energy and limited charge recombination, the facile-prepared ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 is a practical candidate for further modification.

  4. Efficient and facile fabrication of hierarchical carbon foams with abundant nanoscale pores for use in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Wei; Yang, Gui Jun; Yang, Tae Hyeon; Jung, Yong Ju [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education (KOREATECH), Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Shan Tang [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hierarchical carbon foams (HCFs) with micro-, meso-, and macropores were successfully synthesized via a two-step process: (1) polymerization in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions without any hard templates and (2) carbonization at 850°C. With the aim of both enhancing the stability of the emulsion and forming a micro- and mesoporous structure during the carbonization process, potassium citrate was introduced in an aqueous solution of resorcinol and formaldehyde. A series of HCFs were fabricated by changing the mass ratio of potassium citrate to total carbon sources from 0.25 to 1.5. The effect of potassium citrate on the porous structure of HCFs was investigated through nitrogen sorption tests. The prepared HCFs exhibited well-developed porous structures of micro-, meso- and macropores and high surface areas. The structural characteristics of the HCFs, including pore size distribution, surface area, and porosity, were significantly dependent on the amount of potassium citrate. It was concluded that potassium citrate greatly contributed to the formation of carbon foams with nano-sized pore structures and high porosity. Interestingly, it was found that when the mass ratio of potassium citrate to total carbon sources was 0.5, the HCFs showed the highest specific surface area (⁓1360 m{sup 2}/g). Furthermore, the capacitive performances of the HCFs were evaluated in a 6.0 M KOH aqueous solution using typical electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The capacitance of the HCFs tended to increase with the increase in surface area. In particular, the HCFs with the highest surface area also exhibited excellent electrochemical properties (high capacitance of 224 F/g at 1.0 A/g, high rate capability of 191 F/g at 10.0 A/g). These features may be attributed to both the resulting interconnected pore structure that is easily accessible to ions and the high surface area. We believe that this synthesis strategy can be easily

  5. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  6. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  7. Low-cost and facile fabrication of a paper-based capillary electrophoresis microdevice for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes the development of a novel paper-based capillary electrophoresis (pCE) microdevice using mineral paper, which is durable, oil and tear resistant, and waterproof. The pCE device is inexpensive (~$1.6 per device for materials), simple to fabricate, lightweight, and disposable, so it is more adequate for point-of-care (POC) pathogen diagnostics than a conventional CE device made of glass, quartz, silicon or polymer. In addition, the entire fabrication process can be completed within 1h without using expensive clean room facilities and cumbersome photolithography procedures. A simple cross-designed pCE device was patterned on the mineral paper by using a plotter, and assembled with an OHP film via a double-sided adhesive film. After filling the microchannel with polyacrylamide gel, the injection, backbiasing, and separation steps were sequentially operated to differentiate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with 4 bp resolution in a 2.9cm-long CE separation channel. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated the identification of the PCR amplicons of two target genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (rrsH gene, 121 bp) and Staphylococcus aureus (glnA gene, 225 bp). For accurate assignment of the peaks in the electropherogram, two bracket ladders (80 bp for the shortest and 326 bp for the longest) were employed, so the two amplicons of the pathogens were precisely identified on a pCE chip within 3min using the relative migration time ratio without effect of the CE environments. Thus, we believe that the pCE microdevice could be very useful for the separation of nucleic acids, amino acids, and ions as an analytical tool for use in the medical applications in the resource-limited environments as well as fundamental research fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development Of Decommissioning Information Management System for 101 HWRR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Song

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of 101 Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) is radioactive and high-risk project which has to consider the effects of radiation and nuclear waste disposal, so the information system covering 101 HWRR decommissioning project must be established to ensure safety of the project. In this study, by col ecting the decommissioning activity data to establish the decommissioning database, and based on the database to develop information management system.

  9. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D&D is devoted to S&M at each of the sites. Our S&M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S&M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  11. Fission-Product Development Laboratory cell-decommissioning project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.; Schaich, R.W.; Williams, F.V.

    1983-08-01

    The Fission Product Development Laboratory (FPDL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a full-scale processing facility for separating megacurie quantities of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce for a variety of source applications, operating at full capacity from 1958 to 1975. Since facility shutdown, the inactive portions of the FPDL have been maintained in a protective storage mode as part of the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). Due to the significant radio-nuclide inventory remaining in the facility, the high surveillance and maintenance costs necessary to assure radionuclide containment, and the potential for reuse of the facility by other programs, the decommissioning of the inactive portions of the FPDL has been given a high priority by the SFMP. In response to this program direction, plans are being made for initiation of these activities in late FY 1983. This project plan has been prepared to satisfy the program documentation requirements for SFMP project planning. The plan outlines the scope of the proposed effort, describes the proposed methods of project accomplishment, and provides estimates of the project resource needs and schedule.

  12. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  13. Design, fabrication and operation of a biomass fermentation facility. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, D.J.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.; Day, S.W.; Roberts, R.S.; El-Barbary, I.A.; Havlicek, S.C.; Anders, M.E.; Sondhi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate, and operate a fermentation facility which will demonstrate on a pilot-scale level (3 oven-dry tons (ODT) per day of feedstock) the economic and technical feasibility of producing anhydrous ethyl alcohol from lignocellulosic biomass residues (wood, corn stover, and wheat straw principally). The resultant process development unit (PDU) will be flexibly designed so as to evaluate current and projected unit operations, materials of construction, chemical and enzymatic systems which offer the potential of significant technological and economic breakthroughs in alcohol production from biomass. The principal focus of the project is to generate fuels from biomass. As such, in addition to alcohol which can be used as a transportation fuel, by-products are to be directed where possible to fuel applications. The project consists of two parts: (1) conceptual design, and (2) detailed engineering design. The first quarter's activities have focused on a critical review of several aspects of the conceptual design of the 3 ODT/day PDU, viz.: (1) biomass cost, availability, and characterization; (2) pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic residues; (3) hydrolytic processes (enzymatic and acidic); (4) fermentation processes; (5) alcohol recovery systems; (6) by-product streams utilization; and (7) process economics.

  14. Facile fabrication of high-efficiency near-infrared absorption film with tungsten bronze nanoparticle dense layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Yun; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jun Young; Song, Ho Jun; Lee, Sangkug; Choi, Kyung Ho; Shin, Gyojic

    2014-06-01

    An excellent transparent film with effective absorption property in near-infrared (NIR) region based on cesium-doped tungsten oxide nanoparticles was fabricated using a facile double layer coating method via the theoretical considerations. The optical performance was evaluated; the double layer-coated film exhibited 10% transmittance at 1,000 nm in the NIR region and over 80% transmittance at 550 nm in the visible region. To optimize the selectivity, the optical spectrum of this film was correlated with a theoretical model by combining the contributions of the Mie-Gans absorption-based localized surface plasmon resonance and reflections by the interfaces of the heterogeneous layers and the nanoparticles in the film. Through comparison of the composite and double layer coating method, the difference of the nanoscale distances between nanoparticles in each layer was significantly revealed. It is worth noting that the nanodistance between the nanoparticles decreased in the double layer film, which enhanced the optical properties of the film, yielding a haze value of 1% or less without any additional process. These results are very attractive for the nanocomposite coating process, which would lead to industrial fields of NIR shielding and thermo-medical applications.

