WorldWideScience

Sample records for fabrication costs relative

  1. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  2. Low-cost EUV collector development: design, process, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Ranju D.; Goldstein, Michael; Engelhaupt, Darell; Lee, Sang H.; Panning, Eric M.

    2007-03-01

    Cost of ownership (COO) is an area of concern that may limit the adoption and usage of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). One of the key optical components that contribute to the COO budget is the collector. The collectors being fabricated today are based on existing x-ray optic design and fabrication processes. The main contributors to collector COO are fabrication cost and lifetime. We present experimental data and optical modeling to demonstrate a roadmap for optimized efficiency and a possible approach for significant reduction in collector COO. Current state of the art collectors are based on a Wolter type-1 design and have been adapted from x-ray telescopes. It uses a long format that is suitable for imaging distant light sources such as stars. As applied to industrial equipment and very bright nearby sources, however, a Wolter collector tends to be expensive and requires significant debris shielding and integrated cooling solutions due to the source proximity and length of the collector shells. Three collector concepts are discussed in this work. The elliptical collector that has been used as a test bed to demonstrate alternative cost effective fabrication method has been optimized for collection efficiency. However, this fabrication method can be applied to other optical designs as well. The number of shells and their design may be modified to increase the collection efficiency and to accommodate different EUV sources The fabrication process used in this work starts with a glass mandrel, which is elliptical on the inside. A seed layer is coated on the inside of the glass mandrel, which is then followed by electroplating nickel. The inside/exposed surface of the electroformed nickel is then polished to meet the figure and finish requirements for the particular shell and finally coated with Ru or a multilayer film depending on the angle of incidence of EUV light. Finally the collector shell is released from the inside surface of the mandrel. There are

  3. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. An optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production is to be developed, and increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis demonstrated. An excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon.

  4. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2009-11-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4" diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties.

  5. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-07-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  6. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  7. STUDY ON RANGE OF FABRIC COST PERCENTAGE AGAINST FOB PRICE OF KNIT GARMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Imranul Islam; Lal Mohan Baral

    2011-01-01

    The price offered for the garments is called garments cost. Cost of a garment is depending on its style and materials used. If the style is so complicated like having pockets, fancy seams, lining & trims, decorative stitches etc the cost will be high. On the other hand, if garments are made from only basic fabric their cost willbe low. The prime factor of costing is fabric cost because it occupies maximum portion of garments price. Here, it has been observed that 52%- 55% of garments price is...

  8. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  9. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  10. Fabrication of low cost composite tooling for filament winding large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy S.; Fortin, Christopher J.

    A TQM/concurrent engineering approach has been used to create a low cost filament-winding mandrel for large launch-vehicle structure fabrication. The process involves the fabrication of a low cost/low temperature master model, followed by the building of the mandrel and its backup structure within the master. Mandrels fabricated by these means are able to maintain full vacuum integrity and dimensional stability throughout high-temperature cure cycles; the reduced thermal mass of the mandrel results in part-cure cycles that are shorter than those associated with conventional mandrel materials.

  11. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  12. Low cost fabrication development for oxide dispersion strengthened alloy vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bailey, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    Viable processes were developed for secondary working of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys to near-net shapes (NNS) for aircraft turbine vanes. These processes were shown capable of producing required microstructure and properties for vane applications. Material cost savings of 40 to 50% are projected for the NNS process over the current procedures which involve machining from rectangular bar. Additional machining cost savings are projected. Of three secondary working processes evaluated, directional forging and plate bending were determined to be viable NNS processes for ODS vanes. Directional forging was deemed most applicable to high pressure turbine (HPT) vanes with their large thickness variations while plate bending was determined to be most cost effective for low pressure turbine (LPT) vanes because of their limited thickness variations. Since the F101 LPT vane was selected for study in this program, development of plate bending was carried through to establishment of a preliminary process. Preparation of ODS alloy plate for bending was found to be a straight forward process using currently available bar stock, providing that the capability for reheating between roll passes is available. Advanced ODS-NiCrAl and ODS-FeCrAl alloys were utilized on this program. Workability of all alloys was adequate for directional forging and plate bending, but only the ODS-FeCrAl had adequate workability for shaped preform extrustion.

  13. Simple and low-cost fabrication of a metal nanoplug on various substrates by electroless deposition*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Kaifang; Yang Fuhua; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Xiaodong; Zhang Jiayong; Ma Huili; Chen Xiaogang; Liu Bo; Song Zhitang; Feng Songlin

    2011-01-01

    An electroless deposition (ELD) method is introduced to fabricate a metal nanoplug for its advantages of simplicity, low cost and auto-selectivity. It was demonstrated that nanoplugs of less than 50 nm in diameter can be fabricated by ELD nickel on various substrates, such as silicon, tungsten and titanium nitride. The main composition of the ELD nanoplug was characterized as nickel by an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. A functional vertical phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) device with a heater diameter of around 9μm was fabricated by using the ELD method. The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics demonstrated that the threshold current is only 90.8 μA. This showed that the ELD process can satisfy the demands of PCRAM device application, as well as device performance improvement. The ELD process provides a promising method for the simple and low-cost fabrication of metal nanoplugs.

  14. Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Low-cost Cu flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) are fabricated by facile nanosecond laser ablation. The fabricated Cu FTCEs show excellent opto-electrical properties (transmittance: 83%, sheet resistance: 17.48 Ω sq-1) with outstanding mechanical durability. Successful demonstration of a touch-screen panel confirms the potential applicability of Cu FTCEs to the flexible optoelectronic devices.

  15. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Yong He; Guang-huai Xue; Jian-zhong Fu

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used ...

  16. Biomedical microfluidic devices by using low-cost fabrication techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Vera; Catarino, Susana O; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça

    2016-07-26

    One of the most popular methods to fabricate biomedical microfluidic devices is by using a soft-lithography technique. However, the fabrication of the moulds to produce microfluidic devices, such as SU-8 moulds, usually requires a cleanroom environment that can be quite costly. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop low-cost alternatives for the fabrication of microstructures, avoiding the use of cleanroom facilities. Recently, low-cost techniques without cleanroom facilities that feature aspect ratios more than 20, for fabricating those SU-8 moulds have been gaining popularity among biomedical research community. In those techniques, Ultraviolet (UV) exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry, replaces the more expensive and less available Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Alternatively, non-lithographic low-cost techniques, due to their ability for large-scale production, have increased the interest of the industrial and research community to develop simple, rapid and low-cost microfluidic structures. These alternative techniques include Print and Peel methods (PAP), laserjet, solid ink, cutting plotters or micromilling, that use equipment available in almost all laboratories and offices. An example is the xurography technique that uses a cutting plotter machine and adhesive vinyl films to generate the master moulds to fabricate microfluidic channels. In this review, we present a selection of the most recent lithographic and non-lithographic low-cost techniques to fabricate microfluidic structures, focused on the features and limitations of each technique. Only microfabrication methods that do not require the use of cleanrooms are considered. Additionally, potential applications of these microfluidic devices in biomedical engineering are presented with some illustrative examples.

  17. Micro-Thermoelectric Generation Modules Fabricated with Low-Cost Mechanical Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Jin, A. J.; Peng, Wenbo; Li, Qiming; Gao, Hu; Zhu, Lianjun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2017-05-01

    Micro/small-scale thermoelectric generation modules are able to produce continuous, noise-free and reliable electricity power using low temperature differences that widely exist in nature or industry. These advantages bring them great application prospects in the fields of remote monitoring, microelectronics/micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), medical apparatus and smart management system, which often require a power source free of maintenance and vibration. In this work, a prototypical thermoelectric module (12 mm × 12 mm × 0.8 mm) with 15 pairs of micro-scale thermoelectric legs (0.2 mm in width and 0.6 mm in height for each leg) is fabricated using a low-cost mechanical machining process. In this process, cutting and polishing are the main methods for the preparation of thermoelectric pairs from commercial polycrystalline materials and for the fabrication of electrode patterns. The as-fabricated module is tested for its power generation properties with the hot side heated by an electrical heater and the cold side by cold air. With the heater temperature of 375 K, the thermoelectric potential is about 9.1 mV, the short circuit current is about 14.5 mA, and the maximum output power is about 32.8 μW. The finite element method is applied to analyze the heat transfer of the module during our test. The temperature difference and heat flux are simulated, according to which the output powers at different temperatures are calculated, and the result is relatively consistent compared to the test results.

  18. Micro-Thermoelectric Generation Modules Fabricated with Low-Cost Mechanical Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Jin, A. J.; Peng, Wenbo; Li, Qiming; Gao, Hu; Zhu, Lianjun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2016-11-01

    Micro/small-scale thermoelectric generation modules are able to produce continuous, noise-free and reliable electricity power using low temperature differences that widely exist in nature or industry. These advantages bring them great application prospects in the fields of remote monitoring, microelectronics/micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), medical apparatus and smart management system, which often require a power source free of maintenance and vibration. In this work, a prototypical thermoelectric module (12 mm × 12 mm × 0.8 mm) with 15 pairs of micro-scale thermoelectric legs (0.2 mm in width and 0.6 mm in height for each leg) is fabricated using a low-cost mechanical machining process. In this process, cutting and polishing are the main methods for the preparation of thermoelectric pairs from commercial polycrystalline materials and for the fabrication of electrode patterns. The as-fabricated module is tested for its power generation properties with the hot side heated by an electrical heater and the cold side by cold air. With the heater temperature of 375 K, the thermoelectric potential is about 9.1 mV, the short circuit current is about 14.5 mA, and the maximum output power is about 32.8 μW. The finite element method is applied to analyze the heat transfer of the module during our test. The temperature difference and heat flux are simulated, according to which the output powers at different temperatures are calculated, and the result is relatively consistent compared to the test results.

  19. The effect of fabric structural parameters and fiber type on the comfort-related properties of commercial apparel fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoffberg, ME

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available using a Permetest. The effects of the various fabric parameters on the comfort-related properties were determined and quantified using multiple regression analyses and best fit regression equations. It was found that the fabric parameters, mass...

  20. A fail–safe and cost effective fabrication route for blanket First Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commin, L., E-mail: lorelei.commin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Zimmermann, H.; Bolich, D.; Baumgärtner, S.; Ziegler, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dichiser, S.; Fabry, T.; Fischer, S.; Hildebrand, W.; Palussek, O.; Ritz, H.; Sponda, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Technische Infrastruktur und Dienste (TID), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concepts have been selected as European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. The TBM fabrication will need the assembly of six Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel sub-components, namely First Wall, Caps, Stiffening Grid, Breeding Units, Back Plates/Manifolds, and Attachment system. The fabrication of the First Wall requires the production of cooling channels inside 30 mm thick bended plates. For this specific component, the main issues consist of the lack of accessibility of some areas to join, the process tolerances, the dimensional stability and the resulting assembly mechanical properties. Several fabrication routes have been already investigated, which involve diffusion welding and fusion welding (electron beam, laser beam, hybrid MIG/laser). In this study, an alternative processing method was developed, based on Hot Isostatic Pressing of inner pipes within two half-shells. This method presents some major advantages over the existing ones, in particular its inherent fail–safe design due to the application of the double containment principle, the solely use of cost effective standard fabrication processes and the resulting component dimensional stability. A four channel mock-up was fabricated and analyzed to validate the fabrication procedure. The joint quality was assessed using microstructural characterization and Charpy tests. The results confirm the predicted perfect weld lines as well as the preservation of the mechanical properties. Therefore, the presented fabrication procedure is very appropriate for the fabrication of First Walls for fusion reactor blankets.

  1. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-11-27

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  2. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-Huai; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  3. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  4. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  5. Polymer Microfluidics: Simple, Low-Cost Fabrication Process Bridging Academic Lab Research to Commercialized Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wen Tsao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using polymer materials to fabricate microfluidic devices provides simple, cost effective, and disposal advantages for both lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices and micro total analysis systems (μTAS. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer and thermoplastics are the two major polymer materials used in microfluidics. The fabrication of PDMS and thermoplastic microfluidic device can be categorized as front-end polymer microchannel fabrication and post-end microfluidic bonding procedures, respectively. PDMS and thermoplastic materials each have unique advantages and their use is indispensable in polymer microfluidics. Therefore, the proper selection of polymer microfabrication is necessary for the successful application of microfluidics. In this paper, we give a short overview of polymer microfabrication methods for microfluidics and discuss current challenges and future opportunities for research in polymer microfluidics fabrication. We summarize standard approaches, as well as state-of-art polymer microfluidic fabrication methods. Currently, the polymer microfluidic device is at the stage of technology transition from research labs to commercial production. Thus, critical consideration is also required with respect to the commercialization aspects of fabricating polymer microfluidics. This article provides easy-to-understand illustrations and targets to assist the research community in selecting proper polymer microfabrication strategies in microfluidics.

  6. Fabrication of low-cost, cementless femoral stem 316L stainless steel using investment casting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Suhasril, Andril Arafat; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Omar, Mohd Afian; Abd Kader, Ab Saman; Mohd Noor, Alias; A Harris, Arief Ruhullah; Abdul Majid, Norazman

    2014-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a flourishing orthopedic surgery, generating billions of dollars of revenue. The cost associated with the fabrication of implants has been increasing year by year, and this phenomenon has burdened the patient with extra charges. Consequently, this study will focus on designing an accurate implant via implementing the reverse engineering of three-dimensional morphological study based on a particular population. By using finite element analysis, this study will assist to predict the outcome and could become a useful tool for preclinical testing of newly designed implants. A prototype is then fabricated using 316L stainless steel by applying investment casting techniques that reduce manufacturing cost without jeopardizing implant quality. The finite element analysis showed that the maximum von Mises stress was 66.88 MPa proximally with a safety factor of 2.39 against endosteal fracture, and micromotion was 4.73 μm, which promotes osseointegration. This method offers a fabrication process of cementless femoral stems with lower cost, subsequently helping patients, particularly those from nondeveloped countries.

  7. A RELATIVE STUDY ON COST ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Jayapratha; M. Muthamizharasan

    2017-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation is one of the most important part in software development. It involves in estimating the effort and cost in terms of money to complete the software development. Software Cost Estimation is very important when lines of code for the particular project exceeds certain limit, also when the software deployed with too many bugs and uncovered requirements the project will go incomplete. Software cost estimation of a project plays a vital role in acceptance or rejection of it...

  8. Fabrication of thermally stable and cost-effective polymeric waveguide for optical printed-circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Ahn, Seung Ho; Cho, In-Kui; Im, Dong-Min; Shorab Muslim, Shirazy Md; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2008-10-13

    A thermally stable polymeric optical waveguide has been fabricated using ultraviolet (UV)-curable epoxy resins for the core and clad materials. A simple and cost-effective fabrication method that uses reusable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) masters has been developed. The 12-channel under-clad layer of the UV-cured epoxy was prepared using a PDMS master whose embossed channels had been fabricated by a polycarbonate (PC) secondary master. The thermal stability of the fabricated waveguide was tested at 200 degrees C for one hour. The optical waveguide was not damaged physically by thermal stress. Propagation losses detected by a cut-back method were 0.16 dB/cm and 0.26 dB/cm, respectively, before and after the thermal stability test at 850 nm. Loss increase after the thermal treatment can be attributed to the formation of the absorbing and scattering sources. This waveguide can be applied for areas that require thermal stability such as an optical printed-circuit board.

  9. 76 FR 68040 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... careful review of public comments, discussed below, DoD, GSA, and NASA have concluded that the proposed... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General....205-21, the cost principle addressing labor relations costs. Currently, this cost principle states...

  10. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  11. Optimized SU-8 Processing for Low-Cost Microstructures Fabrication without Cleanroom Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia C. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study and optimization of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8 microstructures through a low-cost process and without the need for cleanroom facility is presented in this paper. It is demonstrated that the Ultraviolet Rays (UV exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB industry, can replace the more expensive and less available equipment, as the Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Moreover, high transparency masks, printed in a photomask, are used, instead of expensive chromium masks. The fabrication of well-defined SU-8 microstructures with aspect ratios more than 20 is successfully demonstrated with those facilities. The viability of using the gray-scale technology in the photomasks for the fabrication of 3D microstructures is also reported. Moreover, SU-8 microstructures for different applications are shown throughout the paper.

  12. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  13. A low-cost fabrication method for sub-millimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is designed and simulated. Effect of Schottky layer thickness on cut-off frequency is studied. A novel microfabrication process is proposed and implemented. The presented microfabrication process avoids electron-beam (e-beam) lithography which reduces the cost. Also, this process provides more flexibility in selection of design parameters and allows significant reduction in the device parasitic capacitance. A key feature of the process is that the Schottky contact, the air-bridges, and the transmission lines, are fabricated in a single lift-off step. This process relies on a planarization method that is suitable for trenches of 1–10 μm deep and is tolerant to end-point variations. The fabricated diode is measured and results are compared with simulations. A very good agreement between simulation and measurement results are observed.

  14. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  16. Low-Cost Fabrication of Hollow Microneedle Arrays Using CNC Machining and UV Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Ta, B.Q.; Le The, H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to produce disposable microneedles for blood-collection devices in smart homecare monitoring systems, we have developed a simple low-cost scalable process for mass fabrication of sharp-tipped microneedle arrays. The key feature in this process is a design of computer numerical control......-machined aluminum sample (CAS). The inclined sidewalls on the CAS enable microfabricated traditional-shaped microneedles (TMNs) to be produced in the desired shape. This process provides significant advantages over other methods that use inclined lithography or anisotropic wet etching. TMNs with a length of 1510 mu...

  17. Low-Cost Fabrication of Printed Electronics Devices through Continuous Wave Laser-Induced Forward Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopeña, Pol; Arrese, Javier; González-Torres, Sergio; Fernández-Pradas, Juan Marcos; Cirera, Albert; Serra, Pere

    2017-09-06

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct-writing technique that allows printing inks from a liquid film in a similar way to inkjet printing but with fewer limitations concerning ink viscosity and loading particle size. In this work, we prove that liquid inks can be printed through LIFT by using continuous wave (CW) instead of pulsed lasers, which allows a substantial reduction in the cost of the printing system. Through the fabrication of a functional circuit on both rigid and flexible substrates (plastic and paper), we provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates the versatility of the technique for printed electronics applications.

  18. Rethinking the costs related to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekins, P. (Birkbeck Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-01

    The economic analysis of global warming seeks to balance the costs of damage from or adaptation to it with the costs of mitigating it. The costs of adaptation and damage have been estimated using techniques of environmental evaluation, but are subject to a wide margin of uncertainty. The costs of mitigation, principally by reducing the emissions of CO[sub 2], have been estimated using different kinds of economic models, some of the results of which have suggested that very little abatement of carbon emissions is justified before the costs of abatement exceed the benefits of it in terms of foregone damage and adaptation costs. The paper analyses the extent to which this conclusion is a function of the modelling assumptions and techniques used, rather than likely practical outcomes. It concludes that, with different and arguably more appropriate treatment of the issues, especially when the secondary benefits of reducing CO[sub 2] emissions are also taken into account, it is not clear that even substantial reductions in the use of fossil fuels will incur net costs, especially if there is the prospect of even moderate costs from global warming. (Author)

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  20. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  1. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  2. Low cost, p-ZnO/n-Si, rectifying, nano heterojunction diode: Fabrication and electrical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Vinay; Aamir, Lubna; Malik, M M

    2014-01-01

    A low cost, highly rectifying, nano heterojunction (p-ZnO/n-Si) diode was fabricated using solution-processed, p-type, ZnO nanoparticles and an n-type Si substrate. p-type ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical synthesis route and characterized by XRD and a Hall effect measurement system. The device was fabricated by forming thin film of synthesized p-ZnO nanoparticles on an n-Si substrate using a dip coating technique. The device was then characterized by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The effect of UV illumination on the I-V characteristics was also explored and indicated the formation of a highly rectifying, nano heterojunction with a rectification ratio of 101 at 3 V, which increased nearly 2.5 times (232 at 3 V) under UV illumination. However, the cut-in voltage decreases from 1.5 V to 0.9 V under UV illumination. The fabricated device could be used in switches, rectifiers, clipper and clamper circuits, BJTs, MOSFETs and other electronic circuitry.