  15. Facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: Biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of I. frutescens leaf extract and green-synthesized Ag NPs was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 14.22, 15.84 and 17.26μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 636.61 to 2098.61μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of I. frutescens, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of poly-disperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Huajing [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Qingfeng, E-mail: yanqf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk; Geng, Chong; Li, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan, E-mail: yanqf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yao, Jianjun [Asylum Research, Oxford Instruments, Shanghai 200233 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ∼62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  17. Facile fabrication and characterization of chitosan-based zinc oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation deals with the facile synthesis and characterization of chitosan (CTS)-based zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms. ZnO-CTS NPs were synthesized through two different methods: nano spray drying and precipitation, using various organic compounds (citric acid, glycerol, starch and whey powder) as stabilizers. Both the synthesis methods were simple and were devoid of any chemical usage. The detailed characterization of the NPs was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, zeta potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed the fabrication of NPs with different shapes and sizes. Antimicrobial assay of synthesized ZnO-CTS NPs was carried out against different pathogenic microbial strains ( Candida albicans, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus). The significant ( p < 0.05) inhibition of growth was observed for both M. luteus and S. aureus with ZnO-CTS NPs (with a concentration ranging from 0.625 to 0.156 mg/ml) as compared to control treatment. ZnO-CTS NPs also showed significant biofilm inhibition activity ( p < 0.05) against M. luteus and S. aureus. The study demonstrated the potential of ZnO-CTS NPs as antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.

  18. Facile fabrication of robust silk nanofibril films via direct dissolution of silk in CaCl2-formic acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; You, Xinran; Dou, Hao; Liu, Zhi; Zuo, Baoqi; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-02-11

    In this study, we report for the first time a novel silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous films with robust mechanical properties that was fabricated by directly dissolving silk in CaCl2-formic acid solution. CaCl2-FA dissolved silk rapidly at room temperature, and more importantly, it disintegrated silk into nanofibrils instead of separate molecules. The morphology of nanofibrils crucially depended on CaCl2 concentrations, which resulted in different aggregation nanostructure in SF films. The SF film after drawing had maximum elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at break reaching 4 GPa, 106 MPa, and 29%, respectively, in dry state and 206 MPa, 28 MPa, and 188%, respectively, in wet state. Moreover, multiple yielding phenomena and substantially strain-hardening behavior was also observed in the stretched films, indicating the important role played by preparation method in regulating the mechanical properties of SF films. These exceptional and unique mechanical properties were suggested to be caused by preserving silk nanofibril during dissolution and stretching to align these nanofibrils. Furthermore, the SF films exhibit excellent biocompatibility, supporting marrow stromal cells adhesion and proliferation. The film preparation was facile, and the resulting SF films manifested enhanced mechanical properties, unique nanofibrous structures, and good biocompability.

  19. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic flower-like polyaniline architectures by using valine as a dopant in polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Bi, Hong

    2012-03-01

    A facile method was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic, flower-like polyanline (PANI) architectures with hierarchical nanostructures by adding valine in polymerization as a dopant. The water contact angle of the prepared PANI film was measured to be 155.3°, and the hydrophobic surface of the PANI architectures can be tuned easily by varying the polymerization time as well as valine doping quantity. It is believed that valine plays an important role in not only growth of the hierarchical PANI structures but also formation of the superhydrophobic surface, for it provides functional groups such as sbnd COOH, sbnd NH2 and a hydrophobic terminal group which may further increase intra-/inter-molecular interactions including hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking and hydrophobic properties. Similar flower-like PANI architectures have been prepared successfully by employing other amino acids such as threonine, proline and arginine. This method makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic PANI film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  20. Facile fabrication of uniform size-controlled microparticles and potentiality for tandem drug delivery system of micro/nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Saito, Noriaki; Sanae, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a rapid and facile method for manufacturing various size-controlled gel particles with utilizing inkjet printing technology. Generally, the size of droplets could be controlled by changing nozzle heads of inkjet printer, from which ink solution is ejected. However, this method uses drying process before gelling microparticles, and with that, the size of microparticles was easily controlled by only altering the concentration of ejected solution. When sodium alginate solution with various concentrations was ejected from inkjet printer, we found that the concentration of alginate solution vs. the volume of dried alginate particle showed an almost linear relationship in the concentration range from 0.1 to 3.0%. After dried alginate particles were soaked into calcium chloride solution, the size of microgel beads were obtained almost without increasing their size. The microparticles including various sizes of nanoparticles were easily manufactured by ejecting nanoparticle-dispersed alginate solution. The release of 25-nm sized nanoparticles from alginate microgel beads was finished in a relatively-rapid manner, whereas 100-nm sized nanoparticles were partially released from those ones. Moreover, most of 250-nm sized nanoparticles were not released from alginate microgel beads even after 24-h soaking. This particle fabricating method would enable the tandem drug delivery system with a combination of the release from nano and microparticles, and be expected for the biological and tissue engineering application.

  1. Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dragusin Mitica; Pavelescu Octavian Alexandru; Iorga Ioan

    2011-01-01

    The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  3. An overview of plutonium-238 decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects at Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.H.; Davis, W.P.; Draper, D.G.; Geichman, J.R.; Harris, J.C.; Jaeger, R.R.; Sohn, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mound is currently decontaminating for restricted reuse and/or decommissioning for conditional release four major plutonium-238 contaminated facilities that contained 1700 linear feet of gloveboxes and associated equipment and services. Several thousand linear feet of external underground piping, associated tanks, and contaminated soil are being removed. Two of the facilities contain ongoing operations and will be reused for both radioactive and nonradioactive programs. Two others will be completely demolished and the land area will become available for future DOE building sites. An overview of the successful techniques and equipment used in the decontamination and decommissioning of individual pieces of equipment, gloveboxes, services, laboratories, sections of buildings, entire buildings, and external underground piping, tanks, and soil in a highly populated residential area is described and pictorially presented.

  4. Validation of Decommissioning Engineering System Application against KRR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Park, Seungkook; Park, Heeseong; Song, Chanho; Ha, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KAERI is the only expert group which has decommissioning experiences and KAERI is trying to develop computer code to converge all the data which has been accumulated during KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant) decommission. This paper contains validation results of the KAERI DES by using KRR-2 decommissioning data. As a responsible leading group of Korean decommissioning research field, KAERI has been developing DES application program. One of decommissioning experience data, KRR-2 was used for KAERI DES validation and it successfully is reflected in KAERI DES.

  5. Report of an investigation into deterioration of the Plutonium Fuel Form Fabrication Facility (PuFF) at the DOE Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This investigations of the Savannah River Site's Plutonium Fuel Form fabrication facility located in Building 235-F was initiated in April 1991. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, as has been alleged, operation of the facility's argon inert gas system was terminated with the knowledge that continued inoperability of the argon system would cause accelerated corrosion damage to the equipment in the plutonium 238 processing cells. The investigation quickly established that the decision to discontinue operation of the argon system, by not repairing it, was merely one of the measures, and not the most important one, which led to the current deteriorated state of the facility. As a result, the scope of the investigation was broadened to more identify and assess those factors which contributed to the facility's current condition. This document discusses the backgrounds, results, and recommendations of this investigation.

  6. 75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... collection of information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or... books on the asset. Section 1.468A- 8T(b)(3)(ii) of the temporary regulations provides that, in the case... connection with the preparation for decommissioning, such as engineering and other planning expenses, and...