  3. Facile and cost-effective fabrication of patternable superhydrophobic surfaces via salt dissolution assisted etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Yoo, Jaewon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely low wettability have attracted attention globally along with their remarkable characteristics such as anti-icing, anti-sticking, and self-cleaning. In this study, a facile and cost-effective approach of fabricating patternable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can be applied on various substrates (including large area and 3D curvilinear substrates), is proposed with a salt-dissolution-assisted etching process. This novel proposal is environmentally benign (entirely water-based and fluorine-free process). The only required ingredients to realize superhydrophobic surfaces are commercially available salt particles, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and water. No expensive equipment or complex process control is needed. The fabricated superhydrophobic surface shows high static contact angle (∼151°) and a low sliding angle (∼6°), which correspond to the standards of superhydrophobicity. This surface also shows corrosive liquids (acid/alkali)-resistant characteristics. Moreover, the self-cleaning ability of the fabricated surfaces is explored. As a proof-of-concept application of the present approach, the spatially controllable superhydrophobic patterns on flat/curvilinear substrates are directly drawn with a minimum feature size of 500 μm without the use of expensive tooling, dies, or lithographic masks.

  4. Low cost, p-ZnO/n-Si, rectifying, nano heterojunction diode: Fabrication and electrical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kabra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, highly rectifying, nano heterojunction (p-ZnO/n-Si diode was fabricated using solution-processed, p-type, ZnO nanoparticles and an n-type Si substrate. p-type ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical synthesis route and characterized by XRD and a Hall effect measurement system. The device was fabricated by forming thin film of synthesized p-ZnO nanoparticles on an n-Si substrate using a dip coating technique. The device was then characterized by current–voltage (I–V and capacitance–voltage (C–V measurements. The effect of UV illumination on the I–V characteristics was also explored and indicated the formation of a highly rectifying, nano heterojunction with a rectification ratio of 101 at 3 V, which increased nearly 2.5 times (232 at 3 V under UV illumination. However, the cut-in voltage decreases from 1.5 V to 0.9 V under UV illumination. The fabricated device could be used in switches, rectifiers, clipper and clamper circuits, BJTs, MOSFETs and other electronic circuitry.

  5. Fabrication and performance analysis of a low cost parabolic type solar cooker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Farhana Nasrin; Islam, Muhammed Kamrul; Begum, Nurun Nahar

    2017-06-01

    Developing countries depend mostly on natural fuel sources such as wood fuel, fossil fuel (kerosene and liquid petroleum gas) etc. for cooking purpose. However, these are expensive and also lead to the threads like deforestation as well as environmental degradation. An alternative renewable energy source like solar energy can contribute a solution towards the adverse crisis of fuel consumption along with environmental pollution of developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to design and fabricate a cost effective solar cooker for domestic purposes as well as performance analysis in order to evaluate its effectiveness. The cooker has been made of cardboard, tin, aluminum foil (polished and non-polished) and glass. Simple construction with reflectors surrounded by tin was fabricated with 1000ml load of water in the cooker hanging by a stand and observed that the best comparative performance in areas with longest durations of clear sky greatest direct ray falling on the collector cookers under moderate cloudy conditions. By applying better techniques for construction of solar cooker with low maintenance through testing and graphing the result, increasing of temperature with minimum cost for cooking purpose was outcome with portable cooker. In this analysis, analytical and experimental values varied due to fickle weather, however, maximum temperature variation was found 36 degree Celsius with efficiency 8.8% in the cooker made of aluminum foil (non-polished).

  6. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  7. Low-cost fabrication of high efficiency solid-state neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Woei; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Weltz, Adam; English, Erik; Hella, Mona M.; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-05-01

    The development of high-efficiency solid state thermal neutron detectors at low cost is critical for a wide range of civilian and defense applications. The use of present neutron detector system for personal radiation detection is limited by the cost, size, weight and power requirements. Chip scale solid state neutron detectors based on silicon technology would provide significant benefits in terms of cost, volume, and allow for wafer level integration with charge preamplifiers and readout electronics. In this paper, anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers was used to replace deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to produce microstructured neutron detectors with lower cost and compatibility with mass production. Deep trenches were etched by 30 wt% KOH at 85°C with a highest etch ratio of (110) to (111). A trench-microstructure thermal neutron detector described by the aforementioned processes was fabricated and characterized. The detector—which has a continuous p+-n junction diode—was filled with enriched boron (99% of 10B) as a neutron converter material. The device showed a leakage current of ~ 6.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -1V and thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~16.3%. The detector uses custom built charge pre-amplifier, a shaping amplifier, and an analogto- digital converter (ADC) for data acquisition.

  8. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  9. Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.S. Azzam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanoclay composites were fabricated using the synthesized poly 6-(3-aminophenoxy hexane-1-thiol, poly 8-(3-aminophenoxy octane-1-thiol and poly 10-(3-aminophenoxy decane-1-thiol surfactants with gold nanoparticles. The polymeric thiol surfactants were first assembled on gold nanoparticles and then impregnated into the clay matrix. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Transmission microscope (TEM were used to characterize the fabricated nanoclay composites. The results showed that the polymeric thiol surfactants assembled on gold nanoparticles are located in the interlayer space of the clay mineral and affected the clay structure.

  10. Relative value units and cost analysis, Part 3 of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn P; Anderson, Jeffery R

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in relative value unit (RVU) cost analysis has been on the rise. Why all the excitement? RVU cost analysis places the knowledge, and therefore the power, in the hands of the administrator to negotiate revenues, analyze expenditures, and control costs. Cost analysis at the per (relative)-unit level allows for procedure profitability (or loss) analysis, setting internal fee schedules based on costs, contract negotiation based on RVU cost and utilization, equitable provider compensation packages based on productivity and overhead coverage, and tracking ancillary and referral utilization risks. In short, RVU cost accounting uses the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) instead of stopwatches and clipboards when measuring clinical costs and activity.

  11. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of 82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  12. Low Cost Fabrication of Silicon Carbide Based Ceramics and Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Levine, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A low cost processing technique called reaction forming for the fabrication of near-net and complex shaped components of silicon carbide based ceramics and composites is presented. This process consists of the production of a microporous carbon preform and subsequent infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The microporous preforms are made by the pyrolysis of a polymerized resin mixture with very good control of pore volume and pore size thereby yielding materials with tailorable microstructure and composition. Mechanical properties (elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness) of reaction-formed silicon carbide ceramics are presented. This processing approach is suitable for various kinds of reinforcements such as whiskers, particulates, fibers (tows, weaves, and filaments), and 3-D architectures. This approach has also been used to fabricate continuous silicon carbide fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC's) with silicon carbide based matrices. Strong and tough composites with tailorable matrix microstructure and composition have been obtained. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties of a silicon carbide (SCS-6) fiber reinforced reaction-formed silicon carbide matrix composites are discussed.

  13. Fabrication of Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Cell by a Cost-Effective Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyayini, K. N.; Ramasesha, Sheela K.

    2015-09-01

    Semi-transparent inorganic thin film PV cells have been fabricated using n-type (CdS) and p-type (CdTe) semiconductors. Large area devices which can be used as windows and skylights in buildings can be fabricated using cost effective solution processes. The device structure is Glass/TCO/CdTe/CdS/TCO. Chemically stable CdS and CdTe layers are deposited at temperatures 353 K to 373 K (80 °C to 100 °C) under controlled pH. The CdCl2 activation is carried out followed by air annealing. The p-n junction is formed by sintering the device at 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C). The characterization of cells is carried out using XRD, SEM, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The thickness of the cell is ~600 nm. The band gap values are 2.40 eV for CdS and 1.36 eV for CdTe with transmittance of about 70 pct in the visible region. Under 1.5 AM solar spectrum, V oc, and I sc of the initial device are 3.56e-01 V and 6.20e-04 A, respectively.

  14. 'Fab-chips': a versatile, fabric-based platform for low-cost, rapid and multiplexed diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Paridhi; Narahari, Tanya; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2011-08-07

    Low cost and scalable manufacture of lab-on-chip devices for applications such as point-of-care testing is an urgent need. Weaving is presented as a unified, scalable and low-cost platform for the manufacture of fabric chips that can be used to perform such testing. Silk yarns with different properties are first selected, treated with the appropriate reagent solutions, dried and handloom-woven in one step into an integrated fabric chip. This platform has the unique advantage of scaling up production using existing and low cost physical infrastructure. We have demonstrated the ability to create pre-defined flow paths in fabric by using wetting and non-wetting silk yarns and a Jacquard attachment in the loom. Further, we show that yarn parameters such as the yarn twist frequency and weaving coverage area may be conveniently used to tune both the wicking rate and the absorptive capacity of the fabric. Yarns optimized for their final function were used to create an integrated fabric chip containing reagent-coated yarns. Strips of this fabric were then used to perform a proof-of-concept immunoassay with sample flow taking place by capillary action and detection being performed by a visual readout.

  15. Silicon carbide high performance optics: a cost-effective, flexible fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, John M.; Rashed, Abuagela; Plummer, Ronald; Bray, Don; Gates, Rob L.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Ferber, Matt K.; Kirkland, Tim

    2001-12-01

    Silicon carbide may well be the best known material for the manufacture of high performance optical components. This material offers many advantages over glasses and metals that have historically been used in high performance optical systems. A combination of extremely high specific stiffness (E/r), high thermal conductivity and outstanding dimensional stability make silicon carbide superior overall to beryllium and low-expansion glass ceramics. A major impediment to wide use of silicon carbide in optical systems has been the cost associated with preliminary shaping and final finishing of silicon carbide. Because silicon carbide is an extremely hard and strong material, precision machining can only be done with expensive diamond tooling on very stiff high quality machine tools. Near-net-shape slip casting of silicon carbide can greatly reduce the cost of silicon carbide mirror substrates but this process still requires significant diamond grinding of the cast components. The process described here begins by machining the component from all special type of graphite. This graphite can rapidly be machined with conventional multi-axis CNC machine tools to achieve any level of complexity and lightweighting required. The graphite is then directly converted completely to silicon carbide with very small and very predictable dimensional change. After conversion to silicon carbide the optical surface is coated with very fine grain CVD silicon carbide which is easily polished to extreme smoothness. Details of the fabrication process are described and photos and performance specifications of an eight-inch elliptical demonstration mirror are provided.

  16. A Rapid and Low-Cost Nonlithographic Method to Fabricate Biomedical Microdevices for Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role in recent developments of lab-on-chip devices for blood sampling and analysis. The most popular and traditional method to fabricate these types of devices is the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS soft lithography technique, which requires molds, usually produced by photolithography. Although the research results are extremely encouraging, the high costs and time involved in the production of molds by photolithography is currently slowing down the development cycle of these types of devices. Here we present a simple, rapid, and low-cost nonlithographic technique to create microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to perform cell free layer (CFL measurements and the formation of microbubbles in continuous blood flow.

  17. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  18. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  19. 42 CFR 413.9 - Cost related to patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost related to patient care. 413.9 Section 413.9... Rules § 413.9 Cost related to patient care. (a) Principle. All payments to providers of services must be... in developing and maintaining the operation of patient care facilities and activities. They...

  20. Design and evaluation of low-cost laminated wood composite blades for intermediate size wind turbines: Blade design, fabrication concept, and cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, S.; Gaugeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zueck, M.

    1982-11-01

    As part of a program to reduce wind turbine costs, an evaluation was conducted of a laminated wood composite blade for the Mod-OA 200 kW wind turbine. The effort included the design and fabrication concept for the blade, together with cost and load analyses. The blade structure is composed of laminated Douglas fir veneers for the primary spar and nose sections, and honeycomb cored plywood panels for the trailing edges sections. The attachment of the wood blade to the rotor hub was through load takeoff studs bonded into the blade root. Tests were conducted on specimens of the key structural components to verify the feasibility of the concept. It is concluded that the proposed wood composite blade design and fabrication concept is suitable for Mod-OA size turbines (125-ft diameter rotor) at a cost that is very competitive with other methods of manufacture.

  1. Low-cost technology for the integration of micro- and nanochips into fluidic systems on printed circuit board: fabrication challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios-Aguilera, N.B.; Bastemeijer, J.; Mollinger, J.R.; Bossche, A.; Mokkapati, V.R.S.S.; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, micro- and nanochips are usually fabricated with Silicon and/or glass. A simple, low-cost and reliable integration packaging method that provides flexibility to the incorporation of electronic and fluidic devices into a system has not been fully developed yet. The use of Printed Circuit

  2. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  3. Reprint of 'Draw your assay: Fabrication of low-cost paper-based diagnostic and multi-well test zones by drawing on a paper'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola-Reynoso, Stephanie; Heim, Andrew P; Halbertsma-Black, Julian; Zhao, C; Tevis, Ian D; Çınar, Simge; Cademartiri, Rebecca; Liu, Xinyu; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Thuo, Martin M

    2015-12-01

    Interest in low-cost diagnostic devices has recently gained attention, in part due to the rising cost of healthcare and the need to serve populations in resource-limited settings. A major challenge in the development of such devices is the need for hydrophobic barriers to contain polar bio-fluid analytes. Key approaches in lowering the cost in diagnostics have centered on (i) development of low-cost fabrication techniques/processes, (ii) use of affordable materials, or, (iii) minimizing the need for high-tech tools. This communication describes a simple, low-cost, adaptable, and portable method for patterning paper and subsequent use of the patterned paper in diagnostic tests. Our approach generates hydrophobic regions using a ball-point pen filled with a hydrophobizing molecule suspended in a solvent carrier. An empty ball-point pen was filled with a solution of trichloro perfluoroalkyl silane in hexanes (or hexadecane), and the pen used to draw lines on Whatman® chromatography 1 paper. The drawn regions defined the test zones since the trichloro silane reacts with the paper to give a hydrophobic barrier. The formation of the hydrophobic barriers is reaction kinetic and diffusion-limited, ensuring well defined narrow barriers. We performed colorimetric glucose assays and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the created test zones. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, we fabricated multiple devices on a single piece of paper and demonstrated the reproducibility of assays on these devices. The overall cost of devices fabricated by drawing are relatively lower (

  4. Draw your assay: Fabrication of low-cost paper-based diagnostic and multi-well test zones by drawing on a paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola-Reynoso, Stephanie; Heim, Andrew P; Halbertsma-Black, Julian; Zhao, C; Tevis, Ian D; Çınar, Simge; Cademartiri, Rebecca; Liu, Xinyu; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Thuo, Martin M

    2015-11-01

    Interest in low-cost diagnostic devices has recently gained attention, in part due to the rising cost of healthcare and the need to serve populations in resource-limited settings. A major challenge in the development of such devices is the need for hydrophobic barriers to contain polar bio-fluid analytes. Key approaches in lowering the cost in diagnostics have centered on (i) development of low-cost fabrication techniques/processes, (ii) use of affordable materials, or, (iii) minimizing the need for high-tech tools. This communication describes a simple, low-cost, adaptable, and portable method for patterning paper and subsequent use of the patterned paper in diagnostic tests. Our approach generates hydrophobic regions using a ball-point pen filled with a hydrophobizing molecule suspended in a solvent carrier. An empty ball-point pen was filled with a solution of trichloro perfluoroalkyl silane in hexanes (or hexadecane), and the pen used to draw lines on Whatman® chromatography 1 paper. The drawn regions defined the test zones since the trichloro silane reacts with the paper to give a hydrophobic barrier. The formation of the hydrophobic barriers is reaction kinetic and diffusion-limited, ensuring well defined narrow barriers. We performed colorimetric glucose assays and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the created test zones. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, we fabricated multiple devices on a single piece of paper and demonstrated the reproducibility of assays on these devices. The overall cost of devices fabricated by drawing are relatively lower (

  5. Is the societal approach wide enough to include relatives? Incorporating relatives' costs and effects in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Thomas; Levin, Lars-Ake

    2010-01-01

    It is important for economic evaluations in healthcare to cover all relevant information. However, many existing evaluations fall short of this goal, as they fail to include all the costs and effects for the relatives of a disabled or sick individual. The objective of this study was to analyse how relatives' costs and effects could be measured, valued and incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis. In this article, we discuss the theories underlying cost-effectiveness analyses in the healthcare arena; the general conclusion is that it is hard to find theoretical arguments for excluding relatives' costs and effects if a societal perspective is used. We argue that the cost of informal care should be calculated according to the opportunity cost method. To capture relatives' effects, we construct a new term, the R-QALY weight, which is defined as the effect on relatives' QALY weight of being related to a disabled or sick individual. We examine methods for measuring, valuing and incorporating the R-QALY weights. One suggested method is to estimate R-QALYs and incorporate them together with the patient's QALY in the analysis. However, there is no well established method as yet that can create R-QALY weights. One difficulty with measuring R-QALY weights using existing instruments is that these instruments are rarely focused on relative-related aspects. Even if generic quality-of-life instruments do cover some aspects relevant to relatives and caregivers, they may miss important aspects and potential altruistic preferences. A further development and validation of the existing caregiving instruments used for eliciting utility weights would therefore be beneficial for this area, as would further studies on the use of time trade-off or Standard Gamble methods for valuing R-QALY weights. Another potential method is to use the contingent valuation method to find a monetary value for all the relatives' costs and effects. Because cost-effectiveness analyses are used for

  6. Fabrication of highly active and cost effective SERS plasmonic substrates by electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a DVD template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leordean, Cosmin; Marta, Bogdan; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Focsan, Monica; Botiz, Ioan; Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Simple and cost effective electrophoretic method to fabricate plasmonic substrates. • SERS performance at three different excitation laser lines. • Promising applicability in SERS based biosensing. - Abstract: In this work we present a simple, rapid and cost effective method to fabricate highly active SERS substrates. This method consists in an electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a metallic nanostructured template of a commercial digital versatile disk (DVD). The negatively charged gold nanoparticles self-assemble on the positively charged DVD metallic film connected to a positive terminal of a battery, due to the influence of the electric field. When gold nanoparticles self-assembled on DVD metallic film, a 10-fold additional enhancement of Raman signal was observed when compared with the case of GNPs self-assembled on a polycarbonate DVD substrate only. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated that the additional electromagnetic field arising in the hot-spots created between gold nanoparticles and DVD metallic film induces an additional enhancement of the Raman signal. SERS efficiency of the fabricated plasmonic substrate was successfully demonstrated through detection of para-aminothiophenol molecule with three different excitation laser lines (532, 633 and 785 nm). The enhancement factor was calculated to be 10{sup 6} and indicates that plasmonic substrates fabricated through this method could be a promising platform for future SERS based sensors.

  7. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Novel Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors and Its Cost-Effective Alternative Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sumei; Jiang Lan; Li Benye; Zhao Longjiang; Yang Jinpeng; Wang Mengmeng; Xiao Hai; Lu Yongfeng; Hai-Lung Tasi

    2011-01-01

    The recent progresses of fiber sensor fabrication in our group are reviewed. Novel inline fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensors with various structures are proposed and manufactured by femtosecond laser fabrication and fusion splicing for high-quality sensing of refractivity-sensitive parameters such as temperature, concentration, humidity, pressure, stress and strain., a) for an MZI sensor with a trench on a single-mode fiber, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of acetone vapor is about 10 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the temperature sensitivity is 51.5 pm/℃ from 200 to 875℃ ; b) For an MZI consisting of two micro-air-cavities, the sensitivity is501.5 nm/RIU and the detection limit is 1. 994 × 10 RIU at the refractive index of 1.4; c) to reduce the fabrication cost, a new fusion-splicing based method is proposed to fabricate MZI sensors; the sensitivity is 664.57 nm/RIU witha detection limit of 1.5 x 10 RIU and its cost is tens of times cheaper than those of commercialized long period fiber Gratings; Also, 5×10 acetone vapors are successfully detected by the MZI sensors coated with zeolite thin films.

  8. High-Performance Flexible Transparent Electrode with an Embedded Metal Mesh Fabricated by Cost-Effective Solution Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; Lee, Sangeon; Jang, Taehee; Xiong, Ze; Zhang, Cuiping; Tang, Jinyao; Guo, L Jay; Li, Wen-Di

    2016-06-01

    A new structure of flexible transparent electrodes is reported, featuring a metal mesh fully embedded and mechanically anchored in a flexible substrate, and a cost-effective solution-based fabrication strategy for this new transparent electrode. The embedded nature of the metal-mesh electrodes provides a series of advantages, including surface smoothness that is crucial for device fabrication, mechanical stability under high bending stress, strong adhesion to the substrate with excellent flexibility, and favorable resistance against moisture, oxygen, and chemicals. The novel fabrication process replaces vacuum-based metal deposition with an electrodeposition process and is potentially suitable for high-throughput, large-volume, and low-cost production. In particular, this strategy enables fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio (thickness to linewidth) metal mesh, substantially improving conductivity without considerably sacrificing transparency. Various prototype flexible transparent electrodes are demonstrated with transmittance higher than 90% and sheet resistance below 1 ohm sq(-1) , as well as extremely high figures of merit up to 1.5 × 10(4) , which are among the highest reported values in recent studies. Finally using our embedded metal-mesh electrode, a flexible transparent thin-film heater is demonstrated with a low power density requirement, rapid response time, and a low operating voltage.

  9. Fabrication and performance of a tubular ceria based oxygen transport membrane on a low cost MgO support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Søgaard, Martin; Clemens, F.;

    2015-01-01

    A 30 μm thin-film tubular CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ) membrane with catalytic layers on both sides has been prepared by dip-coating on a low cost, porous magnesium oxide (MgO) support. The MgO support was fabricated through a thermoplastic extrusion process. Support, thin membrane and catalytic layers...

  10. Design and fabrication of a low cost Darrieus vertical axis wing turbine system. Phase I. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-06-22

    The contract has two phases, a design phase and a fabrication and installation phase. Presented is the work completed in Phase I, the design phase. The Sandia 17 m was used as the background machine from which design information was drawn. By concentrating the modifications on an existing design, emphasis was focused on component cost reduction rather than selection of optimal configuration or operating modes. The resulting design is a stretched version of the Sandia 17 m preserving the same rotor diameter and many other good features, but in the meantime lighter in weight, larger in capacity, and anticipated to be more cost effective.

  11. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  12. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structures produced through novel low-cost stamp fabrication and hot embossing of thermoplastic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hee; Han, Sol Yi; Kim, Kwang; Kim, Wook Bae [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Dong [SNDENG Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We present a simple and cost-effective method to produce super hydrophobic surfaces in thermoplastic polymer substrates, which contain hierarchical micro/nano structures that resemble lotus leaves. The method involved the fabrication of an Al stamp through the sequential application of laser ablation and anodization to create micro- and nano-structures, respectively. The fabricated patterns on the Al stamp were replicated on the thermoplastic Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film surfaces through a hot embossing technique. Static water contact angles were measured to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the patterned COC surfaces. The static water contact angle on the micro/nano hierarchical structured COC surface was measured to be 162.3 .deg. on average. The hot embossing process was repeated 31 times with a nano-structured Al stamp, and the replicated COC surfaces showed consistent water contact angles.

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of boron nanowires at relatively low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale crystalline boron nanowires (BNWs) were synthesized by a simple chemical vapor deposition method on Au-coated Si substrates using two kinds of innoxious and inexpensive reactant materials as the precursor at relatively low temperature (≤1000°C).The morphology and structural properties of samples were characterized by SEM,TEM,SAED,and XPS analytic instruments.The BNWs have lengths of several tens of micrometers with diameters of 80-150 nm.SAED and HRTEM analytic results testified that BNWs were single crystal core with a thin oxide sheath.By comparison of the BNW samples synthesized at difference temperatures,we conclude that BNWs have lower growth rate at 950°C,whilst the suitable growth rate can be gained at 1000°C.This result shows that BNWs can be synthesized via one step CVD process at 1000°C,and overly high growth temperature (≥1200°C) is probably unnecessary.

  15. Novel CdTe Cell Fabrication Process with Potential for Low Cost and High Throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Sheldon, P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several production disadvantages inherent in the conventional SnO(2)/CdS/CdTe manufacturing processes. In this paper, we report a novel manufacturing process for fabrication of polycrystalline Cd(2)SnO(4)/Zn(2)/SnO(4)/CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells that yielded a CdS/CdTe device with an NREL-confirmed efficiency of 14.0%.

  16. FABRICATION OF POROUS ALUMINA CERAMICS WITH CORN STARCH IN AN EASY AND LOW-COST WAY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Porous alumina ceramics with different porosity were fabricated by combining the starch consolidation process with the gel-casting process using corn starch as a pore-forming agent and a binder. The bulk density, porosity, and microstructure of the obtained alumina ceramics were studied. It was found that the total porosity range of sintered samples with contents varying from 0 to 50 vol. % is 14.8 - 55.3 % and the total porosity increased with the increase of starch content. Moreove...

  17. Novel low cost fabrication of microneedle arrays for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei Ying J.; Xu, Yuan; Chew, Yong T.; Li, Zongli; Kong, Yen P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports a process used for the microfabrication of an array of hollow microneedles. The purpose of the array is for painless transdermal drug delivery. The fabrication process uses wet bulk silicon technology and copper electroplating technology. First, a microneedle array mold on -oriented silicon was fabricated by wet anisotropic etching using KOH solution, then the silicon mold was electroplated with copper. After which, the hollow copper microneedle array was released by a lift-off process or by etching off the silicon mold in KOH solution. The hollow copper microneedle array has been mounted on a polycarbonate platform, which consist of laser ablated cavities and channel for external connection to drug source. In consideration of the contour of human"s skin and the geometry of the microneedle tip, which has walls of sloping gradient corresponding to the (111)-planes, the height of the microneedle array is 200 μm. Two arrays of hollow copper microneedle were fabricated. They have square base of dimensions 390 μm and 400 μm and square tips of size 100 μm and 120 μm with square holes of size 88 μm and 94 μm respectively. Both arrays have microneedle tips at 1900 μm apart from one another and consist of 10 × 10 microneedle tips.

  18. Fabrication of Solid State Nanopore in Thin Silicon Membrane Using Low Cost Multistep Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shuja Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanopore-based analysis is currently an area of great interest in many disciplines with the potential for exceptionally versatile applications in medicine. This work presents a novel step towards fabrication of a single solid-state nanopore (SSSN in a thin silicon membrane. Silicon nanopores are realized using multistep processes on both sides of n-type silicon-on-insulator (SOI <100> wafer with resistivity 1–4 Ω·cm. An electrochemical HF etch with low current density (0.47 mA/cm2 is employed to produce SSSN. Blue LED is considered to emit light in a narrow band region which facilitates the etching procedure in a unilateral direction. This helps in production of straight nanopores in n-type Si. Additionally, a variety of pore diameters are demonstrated using different HF concentrations. Atomic force microscopy is used to demonstrate the surface morphology of the fabricated pores in non-contact mode. Pore edges exhibit a pronounced rounded shape and can offer high stability to fluidic artificial lipid bilayer to study membrane proteins. Electrochemically-fabricated SSSN has excellent smoothness and potential applications in diagnostics and pharmaceutical research on transmembrane proteins and label free detection.

  19. Gated Silicon Drift Detector Fabricated from a Low-Cost Silicon Wafer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Matsuura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive high-resolution silicon (Si X-ray detectors are required for on-site surveys of traces of hazardous elements in food and soil by measuring the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. Gated silicon drift detectors (GSDDs are much cheaper to fabricate than commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs. However, previous GSDDs were fabricated from \\(10\\-k\\(\\Omega \\cdot\\cm Si wafers, which are more expensive than \\(2\\-k\\(\\Omega \\cdot\\cm Si wafers used in commercial SDDs. To fabricate cheaper portable X-ray fluorescence instruments, we investigate GSDDs formed from \\(2\\-k\\(\\Omega \\cdot\\cm Si wafers. The thicknesses of commercial SDDs are up to \\(0.5\\ mm, which can detect photons with energies up to \\(27\\ keV, whereas we describe GSDDs that can detect photons with energies of up to \\(35\\ keV. We simulate the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with Si thicknesses of \\(0.5\\ and \\(1\\ mm at a single high reverse bias. GSDDs with one gate pattern using any resistivity Si wafer can work well for changing the reverse bias that is inversely proportional to the resistivity of the Si wafer.

  20. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Qikai [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Xinfa [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Zhiwen [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); Dong, Yingchao, E-mail: ycdong@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Coal gangue was recycled to fabricate low-cost porous mullite membrane supports. • A unique volume-expansion occurred due to a mullitization-crystal-growth process. • A porous structure consists of glassy particles and embedded mullite crystals. - Abstract: Porous mullite ceramic supports for filtration membrane were successfully fabricated via recycling of coal gangue and bauxite at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1500 °C with corn starch as pore-forming agent. The dynamic sintering behaviors, phase evolution, shrinkage, porosity and pore size, gas permeation flux, microstructure and mechanical property were systematically studied. A unique volume-expansion stage was observed at increased temperatures from 1276 to 1481 °C caused by a mullitization-crystal-growth process. During this stage, open porosity increases and pore size distributions broaden, which result in a maximum of nitrogen gas flux at 1400 °C. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that secondary mullitization took place from 1100 °C and the major phase is mullite with a content of ∼84.7 wt.% at 1400 °C. SEM images show that the as-fabricated mullite supports have a porous microstructure composed of sintered glassy particles embedded with inter-locked mullite crystals, which grew gradually with increasing temperature from rod-like into blocky-like morphologies. To obtain mullite membrane supports with sufficient porosity and acceptable mechanical strength, the relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated, which was fitted using a parabolic equation.

  1. Low-cost MCM-D fabrication and assembly from MIDAS: the multichip module interconnect designer's access service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Jennifer; Hansford, Wes

    1997-06-01

    The MCM Designers' Access Service (MIDAS) allows designers to obtain prototype and small quantities of MCMs. To date the service has processed designs from industry, government and major universities. The service currently accesses processes at the following MCM-D foundries: nChip/Flextronics in San Jose, CA; Micromodule Systems in Cupertino, CA; and IBM Microelectronics in Hopewell Junction, NY. MIDAS provides a low cost service achieved through a multiproject environment where the customers share tooling and substrate manufacturing costs. The service offers design support, distributes foundry design kits, groups the projects onto regularly scheduled runs, places orders and supplies fully assembled modules. As well, MIDAS offers a limited selection of open tooled, second-level packages, bare tested die, and test sockets to aid with the design process. Often when investigating implementation of MCMs into a working system designers need a prototype. In many cases a foundry prefers to handle only high volume orders or imposes minimum purchase quantities. These may likely exceed the entire project budget. MIDAS functions as a technology enabler by supplying the designers with an interface `transparent' to the fabricator and common to multiple vendors. Foundries prefer to work with a single source who coordinates the details of multiple orders to spare valuable overhead. By completing front-end foundry tasks such as data preparation and mask fabrication and by grouping multiple users together on a run, MIDAS serves this purpose. Certain design conditions such as footprint size and I/O ring, layer stacking and number of layers exist to establish uniformity amongst the unrelated customers. This paper discusses the history of the service, the operating guidelines and presents an overview of how to access the service for MCM fabrication.

  2. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Phys. Lett. 99, 143703 (2011) Bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on capillary origami: Fabrication and device characterization Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 144102 (2011) Three-dimensional cellular focusing utilizing a combination of insulator.... Nano- fluid. 3, 1, (2007). 7P. K. Yuen, Lab Chip 8, 1374 (2008). 8S. M. Langelier, E. Livak-Dahl, A. J. Manzo, B. N. Johnson, N. G. Walter, and M. A.Burns, Lab Chip 11, 1679 (2011). 9K. A. Shaikh, K. S. Ryu, E. D. Goluch, J.-M. Nam, J. Liu, C. Shad...

  3. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  4. Low cost fabrication of polymer composite (h-ZnO + PDMS) material for piezoelectric device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Das, Sonatan; Bharathkumar, Mareddi; Revanth, D.; Karthik, ARB; Sudhakara Sastry, Bala; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible piezoelectric composites offer alternative and/or additional solutions to sensor, actuator and transducer applications. Here in this work, we have successfully fabricated highly flexible piezoelectric composites with poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) using herbal zinc oxide (h-ZnO) as filler having weight fractions up to 50 wt.% by solution casting of dispersions of h-ZnO in PDMS. Excellent piezo properties (Resonant frequency 935 Hz, d*33 29.76 pm V-1), physiochemical properties (Wurtzite structure ZnO, 380 nm absorbance) and mechanical properties (Young modulus 16.9 MPa) have been optimized with theoretical simulations and observed experimentally for h-ZnO + PDMS. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS membranes combined with the excellent properties of these composites open new ways to ‘soft touch’ applications and could serve as a variety of soft and sensitive electromechanical transducers, which are desired for a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications.

  5. Protection of New York City Urban Fabric With Low-Cost Textile Storm Surge Barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Textile storm surge barriers, sited at multiple locations, are literally extensions of the city world famous urban fabric - another manifestation of the dominance of the City over local Nature. Textile Storm Surge Barriers (TSSB) are intended to preserve the City from North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes that cause sea waves impacting the densely populated and high-value real estate, instigating catastrophic, and possibly long-term, infrastructure and monetary losses. Complicating TSSB installation macroproject planning is the presence of the Hudson and other rivers, several small tidal straits, future climate change and other factors. We conclude that TSSB installations made of homogeneous construction materials are worthwhile investigating because they may be less expensive to build, and more easily replaced following any failure, than concrete and steel storm surge barriers, which are also made of homogeneous materials. We suppose the best macroproject outcome will develop in the perfect Macro-engineering plann...

  6. Fabrication of spray-printed organic non-volatile memory devices for low cost electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, An-Na [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101 Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Yongsung [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101 Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-A [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101 Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Duckjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Young [Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, 26 Pil-dong, 3-Ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seok-In [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sukang; Lee, Sanghyun [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101 Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook, E-mail: twkim@kist.re.kr [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101 Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PS:PCBM-based organic non-volatile memory devices was fabricated using spray printing. • The thickness of the film was controlled by adjusting the concentration of the PS:PCBM solutions. • The roughness of spray-printed films was poorer than that of the spin-coated film. • The minimum thickness of the printed film influenced the memory behavior more than the surface roughness. • The spray printed PS:PCBM showed excellent unipolar switching, reliability, retention, and endurance characteristics. - Abstract: We fabricated polystyrene (PS) and 6-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) based organic non-volatile memory devices using a spray printing technique. Due to the distinct operational properties of this technique, significant differences were observed in the macro- and microscopic features (e.g., the film quality and surface roughness) of the devices. The thickness of the film was successfully controlled by adjusting the concentration of the PS:PCBM solutions sprayed. Although the roughness of the spray-printed films was poorer than that of the spin-coated film, negligible differences were observed in the basic memory characteristics (e.g., the operation voltage range, turn on and off voltage, retention and endurance). In particular, the printing-based organic memory devices were successfully switched, as exhibited by the on/off ratio greater than two orders of magnitude at 0.3 V read voltage. The resistance state of all of the devices was maintained for more than 10{sup 4} s, indicating their non-volatile characteristics.

  7. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  8. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  9. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  10. Comparative study on structural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by three different low-cost techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)], E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.com; Philominathan, P. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Highly crystalline and transparent cadmium sulphide films were fabricated at relatively low temperature by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer (generally used for cosmetics). The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the films were studied and compared with that prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis using air as carrier gas and chemical bath deposition. The films deposited by the simplified spray have preferred orientation along (1 0 1) plane. The lattice parameters were calculated as a = 4.138 A and c = 6.718 A which are well agreed with that obtained from the other two techniques and also with the standard data. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap were found as 85% and 2.43 eV, respectively. The structural and optical properties of the films fabricated by the simplified spray are found to be desirable for opto-electronic applications.

  11. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring.

  12. Study to investigate design, fabrication and test of low cost concepts for large hybrid composite helicopter fuselage, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K. M.; Lucas, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a frame/stringer/skin fabrication technique for composite airframe construction was studied as a low cost approach to the manufacturer of larger helicopter airframe components. A center cabin aluminum airframe section of the Sikorsky CH-53D, was selected for evaluation as a composite structure. The design, as developed, is composed of a woven KEVLAR R-49/epoxy skin and graphite/epoxy frames and stringers. The single cure concept is made possible by the utilization of pre-molded foam cores, over which the graphite/epoxy pre-impregnated frame and stringer reinforcements are positioned. Bolted composite channel sections were selected as the optimum joint construction. The applicability of the single cure concept to larger realistic curved airframe sections, and the durability of the composite structure in a realistic spectrum fatigue environment, was described.

  13. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  14. Simple, rapid and, cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) as photoresist master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Gabriel, Ellen F M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo A; de Souza, Fabrício R; Lopes, Wanderson D; Lima, Renato S; Gobbi, Angelo L; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a simple, rapid, and cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion as photoresist master. High-relief microfluidic structures were defined on poly(vinyl acetate) previously deposited on printed circuit boards surfaces without cleanroom facilities and sophisticated instrumentation. After a UV exposure, channels with heights ranging from 30 to 140 μm were obtained by controlling the emulsion mass deposited on the master surface. The developing stage was performed using water rather than the organic solvents that are applied for conventional masks. The surface morphology was characterized by optical imaging, profilometry, and SEM. Based on the achieved results, the proposed method offers suitable reproducibility for the prototyping of electrophoresis microchips in PDMS. The feasibility of the resulting PDMS electrophoresis chips was successfully demonstrated with the separation of major inorganic cations within 100 s using a contactless conductivity detection system. The separation efficiencies ranged from ca. 67 900 to 125 600 plates/m. Due to the satisfactory performance and simplified instrumentation, we believe this fabrication protocol presents potential to be implemented in any chemical, biochemical, or biological laboratory.

  15. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Dinesh [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)]. E-mail: dm_1967@hotmail.com; Singh, Kunwar P. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Singh, Vinod K. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2006-07-31

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 deg. C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 deg. C: ATFAC-10.97 mg/g, ACF-36.05 mg/g; 40 deg. C: ATFAC-16.10 mg/g, ACF-40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.

  16. Low-cost fabrication of highly sensitive room temperature hydrogen sensor based on ordered mesoporous Co-doped TiO2 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Haidry, Azhar Ali; Wang, Tao; Yao, Zheng Jun

    2017-07-01

    The development of cost-effective gas sensors with improved sensing properties and minimum power consumption for room temperature hydrogen leakage monitoring is in increasing demand. In this context, this report focus on the facile fabrication of ordered mesoporous TiO2 via evaporation-induced self-assembly route. With the controlled doping threshold (3%Co-TiO2), the output resistance change to 1000 ppm H2 is ˜4.1 × 103 with the response time of 66 s. The sensor response exhibits power law dependence with an increase in the hydrogen concentration, where the power law coefficient was found not only specific to the kind of target gas but also related to temperature. Further, the effect of structure integrity with doping level and humidity on sensing characteristics is interpreted in terms of variation in surface potential eVS and depletion region w caused by the adsorption of molecular oxygen O2-.