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  8. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  9. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... separation of radionuclides. In order to improve and maintain the Nodic competence in analysis of radionculides in waste samples, a NKS B project on this topic was launched in 2009. During the first phase of the NKS-B RadWaste project (2009-2010), a good achivement has been reached on establishment...... of collaboration, identifing the requirements from the Nordic nuclear industries and optimizing and development of some analytical methods (Hou et al. NKS-222, 2010). In the year 2011, this project (NKS-B RadWaste2011) continued. The major achievements of this project in 2011 include: (1) development of a method...

  10. Sensor Network Demonstration for In Situ Decommissioning - 13332

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Rivera, J.; McGill, J. [Department of Energy - DOE, Environmental Management Office (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University's (FIU's) Applied Research Center is currently supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Office of D and D and Facility Engineering program. FIU is supporting DOE's initiative to improve safety, reduce technical risks, and limit uncertainty within D and D operations by identifying technologies suitable to meet specific facility D and D requirements, assessing the readiness of those technologies for field deployment, and conducting feasibility studies and large scale demonstrations of promising technologies. During FY11, FIU collaborated with Savannah River National Laboratory in the development of an experimental test site for the demonstration of multiple sensor systems for potential use in the in situ decommissioning process. In situ decommissioning is a process in which the above ground portion of a facility is dismantled and removed, and the underground portion is filled with a cementious material such as grout. In such a scenario, the question remains on how to effectively monitor the structural health of the grout (cracking, flexing, and sinking), as well as track possible migration of contaminants within and out of the grouted monolith. The right types of sensors can aid personnel in better understanding the conditions within the entombed structure. Without sensors embedded in and around the monolith, it will be very difficult to estimate structural integrity and contaminant transport. Yet, to fully utilize the appropriate sensors and the provided data, their performance and reliability must be evaluated outside a laboratory setting. To this end, a large scale experimental setup and demonstration was conducted at FIU. In order to evaluate a large suite of sensor systems, FIU personnel designed and purchased a pre-cast concrete open-top cube, which served as a mock-up of an in situ DOE decommissioned facility. The inside of the cube measures 10 ft x 10 ft x 8 ft. In order to

  11. Long term commitments concerning decommissioning and waste management. French perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, Charles [EDF/CIDEN, 35/37, rue Louis-Guerin, BP 1212, 69611 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Decobert, Guy [COGEMA/AREVA, 1 rue des Herons BP 302, Montigny-le-Bretonneux 78054 Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Pochon, Etienne [CEA/DEN/DPA, Centre de Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The majority of France decommissioning activities is occurring in two sectors: the civilian nuclear facilities and the nuclear facilities dedicated to deterrent. In France there are four major civilian operators: EDF (Electricite de France), AREVA, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour les Dechets Radioactifs). Nuclear energy provides France nearly 80% of its electricity. Presently there are 58 EDF's operating nuclear power plants (PWR), all the gas cooled graphite nuclear power plant (6 units) have been definitively shutdown as well as Superphenix, a fast breeder reactor. The fuel cycle industry belongs to AREVA which is operating all the industrial installations from uranium ore prospecting and mining till used fuel reprocessing. In France, most of the nuclear R and D installations belong to the CEA. Many installations have already been dismantled, are presently being dismantled or are on a waiting list (research reactors, laboratories, pilot plant, etc). ANDRA is in charge since 1991 of the studies and the operation of waste disposal centres (LLW, MLW, HLW and VLLW). The first repository for waste containing short lived radio nuclides (CM, Centre de la Manche) has been closed in 1994 after 25 years of operation, more of 530 000 m{sup 3} have been disposed, the Aube centre (CA) comes into operation in 1991 and has a capacity of 1 000 000 m{sup 3}, ANDRA has opened a disposal for very low level waste (VLLW), close to the Aube centre, in september 2003. The contents of the paper is as follows: I. Current status; II. National policy; III. Decommissioning technique and Inspection; IV. Radioactive waste management; V. Organisations and responsibilities; VI. Funding; VII. Competent bodies.

  12. Facile preparation of super-hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric using dilute sulfuric acid under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fang [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Yuansong [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A durable super-hydrophilic PET fabric was prepared using dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation. • Dilute sulfuric acid was gradually concentrated enough to sulfonate PET fabric. • Microwave irradiation made PET fabric modification highly efficient. • The mechanical properties of modified PET fibers were kept well. • The method was novel, rapid, and eco-friendly. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was greatly modified by using dilute sulfuric acid, which gradually became concentrated enough to sulfonate the fabric when microwave irradiation (MW) was applied. The modified PET fabric was super-hydrophilic. Modifying the fabric caused the water contact angle to decrease from 132.46 (for the unmodified fabric) to 0°, the water absorption rate to increase from 36.45 to 119.78%, and the capillary rise height to increase from 0.4 to 14.4 cm. The hydrophilicity of the modified PET fabric was not affected by washing it many times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that there were sulfonic acid groups on the modified fibers. Almost no difference between the surfaces of the unmodified and modified PET fibers was found using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unmodified and modified fabrics had similar thermostabilities. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline structures of the unmodified and modified fibers showed that they were almost the same. The strength, elasticity, and rigidity of the unmodified fabric were retained by the modified fabric. The modified fabric had better dyeing properties than the unmodified fabric.

  13. Monodispersed biocompatible Ag2S nanoparticles: Facile extracellular bio-fabrication using the gamma-proteobacterium, S. oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Interest in engineered metal and semiconductor nanocrystallites continues to grow due to their unique size and or shape dependent optoelectronic, physicochemical and biological properties. Therefore identifying novel non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes that address hydrophilicity, size and shape control and production costs have become a priority. In the present illustration we report for the first time the efficient generation of extracellular Ag2S nanoparticles by the metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis. The particles are nearly monodispersed with homogeneous shape distributions and are produced under ambient temperatures and pressures at high yield, 85 % theoretical maximum. UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed the formation, optical properties, purity, and crystallinity of the as-synthesized particles. Further characterization revealed that the particles consist of spheres in the size range of 1-22 nm, with an average size of 9 3 nm and are capped by a detachable protein/peptide surface coat. Toxicity assessments of these silver sulfide nanoparticles on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis bacterial systems as well as eukaryotic; mouse lung epithelial (C 10) and macrophage (RAW-264.7) cells showed that the particles were non-inhibitory or non-cytotoxic to both these systems. Our results provide a facile, eco-friendly and economical route for the fabrication of technologically important semiconducting Ag2S nanoparticles which are dispersible and biocompatible; thus providing excellent potential for their uses in optical imaging and electronic devices, and solar cell applications.