  17. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  18. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of microvalve arrays in PDMS using laser cut molds with application to C. elegans manipulation in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, R.; Thacker, C. M.; Maricq, A. V.; Gale, B. K.

    2014-09-01

    We present a new fabrication protocol for fabricating pneumatically controlled microvalve arrays (consisting of 100 s of microvalves) in PDMS substrates. The protocol utilizes rapid and cost-effective fabrication of molds using laser cutting of adhesive vinyl tapes and replica molding of PDMS. Hence the protocol is fast, simple and avoids cleanroom use. The results show that effective doormat-style microvalves can be easily fabricated in arrays by manipulating the stiffness of the actuating membrane through varying the valve-chamber area/shape. Three frequently used valve-chamber shapes (circle, square and capsule) were tested and all showed advantages in different situations. Circular valve chambers were best for small valves, square valves were best for medium-sized valves, and the capsule valves were best for larger valves. An application of this protocol has been demonstrated in the fabrication of a microfluidic 32-well plate for high-throughput manipulation of C. elegans for biomedical research.

  19. Cost-Effective Fabrication of Self-Made 1×12 Polymer Optical Fiber-Based Optical Splitters for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multimode fiber cables can conduct many light rays and can operate free of disruption and with a greater bandwidth than a wireless connection. However, due to a slight variation in the speed of the light rays through the multimode fiber, a signal transmitted by all of these rays becomes spread out. Consequently, the signals become broader and therefore fewer signals fit in the fiber, limiting the transmission capacity. These demands grow almost daily. Hence new ways of splitting methods must be found to satisfy all application demands, especially related to automotive application. Approach: Home-made 1×12 optical splitter based on polymer optical fiber material base is one of the most innovative technologies on optical component which can be applied on some useful application. A perform technique had been used to fabricate kind of splitter. In order to develop such an efficient optical device which can be integrated into the body of automotive field, research with a good specification-oriented study tent to be conduct and it must be passed through a well-planned fabrication technique together with a proper characterization process. Multimode Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber (SI-POF type made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA with Øcore = 1 mm and NA: 0.50 fully utilized in this research, as PMMA is one of the most commonly used optical materials. This material has been chosen as a base of splitter body in a fused-taper-twisted shape, produced by a unique fabrication stages. PMMA-POF can easily be used near it operating temperature between -40°C to +115°C. Results: By injecting 650 nm wavelength of red LED, characterization process start plays an important role in investigating level of efficiency of the device. Some parameters, such as optical output power and power losses on the devices were observed. Although the maximum output power efficiency of the splitter is about 40% but it can be improved gradually through

  20. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  1. Fabrication of a cost-effective polymer nanograting as a disposable plasmonic biosensor using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saswat; Kumari, Sudha; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2017-07-01

    A simple and cost-effective flexible plasmonic sensor is developed using a gold-coated polymer nanograting structure prepared via soft UV nanoimprint lithography. The sub-wavelength nanograting patterns of digital versatile discs were used as a template to prepare the polydimethylsiloxane stamp. The plasmonic sensing substrate was achieved after coating a gold thin film on top of the imprinted nanograting sample. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes excited on the gold-coated nanograting structure appeared as a dip in the reflectance spectrum measured at normal incidence under white light illumination in the ambient air medium. Electromagnetic simulation based on the finite element method was carried out to analyze the excited SPR modes. The simulated result shows very close agreement with the experimental data. The performance of the sensor with respect to changing the surrounding dielectric medium yields a bulk refractive index sensitivity of 788  ±  21 nm per refractive index unit. Further, label-free detection of proteins using a plasmonic sensing substrate was demonstrated by monitoring specific interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA proteins, which gave a detection limit of 123 pg mm-2 with respect to target anti-BSA protein binding. Thus, our proposed plasmonic sensor has potential for the development of an economical and highly sensitive label-free optical biosensing device for biomedical applications.

  2. Cost Accounting: Problems and Research Related to Cost Definitions and Collection of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that traditional cost analysis may not be the most appropriate way to justify educational budgets. This article suggests that using constructed cost models to develop operating budget requests can help ensure that the distinction between legitimate information needs and managerial autonomy is maintained. (LBH)

  3. Magnetic fabrics in fault-related fold and its relation with finite strain: an example from Mingjiang thrust structures in Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Dong; Chen Zhuxin; Luo Liang; Hu Qianwei; Jia Qiupeng

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a quick, effective and sensitive technique used to measure the weakly deformed sedimentary rocks, and also a reliable method to reveal the deforming mechanisms of fault-related folds. In Longmenshan front belt, a typical cross-section of fault-related folds is chosen to study the AMS. A total of 224 oriented specimens have been drilled at 23 different sampling sites which were distributed at the key structural positions of this structural section developed in the Xujiahe formation of the upper Triassic. Six elementary types of magnetic fabrics are recognized and established through this AMS study: 1 ) a sedimentary fabric; 2) an initial deformation fabric; 3) a pencil structure fabric; 4) a weak cleavage fabric; 5) a strong cleavage fabric; 6) a stretching lineation fabric. It has been found that most of magnetic fabrics are characterized by fabrics of weak deformation which belong to the pureshear results of a pre-folding layer parallel shortening (LPS). In the fault-bend fold, almost all magnetic fabrics are the initial deformation fabrics of weak deformation, and denote that the deformation in the forelimb is stronger than that in the backlimb and no finite strain is shown in the footwall. While in the fault-propagation fold, finite strains are concentrated in the trishear zone where magnetic fabric results are approximately consistent with the estimated consequences of the kinematic model. The tectonic stress field indicated by the magnetic fabrics is basically the same along the whole structural section and shows a NW to SE compression and shortening which is accordant with the regional compressive stress field of the Longmenshan fold-thrust belt.

  4. Fabrication of cost effective iron ore slime ceramic membrane for the recovery of organic solvent used in coke production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Singh; N.K.Meena; A.K.Golder; C.Das

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of coking properties of sub-bituminous coal (A) and bituminous coal (B) was done using blended organic solvents,namely,n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and ethylenediamine (EDA).Various solvent blends were employed for the coal extraction under the total reflux condition.A low-cost ceramic membrane was fabricated using industrial waste iron ore slime of M/s TATA steel R&D,Jamshedpur (India) to separate out the dissolved coking fraction from the solvent-coal mixture.Membrane separations were carried out in a batch cell,and around 75 % recovered NMP was reused.The fractionated coal properties were determined using proximate and ultimate analyses.In the case of bituminous coal,the ash and sulfur contents were decreased by 99.3 % and 79.2 %,respectively,whereas,the carbon content was increased by 23.9 % in the separated coal fraction.Three different cleaning agents,namely deionized water,sodium dodecyl sulphate and NMP were used to regain the original membrane permeability for the reusing.

  5. A strategy for design and fabrication of low cost microchannel for future reproductivity of bio/chemical lab-on-chip application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Q.; Hashim, U.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Noriman, N. Z.

    2017-03-01

    The fabrication and characterization of sensitive and selective fluids delivery system for the application of nano laboratory on a single chip is a challenging task till to date. This paper is one of the initial attempt to resolve this challenging task by using a simple, cost effective and reproductive technique for pattering a microchannel structures on SU-8 resist. The objective of the research is to design, fabricate and characterize polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The proposed device mask was designed initially by using AutoCAD software and then the designed was transferred to transparency sheet and to commercial chrome mask for better photo masking process. The standard photolithography process coupled with wet chemical etching process was used for the fabrication of proposed microchannel. This is a low cost fabrication technique for the formation of microchannel structure at resist. The fabrication process start from microchannel formation and then the structure was transformed to PDMS substrate, the microchannel structure was cured from mold and then the cured mold was bonded with the glass substrate by plasma oxidation bonding process. The surface morphology was characterized by high power microscope (HPM) and the structure was characterized by Hawk 3 D surface nanoprofiler. The next part of the research will be focus onto device testing and validation by using real biological samples by the implementation of a simple manual injection technique.

  6. Net-Immobilization of β-glucosidase on Nonwoven Fabrics to Lower the Cost of “Cellulosic Ethanol” and Increase Cellulose Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Guan; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-03-01

    The main limitation preventing the use of enzymatic cellulosic ethanol in industrial production is its higher cost which is mainly due to the elevated price of β-glucosidase (BG). Herein, we report on a simple strategy for the in-situ encapsulation of BG for repeated cellulosic ethanol production. In this strategy, BG was net-immobilized into a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) net-cloth layer on a PP nonwoven fabric by way of the visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. The visible light and mild reaction conditions could ensure the activity retention of BG during immobilization, while the non-swelling uniform net-mesh formed by living cross-linking polymerization could prevent the leakage of BG effectively (at the immobilization rate of more than 98.6% and the leakage rate of only 0.4%). When the BG-loaded fabric was used in combination with free cellulase (CEL), the results of the catalytic reaction demonstrated that these BG-loaded fabrics could not only give a 40% increase in cellulose conversions but also be reused for more than fifteen batches without losing the activity. These BG-loaded fabrics with characteristics including easy separation, excellent operation stability, a low cost of the polymeric matrix and a simple fabrication process are particularly interesting for a future bio-fuel production strategy.

  7. A simple and cost-effective method for fabrication of integrated electronic-microfluidic devices using a laser-patterned PDMS layer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2011-12-03

    We report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating integrated electronic-microfluidic devices with multilayer configurations. A CO 2 laser plotter was employed to directly write patterns on a transferred polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, which served as both a bonding and a working layer. The integration of electronics in microfluidic devices was achieved by an alignment bonding of top and bottom electrode-patterned substrates fabricated with conventional lithography, sputtering and lift-off techniques. Processes of the developed fabrication method were illustrated. Major issues associated with this method as PDMS surface treatment and characterization, thickness-control of the transferred PDMS layer, and laser parameters optimization were discussed, along with the examination and testing of bonding with two representative materials (glass and silicon). The capability of this method was further demonstrated by fabricating a microfluidic chip with sputter-coated electrodes on the top and bottom substrates. The device functioning as a microparticle focusing and trapping chip was experimentally verified. It is confirmed that the proposed method has many advantages, including simple and fast fabrication process, low cost, easy integration of electronics, strong bonding strength, chemical and biological compatibility, etc. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  8. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. 1631.205-70 Section 1631.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current FEHBP...

  9. Low-cost and facile fabrication of a paper-based capillary electrophoresis microdevice for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes the development of a novel paper-based capillary electrophoresis (pCE) microdevice using mineral paper, which is durable, oil and tear resistant, and waterproof. The pCE device is inexpensive (~$1.6 per device for materials), simple to fabricate, lightweight, and disposable, so it is more adequate for point-of-care (POC) pathogen diagnostics than a conventional CE device made of glass, quartz, silicon or polymer. In addition, the entire fabrication process can be completed within 1h without using expensive clean room facilities and cumbersome photolithography procedures. A simple cross-designed pCE device was patterned on the mineral paper by using a plotter, and assembled with an OHP film via a double-sided adhesive film. After filling the microchannel with polyacrylamide gel, the injection, backbiasing, and separation steps were sequentially operated to differentiate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with 4 bp resolution in a 2.9cm-long CE separation channel. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated the identification of the PCR amplicons of two target genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (rrsH gene, 121 bp) and Staphylococcus aureus (glnA gene, 225 bp). For accurate assignment of the peaks in the electropherogram, two bracket ladders (80 bp for the shortest and 326 bp for the longest) were employed, so the two amplicons of the pathogens were precisely identified on a pCE chip within 3min using the relative migration time ratio without effect of the CE environments. Thus, we believe that the pCE microdevice could be very useful for the separation of nucleic acids, amino acids, and ions as an analytical tool for use in the medical applications in the resource-limited environments as well as fundamental research fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reynolds shear stress for textile prosthetic heart valves in relation to fabric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, David L; Yousefi, Atieh; Forleo, Marcio; Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Dasi, Lakshmi P

    2016-07-01

    The most widely implanted prosthetic heart valves are either mechanical or bioprosthetic. While the former suffers from thrombotic risks, the latter suffers from a lack of durability. Textile valves, alternatively, can be designed with durability and to exhibit hemodynamics similar to the native valve, lowering the risk for thrombosis. Deviations from native valve hemodynamics can result in an increased Reynolds Shear Stress (RSS), which has the potential to instigate hemolysis or shear-induced thrombosis. This study is aimed at characterizing flow in multiple textile valve designs with an aim of developing a low profile valve. Valves were created using a shaping process based on heating a textile membrane and placed within a left heart simulator. Turbulence and bulk hemodynamics were assessed through particle imaging velocimetry, along with flow and pressure measurements. Overall, RSS was reduced for low profile valves relative to high profile valves, but was otherwise similar among low profile valves involving different fabric designs. However, leakage was found in 3 of the 4 low profile valve designs driving the fabric design for low profile valves. Through textile design, low profile valves can be created with favorable hemodynamics.

  11. LAMPF 805-MHz accelerator structure tuning and its relation to fabrication and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, G.R.

    1979-07-01

    In the course of construction of the 805-MHz linac, it was necessary to set 10,000 resonant cavities to precise frequencies and to check, and in some cases, to adjust the field distribution along the beam axis of the 104 rf tanks composing the linac. Since this was the first proton linac of the side-coupled type ever built, it was necessary to develop new techniques and instrumentation for structure tuning. An outline of the fabrication and installation process is given, showing how the tuning operations were interwoven with the fabrication steps and indicating the relation of tuning to other installation and check-out activities. The steps of the tuning procedure are then examined in detail. Tools for tuning by dinging, nose-stretching, and septum bending are described. Techniques for frequency measurements and for beadpull measurements of field distribution are discussed. The section on field distribution measurement includes results of research on measurement procedure and theory and observations confirming the low-power stability of field distributions for a three-year period. Selected results from the theory of chains of coupled resonators are given. Coupled resonator model parameters and various measured parameters for the 805-MHz linac are tabulated.

  12. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  13. Development of a Cost-Effective Process for the Fabrication of Single Grain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} Bulk Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Kwang Mo; Jun, Byung Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hee; Kim, Chan Joong [Green Growth Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To reduce the processing cost of the single grain REBCO (RE: Rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors, a cost-effective process should be developed. One possible way of developing the cost-effective process is the use of low-cost precursor powders. In this study, the single grain YBCO superconductors were fabricated using a home made powder. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} (Y123) powders were synthesized at in air by the powder calcination method with repeated crushing and heat treatment steps. The processing parameters for the fabrication of single grain Y123 bulk superconductors, T{sub max} (maximum temperature), Tp (peritectic temperature) and a cooling rate through Tp were optimized. To enhance the flux pinning capacity of the single grain Y123 samples, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5} (Y211) particles were dispersed in the Y123 matrix by adding Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder to the calcined Y123 powder. Applying the optimized processing condition, the single grain Y123 superconductors with Tc=91 K and Jc-1.5x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 T were successfully fabricated using a home made powder. The levitation forces and trapped magnetic field at 77 K measured using a Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet of 5300 G were 47 N and 3000 G, respectively, which are comparable to those obtained for the samples fabricated using a commercial grade Y123 powders.

  14. Costing in Radiology and Health Care: Rationale, Relativity, Rudiments, and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Costs direct decisions that influence the effectiveness of radiology in the care of patients on a daily basis. Yet many radiologists struggle to harness the power of cost measurement and cost management as a critical path toward establishing their value in patient care. When radiologists cannot articulate their value, they risk losing control over how imaging is delivered and supported. In the United States, recent payment trends directing value-based payments for bundles of care advance the imperative for radiology providers to articulate their value. This begins with the development of an understanding of the providers' own costs, as well as the complex interrelationships and imaging-associated costs of other participants across the imaging value chain. Controlling the costs of imaging necessitates understanding them at a procedural level and quantifying the costs of delivering specific imaging services. Effective product-level costing is dependent on a bottom-up approach, which is supported through recent innovations in time-dependent activity-based costing. Once the costs are understood, they can be managed. Within the high fixed cost and high overhead cost environment of health care provider organizations, stakeholders must understand the implications of misaligned top-down cost management approaches that can both paradoxically shift effort from low-cost workers to much costlier professionals and allocate overhead costs counterproductively. Radiology's engagement across a broad spectrum of care provides an excellent opportunity for radiology providers to take a leading role within the health care organizations to enhance value and margin through principled and effective cost management. Following a discussion of the rationale for measuring costs, this review contextualizes costs from the perspectives of a variety of stakeholders (relativity), discusses core concepts in how costs are classified (rudiments), presents common and improved methods for measuring

  15. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation to prevent age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Jane P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, but studies of ex-smokers suggest quitting can reduce the risk. Methods We fitted a function predicting the decline in risk of macular degeneration after quitting to data from 7 studies involving 1,488 patients. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation in terms of its impact on macular degeneration-related outcomes for 1,000 randomly selected U.S. smokers. We used a computer simulation model to predict the incidence of macular degeneration and blindness, the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs, and direct costs (in 2004 U.S. dollars until age 85 years. Cost-effectiveness ratios were based on the cost of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Results If 1,000 smokers quit, our model predicted 48 fewer cases of macular degeneration, 12 fewer cases of blindness, and a gain of 1,600 QALYs. Macular degeneration-related costs would decrease by $2.5 million if the costs of caregivers for people with vision loss were included, or by $1.1 million if caregiver costs were excluded. At a cost of $1,400 per quitter, smoking cessation was cost-saving when caregiver costs were included, and cost about $200 per QALY gained when caregiver costs were excluded. Sensitivity analyses had a negligible impact. The cost per quitter would have to exceed $77,000 for the cost per QALY for smoking cessation to reach $50,000, a threshold above which interventions are sometimes viewed as not cost-effective. Conclusion Smoking cessation is unequivocally cost-effective in terms of its impact on age-related macular degeneration outcomes alone.

  16. Experiences related to the role of a cost centre manager in a public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiences related to the role of a cost centre manager in a public hospital in Limpopo Province, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The purpose of a cost centre is to control clinical and administrative costs, as well as ...

  17. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  18. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.224 FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. (a) No FFP is available for the following amounts, even when related to services or benefit coverage which...

  19. PR for Pennies: Low-Cost Library Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeckler, Virginia Van Wynen

    This manual is designed to demystify a number of public relations techniques for those who wish to start producing their own materials with a minimum of time and money. Chapters focus on public relations; the library stereotype; words, ideas, and pictures; offset printing; creative print distribution; exhibits and posters; public speaking; and the…

  20. Cost Consequences of a Port-Related Supply Chain Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan LOH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Port functionality is a significant and important aspect of cargo transportation. Previous studies have identified a list of port-related supply chain disruption threats and developed a management model that seeks to address these threats. This paper adds value to these related studies by comparing four consequences of an example of these threats: (1 avoidance of disruption, (2 mitigation of disruption, (3 deviation of transportation plan and (4 delays and deviation of transportation plan. The impact of these consequences is simulated in a case study using data from a chemical manufacturer based in Singapore. This paper quantitatively measures the impact of a port-related threat on supply chains and thus highlights the importance of port-related supply chain disruption management.

  1. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  2. Value Analysis of Engine Maintenance Scheduling relative to Fuel Burn and Minimal Operating Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Van der Zwan, F.M.; Ouwehand, A.; Ghijs, S.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study in collaboration with an airline that looked at modeling the relationship of maintenance and fuel burn costs relative to minimizing the life cycle cost relative to schedule. The work has verified that the bucket theory presented in the paper is a correct a

  3. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public relations and... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the...

  4. 42 CFR 447.59 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 447.59 Section 447.59 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Financial Participation § 447.59 FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. No FFP in the...