  14. Facile Fabrication of 3D Layer-by-layer Graphene-gold Nanorod Hybrid Architecture for Hydrogen Peroxide Based Electrochemical Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Facile fabrication of 3D layer-by-layer graphene-gold nanorod hybrid architecture for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensor Chenming Xue...the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). 1. Introduction Electrochemical biosensors are highly effective in...measurement techniques such as radioisotope tracing, NMR spectroscopy, and microfluorometry assay [12,25,18]. In recent years, electrochemical biosensors

  15. Fabrication of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral films by a facile solution surface dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Ting; Pui, Tzesian; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Lianxi; Liao, Kin

    2011-06-01

    We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly.We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10302d

  16. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material

  17. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. NIOSH field studies team assessment: Worker exposure to aerosolized metal oxide nanoparticles in a semiconductor fabrication facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Sara A; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Eastlake, Adrienne C; Beaucham, Catherine C; Geraci, Charles L

    2016-11-01

    The ubiquitous use of engineered nanomaterials-particulate materials measuring approximately 1-100 nanometers (nm) on their smallest axis, intentionally engineered to express novel properties-in semiconductor fabrication poses unique issues for protecting worker health and safety. Use of new substances or substances in a new form may present hazards that have yet to be characterized for their acute or chronic health effects. Uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards may exist when there is insufficient validated hazard data available to make a decision on potential hazard and risk to exposed workers under condition of use. To advance the knowledge of potential worker exposure to engineered nanomaterials, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted an on-site field evaluation in collaboration with on-site researchers at a semiconductor research and development facility on April 18-21, 2011. The Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (2.0) was used to perform a complete exposure assessment. A combination of filter-based sampling and direct-reading instruments was used to identify, characterize, and quantify the potential for worker inhalation exposure to airborne alumina and amorphous silica nanoparticles associated with th e chemical mechanical planarization wafer polishing process. Engineering controls and work practices were evaluated to characterize tasks that might contribute to potential exposures and to assess existing engineering controls. Metal oxide structures were identified in all sampling areas, as individual nanoparticles and agglomerates ranging in size from 60 nm to >1,000 nm, with varying structure morphology, from long and narrow to compact. Filter-based samples indicated very little aerosolized material in task areas or worker breathing zone. Direct-reading instrument data indicated increased particle counts relative to background in the wastewater treatment area; however

  19. NIOSH Field Studies Team Assessment: Worker Exposure to Aerosolized Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in a Semiconductor Fabrication Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Sara A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Eastlake, Adrienne C.; Beaucham, Catherine C.; Geraci, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of engineered nanomaterials – particulate materials measuring approximately 1–100 nanometers (nm) on their smallest axis, intentionally engineered to express novel properties – in semiconductor fabrication poses unique issues for protecting worker health and safety. Use of new substances or substances in a new form may present hazards that have yet to be characterized for their acute or chronic health effects. Uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards may exist when there is insufficient validated hazard data available to make a decision on potential hazard and risk to exposed workers under condition of use. To advance the knowledge of potential worker exposure to engineered nanomaterials, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted an on-site field evaluation in collaboration with on-site researchers at a semiconductor research and development facility on April 18–21, 2011. The Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (2.0) was used to perform a complete exposure assessment. A combination of filter-based sampling and direct-reading instruments was used to identify, characterize, and quantify the potential for worker inhalation exposure to airborne alumina and amorphous silica nanoparticles associated with the chemical mechanical planarization wafer polishing process. Engineering controls and work practices were evaluated to characterize tasks that might contribute to potential exposures and to assess existing engineering controls. Metal oxide structures were identified in all sampling areas, as individual nanoparticles and agglomerates ranging in size from 60nm to >1,000nm, with varying structure morphology, from long and narrow to compact. Filter-based samples indicated very little aerosolized material in task areas or worker breathing zone. Direct-reading instrument data indicated increased particle counts relative to background in the wastewater treatment area

  20. The final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Hong, S. B.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A decommissioning project for the Korean Research Reactors (KRR-1 and 2) was started in 1997 and had been carried out with the goal of completion being by the end of 2008. All the facilities were dismantled and the building surfaces decontaminated. The radioactive waste was packed into 200 liter drums and 4 m{sup 3} containers and temporarily stored on site until their final disposal at the national repository facility. Some of the releasable waste was freely released and utilized for the non-nuclear industries. The assessment of the residual radioactivity was carried out according to Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual guidance, and accordingly, the safety of the site release was verified. The site and the buildings will be cleared for a reuse for non nuclear purposes after a review of the assessment. In this paper, the final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea including dismantlement processes, waste management and a final assessment for unrestricted use of the site and buildings for the final goal of the decommissioning project that will be described. (Author)

  1. Decommissioning and Closure of the Morsleben Deep Geological Repository - The Final Step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripkens, M.; Biurrun, E.

    2002-02-26

    In Germany, a deep geologic repository for low and intermediate-level waste has been in operation since 1971. This repository, which is located in the territory of former Eastern Germany, became a Federal Facility in the wake of German reunification in 1990. Since then, waste from all of Germany was disposed of until a stop ordered by BfS in 1998. The site is now in the process of being decommissioned and later closed down. This process includes updating the concept for guaranteeing appropriate waste isolation for as long as the waste remains a hazard. During the licensing procedure being currently conducted, in line with German requirements for repository sites, the site operator must provide convincing proof of the facility's long-term safety. Thereafter, implementation of the decommissioning and closure concept will follow. It is estimated that the licensing procedure will take until the year 2006. The decommissioning and closure process itself will require about 10 years. Reliable costs estimates are not yet available. This paper briefly covers the history of the Morsleben radioactive waste repository and provides a draft update on the status of the licensing procedure.

  2. Task 21 - Development of Systems Engineering Applications for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, T.A.

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this task are to: Develop a model (paper) to estimate the cost and waste generation of cleanup within the Environmental Management (EM) complex; Identify technologies applicable to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations within the EM complex; Develop a database of facility information as linked to project baseline summaries (PBSs). The above objectives are carried out through the following four subtasks: Subtask 1--D and D Model Development, Subtask 2--Technology List; Subtask 3--Facility Database, and Subtask 4--Incorporation into a User Model.

  3. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  4. Investigation of the responsibility for decommissioning of the Ranstad plant; Utredning av ansvaret foer Ranstadsverkets avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Haakan; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Froeberg, Magnus [Froeberg och Lundholm Advokatbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The issue of decommissioning, including demolition, of the nuclear facility at the Ranstad plant was raised gradually during 2006-2008. It was then found that it was unclear which company or companies that could be responsible for this decommissioning, economically as well as for the implementation. During this time and until the end of 2009, the concerned authorities, notably Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and SSM, collected a large amount of facts as a basis for assessing liability. This material now needed to be systematized and compiled in order to effectively be utilized in such an assessment. SSM also thought that it would be helpful if an independent party with experience in similar issues could contribute to the interpretation of the legal situation. These were the given conditions of the mission which Kemakta Konsult AB, with the assistance of lawyer Magnus Froeberg, were given by SSM in the autumn of 2009. The results are presented in this final report.

  5. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  6. 2016 Annual Inspection and Radiological Survey Results for the Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site, July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report presents the findings of the annual inspection and radiological survey of the Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site (site). The decommissioned nuclear power demonstration facility was inspected and surveyed on April 15, 2016. The site, located on the east bank of the Great Miami River in Piqua, Ohio, was in fair physical condition. There is no requirement for a follow-up inspection, partly because City of Piqua (City) personnel participated in a March 2016 meeting to address reoccurring safety concerns. Radiological survey results from 104 locations revealed no removable contamination. One direct beta activity reading in a floor drain on the 56-foot level (1674 disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 square centimeters [cm2]) exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). Beta activity has been detected in the past at this floor drain. The reading was well below the action level of 5000 dpm/100 cm2.