  5. Low-Cost Fabrication for ZrO2-Based Electrolyte Thin-Substrate by Aqueous Gel-Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓光; 李国军; 仝建峰; 陈大明

    2004-01-01

    The possibility to fabricate yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-substrates by aqueous gel casting of high concentrated aqueous slurries was investigated. The effects of dispersant, pH value, and solid content of slurries for gel process on stability and viscosity of slurries were optimized. YSZ thin-substrates green bodies with 100 μm thickness and 100 mm×100 mm flat plate were fabricated. Microstructure observations, density and bending measurements show that these green bodies are homogeneous and highly densified. After sintering at 1873 K×2 h, the ionic conductivity reaches 0.155 S·cm-1 at 1273 K.

  6. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  7. The Relative Efficiency of Charter Schools: A Cost Frontier Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Timothy J.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Charters represent an expansion of public school choice, offering free, publicly funded educational alternatives to traditional public schools. One relatively unexplored research question concerning charter schools asks whether charter schools are more efficient suppliers of educational services than are traditional public schools. The potential…

  8. The Relative Efficiency of Charter Schools: A Cost Frontier Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Timothy J.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Charters represent an expansion of public school choice, offering free, publicly funded educational alternatives to traditional public schools. One relatively unexplored research question concerning charter schools asks whether charter schools are more efficient suppliers of educational services than are traditional public schools. The potential…

  9. A cost-effective treatment for severe generalized erosion and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion: laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J; Stapleton, Brandon M; Harris, Bryan T; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes preventive and restorative treatment planning for a 56-year-old female patient with severe, chronic, poorly controlled gastroesophageal reflux disease and resulting loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. First, the demineralization process was controlled through collaboration with the patient's physician, and measures were taken to restore adequate stimulated salivary flow. Then, for financial reasons, indirect laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations were adhesively bonded to replace lost tooth structure and reestablish the patient's collapsed vertical dimension. Indirect-laboratory fabricated restorations can be a cost-effective alternative to direct composite resin or all-ceramic restorations for the treatment of chronic severe erosion, but there are no long-term clinical reports in the current literature to support or contraindicate the use of indirect composites for this type of clinical application. Therefore, careful, long-term follow-up evaluations are planned for this patient.

  10. Fully inkjet-printed microfluidics: a solution to low-cost rapid three-dimensional microfluidics fabrication with numerous electrical and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenjing; Cook, Benjamin S.; Fang, Yunnan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2016-10-01

    As the needs for low-cost rapidly-produced microfluidics are growing with the trend of Lab-on-a-Chip and distributed healthcare, the fully inkjet-printing of microfluidics can be a solution to it with numerous potential electrical and sensing applications. Inkjet-printing is an additive manufacturing technique featuring no material waste and a low equipment cost. Moreover, similar to other additive manufacturing techniques, inkjet-printing is easy to learn and has a high fabrication speed, while it offers generally a great planar resolution down to below 20 µm and enables flexible designs due to its inherent thin film deposition capabilities. Due to the thin film feature, the printed objects also usually obtain a high vertical resolution (such as 4.6 µm). This paper introduces a low-cost rapid three-dimensional fabrication process of microfluidics, that relies entirely on an inkjet-printer based single platform and can be implemented directly on top of virtually any substrates.

  11. Overview on ITER and DEMO blanket fabrication activities of the KIT INR and related frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Heiko, E-mail: heiko.neuberger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rey, Joerg; Weth, Axel von der; Hernandez, Francisco [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Martin, Tatiana [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zmitko, Milan [Fusion for energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules and Materials Development Project Team, Barcelona (Spain); Felde, Alexander [Institut für Umformtechnik (IFU), Universität Stuttgart (Germany); Niewöhner, Reinhard [Forschungsgesellschaft Umformtechnik (FGU), Stuttgart (Germany); Krüger, Friedhelm [Krüger Erodiertechnik, Biedenkopf (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent achievements in fabricaition within different frameworks. • First Wall mockup with erosion technology. • Manufacturing of a HCPB TBM Cooling Plate Mockup (F4E) - Abstract: Fabrication experiments have been carried out in the KIT with the goal to qualify manufacturing technologies for the realization of fusion reactor components. The main focus of the activities managed by the fabrication team in the Institute of Neutron Physics and reactor technologies (INR) has been on the Test Blanket Module for ITER. Sets of fabrication and welding procedure specifications have been demonstrated and qualified in relevant scale for TBM structural and functional components. This paper presents interactions in between the different frameworks on domestic and European level to underline backgrounds of developments. It also summarizes results of development and their relevancy for DEMO and gives an outlook on the future development strategy for the DEMO blanket fabrication.

  12. Cost-effective ways to improve the fabrication and installation of solar heating and cooling systems for residences. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, S.B.; Jacobs, P.; Weaver, N.

    1978-10-01

    A Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory study investigating cost-effective ways of improving fabrication and installation of residential solar energy heating systems is documented. The study entailed on-site observation of twelve installations focusing on the phase of mounting and manifolding of solar collectors. Time lapse photography and work measurement techniques were employed to record these installations. Generic collector types studied included air and liquid panels both internally and externally manifolded. Principal findings of the study synthesized from field observations, analysis of photographic data, time studies, and discussion with installation personnel and manufacturers' representatives are presented in the technical report.

  13. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan ZHAO; Sultan, Benjamin; Vautard, Robert; Braconnot, Pascale; Wang, Huijun J.; Ducharne, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change will increase the frequency of hot temperatures, impairing health and productivity for millions of working people and raising labor costs. In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far. Here, we estimate the potential HTS cost in current and future climates under different scenarios of socioeconomic deve...

  14. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. Materials and methods A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). Results The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). Conclusion According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV

  15. Cost-effective fabrication of waveguides for PLCs by replication in UV-curable sol-gel material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Thiele, Hans D.; Zschokke, Christian; Mahmud-Skender, Sanida; Westenhofer, Susanne; Gale, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    A new wafer-scale replication process for fabricating buried ridge waveguides for telecom/datacom applications using an uv-curable sol-gel material is proposed. Spin coating of the core material on the replication mould is used to form the waveguide cores with a smooth thin layer. The spin parameters allow an accurate control of the thickness and homogeneity. The bottom-cladding is uv-cast between a substrate and the mould, which is covered by the spun core layer. The ridge waveguide cores are demoulded and buried under a top cladding. This process allows the stacking of several layers of waveguides on top of each other to form two-dimensional waveguide arrays. A specially adapted SUSS mask aligner is used to control the cladding thickness between individual waveguide layers and to align them. A waveguide loss comparable to lithographically fabricated waveguides has been achieved.

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and...; or (2) Maintaining or promoting reciprocal understanding and favorable relations with the public...

  17. Fabrication of low-cost beta-type Ti-Mn alloys for biomedical applications by metal injection molding process and their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pedro Fernandes; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Liu, Huihong; Cho, Ken; Nakai, Masaaki; Itoh, Yoshinori; Narushima, Takayuki; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2016-06-01

    Titanium and its alloys are suitable for biomedical applications owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Beta-type Ti-Mn alloys (8-17 mass% Mn) were fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) as a potential low cost material for use in biomedical applications. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys were evaluated. For up to 13 mass% Mn, the tensile strength (1162-938MPa) and hardness (308-294HV) of the MIM fabricated alloys are comparable to those of Ti-Mn alloys fabricated by cold crucible levitation melting. Ti-9Mn exhibits the best balance of ultimate tensile strength (1046MPa) and elongation (4.7%) among the tested alloys, and has a Young's modulus of 89GPa. The observed low elongation of the alloys is attributed to the combined effects of high oxygen content, with the presence of interconnected pores and titanium carbides, the formation of which is due to carbon pickup during the debinding process. The elongation and tensile strength of the alloys decrease with increasing Mn content. The Ti-Mn alloys show good compressive properties, with Ti-17Mn showing a compressive 0.2% proof stress of 1034MPa, and a compressive strain of 50%.

  18. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  19. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Zhao; Benjamin Sultan; Robert Vautard; Pascale Braconnot; Huijun J. Wang; Agnes Ducharne

    2016-01-01

    .... In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far...

  20. Sequential optimization of matrix chain multiplication relative to different cost functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to optimize matrix chain multiplication sequentially relative to different cost functions such as total number of scalar multiplications, communication overhead in a multiprocessor environment, etc. For n matrices our optimization procedure requires O(n 3) arithmetic operations per one cost function. This work is done in the framework of a dynamic programming extension that allows sequential optimization relative to different criteria. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Activity-based cost analysis of opioid-related nausea and vomiting among inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Leopold; Koch, Tilo; Kranke, Peter; Rüsch, Dirk; Torossian, Alexander; Nardi-Hiebl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and/or vomiting (N/V) are frequent side effects of opioid drugs. These are of major concerns to patients and caregivers and only few studies have focused on their economical costs. This is a prospective, nonproduct-related, activity-based evaluation of personnel and material costs of opioid-related N/V among inpatients. Data were obtained from surgical, general medicine, and palliative care wards at 16 German hospitals of different size, healthcare mandate, and ownership. According to predefined criteria, of 462 documented N/V events, 340 were diagnosed as opioid related. Elicited activities and pharmacological interventions for N/V episodes followed local standards. Both materials used and the time engaged to treat patients with N/V were documented on an "ad hoc" activity recording form. The total cost of an opioid-related N/V episode was calculated based on standard wages of the involved personnel and standard costs of the inherent materials used. Mean staff tenure time for handling an episode of N/V was 26.2 ± 19.8 minutes (nausea 16.9 ± 28.7 minutes; nausea + vomiting: 33.4 ± 26.8 minutes). In the German context, this corresponds to average personnel costs of €18.06 ± 13.64. Material cost contributes to another €13.49 ±13.38 of costs mainly depending on acquisition costs of antiemetic drugs. N/V showed to have impact on workload of nurses and (to lesser extent) physicians and economic burden of €31 ± 22 for each N/V episode. In view of these results, the potential costs of strategies to minimize the incidence of N/V (use of antiemetics and/or the use of new analgesics) should be outweighed against the incurred costs of N/V.

  2. Deciphering relative timing of fabric development in granitoids with similar absolute ages based on AMS study (Dharwar Craton, South India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) data are presented from the Koppal Granitoid (Dharwar Craton, South India) that has U-Pb zircon age of 2528 ± 9 Ma. The magnetic fabric is oriented in NNE-SSW direction. This is parallel to the planar structures that developed during regional D3 deformation, but oblique to the NNW-SSE oriented magnetic foliation as well as field foliation (D1/D2 deformation) recorded in the country rock Peninsular Gneiss. Variation in the intensity of fabric within the granitoid is mapped. It is inferred that the emplacement of Koppal Granitoid took place by ballooning and fabric development within the pluton was syntectonic with regional D3. These results are compared with the time-relationship between emplacement/fabric development and regional deformation reported from the Mulgund Granite (2555 ± 6 Ma; U-Pb zircon), which is also located in the Dharwar Craton and is equivalent to the Koppal Granitoid in age. This granite is known to have emplaced syntectonically with regional D1/D2 deformation, and is thus not related to the same deformation event as the Koppal Granitoid, despite their similar absolute ages. It is argued that in the study area, D3 is ≤2537 Ma, while D1/D2 is ≥2549 Ma in age. Thus, this study highlights the use of AMS in (a) deciphering the relative timing of regional deformation and emplacement of granitoids of equivalent age and (b) constraining the timing of regional superposed deformation events.

  3. Processing-structure-property relations in PEEK/carbon composites made from comingled fabric and prepreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu-khanh, T.; Denault, J. (National Research Council of Canada, Industrial Materials Institute, Boucherville (Canada))

    1991-10-01

    The effects of the conditions of the processing of PEEK/carbon prepregs and comingled fabric on the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of the resulting composites were investigated. Results showed that, in the comingled fabric system, the fiber/matrix adhesion depends on the molding temperature, the residence time at the melt temperature, and the cooling rate. Too high molding temperature resulted in degradation of the PEEK matrix, which affected the crystallization behavior of the composites, the fiber/matrix adhesion, and the matrix properties. This effect was most important in the case of comingled systems containing sized carbon fibers. 17 refs.

  4. Relative and individual regulation: An investigation of investment incentives under a cost-plus approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Nikos; Lefouili, Yassine

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the effects of a modified Yardstick competition on firms’ cost-reduction efforts. Departing from the existing literature, we use a relative cost-plus approach: firms are regulated on the basis of other firms’ performances, but they are granted a mark-up and not a lump-sum transfer in order to be compensated for their investments. We show that the cost-reduction effort of a regulated firm is decreasing in the mark-up under relative regulation while it is increasing in the mark-up un...

  5. The interface bonding mechanism and related mechanical properties of Mg/Al compound materials fabricated by insert molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C.; Hu, J.; Nie, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, H.X., E-mail: hxli@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Du, Q. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-21

    To overcome the shortcomings of magnesium alloys such as low strength at an elevated temperature and poor corrosion resistance, the fabrication of Mg/Al compound materials has attracted more and more attention in the recent years. Among the various fabrication methods such as diffusion bonding, friction-stir welding, and fusion welding, insert molding technique has shown some advantages such as low production cost, short processing time and the ability of producing complex shape. However, there are only a few documents about this preparation method. In this paper, the corresponding study is carried out via inserting 6061 aluminum alloy into AZ31 magnesium alloy melt. The interface bonding mechanism and its mechanical behavior are investigated as well. It has been found that a good metallurgical bonding can be formed at the interface, which consists of three layers, i.e., Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}, and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}+(Mg) eutectic structure. The average shear strength is 20 MPa, which is close to the reported shear strength of the samples prepared by other methods. This research provides a new insight for the fabrication of Mg/Al compound materials.

  6. The Cost of Work-Related Stress to Society: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin R H; Visockaite, Gintare; Dewe, Philip; Cox, Tom

    2017-03-30

    A systematic review of the available evidence examining the cost of work-related stress (WRS) would yield important insights into the magnitude of this social phenomenon. The objective of this review was to collate, extract, and synthesize economic evaluations of the cost of WRS to society. A research protocol was developed. Included cost-of-illness (COI) studies estimated the cost of WRS at a societal level, and were published in English, French or German. Searches were carried out in ingentaconnect, EBSCO, JSTOR, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Google, and Google scholar. Included studies were assessed against 10 COI quality assessment criteria. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These originated from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the EU-15. The total estimated cost of WRS was observed to be considerable and ranged substantially from US$221.13 million to $187 billion. Productivity related losses were observed to proportionally contribute the majority of the total cost of WRS (between 70 to 90%), with health care and medical costs constituting the remaining 10 to 30%. The evidence reviewed here suggests a sizable financial burden imposed by WRS on society. The observed range of cost estimates was understood to be attributable to variations in definitions of WRS; the number and type of costs estimated; and, in how production loss was estimated. It is postulated that the cost estimates identified by this review are likely conservative because of narrow definitions of WRS and the exclusion of diverse range of cost components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. ZnO deposition on metal substrates: Relating fabrication, morphology, and wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaini, Sara S.; Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Carey, Van P.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2013-05-01

    It is not common practice to deposit thin films on metal substrates, especially copper, which is a common heat exchanger metal and practical engineering material known for its heat transfer properties. While single crystal substrates offer ideal surfaces with uniform structure for compatibility with oxide deposition, metallic surfaces needed for industrial applications exhibit non-idealities that complicate the fabrication of oxide nanostructure arrays. The following study explored different ZnO fabrication techniques to deposit a (super)hydrophobic thin film of ZnO on a metal substrate, specifically copper, in order to explore its feasibility as an enhanced condensing surface. ZnO was selected for its non-toxicity, ability to be made (super)hydrophobic with hierarchical roughness, and its photoinduced hydrophilicity characteristic, which could be utilized to pattern it to have both hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions. We investigated the variation of ZnO's morphology and wetting state, using SEMs and sessile drop contact angle measurements, as a function of different fabrication techniques: sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), electrodeposition and annealing Zn. We successfully fabricated (super)hydrophobic ZnO on a mirror finish, commercially available copper substrate using the scalable electrodeposition technique. PLD for ZnO deposition did not prove viable, as the ZnO samples on metal substrates were hydrophilic and the process does not lend itself to scalability. The annealed Zn sheets did not exhibit consistent wetting state results.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Jane P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravitreal ranibizumab prevents vision loss and improves visual acuity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, but it is expensive, and efficacy beyond 2 years is uncertain. Methods We assessed the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab compared with no ranibizumab over 10 years, using randomized trial efficacy data for the first 2 years, post-trial efficacy assumptions, and ranibizumab acquisition costs ranging from the wholesale price ($1,950 per dose to the price of bevazicumab ($50, a similar molecule which may be equally efficacious. We used a computer simulation model to estimate the probability of blindness, the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs, direct costs (in 2004 U.S. dollars, and cost-effectiveness ratios for a 67-year old woman. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Results The probability of blindness over 10 years was reduced from 56% to 34% if ranibizumab was efficacious for only 2 years, 27% if efficacy was maintained for a further 2 years only (base-case scenario, and 17% if visual acuity at 4 years was then sustained. It was cost-saving under all price assumptions, when caregiver costs were included. When caregiver costs were excluded, the cost per QALY for the base-case ranged from $5,600, assuming the bevazicumab price, to $91,900 assuming the wholesale ranibizumab price. The cost per QALY was Conclusion From a societal perspective, ranibizumab was cost-saving. From a health care funder's perspective, ranibizumab was an efficient treatment when it cost less than $1000 per dose.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation or maximum intercuspation in temporomandibular disorders patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Matida Hamata

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous origin and bruxism were divided into 2 groups treated with splints in maximum intercuspation (I or centric relation (II. Clinical, electrognathographic and electromyographic examinations were performed before and 3 months after therapy. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test. Differences at 5% level of probability were considered statistically significant. There was a remarkable reduction in pain symptomatology, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05 between the groups. There was mandibular repositioning during therapy, as demonstrated by the change in occlusal contacts on the splints. Electrognathographic examination demonstrated a significant increase in maximum left lateral movement for group I and right lateral movement for group II (p0.05 in the electromyographic activities at rest after utilization of both splints. In conclusion, both occlusal splints were effective for pain control and presented similar action. The results suggest that maximum intercuspation may be used for fabrication of occlusal splints in patients with occlusal stability without large discrepancies between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. Moreover, this technique is simpler and less expensive.