  7. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  8. Development of a decommissioning strategy for the MR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylkin, Boris; Gorlinsky, Yury; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vitaly [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna [NUKEM Limited, Dounreay (United Kingdom); Harman, Neil; Jackson, Roger [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lobach, Yury [Inst. for Nuclear Research of NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-03-15

    A description of the selected decommissioning strategy for the research reactor MR at the site of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow is presented. The MR reactor hall is planned to be used as a temporary fuel store for the other research reactors on the site. On the basis of the site-specific conditions and over-all decommissioning goals, it was identified that phased immediate decommissioning is the preferable option. The current status of the reactor, expected final conditions and the sequence of decommissioning works are shown. (orig.)

  9. Six Case Studies on Alternative Construction Methods: One-Step ’Turnkey’ Facility Acquisition and Architectural Fabric Structure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    maintenance building was $102K, and $120K for the general purpose building. The contract was awarded to Silverton Construction Co., El Paso, TX, which...considered as "bids" for the fabric structures. In preparing its bid, Silverton obtained ,bi.e° st..uct.u, price quotes from two manuf-n-curers and chose...concept estimate) versus $37.58 for fabric structures (see Table 3). Construction Documentation Silverton submitted the Roder Building Systems design

  10. Plan for fully decontaminating and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This volume contains the following 3 attachments: (1) Plan for Fully Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontamination and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA; and (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities.

  11. Metal-catalyzed electroless etching of silicon in aerated HF/H2O vapor for facile fabrication of silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya; Peng, Kui-Qing; Qiao, Zhen; Huang, Xing; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Rui-Nan; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by metal corrosion in air, we demonstrate that metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon can be performed simply in aerated HF/H2O vapor for facile fabrication of three-dimensional silicon nanostructures such as silicon nanowires (SiNW) arrays. Compared to MCEE commonly performed in aqueous HF solution, the present pseudo gas phase etching offers exceptional simplicity, flexibility, environmental friendliness, and scalability for the fabrication of three-dimensional silicon nanostructures with considerable depths because of replacement of harsh oxidants such as H2O2 and AgNO3 by environmental-green and ubiquitous oxygen in air, minimum water consumption, and full utilization of HF.

  12. Area-Selective Lift-Off Mechanism Based on Dual-Triggered Interfacial Adhesion Switching: Highly Facile Fabrication of Flexible Nano-Mesh Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seunghee; Han, Hyeuk Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Yim, Soonmin; Sim, Dong Min; Lim, Hunhee; Lee, Jung Hye; Park, Woon Ik; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Kwang Ho; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2017-02-28

    With the recent emergence of flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices, the achievement of sufficient bendability and stretchability of transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) has become an important requirement. Although metal-mesh-based structures have been investigated for TCEs because of their excellent performances, the fabrication of mesh or grid structures with a sub-micron line width is still complex due to the requirements of laborious lithography and pattern transfer steps. Here, we introduce an extremely facile fabrication technique for metal patterns embedded in a flexible substrate based on sub-micron replication and an area-selective delamination (ASD) patterning. The high-yield, area-specific lift-off process is based on the principle of solvent-assisted delamination of deposited metal thin films and a mechanical triggering effect by soft wiping or ultrasonication. Our fabrication process is highly simple, convenient, and cost-effective in that it does not require any lithography/etching steps or sophisticated facilities. Moreover, their outstanding optical and electrical properties (e.g. sheet resistances of 0.43 Ω sq(-1) at 94% transmittance), which are markedly superior to those of other flexible TCEs, are demonstrated. Furthermore, there is no significant change of resistance during over 1,000 repeated bending cycles with a bending radius of 5 mm and for immersing in various solvents such as salt water and organic solvents. Finally, we demonstrate high-performance transparent heaters and flexible touch panels using the fabricated nanomesh electrode, confirming the long-range electrical conduction and reliability of the electrode.

  13. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  14. Application of Robotics in Decommissioning and Decontamination - 12536

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banford, Anthony; Kuo, Jeffrey A. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Bowen, R.A. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Szilagyi, Andrew; Kirk, Paula [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities is a significant challenge worldwide and one which is growing in size as more plants reach the end of their operational lives. The strategy chosen for individual projects varies from the hands-on approach with significant manual intervention using traditional demolition equipment at one extreme to bespoke highly engineered robotic solutions at the other. The degree of manual intervention is limited by the hazards and risks involved, and in some plants are unacceptable. Robotic remote engineering is often viewed as more expensive and less reliable than manual approaches, with significant lead times and capital expenditure. However, advances in robotics and automation in other industries offer potential benefits for future decommissioning activities, with the high probability of reducing worker exposure and other safety risks as well as reducing the schedule and costs required to complete these activities. Some nuclear decommissioning tasks and facility environments are so hazardous that they can only be accomplished by exclusive use of robotic and remote intervention. Less hazardous tasks can be accomplished by manual intervention and the use of PPE. However, PPE greatly decreases worker productivity and still exposes the worker to both risk and dose making remote operation preferable to achieve ALARP. Before remote operations can be widely accepted and deployed, there are some economic and technological challenges that must be addressed. These challenges will require long term investment commitments in order for technology to be: - Specifically developed for nuclear applications; - At a sufficient TRL for practical deployment; - Readily available as a COTS. Tremendous opportunities exist to reduce cost and schedule and improve safety in D and D activities through the use of robotic and/or tele-operated systems. - Increasing the level of remote intervention reduces the risk and dose to an operator. Better

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  16. Optimization of Decommission Strategy for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The life time of offshore wind farm is around 20 years. After that, the whole farm should be decommissioned which is also one of the main factors that contribute to the high investment. In order to make a costeffective wind farm, a novel optimization method for decommission is addressed...

  17. Progress report on decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), is located about 18 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1953 and 1989, the facility, then called the Feed Material Production Center or FMPC, produced uranium metal products used in the eventual production of weapons grade material for use by other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In 1989, FMPC`s production was suspended by the federal government in order to focus resources on environmental restoration versus defense production. In 1992, Fluor Daniel Fernald assumed responsibility for managing all cleanup activities at the FEMP under contract to the DOE. In 1990, as part of the remediation effort, the site was divided into five operable units based on physical proximity of contaminated areas, similar amounts of types of contamination, or the potential for a similar technology to be used in cleanup activities. This report continues the outline of the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the FEMP site Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and provides an update on the status of the decommissioning activities. OU3, the Facilities Closure and Demolition Project, involves the remediation of more than 200 uranium processing facilities. The mission of the project is to remove nuclear materials stored in these buildings, then perform the clean out of the buildings and equipment, and decontaminate and dismantle the facilities.

  18. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  20. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.E. [MPD Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant.

  1. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.E. [MPD Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant.

  2. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Pham, Van; ThanhTung Pham, Xuan; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL-1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.

  3. Facile fabrication of all-solid-state flexible interdigitated MnO2 supercapacitor via in-situ catalytic solution route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiao; Zeng, Zhigang; Guo, Erjuan; Shi, Xiaobo; Zhou, Haijun; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics, the demand for all-solid-state flexible energy storage devices with high performance, long-term cycling stability and bending stability has been aroused. Physical and chemical method for preparing thin-film materials has enabled planar flexible supercapacitors (SCs) to be fabricated for a variety of applications. In this work, we report on the facile fabrication of an all-solid-state flexible interdigitated supercapacitor with a convenient and efficient two-step method. 3-D nanostructured α-MnO2 has been prepared on the surface of interdigitated Pt metal pattern on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate as high-performance electrode material via in-situ catalytic solution route without any assistance of template or surfactant. The SCs are fabricated with PVA/H3PO4 as solid-state electrolyte, which exhibited good electrochemical performance with areal capacitance as much as 20 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1, relatively high energy density (3.6 × 10-7 Wh cm-2-1.9 × 10-6 Wh cm-2) and power density (9 × 10-5 W cm-2-1.6 × 10-4 W cm-2), and excellent long-term cycling stability with capacitance retention of 82.2% (10,000 times charge and discharge), and bending stability with capacitance retention of 89.6%.

  4. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.E. [CH2M Hill International Nuclear Services (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  5. A facile method of fabricating mechanical durable anti-icing coatings based on CeO2 microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengren; Peng, Chaoyi; Wu, Binrui; Yuan, Zhiqing; Yang, Fubiao; Zeng, Jingcheng

    2015-07-01

    Compromising between hydrophobicity and mechanical durability may be a feasible approach to fabricating usable anti-icing coatings. This work improves the contact angle of current commercial anti-icing coatings applied to wind turbine blades dramatically and keeps relatively high mechanical durability. CeO2 microparticles and diluent were mixed with fluorocarbon resin to fabricate high hydrophobic coatings on the glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite substrates. The proportion of CeO2 microparticles and diluent influences the contact angles significantly. The optimum mass ratio of fluorocarbon resin to CeO2 microparticles to diluent is 1:1.5:1, which leads to the highest contact angle close to 140°. The microscopy analysis shows that the CeO2 microparticles form nano/microscale hierarchical structure on the surface of the coatings.

  6. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  7. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  8. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  9. Nonlinear Control of Hydraulic Manipulator for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Lee, Sung-Uk; Kim, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Robot technique is need to decommission nuclear reactor because of high radiation environment. Especially, Manipulator systems are useful for dismantling complex structure in a nuclear facility. In addition, Hydraulic system is applied to handle heavy duty object. Since hydraulic system can demonstrate high power. The manipulator with hydraulic power is already developed. To solve this problem, various nonlinear control method includes acceleration control. But, it is difficult because acceleration value is highly noisy. In this paper, the nonlinear control algorithm without acceleration control is studied. To verify, the hydraulic manipulator model had been developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out. The nonlinear control without acceleration parameter method is developed for hydraulic manipulator. To verify control algorithm, the manipulator is modeled by MBD and the hydraulic servo system is also derived. In addition, the numerical simulation is also carried out. Especially, PID gain is determined though TDC algorithm. In the result of numerical simulation, tracking performance is good without acceleration control. Thus, the PID though TDC with SMC is good for hydraulic manipulator control.

  10. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Shibahara, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); University of Fukui, Fukui-shi, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kagamino-cho, Tomata-gun, Okayama, 708-0698 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  11. A Facile Synthesis of Arylazonicotinates for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics under Microwave Irradiation and Their Biological Activity Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Al-Mousawi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a–e and 9a–c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a–e with active methylene nitriles 3a–d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  12. A facile synthesis of arylazonicotinates for dyeing polyester fabrics under microwave irradiation and their biological activity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M

    2012-09-27

    A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a-e and 9a-c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a-e with active methylene nitriles 3a-d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  13. Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP submarines is not only a problem that appears beyond the lifetime of the small reactor nuclear devices, but the problem involving the entire process of design, construction, running and closure. In the paper, the problem is explored based on the conception and the feasible decommissioning and decontamination means are supplied to choose from.

  14. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  15. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-08

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

  17. Facile fabrication of nanoporous PdFe alloy for nonenzymatic electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wang, Zhihong [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355 (China); Zhao, Dianyun [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Xu, Caixia, E-mail: chm_xucx@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanoporous PdFe alloy, characterized by open three-dimensional bicontinuous nanospongy architecture, was easily fabricated by selectively dealloying PdFeAl source alloys, which exhibits greatly enhanced sensing performance and structure stability towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose compared with NP-Pd and Pd/C catalysts. - Highlights: • NP-PdFe alloy is fabricated by a simple dealloying method. • NP-PdFe possesses open three-dimensional bicontinuous spongy morphology. • NP-PdFe shows high electrochemical sensing activities towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose. • NP-PdFe shows good long-term stability for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose detection. • NP-PdFe shows good reproducibility for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose detection. - Abstract: Nanoporous (NP) PdFe alloy is easily fabricated through one step mild dealloying of PdFeAl ternary source alloy in NaOH solution. Electron microscopy characterization demonstrates that selectively dissolving Al from PdFeAl alloy generates three-dimensional bicontinuous nanospongy architecture with the typical ligament size around 5 nm. Electrochemical measurements show that the NP-PdFe alloy exhibits the superior electrocatalytic activity and durability towards hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection compared with NP-Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts. In addition, NP-PdFe performs high sensing performance towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a wide linear range from 0.5 to 6 mM with a low detection limit of 2.1 μM. This nanoporous structure also can sensitively detect glucose over a wide concentration range (1–32 mM) with a low detection limit of 1.6 μM and high resistance against chloride ions. Along with these attractive features, the as-made NP-PdFe alloy also has a good anti-interference towards ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine.

  18. Facile Fabrication of Large Area Polystyrene Colloidal Crystal Monolayer via Surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-dong; L(U) Zhi-cheng; JI Nan; WANG Chun-xu; ZHAO Bing; ZHANG Jun-hu

    2007-01-01

    A facile and novel method for the production of a large area of well-ordered polystyrene(PS) colloidal crystal monolayer was established using the surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The hydrophobic property(film-forming ability) of PS spheres was improved by a thermo-rheology treatment before LB assembly, and a large film was obtained. In contrast to the traditional LB technique, no surfactant was needed in this method, which could eliminate the additional contamination of surfactants in the preparation process and provided the products with versatile applications in nanosphere lithography(NSL) for biosensor, surface plasmon resonance, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  20. Facile fabrication of transparent, broadband photoresponse, self-cleaning multifunctional graphene-TiO2 hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiayi; Cao, Yang; He, Junhui

    2014-04-15

    We reported a novel approach to fabricate graphene-TiO2 hybrid films by combination of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and the surface sol-gel (SSG) process. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets and films were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, contact angle/interface system, and four-point probe. It was found that the graphene-TiO2 hybrid film showed enhanced photoresponse performance compared with RGO thin film and TiO2 thin film. The photoresponse properties of hybrid films could be manipulated by variation of the cycle numbers of RGO LbL assembly and titanium precursor SSG process. Photoinduced superhydrophility of the hybrid film was shown under broadband light illumination. The obtained transparent, superhydrophilic and conductive graphene-TiO2 hybrid film showed excellent photoresponse, antifogging, and antistatic behaviors.

  1. The Design Fabrication Installation & Evaluation of the Balance Probe Monitor for Large Centrifuges at a National Laboratory Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Jonathan Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Balance Probe Monitors were designed, fabricated, installed, and evaluated at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the 22,600 g kg (50,000 g lb) direct drive electromotor driven large centrifuges. These centrifuges provide a high onset/decay rate g environment. The Balance Probe Monitor is physically located near a centrifuge’s Capacitance Probe, a crucial sensor for the centrifuge’s sustainability. The Balance Probe Monitor will validate operability of the centrifuge. Most importantly, it is used for triggering a kill switch under the condition that the centrifuge displacement value exceeds allowed tolerances. During operational conditions, the Capacitance Probe continuously detects the structural displacement of the centrifuge and an adjoining AccuMeasure 9000 translates this displacement into an output voltage.