  10. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H

    2015-03-02

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food, the environment, animals and humans was previously estimated by Havelaar et al. (2012). In this paper we complement these by cost-of-illness estimates. Together, these present a complete picture of the societal burden of food-related diseases. Using incidence estimates for 2011, community-acquired non-consulting cases, patients consulting their general practitioner, hospitalized patients and the incidence of sequelae and fatal cases, estimates were obtained for DALYs, direct healthcare costs (e.g. costs for doctor's fees, hospitalizations and medicines), direct non-healthcare costs (e.g. travel costs to and from the doctor), indirect non-healthcare costs (e.g. productivity loss, special education) and total costs. The updated disease burden for 2011 was equal to 13,940 DALY/year (undiscounted) or 12,650 DALY/year (discounted at 1.5%), and was of the same magnitude as previous estimates. At the population-level thermophilic Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii and rotavirus were associated with the highest disease burden. Perinatal listeriosis infection was associated with the highest DALY per symptomatic case. The total cost-of-illness in 2011 of fourteen food-related pathogens and associated sequelae was estimated at € 468 million/year, if undiscounted, and at € 416 million/year if discounted by 4%. Direct healthcare costs accounted for 24% of total costs, direct non-healthcare costs for 2% and indirect non-healthcare costs for 74% of total costs. At the population-level, norovirus had the highest total cost-of-illness in 2011 with € 106 million/year, followed by thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (€ 76 million/year) and rotavirus (€ 73 million

  11. Fabrication of conducting composite sheets using cost-effective graphite flakes and amorphous styrene acrylonitrile for enhanced thermistor, dielectric, and electromagnetic interference shielding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Varij, E-mail: varijpanwarcertain@gmail.com [Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India); Gill, Fateh Singh; Rathi, Vikas; Tewari, V.K. [Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India); Mehra, R.M. [Sharda University, Greater Noida (India); Park, Jong-Oh, E-mail: jop@jnu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sukho, E-mail: shpark12@dgist.ac.kr [Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of strong conducting composite sheets (CCSs) using a simple technique with cost-effective materials is desirable for capacitor, decoupling capacitor, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. Here, we used cost-effective graphite flakes (GFs) as a conducting filler and amorphous poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) as an insulating polymer to fabricate a CCS via a simple mechanical mixing and hot compression molding process in 2.5 h, with the aim to save time and avoid the use of toxic reagents, which are generally used in chemical methods. In the present method, the GFs are connected in diffusively adhere polymer matrix, controlled by temperature and pressure that generate the conduction in the CCSs. The resulting PSAN/GF CCSs were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and hardness tests. The GFs penetrated the interfacial region of PSAN, thus improving the thermistor and dielectric properties (dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor) of the PSAN/GF CCSs. Furthermore, the PSAN/GF CCSs showed enhanced hardness and EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) properties in the X-band frequency range (8.5–12.5 GHz). The percolation theory was implemented to DC and AC conductivity. To detect the transition of the dielectric properties, the dielectric constant of the CCSs was analyzed with increasing volume fraction of GFs in the radio frequency region. The improved dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor of the PSAN/GF CCS, indicated a significant improvement in their EMI shielding properties in the X-band frequency range, which were measured using the waveguide method. The ac conductivity of PSAN/GF CCS shows stable behavior in the higher frequency ranges. The EMISE of PSAN/GF CCS were found to increase with increasing GF content due to the absorbance mechanism. - Highlights: • Enhanced hardness and

  12. Design and fabrication of a data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector development

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, S; Rudra, Sharmili; Biswas, S; Mohanty, B; Sahu, P K

    2015-01-01

    A novel instrument has been developed to monitor and record the ambient pa- rameters such as temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. These parameters are very essential for understanding the characteristics such as gain of gas filled detectors like Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and Multi Wire Propor- tional Counter (MWPC). In this article the details of the design, fabrication and operation processes of the device has been presented.

  13. The relative costs of proton and X-ray radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, M; Jermann, M

    2003-02-01

    To study the costs of intensity-modulated proton therapy and intensity-modulated X-ray therapy with the particular goal of understanding their relative differences. To analyse the ratio of the cost per fraction of proton therapy to the cost per fraction of X-ray therapy. We have used a computer spreadsheet tool in which a large number (typically 130) of input parameters characterizing a particular therapeutic modality can be stored. From these parameters a number of derived variables are computed, and from these derived variables the costs of sub-systems, the entire facility, running costs and cost per fraction and per treatment can be computed. The sensitivity of any given variable (e.g. cost/fraction) to any given parameter (e.g. set-up time) can be explored, together with an estimate of the associated confidence interval. The costs of facility construction and facility operation are considered separately. Key data for the input variables regarding the cost of the therapy equipment (a dominant cost for proton beam therapy) were provided by four commercial vendors. Other costs, such as costs for building construction and shielding or personnel costs, are much more standard and our estimates were primarily based on practical experience. We considered two scenarios: (1) both facilities operating under current conditions; and (2) future facilities where foreseeable improvements in efficiency and a 25% reduction in the cost of the proton equipment were assumed. The construction cost of a current two-gantry proton facility, complete with the equipment, was estimated at 62,500 kEE and of a two-linac X-ray facility at 16,800 kEE. In the case of proton therapy the cost of operation of the facility was found to be dominated, by the business cost (42%--primarily the cost of repaying the presumed loan for facility construction), personnel costs (28%) and the cost of servicing the equipment (21%). For X-ray therapy, the cost of operation was seen to be dominated by the

  14. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lawler

    2016-01-01

    The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water trea...

  15. Cost effectiveness of treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Paul; Annemans, Lieven; White, Richard; Gallagher, Meghan; Thomas, Simu

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people aged >= 50 years. Wet AMD in particular has a major impact on patient quality of life and imposes substantial burdens on healthcare systems. This systematic review examined the cost-effectiveness data for current therapeutic options for wet AMD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for all articles reporting original cost-effectiveness analyses of wet AMD treatments. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination ...

  16. Cost Effectiveness of Treatments for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mitchell; Lieven Annemans; Richard White; Meghan Gallagher; Simu Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people aged ≥50 years. Wet AMD in particular has a major impact on patient quality of life and imposes substantial burdens on healthcare systems. This systematic review examined the cost-effectiveness data for current therapeutic options for wet AMD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for all articles reporting original cost-effectiveness analyses of wet AMD treatments. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination an...

  17. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (Over-layered TCO on tempered glass for solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (kyoka class fukugo tomei doden kiban seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of over-layered TCO on tempered glass in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of heat-resistant over-layered TCO, thermal deformation of TCO substrates was studied by both experiment and numerical computation. The thermal deformation increased with carrier concentration. As the observation result on change in lattice strain of heated TCO films by high-temperature X-ray diffraction, lattice strain was largely affected by thermal expansion. (2) On development of the low-temperature heat treatment method of TCO films, a technological prospect was obtained for fabrication of low-resistance TCO films by heat treatment without strength deterioration of tempered TCO substrates. (3) On development of cost reduction technology, the large-area CVD equipment was devised on the basis of the inline tempering method which tempers substrate glass by air cooling after formation of SnO2 film as fabrication method of tempered TCO. The TCO substrate tempered by air cooling could endure the drop test of 227g and 1.5m. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2015-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be transmitte

  19. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  20. Measuring the full economic costs of diet, physical activity and obesity-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, B M; Kim, S; Rusev, E R; Du, S; Zizza, C

    2006-08-01

    Most studies that have focused on the costs of obesity have ignored the direct effects of obesity-related patterns of diet and physical activity. This study reviews the full effects of each component--poor dietary and physical activity patterns and obesity--on morbidity, mortality and productivity. The direct healthcare costs are based on a review of the effects of these factors on key diseases and the related medical care costs of each disease. The indirect costs on reduced disability, mortality and sickness during the period of active labour force participation prior to retirement are also examined. A case study is prepared for China to provide some guidance in the utilization of this review for economic analysis of obesity. The case study shows that the indirect costs are often far more important than the direct medical care costs. The Chinese case study found that the indirect effects of obesity and obesity-related dietary and physical activity patterns range between 3.58% and 8.73% of gross national product (GNP) in 2000 and 2025 respectively.

  1. Fabrication and Evaluation of Low-cost Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Counter Electrodes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Shen; Dingwen Zhang; Junjie Li; Xiaodong Li; Zhuo Sun; Sumei Huang

    2013-01-01

    We explore a simple and eco-friendly approach for preparing CZTS powders and a screen-printing process for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a hydrazine-free solvothermal approach without the assistance of organic ligands. CZTS has been prepared by directly drop-casting the CZTS ink on the cleaned FTO glass, while CZTSSe CEs have been fabricated by screen-printing CZTS pastes, followed by post selenization using Se vapor obtained from elemental Se pellets. The crystal structure, composition and morphology of the as-deposited CZTS nanoparticles and CZTSSe electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CZTS, CZTSSe and Pt CE based DSCs are examined and analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The prepared CZTS and CZTSSe CEs exhibit a cellular structure with high porosity. DSCs fabricated with CZTSSe CEs achieve a power conversion efficiency of 5.75% under AM 1.5 G illumination with an intensity of 100 mW/cm2, which is higher than that (3.22%) of the cell using the CZTS CE. The results demonstrate that the CZTSSe CE possesses good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of charge carriers in electrolyte. The comprehensive CZTSSe CE process is cheap and scalable. It can make large-scale electro-catalytic film fabrication cost competitive for both energy harvesting and storage applications.

  2. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...... between-patient associations) and by generalized estimating equations (GEE), using all observations to also account for within-patient associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to costs. RESULTS: Regardless of the methodology (linear or GEE regression), HAQ was most closely related to both cost types, while work...... loss costs were also more closely associated with EQ-5D than DAS28. The results of the linear models for healthcare costs were standardized β = 0.21 (95% CI 0.15-0.27), 0.16 (0.11-0.21), and -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.10) for HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D, respectively (p costs...

  3. Costs for integrating wind into the future ERCOT system with related costs for savings in CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Sluzas, Nora A

    2011-04-01

    Wind power can make an important contribution to the goal of reducing emissions of CO2. The major problem relates to the intrinsic variability of the source and the difficulty of reconciling the supply of electricity with demand particularly at high levels of wind penetration. This challenge is explored for the case of the ERCOT system in Texas. Demand for electricity in Texas is projected to increase by approximately 60% by 2030. Considering hourly load data reported for 2006, assuming that the pattern of demand in 2030 should be similar to 2006, and adopting as a business as usual (BAU) reference an assumption that the anticipated additional electricity should be supplied by a combination of coal and gas with prices, discounted to 2007 dollars of $2 and $6 per MMBTU respectively, we conclude that the bus-bar price for electricity would increase by about 1.1 ¢/kWh at a wind penetration level of 30%, by about 3.4 ¢/kWh at a penetration level of 80%. Corresponding costs for reductions in CO2 range from $20/ton to $60/ton. A number of possibilities are discussed that could contribute to a reduction in these costs including the impact of an expanded future fleet of electrically driven vehicles.

  4. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  5. A simple and low-cost approach to fabricate TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} hollow spheres with excellent simulated sunlight photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kexin; Liu, Shufen; Yi, Shaoting; Yan, Liushui, E-mail: yanliushui@hotmail.com; Guo, Huiqin; Dai, Yuhua; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Nitryl surface functionalized TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres (TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} HSs) composite material was successfully fabricated by a simple sol-gel combined with solvothermal and concentrated HNO{sub 3} treatment strategy using carbon microspheres obtained from hydrothermal carbonization of waste Camellia oleifera shells as a template. The microstructure, surface property, compositional and structural information, and optical and electronic property of as-prepared TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} HSs were well characterized. Compare with conventional g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts, the as-prepared TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} HSs exhibited excellent simulated sunlight photocatalytic activity toward aqueous organic pollutants degradation and hydrogen evolution from water-splitting, which can be attributed to their unique hollow spherical microstructure and the introduction of -NO{sub 2} groups. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} HSs were successfully fabricated by a simple and low-cost method. • Their morphology, composition, and optoelectronic property were well characterized. • TiO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} HSs exhibit considerably high activity under simulated sunlight irradiation. • High activity is attributed to hollow spherical structure and introduced -NO{sub 2} groups.

  6. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-09-20

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  7. Unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes enabled the fabrication of high performance organic thin film transistors with low cost metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Chad S; Zhu, Shiping; Wigglesworth, Tony; Wu, Yiliang

    2013-10-09

    Transistors with a diketopyrrolopyrrole-quarterthiophene (DPP-QT) semiconductor and low-cost Al or Cu electrodes were studied. Albeit a large charge injection resistance exists between DPP-QT and Al or Cu, the resistance was dramatically reduced when unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were blended into the DPP-QT film. This led to a high mobility of 0.64 and 1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, for Al and Cu devices, which is similar or even better than the device using gold electrodes (0.78 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)).

  8. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  9. Fabrication of polysiloxane-modified polyurethane sponge as low-cost organics/water separation and selective absorption material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhengshan; He, Wanxia; Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Jiang, Liang; Huang, Jun; Lv, Xiaomeng

    2016-10-01

    Through sol-gel and dip-coating processes, commercial polyurethane sponge modified by polysiloxane was fabricated under low temperature (60 °C) and atmosphere. The contact angle of the obtained polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge is 145 ± 5°. Hence, the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge could float on water and selectively absorb organics from the surface of the water, indicating simultaneous properties of hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. The absorbent maximum value is 50-150 times of its own weight. The polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge exhibited excellent recyclability, which could be reused by squeezing the sponge due to its high mechanical stability and flexibility. Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis test indicated that the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge exhibited good thermal stability and the stable contact angle of samples tested under increasing temperature indicated its good weather resistance. Due to the commercial property of polyurethane sponge and easy-handling of polysiloxane, the polysiloxane/polyurethane sponge can be easily scaled up to recover a large-area oil spill in water and further work based on the designed equipment has been under consideration.

  10. The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines.

  11. Cost effectiveness of treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Annemans, Lieven; White, Richard; Gallagher, Meghan; Thomas, Simu

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people aged ≥50 years. Wet AMD in particular has a major impact on patient quality of life and imposes substantial burdens on healthcare systems. This systematic review examined the cost-effectiveness data for current therapeutic options for wet AMD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for all articles reporting original cost-effectiveness analyses of wet AMD treatments. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Cochrane Library databases were searched for all wet AMD health technology assessments (HTAs). Overall, 44 publications were evaluated in full and included in this review. A broad range of cost-effectiveness analyses were identified for the most commonly used therapies for wet AMD (pegaptanib, ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy [PDT] with verteporfin). Three studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in wet AMD. A small number of analyses of other treatments, such as laser photocoagulation and antioxidant vitamins, were also found. Ranibizumab was consistently shown to be cost effective for wet AMD in comparison with all the approved wet AMD therapies (four of the five studies identified showed ranibizumab was cost effective vs usual care, PDT or pegaptanib); however, there was considerable variation in the methodology for cost-effectiveness modelling between studies. Findings from the HTAs supported those from the PubMed and EMBASE searches; of the seven HTAs that included ranibizumab, six (including HTAs for Australia, Canada and the UK) concluded that ranibizumab was cost effective for the treatment of wet AMD; most compared ranibizumab with PDT and/or pegaptanib. By contrast, HTAs at best generally recommended pegaptanib or PDT for restricted use in subsets of patients with wet AMD. In the literature analyses, pegaptanib was found to be cost effective versus usual/best supportive care (including PDT) or no treatment in one of five studies; the other four

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Dual-Photoelectrode Fuel Cell towards Cost-Effective Electricity Production from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fan, Wenjun; Yao, Tingting; Liao, Shichao; Li, Ailong; Li, Deng; Liu, Mingyao; Shi, Jingying; Liao, Shijun; Li, Can

    2017-01-10

    A photo fuel cell (PFC) offers an attractive way to simultaneously convert solar and biomass energy into electricity. Photocatalytic biomass oxidation on a semiconductor photoanode combined with dark electrochemical reduction of oxygen molecules on a metal cathode (usually Pt) in separated compartments is the common configuration for a PFC. Herein, we report a membrane-free PFC based on a dual electrode, including a W-doped BiVO4 photoanode and polyterthiophene photocathode for solar-stimulated biomass-to-electricity conversion. Air- and water-soluble biomass derivatives can be directly used as reagents. The optimal device yields an open-circuit voltage (VOC ) of 0.62 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC ) of 775 μA cm(-2) , and a maximum power density (Pmax ) of 82 μW cm(-2) with glucose as the feedstock under tandem illumination, which outperforms dual-photoelectrode PFCs previously reported. Neither costly separating membranes nor Pt-based catalysts are required in the proposed PFC architecture. Our work may inspire rational device designs for cost-effective electricity generation from renewable resources. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  14. Fabrication and properties of ZAO powder, sputtering target materials and the related films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shao; Ruixin Ma; Bin Liu

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al), abbreviated as ZAO, is a novel and widely used transparent conductive material. The ZAO powder was synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The ZAO ceramic sputtering target materials were fabricated by sintering in air, and ZAO transparent conductive films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. XRD proved that such films had an orientation of (002) crystal panel paralleled to the surface of the glass substrate. The average transmittance of the films in the visible region exceeded 80%.

  15. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  16. Length of stay and associated costs of obesity related hospital admissions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vellinga, Akke

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is the cause of other chronic diseases, psychological problems, obesity shortens the lifespan and puts strain on health systems. The risk associated with childhood obesity in particular, which will accelerate the development of adult morbidity and mortality, has been identified as an emerging public health problem. METHODS: To estimate the length of stay and associated hospital costs for obesity related illnesses a cost of illness study was set up. All discharges from all acute hospitals in the Republic of Ireland from 1997 to 2004 with a principal or secondary diagnostic code for obesity for all children from 6 to 18 years of age and for adults were collected.A discharge frequency was calculated by dividing obesity related discharges by the total number of diagnoses (principal and secondary) for each year. The hospital costs related to obesity was calculated based on the total number of days care. RESULTS: The discharge frequency of obesity related conditions increased from 1.14 in 1997 to 1.49 in 2004 for adults and from 0.81 to 1.37 for children. The relative length of stay (number of days in care for obesity related conditions per 1000 days of hospital care given) increased from 1.47 in 1997 to 4.16 in 2004 for children and from 3.68 in 1997 to 6.74 in 2004 for adults.Based on the 2001 figures for cost per inpatient bed day, the annual hospital cost was calculated to be 4.4 Euromillion in 1997, increasing to 13.3 Euromillion in 2004. At a 20% variable hospital cost the cost ranges from 0.9 Euromillion in 1997 to 2.7 Euromillion in 2004; a 200% increase. CONCLUSION: The annual increase in the proportion of hospital discharges related to obesity is alarming. This increase is related to a significant increase in economic costs. This paper emphasises the need for action at an early stage of life. Health promotion and primary prevention of obesity should be high on the political agenda.

  17. Fabrication of large-volume, low-cost ceramic lanthanum halide scintillators for gamma ray detection : final report for DHS/DNDO/TRDD project TA-01-SL01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Yang, Pin; Chen, Ching-Fong; Sanchez, Margaret R.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2008-10-01

    This project uses advanced ceramic processes to fabricate large, optical-quality, polycrystalline lanthanum halide scintillators to replace small single crystals produced by the conventional Bridgman growth method. The new approach not only removes the size constraint imposed by the growth method, but also offers the potential advantages of both reducing manufacturing cost and increasing production rate. The project goal is to fabricate dense lanthanum halide ceramics with a preferred crystal orientation by applying texture engineering and solid-state conversion to reduce the thermal mechanical stress in the ceramic and minimize scintillation light scattering at grain boundaries. Ultimately, this method could deliver the sought-after high sensitivity and <3% energy resolution at 662 keV of lanthanum halide scintillators and unleash their full potential for advanced gamma ray detection, enabling rapid identification of radioactive materials in a variety of practical applications. This report documents processing details from powder synthesis, seed particle growth, to final densification and texture development of cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3}) ceramics. This investigation demonstrated that: (1) A rapid, flexible, cost efficient synthesis method of anhydrous lanthanum halides and their solid solutions was developed. Several batches of ultrafine LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3} powder, free of oxyhalide, were produced by a rigorously controlled process. (2) Micron size ({approx} 5 {micro}m), platelet shape LaBr{sub 3} seed particles of high purity can be synthesized by a vapor phase transport process. (3) High aspect-ratio seed particles can be effectively aligned in the shear direction in the ceramic matrix, using a rotational shear-forming process. (4) Small size, highly translucent LaBr{sub 3} (0.25-inch diameter, 0.08-inch thick) samples were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular consolidation process. (5) Large size, high density

  18. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination. The incorporation of nanosheets within membrane structures can potentially lead to enhancements in such properties as the antifouling ability, hydrophilicy and permeability of membranes, with concomitant improvements in the flux/selectivity balance. Graphene nanosheets and derivatives such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been investigated for this purpose, for example inclusion of nanosheets within the active layer of Reverse Osmosis or Nanofiltration membranes or the blending of nanosheets as fillers within Ultrafiltration membranes. This review summarizes the incorporation of graphene derivatives into polymeric membranes for water treatment with a focus on a number of industrial applications, including desalination and pharmaceutical removal, where enhancement of productivity and reduction in fouling characteristics have been afforded by appropriate incorporation of graphene derived nanosheets during membrane fabrication. PMID:27999364

  19. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lawler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination. The incorporation of nanosheets within membrane structures can potentially lead to enhancements in such properties as the antifouling ability, hydrophilicy and permeability of membranes, with concomitant improvements in the flux/selectivity balance. Graphene nanosheets and derivatives such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been investigated for this purpose, for example inclusion of nanosheets within the active layer of Reverse Osmosis or Nanofiltration membranes or the blending of nanosheets as fillers within Ultrafiltration membranes. This review summarizes the incorporation of graphene derivatives into polymeric membranes for water treatment with a focus on a number of industrial applications, including desalination and pharmaceutical removal, where enhancement of productivity and reduction in fouling characteristics have been afforded by appropriate incorporation of graphene derived nanosheets during membrane fabrication.

  20. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jenny

    2016-12-19

    The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination. The incorporation of nanosheets within membrane structures can potentially lead to enhancements in such properties as the antifouling ability, hydrophilicy and permeability of membranes, with concomitant improvements in the flux/selectivity balance. Graphene nanosheets and derivatives such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been investigated for this purpose, for example inclusion of nanosheets within the active layer of Reverse Osmosis or Nanofiltration membranes or the blending of nanosheets as fillers within Ultrafiltration membranes. This review summarizes the incorporation of graphene derivatives into polymeric membranes for water treatment with a focus on a number of industrial applications, including desalination and pharmaceutical removal, where enhancement of productivity and reduction in fouling characteristics have been afforded by appropriate incorporation of graphene derived nanosheets during membrane fabrication.

  1. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP, to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included, and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios.

  2. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahayni, Malek A.

    2011-07-01

    Finding optimal paths in directed graphs is a wide area of research that has received much of attention in theoretical computer science due to its importance in many applications (e.g., computer networks and road maps). Many algorithms have been developed to solve the optimal paths problem with different kinds of graphs. An algorithm that solves the problem of paths’ optimization in directed graphs relative to different cost functions is described in [1]. It follows an approach extended from the dynamic programming approach as it solves the problem sequentially and works on directed graphs with positive weights and no loop edges. The aim of this thesis is to implement and evaluate that algorithm to find the optimal paths in directed graphs relative to two different cost functions ( , ). A possible interpretation of a directed graph is a network of roads so the weights for the function represent the length of roads, whereas the weights for the function represent a constraint of the width or weight of a vehicle. The optimization aim for those two functions is to minimize the cost relative to the function and maximize the constraint value associated with the function. This thesis also includes finding and proving the relation between the two different cost functions ( , ). When given a value of one function, we can find the best possible value for the other function. This relation is proven theoretically and also implemented and experimented using Matlab®[2].

  3. Fabrication and Testing of Low Cost 2D Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions at NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Shigley, John K.; George, Russ; Roberts, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Subscale liquid engine tests were conducted at NASA/MSFC using a 1.2 Klbf engine with liquid oxygen (LOX) and gaseous hydrogen. Testing was performed for main-stage durations ranging from 10 to 160 seconds at a chamber pressure of 550 psia and a mixture ratio of 5.7. Operating the engine in this manner demonstrated a new and affordable test capability for evaluating subscale nozzles by exposing them to long duration tests. A series of 2D C-C nozzle extensions were manufactured, oxidation protection applied and then tested on a liquid engine test facility at NASA/MSFC. The C-C nozzle extensions had oxidation protection applied using three very distinct methods with a wide range of costs and process times: SiC via Polymer Impregnation & Pyrolysis (PIP), Air Plasma Spray (APS) and Melt Infiltration. The tested extensions were about 6" long with an exit plane ID of about 6.6". The test results, material properties and performance of the 2D C-C extensions and attachment features will be discussed.

  4. Investigation of solar cells fabricated on low-cost silicon sheet materials using 1 MeV electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, A. H.; Hyland, S. L.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of high energy electron irradiation is investigated as a controlled means to study in more detail the junction depletion layer processes of solar cells made on various low-cost silicon sheet materials. Results show that solar cells made on Czochralski grown silicon exhibit enhancement of spectral response in the shorter wavelength region when irradiated with high energy electrons. The base region damage can be reduced by subsequent annealing at 450 C which restores the degraded longer wavelength response, although the shorter wavelength enhancement persists. The second diode component of the cell dark forward bias current is also reduced by electron irradiation, while thermal annealing at 450 C without electron irradiation can also produce these same effects. Electron irradiation produces small changes in the shorter wavelength spectral responses and junction improvements in solar cells made on WEB, EFG, and HEM silicon. It is concluded that these beneficial effects on cell characteristics are due to the reduction of oxygen associated deep level recombination centers in the N(+) diffused layer and in the junction.

  5. Investigation of solar cells fabricated on low-cost silicon sheet materials using 1 MeV electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, A. H.; Hyland, S. L.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of high energy electron irradiation is investigated as a controlled means to study in more detail the junction depletion layer processes of solar cells made on various low-cost silicon sheet materials. Results show that solar cells made on Czochralski grown silicon exhibit enhancement of spectral response in the shorter wavelength region when irradiated with high energy electrons. The base region damage can be reduced by subsequent annealing at 450 C which restores the degraded longer wavelength response, although the shorter wavelength enhancement persists. The second diode component of the cell dark forward bias current is also reduced by electron irradiation, while thermal annealing at 450 C without electron irradiation can also produce these same effects. Electron irradiation produces small changes in the shorter wavelength spectral responses and junction improvements in solar cells made on WEB, EFG, and HEM silicon. It is concluded that these beneficial effects on cell characteristics are due to the reduction of oxygen associated deep level recombination centers in the N(+) diffused layer and in the junction.

  6. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as...ARMY PACIFIC PATHWAYS Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance...the costs of Pacific Pathways. The corrected section should read: “For fiscal year 2015, the three Pathway operations cost a total of $34.5 million

  7. 42 CFR 413.130 - Introduction to capital-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital-related costs. 413.130 Section 413.130 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... depreciable assets under § 413.134(f). (2) Taxes on land or depreciable assets used for patient care....

  8. The Social Costs of Health-related Early Retirement in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Stolpe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel, we study how stratification in health and income contributes to the social cost of health-related early retirement, the balance of lost labour income and health benefits. On average, early retirees improve their health by almost two thirds...

  9. Control of systems with costs related to switching: applications to air-condition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo (Deng), Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a low complexity method for controlling systems with binary inputs that have costs related to switching. The control objective for this type of systems is often a trade off between the deviation from the reference and the number of switches (weariness...

  10. Adaptation costs for climate change-related cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L

    2008-01-01

    Background Climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, with larger burdens projected in the future as weather patterns continue to change. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. Limited work has been done to estimate the costs of adapting to these additional health burdens. Methods The costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition (stunting and wasting only), and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using (1) the current numbers of cases; (2) the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3) current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration of socioeconomic development. Results Under a scenario assuming emissions reductions resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030 were estimated to be $4 to 12 billion. This is almost as much as current total annual overseas development assistance for health. Conclusion The investment needs in the health sector to address climate-sensitive health outcomes are large. Additional human and financial resources will be needed to prevent and control the projected increased burden of health outcomes due to climate change. PMID:18803827

  11. Adaptation costs for climate change-related cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebi Kristie L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, with larger burdens projected in the future as weather patterns continue to change. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. Limited work has been done to estimate the costs of adapting to these additional health burdens. Methods The costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition (stunting and wasting only, and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using (1 the current numbers of cases; (2 the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3 current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration of socioeconomic development. Results Under a scenario assuming emissions reductions resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030 were estimated to be $4 to 12 billion. This is almost as much as current total annual overseas development assistance for health. Conclusion The investment needs in the health sector to address climate-sensitive health outcomes are large. Additional human and financial resources will be needed to prevent and control the projected increased burden of health outcomes due to climate change.

  12. A cost-effective method to fabricate VO{sub 2} (M) nanoparticles and films with excellent thermochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [CAS Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiao, Xiudi, E-mail: xiaoxd@ms.giec.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu, Xuanming [CAS Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Guanqi; Sun, Yaoming; Zhan, Yongjun; Xu, Gang [CAS Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Via solvent–thermal and pyrolysis method, VO{sub 2} (M) powder was synthesized in air. • Aiding by grinding, VO{sub 2} (M) nanoparticles with the size of 22 nm were obtained. • The VO{sub 2} films show great thermochromic properties with T{sub lum} = 62.1% and ΔT{sub sol} = 12.4%. • The haze is down to 1.9%, which is superior with films prepared by other methods. - Abstract: In this paper, high crystallinity and pure phase VO{sub 2} (M) powder is synthesized by a novel and facile method. Aiding by additional manual grinding and etching process, 22 nm high-quality VO{sub 2} (M) nanoparticles can be obtained. The structure and properties of the VO{sub 2} (M) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer. After mixing VO{sub 2} (M) nanoparticles with transparent polymer, thin films prepared by grinded VO{sub 2} nanoparticles show excellent thermochromic properties. The solar modulation ability is up to 12.4% with luminous transmittance of 62.7%. Moreover, The haze of films prepared by grinded VO{sub 2} (M) nanoparticles is down to 1.9%, which is far less than that of films prepared by original VO{sub 2} (Haze = 8.5%) and etched VO{sub 2} particles (Haze = 4.6%). Dramatical improvement of thermochromic property and definition indicate that it is a promising method to prepare large-scale VO{sub 2} nanoparticles and cost-effective smart window.

  13. Work-related stress in Australia: The effects of legislative interventions and the cost of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Ciccarelli, Marina; Babic, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare data published in 2002 shows a continued rise in health care costs to the Australian community due to the growing number of people diagnosed with mental health disorders. Those mental health disorders may originate from a number of sources, including work and non-work-related factors. The so called work-related stress claims in all Australian jurisdictions are the most expensive form of workers compensation claim. In the most part this is due to the lengthy period of absence (duration) and complicated medical care which are characteristic of these claims. In Australia, in the last decade, attempts have been made to reduce the costs of compensable stress-related claims by imposing special legislative thresholds on such claims. This 'back end' approach to cost reduction has resulted in an array of legislative formula designed to exclude work-related stress claims. This article surveys the various legislative provisions dealing with work-related stress claims in Australia and provides an analysis of their effectiveness. A range of options are presented as alternatives to the exclusion of particular forms of work-related stress claims. The use of a corporate citizenship approach to the prevention and management of stress claims is also discussed as a proactive alternative to occupational safety and health legislative provisions and the workers compensation legislative exclusions.

  14. Oxidative discharge printing process of denim fabric with low cost%低成本靛蓝牛仔布氧化拔染印花工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瀛洲

    2013-01-01

      借鉴苯胺黑黑地防染印花工艺中的氯酸钠和黄血盐钾氧化组合,作为靛蓝氧化拔染剂,以柠檬酸为酸性介质,可以实现靛蓝牛仔布的氧化拔染印花,还可以用于靛蓝套染硫化染料或直接染料地色拔染印花等。生产中根据拔染效果和织物强力,可以调整氯酸钠和黄血盐钾用量和酸的用量,比商品靛蓝拔染剂如拔染剂C-100、拔染剂JN等更有优势,印花成本低,制浆采用冷法制备,简便快捷、汽蒸时间短、工艺条件可控、重现性好,能有效控制织物的强力损失。无甲醛使靛蓝拔染印花获得新生。%In view of the combination of sodium chlorate and yellow prussiate of potash used in black-based dye-resist printing process for aniline black as oxidative discharging agent, oxidative discharge printing of denim fabric can be realized through citric acid used as acidic medium. This kind combination can also be applied in the discharge printing based on sulfur dye or direct dye used with indigo. The dosage of sodium chlorate, yellow prussiate of potash and acid can be adjusted according to discharge effect and fabric strength in manufacture. It is superior to commercial discharging agents such as discharging agent C-100 and discharging agent JN due to low cost. The paste is prepared by cold method, which presented advantages as simpleness, rapidness, short steaming time, controlled technological conditions, good reproducibility and effective control the loss of fabric strength. Moreover, the formaldehyde-free process recreates indigo discharge printing.

  15. Costs of home care for advanced breast and cervical cancer in relation to cost-effectiveness of screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); B.M. van Ineveld (Martin); T.E.M. Miltenburg (T. E M)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The costs of home care in the Netherlands are estimated for women with advanced breast and cervical cancer. We observe a growing role of intensive home care for the terminally ill patients. The average costs of home care are dfl 8500 per patient for breast cancer patien

  16. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  17. Comparative treatment-related adverse event cost burden in immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donga, Prina Z; Bilir, Sara P; Little, Gregg; Babinchak, Tim; Munakata, Julie

    2017-09-08

    Real-world evidence on the safety profile and costs associated with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) treatment in adults is lacking. This study quantifies and compares adverse event (AE) crude rates and costs associated with ITP treatments as found in claims data. A retrospective claims-based analysis was conducted using IMS Pharmetrics Plus database. Included patients were ≥18 years old, with a diagnosis of ITP (2007-2012); an ITP-related claim for anti-D, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), rituximab, romiplostim, or eltrombopag; and 1-year continuous enrollment (3-years for rituximab) during follow-up. AEs and event costs were identified during active treatment, defined from the first claim of each drug to a pre-defined treatment gap or end of study period. Descriptive statistics were reported with Wilcoxon rank-sum significance tests. A total of 2,518 patients were identified (mean age = 50.8 (±16.3 years); 55.8% male). Of all patients, 22.8% experienced any AE. Significantly fewer anti-D patients had any AE (13.8% vs IVIG: 21.1%, rituximab: 29.4%, romiplostim: 28.1%, eltrombopag: 22.4%). Nausea/vomiting and arthralgia/musculoskeletal pain were most common across treatments, and hemolytic events did not differ significantly across treatments. Most costly AEs were urinary tract infection, aseptic meningitis, and fever ($5000+/case); headache, nasal congestion, and hemolytic event were $4,000-5,000/case. Cost per AE did not differ by treatment. Although lower than trial-based AE rates, claims for ITP treatment-related AEs are common, with higher numbers for rituximab and lower numbers for anti-D. This disparity suggests a possible differential cost burden overall that future analysis should explore.

  18. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel-cost assessment. Final report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    This program, contracted to provide a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment, comprised the following basic activities: establish agreement on the ground rules for cost assessment, prepare a fuel factory flow sheet, and prepare a cost assessment for fuel assembly fabrication. Two factory sizes, 250 and 25 MTHM/year, were considered for fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment. The work on this program involved utilizing GE LMFBR cost assessment and fuel factory studies experience to provide a cost assessment of GCFR fuel assembly fabrication. The recent impact of highly sensitive safety and safeguards environment policies on fuel factory containment, safety, quality assurance and safeguards costs are significantly higher than might have been expected just a few years ago. Fuel assembly fabrication costs are significant because they represent an estimated 30 to 60% of the total fuel cycle costs. In light of the relative high cost of fabrication, changes in the core and assembly design may be necessary in order to enhance the overall fuel cycle economics. Fabrication costs are based on similar operations and experience used in other fuel cycle studies. Because of extrapolation of present technology (e.g., remote fuel fabrication versus present contact fabrication) and regulatory requirements, conservative cost estimates were made.

  19. Cost analysis of skeletal-related events in Spanish patients with bone metastases from solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, I; Garzón, C; Sánchez, A; García-Carbonero, I; Pérez-Gracia, J L; Seguí-Palmer, M Á; Wei, R; Restovic, G; Gasquet, J A; Gutiérrez, L

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the cost per skeletal-related event (SRE) in patients with bone metastases secondary to solid tumours in the Spanish healthcare setting. Patients diagnosed with bone metastases secondary to breast, prostate or lung cancer were included in this multicentre, observational study. SREs are defined as pathologic fracture (vertebral and non-vertebral fracture), radiation to bone, spinal cord compression or surgery to bone. Health resource utilisation associated with these events (inpatient stays, outpatient, emergency room and home health visits, nursing home stays and procedures) were collected retrospectively for all SREs that occurred in the 97 days prior to enrolment and prospectively during follow-up. Unit costs were obtained from the 2010 eSalud healthcare costs database. A total of 93 Spanish patients with solid tumours were included (31 had breast cancer, 21 prostate cancer and 41 lung cancer), contributing a total of 143 SREs to this cost analysis. Inpatient stays (between 9.0 and 29.9 days of mean length of stay per inpatient stay by SRE type) and outpatient visits (between 1.7 and 6.4 mean visits per SRE type) were the most frequently reported types of health resources utilised. The mean cost per SRE was between 2,377.79 (radiation to bone) and 7,902.62 (spinal cord compression). SREs are associated with a significant consumption of healthcare resources that generate a substantial economic burden for the Spanish healthcare system.

  20. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  1. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  2. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations.

  3. Costs of treating patients with schizophrenia who have illness-related crisis events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiaomei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the relationship between psychosocial crises and treatment costs for persons with schizophrenia. This naturalistic prospective study assessed the association of recent crises with mental health treatment costs among persons receiving treatment for schizophrenia. Methods Data were drawn from a large multi-site, non-interventional study of schizophrenia patients in the United States, conducted between 1997 and 2003. Participants were treated at mental health treatment systems, including the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals, community mental health centers, community and state hospitals, and university health care service systems. Total costs over a 1-year period for mental health services and component costs (psychiatric hospitalizations, antipsychotic medications, other psychotropic medications, day treatment, emergency psychiatric services, psychosocial/rehabilitation group therapy, individual therapy, medication management, and case management were calculated for 1557 patients with complete medical information. Direct mental health treatment costs for patients who had experienced 1 or more of 5 recent crisis events were compared to propensity-matched samples of persons who had not experienced a crisis event. The 5 non-mutually exclusive crisis event subgroups were: suicide attempt in the past 4 weeks (n = 18, psychiatric hospitalization in the past 6 months (n = 240, arrest in the past 6 months (n = 56, violent behaviors in the past 4 weeks (n = 62, and diagnosis of a co-occurring substance use disorder (n = 413. Results Across all 5 categories of crisis events, patients who had a recent crisis had higher average annual mental health treatment costs than patients in propensity-score matched comparison samples. Average annual mental health treatment costs were significantly higher for persons who attempted suicide ($46,024, followed by persons with psychiatric hospitalization in

  4. Effect of medication reconciliation on medication costs after hospital discharge in relation to hospital pharmacy labor costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Karapinar-Çarkit (Fatma); S.D. Borgsteede (Sander); J. Zoer (Jan); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation aims to correct discrepancies in medication use between health care settings and to check the quality of pharmacotherapy to improve effectiveness and safety. In addition, medication reconciliation might also reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the

  5. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Abubeker, Jewahir Ali

    2011-05-14

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of an algorithm for sequential optimization of paths in directed graphs relative to di_erent cost functions. The considered algorithm is based on an extension of dynamic programming which allows to represent the initial set of paths and the set of optimal paths after each application of optimization procedure in the form of a directed acyclic graph.