  2. Fabrication of uniform DNA-conjugated hydrogel microparticles via replica molding for facile nucleic acid hybridization assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christina L; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lin, Yan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2010-07-01

    We identify and investigate several critical parameters in the fabrication of single-stranded DNA conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles based on replica molding (RM) for highly uniform and robust nucleic acid hybridization assays. The effects of PEG-diacrylate, probe DNA, and photoinitiator concentrations on the overall fluorescence and target DNA penetration depth upon hybridization are examined. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy results illustrate high conjugation capacity of the probe and target DNA, femtomole sensitivity, and sequence specificity. Combined, these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable procedures to manufacture highly uniform and high-capacity hybridization assay particles in a well-controlled manner by exploiting many advantages that the batch processing-based RM technique offers. We envision that the results presented here may be readily applied to rapid and high-throughput hybridization assays for a wide variety of applications in bioprocess monitoring, food safety, and biological threat detection.

  3. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-01

    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  4. Facile and Scalable Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells in Air Using Gas Pump Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Liang, Lusheng; Chu, Qianqian; Song, Xiaoxuan; Li, Yan; Yang, Guanjun; Fan, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chengxin; Li, Changjiu

    2016-08-10

    Control of the perovskite film formation process to produce high-quality organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films with uniform morphology, high surface coverage, and minimum pinholes is of great importance to highly efficient solar cells. Herein, we report on large-area light-absorbing perovskite films fabrication with a new facile and scalable gas pump method. By decreasing the total pressure in the evaporation environment, the gas pump method can significantly enhance the solvent evaporation rate by 8 times faster and thereby produce an extremely dense, uniform, and full-coverage perovskite thin film. The resulting planar perovskite solar cells can achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency up to 19.00% with an average efficiency of 17.38 ± 0.70% for 32 devices with an area of 5 × 2 mm, 13.91% for devices with a large area up to 1.13 cm(2). The perovskite films can be easily fabricated in air conditions with a relative humidity of 45-55%, which definitely has a promising prospect in industrial application of large-area perovskite solar panels.

  5. Facile fabrication of carbon microspheres decorated with B(OH) 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles: superior microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-06-02

    We demonstrate that novel three-dimensional (3D) B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles decorated carbon microspheres (B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMSs) can be fabricated via a facile thermal treatment process. The carbon microspheres with diameter of 1 to 3 μm and decorated B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of several to tens of nanometers are successfully fabricated. These novel 3D B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMS composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption with tunable strong absorption wavebands in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. They have a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -52.69 dB at a thickness of 3.0 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth for RL less than -10 dB is as large as 5.64 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance arises from the synergy of the impedance matching caused by the B(OH)3 nanoparticles, dielectric loss as well as the enhancement of multiple reflection among 3D α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals. These results provide a new strategy to tune electromagnetic properties and enhance the capacity of high-efficient microwave absorbers.

  6. A facile strategy for fabrication of nano-ZnO/yeast composites and their adsorption mechanism towards lead (II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Lingyin [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Mu, Guiqin [Maize Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130 (China); Zhao, Maojun; Zou, Ping [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang, Yunsong, E-mail: yaanyunsong@126.com [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were fabricated by alkali hydrothermal method. • Nano-ZnO was in-situ achieved and anchored on the yeast surface. • Alkali and hydrothermal process cause more exposed funcitional groups on yeast. • Nano-ZnO/yeast composites show higher Pb{sup 2+} adsorption ability than pristine yeast. • Nano-ZnO and exposed functional groups synergistically participate in adsorption. - Abstract: Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were successfully fabricated by one-step alkali hydrothermal method, and their adsorption properties for Pb{sup 2+} ions were also evaluated. Various influencing parameters of nano-ZnO/yeast composites, such as initial pH, contact time and initial Pb{sup 2+} concentration were investigated, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of nano-ZnO/yeast composites for Pb{sup 2+} (31.72 mg g{sup −1}) is 2.03 times higher than that of pristine yeast (15.63 mg g{sup −1}). The adsorption mechanism of nano-ZnO/yeast composites was studied by a series of techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nano-ZnO is evenly deposited on yeast surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis exhibited that the yeast surface is rougher than that of pristine yeast. Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the existence of nano-ZnO on yeast surface. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further illustrated that alkali hydrothermal method causes not only the generation and anchorage of nano-ZnO on yeast surface but also the exposure of more functional groups (such as amino, carboxyl groups etc.) on yeast surface, both of which could adsorb Pb{sup 2+} via synergistic effect.

  7. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise

  8. A Facile Way to Fabricate High-Performance Solution-Processed n-MoS2/p-MoS2 Bilayer Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Li, Xueliang; Zhao, Jianjun; Mei, Xuelan; Li, Qian

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) material has many advantages including high carrier mobilities and conductivity, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and chemical stability, which made 2D material an ideal material for various optoelectronic devices. Here, we developed a facile method of preparing MoS2 nanosheets followed by a facile liquid exfoliation method via ethyl cellulose-assisted doping and utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach to generate t effectively the partially oxided MoS2 (p-MoS2) nanosheets from the pristine n-type nanosheets. Moreover, an n-p junction type MoS2 photodetector device with the built-in potentials to separate the photogenerated charges is able to significantly improved visible light response. We have fabricated photodetector devices consisting of a vertically stacked indium tin oxide (ITO)/pristine n-type MoS2 nanosheets/p-MoS2/Ag structure, which exhibit reasonably good performance illumination, as well as high current values in the range of visible wavelength from 350 to 600 nm. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for photoelectric response properties of emerging atomically layered 2D materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  9. Facile fabrication of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalysts with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiaomin; Huang, Guanbo [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Haihuan [Tianjin Fourth Middle School, Tianjin 300021 (China); Pan, Cheng; Wang, Huan [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yan, Jing, E-mail: yanjingls2012@163.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yu [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qiu, Haixia [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, Ning [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Jianping [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by combining a hydrothermal technique and a facile in situ growth method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra. Their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degrading methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that when the mass percentage of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} in Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} was 7.95 wt%, the as-prepared Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO. The highly improved performance of the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} nanocomposite was mainly ascribed to the efficient charge separation. - Highlights: • Facile fabrication of novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/SnS{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalysts. • High-performance photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants. • Good recyclability of catalyst without photo-corrosion. • The photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  10. Facile fabrication of chitosan-calcium carbonate nanowall arrays and their use as a sensitive non-enzymatic organophosphate pesticide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingming; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-08-01

    Novel nanowall arrays of CaCO3-chitosan (CaCO3-chi) were deposited onto a cathodic substrate by a facile one-step electrodeposition approach. Results demonstrate that chitosan plays an important role in the formation of nanowall arrays. Freestanding well-aligned CaCO3-chi nanowall arrays were observed to be uniformly distributed over the whole substrate with a lateral dimension in the micrometre size and an average pore size of ~400 nm. The as-formed CaCO3-chi nanowall arrays featuring interlaced porous network architecture, large surface area, and open boundaries, are highly efficient in the capture of organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Combined with stripping voltammetry, a highly sensitive non-enzymatic OPs sensor was fabricated using the prepared CaCO3-chi nanowall arrays for solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection limit for methyl parathion (MP) in aqueous solutions was determined to be 0.8 ng mL-1 (S/N = 3). The resulting sensor made of novel CaCO3-chi nanowall arrays exhibits good reproducibility and acceptable stability. This work not only provides a facile and effective route for the preparation of CaCO3-chi nanowall arrays, but also offers a new promising protocol for OPs analysis.