  6. The design and fabrication of the satellite relative-movement trajectory simulator for inter-satellite laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Liu, Liren; Yun, Maojin; Zhang, Dejiang; Xu, Nan

    2005-08-01

    The characteristics of the terminals for the inter-satellite laser communication must be tested and verified on ground before flight test. Satellite relative-movement trajectory optical simulator is one of the most important devices of the ground test and verification system. It is used for simulation of the relative-movement between arbitrary satellites. Cooperating with the standard satellite laser communication terminal, the dynamical performance such as acquisition time and probability, pointing accuracy and tracking accuracy etc, of the terminal to be tested can be obtained. To keep the base of the terminal to be tested fixed, the clear aperture must be relatively large compare to the terminal's effect aperture. And for the practical application as well as in considering the size of optical glass commercially available, the optical aperture of the scanner was determined as φ420mm, the random accuracy for the simulation is 50-200μrad, Scanning angular coverage: azimuth +/-180°, elevation +/-15°. So the satellite relative-movement trajectory simulator belongs to the large-scale high-precision opto-mechanic and electrical equipment. In this paper, the design and fabrication of the simulator are introduced in detail. The simulator has the features as compact in construction, high accuracy in measurement, simple realization of the far-field condition in the near-field use, and direct simulation of 2D trajectory and consists of eight main elements: two wedge prisms, two pairs of worm and gear, damping gears, two actuating motors, two damping motors, rotating optical encoders, control computer and relevant electronics and mechanisms. The motivation of the design is to improve the accuracy as high as possible. The fabrication of the element of the simulator is stringent because of large-scale and high accuracy. For example, to solve the gap problem of the transmission mechanics, the damping method is introduced to the system. During the progress of the design and

  7. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  8. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sultan, Benjamin; Vautard, Robert; Braconnot, Pascale; Wang, Huijun J; Ducharne, Agnes

    2016-04-26

    Global climate change will increase the frequency of hot temperatures, impairing health and productivity for millions of working people and raising labor costs. In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far. Here, we estimate the potential HTS cost in current and future climates under different scenarios of socioeconomic development and radiative forcing (Representative Concentration Pathway), taking uncertainties from the climate model structure and bias correction into account. On average, the total HTS in China is estimated at 38.6 billion yuan/y (US $6.22 billion/y) over the 1979-2005 period, which is equivalent to 0.2% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Assuming that the HTS standards (per employee per hot day) remain unchanged throughout the 21st century, the total HTS may reach 250 billion yuan/y in the 2030s and 1,000 billion yuan/y in 2100. We further show that, without specific adaptation, the increased HTS cost is mainly determined by population growth until the 2030s and climate change after the mid-21st century because of increasingly frequent hot weather. Accounting for the likely possibility that HTS standards follow the wages, the share of GDP devoted to HTS could become as high as 3% at the end of 21st century.

  9. Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Device Structures: Background, Fabrication Ecosystem, Relevance to Space Systems Applications, and Discussion of Related Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Electronic integrated circuits are considered one of the most significant technological advances of the 20th century, with demonstrated impact in their ability to incorporate successively higher numbers transistors and construct electronic devices onto a single CMOS chip. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) exist as the optical analog to integrated circuits; however, in place of transistors, PICs consist of numerous scaled optical components, including such "building-block" structures as waveguides, MMIs, lasers, and optical ring resonators. The ability to construct electronic and photonic components on a single microsystems platform offers transformative potential for the development of technologies in fields including communications, biomedical device development, autonomous navigation, and chemical and atmospheric sensing. Developing on-chip systems that provide new avenues for integration and replacement of bulk optical and electro-optic components also reduces size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) limitations, which are important in the selection of instrumentation for specific flight projects. The number of applications currently emerging for complex photonics systems-particularly in data communications-warrants additional investigations when considering reliability for space systems development. This Body of Knowledge document seeks to provide an overview of existing integrated photonics architectures; the current state of design, development, and fabrication ecosystems in the United States and Europe; and potential space applications, with emphasis given to associated radiation effects and reliability.

  10. Cost of osteoporosis-related fracture in Italy. Results of the BLOCK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Degli Esposti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to calculate the cost of illness of osteoporosis and to assess drug utilization patterns in postmenopausal women after a fracture-related hospitalization. The study subjects were enrolled from a large population-based administrative database. Female patients (age ≥ 65 years who were hospitalized for a typical osteoporotic fracture between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2005 were included. Patients were classified as exposed/unexposed to treatment according to the presence/absence of at least one prescription for an osteoporosis-related medication in the 6 months following the discharge date. Treatment adherence was calculated for patients who were exposed to bisphosphonate therapy and was defined as at least 80% of treatment coverage during the follow-up period of 18 months after the discharge date. Hospitalizations, medications, diagnostic tests, laboratory tests and specialist visits during the 18-month follow-up period were collected and classified as osteoporosis-related or non-related to osteoporosis. A total of 12,376 patients were included in the study (mean age ± SD, 79.1 ± 7.5 years, out of which 97.9% (n = 12,110 were hospitalized due to an osteoporosis-related fracture and only 2.1% (n = 266 had general osteoporosis diagnosis. Among the 12,110 women with a fracture, 15.2% (n = 1,845 had a subsequent fracture-related hospitalization (63.8% of the patients had hip fracture. Only 32.3% (n = 4,001 of all included patients was exposed to osteoporosis-related medications and out of those patients exposed to bisphosphonates (n = 860 only 34.2% (n = 294 was adherent to therapy. The average cost per patient was € 4,481, of which € 1,089 was for osteoporosis-related and € 3,392 for non-osteoporosis-related items. The average cost of a matching cohort of patients without hospitalizations for fracture was € 2,339. Among osteoporosis-related costs, 87.0% was due to hospitalizations for subsequent fractures

  11. Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being.

  12. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p health care costs depending on whether they achieved monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  13. Frequency, types, and direct related costs of medication errors in an academic nephrology ward in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharekhani, Afshin; Kanani, Negin; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2014-09-01

    Medication errors are ongoing problems among hospitalized patients especially those with multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy such as patients with renal diseases. This study evaluated the frequency, types and direct related cost of medication errors in nephrology ward and the role played by clinical pharmacists. During this study, clinical pharmacists detected, managed, and recorded the medication errors. Prescribing errors including inappropriate drug, dose, or treatment durations were gathered. To assess transcription errors, the equivalence of nursery charts and physician's orders were evaluated. Administration errors were assessed by observing drugs' preparation, storage, and administration by nurses. The changes in medications costs after implementing clinical pharmacists' interventions were compared with the calculated medications costs if the medication errors were continued up to patients' discharge time. More than 85% of patients experienced medication error. The rate of medication errors was 3.5 errors per patient and 0.18 errors per ordered medication. More than 95% of medication errors occurred at prescription nodes. Most common prescribing errors were omission (26.9%) or unauthorized drugs (18.3%) and low drug dosage or frequency (17.3%). Most of the medication errors happened on cardiovascular drugs (24%) followed by vitamins and electrolytes (22.1%) and antimicrobials (18.5%). The number of medication errors was correlated with the number of ordered medications and length of hospital stay. Clinical pharmacists' interventions decreased patients' direct medication costs by 4.3%. About 22% of medication errors led to patients' harm. In conclusion, clinical pharmacists' contributions in nephrology wards were of value to prevent medication errors and to reduce medications cost.

  14. Treatment of patients with severe burns-costs and health-related quality of life outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Virve; Laitila, Markku; Rissanen, Anne M; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2013-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with severe burns, the authors collected health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data with the 15D instrument, 17 to 29 months after treatment had commenced at the national burns unit. The costs of each patient's secondary care treatment were followed for a mean of 66 months. During the 1-year study period, 107 patients were treated at the burns unit, eight for scar surgery, the remainder for primary treatment of a burn injury; 19 had died or could not be located during the time of the HRQoL survey. Of the remaining 88 patients, 43 (49%; mean [SD] age 45.7 [14.8] years; 70% men) returned the questionnaire. Their mean (SD) HRQoL score (0.909[0.113]) was only slightly, and not significantly, lower than that of the age- and sex- standardized general population (0.928[0.080]). The mean (SD) secondary care cost of burn treatment of for all the 107 patients, over the 60- to 72-month observation time, was 42,838 USD (73,569 USD; range 1319-34,8741 USD). The largest portion of the total cost was because of inpatient treatment (61%) followed by operations (22%), and outpatient visits. In addition to the costs of burns treatment, the patients consumed other secondary care services to a value of nearly 12,229 USD. The HRQoL in patients treated for severe burns is good, thus the observed high-treatment costs can be considered acceptable.

  15. Sequence effect in Parkinson’s disease is related to motor energetic cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule eTinaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bradykinesia is the most disabling motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The sequence effect, a feature of bradykinesia, refers to the rapid decrement in amplitude and speed of repetitive movements (e.g., gait, handwriting and is a major cause of morbidity in PD. Previous research has revealed mixed results regarding the role of dopaminergic treatment in the sequence effect. However, external cueing has been shown to improve it. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sequence effect systematically and relate this phenomenon to the energetic cost of movement within the context of cost-benefit framework of motor control. We used a dynamic isometric motor task with auditory pacing to assess the sequence effect in motor output during a 15 s task segment in PD patients and matched controls. All participants performed the task with both hands, and without and with visual feedback. Patients were also tested in on- and off-dopaminergic states. Patients in the off state did not show higher sequence effect compared to controls, partly due to large variance in their performance. However, patients in the on state and in the absence of visual feedback, showed significantly higher sequence effect compared to controls. Patients expended higher total motor energy compared to controls in all conditions and regardless of their medication status. In this experimental situation, the sequence effect in PD is associated with the cumulative energetic cost of movement. Dopaminergic treatment, critical for internal triggering of movement, fails to maintain the motor vigor across responses. The high motor cost may be related to failure to incorporate limbic/motivational cues into the motor plan. Visual feedback may facilitate performance by shifting the driving of movement from internal to external, or, alternatively, by functioning as a motivational cue.

  16. A study on bicycle-related injuries and their costs in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Rahim, Yousif; Zhou, De-Ding

    2011-01-01

    China is known as the Bicycle Kingdom, but the nature, extent, and costs of bicycle-related injuries remain largely unknown. The authors' findings showed that the bicycle-related mortality rate increased 99% from 1992 to 2004, and it increased with age, from 0.64 per 100,000 population in the 0-14 age group to 5.93 per 100,000 population in the 65 and older age group. Labor force groups represented the majority of fatalities (70.8%) and nonfatal injuries (81.5%). The male mortality rate was 2.4 times higher than the female mortality rate. Head injuries accounted for 71.9% of fatalities and 33.1% of the hospitalizations. People with lower levels of education had higher injury rates. The poorer districts located in the countryside had the highest mortality rates compared to those located in the central, wealthier regions. The total annual cost of bicycle-related injuries was 1.1 billion CHY (Chinese Yuan) (over $137 million U.S.). To reduce bicycle-related injuries, mandatory helmet legislations, environmental modifications, and representative monitoring systems in China are required.

  17. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Helen Harding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A] were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK. Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A. The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  18. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Frost, Gillian A; Tan, Emma; Tsuchiya, Aki; Mason, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A]) were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK). Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A). The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  19. ARE THE TOTAL DAILY COST OF FOOD AND DIET QUALITY RELATED: A RANDOM EFFECTS PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Andrea; Dong, Diansheng; Lino, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a common perception that healthy food costs more than less healthy food. In this study we use a demand model for diet quality, rather than the quantity of food. Since in our data, total daily cost and diet quality are both calculated from the foods chosen, we account for the fact that cost is endogenous. We find that while total daily food cost is statistically significant in relation to diet quality, the degree of association is very small. Hence, it does not appear that cost alone ...

  20. A bonnet and fluid jet polishing facility for optics fabrication related to the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    A robotic polishing machine has been implemented at INAF-Brera Astronomical Observatory within the T-REX project. The facility, IRP1200 by Zeeko Ltd., consists of a 7-axis computer-controlled polishing/forming machine capable of producing precision surfaces on several optical materials. The machine enables two methods, the bonnet and the fluid jet polishing. We report on the results of the standard bonnet polishing machine acceptance tests that have been completed at our site. We intend to use the machine to support development and production programs related to the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), in particular, for making part of the optics of the Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) module.

  1. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  2. Sequential Optimization of Global Sequence Alignments Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present a methodology to model global sequence alignment problem as directed acyclic graph which helps to extract all possible optimal alignments. Moreover, a mechanism to sequentially optimize sequence alignment problem relative to different cost functions is suggested. Sequence alignment is mostly important in computational biology. It is used to find evolutionary relationships between biological sequences. There are many algo- rithms that have been developed to solve this problem. The most famous algorithms are Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman that are based on dynamic program- ming. In dynamic programming, problem is divided into a set of overlapping sub- problems and then the solution of each subproblem is found. Finally, the solutions to these subproblems are combined into a final solution. In this thesis it has been proved that for two sequences of length m and n over a fixed alphabet, the suggested optimization procedure requires O(mn) arithmetic operations per cost function on a single processor machine. The algorithm has been simulated using C#.Net programming language and a number of experiments have been done to verify the proved statements. The results of these experiments show that the number of optimal alignments is reduced after each step of optimization. Furthermore, it has been verified that as the sequence length increased linearly then the number of optimal alignments increased exponentially which also depends on the cost function that is used. Finally, the number of executed operations increases polynomially as the sequence length increase linearly.

  3. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY...; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) published February 1,...

  4. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables.

  5. The Relation Between Structure-Performance of Thin Film Composite Membranes and the Tools Used for Their Fabrication Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Kelly; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Guo, Haofei

    For more than 30 years polyimides (PA) have been one of the main polymers for the fabrication of thin film composite membranes. Several researchers have assessed the main fabrication variables that influence the final structure of the polyamide layers including monomer concentration, solvents...

  6. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  7. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. A high-performance and low cost SERS substrate of plasmonic nanopillars on plastic film fabricated by nanoimprint lithography with AAO template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yuanshen; Du, Wei; Li, Bin; Cui, Yushuang; Yuan, Changsheng; Zhan, Peng; Ge, Haixiong; Wang, Zhenling; Chen, Yanfeng

    2017-06-01

    As a powerful spectroscopy technique, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can provide non-destructive and sensitive characterization down to a single molecular level. Aiming to the main challenges of high-performance SERS-active substrates for their real-world applications involving the ultra-sensitive and reproducible signals detection and signal uniformity with large-area, herein, a facile and reliable strategy based on combination of thermal imprinting polycarbonate (PC) film with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold and E-beam evaporation of gold is provided to fabricate a high-quality SERS-active substrate consisting of ultra-dense hot-spots with large-area uniformity. Two kinds of sub-10 nm gaps were obtained, including the nanogaps between the neighboring gold coated PC-nanopillars and those between gold on the top of the nanopillars and that on the base, which actually build up a three-dimensional (3D) hot-spot network for high-performance SERS detection. The effect of structural parameters on SERS enhancement was investigated numerically and experimentally, and by optimizing the structural parameters, a remarkable average SERS enhancement factor up to of 1.4×108 is achieved and it shows an excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 18%, which allows for enhanced practicability in the application of quantitative biochemical detection.

  9. Nanocrystalline transparent SnO{sub 2}-ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Philominathan, P. [P. G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613503 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Nanocrystalline and transparent conducting SnO{sub 2}- ZnO films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at relatively low substrate temperature (360{+-}5 C) compared with conventional spray method. The structural studies reveal that the SnO{sub 2}-ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (101) plane. The dislocation density is very low (1.48 x 10{sup 15}lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the good crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 26-34 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 85% and 3.6 eV respectively. The sheet resistance increases from 8.74 k{omega}/{open_square} to 32.4 k{omega}/{open_square} as the zinc concentration increases from 0 to 40 at.%. The films were found to have desirable figure of merit (1.63 x 10{sup -2} ({omega}/{open_square}){sup -1}), low temperature coefficient of resistance (-1.191/K) and good thermal stability. This simplified spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO{sub 2} - ZnO films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Current and Future Incidence and Costs of Osteoporosis-Related Fractures in the Netherlands : Combining Claims Data with BMD Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.B. Lötters (Freek); J.P.W. van den Bergh (Joop); F. de Vries (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study aims to estimate the incidence and costs of osteoporosis-related fractures in The Netherlands in 2010 and project them to 2030. The incidence and costs of five different types of fractures (spine, hip, upper extremity, lower extremity, wrist/distal forearm, other) were der

  11. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  12. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  13. The influence of (toll-related) travel costs in residential location decisions of households : A stated choice approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; van Wee, B.; Ettema, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of travel costs, in particular toll costs, on the residential location choice of households, using a stated choice survey. Within the stated choice experiment, car drivers that frequently face traffic congestion, traded-off several trip-related (including

  14. Current and Future Incidence and Costs of Osteoporosis-Related Fractures in the Netherlands : Combining Claims Data with BMD Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.B. Lötters (Freek); J.P.W. van den Bergh (Joop); F. de Vries (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study aims to estimate the incidence and costs of osteoporosis-related fractures in The Netherlands in 2010 and project them to 2030. The incidence and costs of five different types of fractures (spine, hip, upper extremity, lower extremity, wrist/distal forearm, other) were

  15. Current and Future Incidence and Costs of Osteoporosis-Related Fractures in The Netherlands: Combining Claims Data with BMD Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.B. Lötters (Freek); J.P.W. van den Bergh (Joop); F. de Vries (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to estimate the incidence and costs of osteoporosis-related fractures in The Netherlands in 2010 and project them to 2030. The incidence and costs of five different types of fractures (spine, hip, upper extremity, lower extremity, wrist/distal forearm, other) were derived

  16. Direct diabetes-related costs in young patients with early-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0-4 years of age within the years 1993-1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2 years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9 years, as of 31.12.2007. Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV. Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance. Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. RESULTS: Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943-4,881. Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%, followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%, diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1% and insulin (18.4%. Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group.

  17. [Costs of appendicitis treatment by diagnosis-related groups in a third-level pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Araceli; Venegas-Dávalos, Martha; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Ambriz-González, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are widely used in Europe. They allow performing comparisons in hospitals and incurrent hospital payment systems, defining the payment categories. We undertook this study to classify children who underwent appendectomy according to DRGs. Cross-sectional study. Comorbidities, length of hospitalization, histopathologic classification, and DRG classifications were analyzed. We included 313 patients, 62% males, with an average age of 8 ± 3 years; 91% were referred by another hospital and 67% were treated at night. Average length of hospitalization was 4 ± 3 days. There were comorbidities in 8% and surgical complications in 11%. According to histopathology, appendicitis was edematous (11%), suppurative (36%), gangrenous (22%), perforated (29%), and abscessed (2%). At discharge, 97% of the patients were healthy. Total cost for DRG 343 was $10,470,173.00 (Mexican pesos), DRG 342 was $1,227,592.00 and DRG 340 was $511,521.00. The global amount was $12,209,286.00 (Mexican pesos). The unitary cost for treatment of appendectomy for DRG 343 was $37,935.00, for DRG 342 was $49,103.00 and for DRG 340 was $42,626.00 (Mexican pesos). Because 88% of the cases of appendicitis were uncomplicated, this amount of money could be spent to treat these patients in a second-level hospital, using reimbursement 343 without generating additional expenses.

  18. Leaf Construction Cost and Related Ecophysiological Parameters of Rice Crop and Its Important Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vartika SINGH; Hema SINGH

    2012-01-01

    To understand the reason for the success of weeds,we investigated the energetic cost of leaf construction,and certain ecophysiological traits of rice and its dominant weeds.On physiological basis among all weeds,Caesulia axillaris Roxburgh was found to be the most serious,followed by Echinochloa cruss-galli L.Beauv and Echinochloa colonum L.Link,while Fimbristylis miliaceae L.Vahl and Cyperus iria L.were moderate weeds of the rice fields.C.axillaris had the lowest leaf construction cost (LCC) both on a mass basis (1.15 g/g) and on a unit area basis (22.93 g/m2).Comparatively higher specific leaf area,photosynthetic rate,photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency,leaf area ratio and leaf area index provided C.axillaris with further competitive advantage.Low LCC suggests that weeds utilize carbon resource more efficiently than the crop and potentially spend the saved energy on other competitive strategies viz.seed production,biomass production and high relative growth rate,which results in low crop yield and increase in weed seed bank.

  19. Differences in metabolic costs of terrestrial mobility in two closely related species of albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Alexander P; Phillips, Richard A; Croxall, John P; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys typically colonise steeper habitats than grey-headed albatrosses T. chrysostoma. The present study investigated the effect of colony philopatry on terrestrial locomotory ability in these two species, to determine: (1) if there is a difference in terrestrial locomotory ability between these two closely related species