  11. BCD: a wiki-based decommissioning knowledge management tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, V.; Coudouneau, L.; Goursaud, V. [CEA Marcoule (DEN/MAR/DPAD/SECAD), 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge management allows decommissioning stakeholders to take advantage of past experience (in terms of efficiency, quality, safety, cost, etc.), avoid repeating previous errors, and identify good ideas and practices. It is usually broken down into three processes: collecting information, supplementing and enriching it, and making it available to all decommissioning stakeholders. The CEA has been collecting and centralizing data for many years: the first qualitative assessment of operational experience began in 1991. However, the documents collected were not always relevant for this assessment and, for lack of enrichment and distribution, were generally not used to a significant extent. In order to take advantage of the existing and future body of knowledge and to share this knowledge among decommissioning stakeholders, the CEA decommissioning review unit decided to develop an intranet site known as BCD (from the French acronym for Central Decommissioning Database) using the same wiki technology as the collaborative web encyclopedia, Wikipedia. The objective of BCD is to develop a decommissioning encyclopedia comprising definitions and terminology, the regulatory framework, the lessons of experience with technical or contractual projects, guidelines, statements of results, etc. This article describes BCD and its potential, together with the results observed to date and its prospects for future development. (authors)

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  13. Facile Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Rod-Capped Nanopore Films with Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Wenjing; Luo, Yuting; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-08-26

    We report that aluminum surfaces can be endowed with condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) function by one-step voltage-rising mild anodization in hot phosphoric acid solution followed by fluorosilane modification. Via regulating reaction parameters, we can achieve anodic alumina self-standing rod-capped nanopore films and minimize their solid-liquid interface adhesion. Such low-adhesive nanostructured film owns remarkable CMDSP function, especially to condensate microdrops with sizes below 50 μm, differing from usual gravity-driven dropwise condensation on flat aluminum surfaces. Clearly, this work offers a facile, efficient, and industry-compatible approach to processing CMDSP aluminum materials, which is significant for developing innovative energy-saving air-conditioner heat exchangers.

  14. Facile fabrication of large-scale stable superhydrophobic surfaces with carbon sphere films by burning rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; He, Jinmei; Cao, Biyun

    2010-10-01

    Stable anti-corrosive superhydrophobic surfaces were successfully prepared with the carbon nanosphere films by means of depositing the soot of burning rapeseed oil. The method is extremely cheap, facile, time-saving and avoided any of the special equipments, special reagents and complex process control. The method is suitable for the large-scale preparation of superhydrophobic surface and the substrate can be easily changed. The as-prepared surfaces showed stable superhydrophobicity and anti-corrosive property even in many corrosive solutions, such as acidic or basic solutions over a wide pH range. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surface was carefully characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope to confirm the synergistic binary geometric structures at micro- and nanometer scale. This result will open a new avenue in the superhydrophobic paint research with these easily obtained carbon nanospheres in the near future.

  15. A generic and facile strategy to fabricate metal-organic framework films on TiO2 substrates for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huimin; Fei, Honghan

    2017-02-28

    We present a facile and compelling method for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films on TiO2-coated conductive glass substrates. This generic deposition approach is extended to five representative MOF films (e.g. UiO, MIL, IRMOF, and NU series) with high crystallinity and excellent surface coverage, achieving a MOF/TiO2 heterostructure interface. The tunable thickness and functionality of MOF films as well as the preferred orientation of MOF microcrystallites are described. After the incorporation of [Ru(bpy)3](2+) functionality via postsynthetic ligand exchange, the resultant MOF films serve as a robust and efficient catalyst for photo-oxidation of thioanisole. Importantly, our deposition technique avoids the direct contact between solid MOF catalysts and magnetic stirring, thus overcoming the problem that the vast majority of MOF powder catalysts are subject to defragmentation or decomposition under the physical treatment methods.

  16. A facile strategy for fabrication of nano-ZnO/yeast composites and their adsorption mechanism towards lead (II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Lingyin; Mu, Guiqin; Zhao, Maojun; Zou, Ping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2016-08-01

    Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were successfully fabricated by one-step alkali hydrothermal method, and their adsorption properties for Pb2+ ions were also evaluated. Various influencing parameters of nano-ZnO/yeast composites, such as initial pH, contact time and initial Pb2+ concentration were investigated, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of nano-ZnO/yeast composites for Pb2+ (31.72 mg g-1) is 2.03 times higher than that of pristine yeast (15.63 mg g-1). The adsorption mechanism of nano-ZnO/yeast composites was studied by a series of techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nano-ZnO is evenly deposited on yeast surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis exhibited that the yeast surface is rougher than that of pristine yeast. Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the existence of nano-ZnO on yeast surface. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further illustrated that alkali hydrothermal method causes not only the generation and anchorage of nano-ZnO on yeast surface but also the exposure of more functional groups (such as amino, carboxyl groups etc.) on yeast surface, both of which could adsorb Pb2+ via synergistic effect.

  17. Facile fabrication of n-ZnO nanorods/p-Cu2O heterojunction and its photodiode property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathalingam, A.; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hui Joon

    2017-04-01

    This report presents the fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO nanorods/p-Cu2O hetrojunction photo-diode. The ZnO nanorods (NRs) were deposited onto electrodeposited Cu2O thin film by hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO NRs and Cu2O films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. XRD patterns revealed that the as-grown films were highly crystalline nature with strong predominant orientation of (111) and (002) lattices corresponding to Cu2O and ZnO NRs, respectively. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of n-ZnONRs/p-Cu2O structure confirmed the formation of heterojunction exhibiting diode-like rectifying nature. It showed enhanced conversion of UV light, which indicates the suitability of the simple and low-cost n-ZnO NRs/p-Cu2O heterojunction device for optoelectronic applications. The sandwich type ITO/n-ZnO NRs/p-Cu2O/ITO structure is quite novel approach for the efficient and complete collection of carriers in nanorods incorporated devices.

  18. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  19. A facile method for the fabrication of a superhydrophobic polydopamine-coated copper foam for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Guangji; Wang, Liying; Chen, Zhifeng; Lin, Yinlei

    2017-08-01

    A simple dip-coating method was explored to construct hierarchical structures on a 3D copper foam (CF) surface by combining the intrinsic properties of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) and a 3D metal structure. The CF substrate was sequentially modified with PDA and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and then coupled with n-dodecyl mercaptan (NDM) to create a durable superhydrophobic CF for oil/water separation. The morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated modified CF surface were characterized. The modified CF surface possesses an increased roughness and exhibits superhydrophobicity, with water contact angle values greater than 150°. The PDA coating on the CF surface can reduce silver ions and anchor the formed NPs onto the surface to construct the hierarchical structure of the superhydrophobic CF. Furthermore, the oil/water separation properties were also investigated. The modified CF can separate a series of oil/water mixtures with a high efficiency and relatively high intrusion pressure. More importantly, the modified CF retains its high efficiency after 30 repeated uses (more than 98% for a dodecane/water mixture), exhibiting excellent durability. The mechanism of oil/water separation is also discussed. The results of this study indicate that the modified CF can serve as a promising candidate for the large-scale separation of oily pollutants from water.

  20. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weihong; Rigout, Muriel; Owens, Huw

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation.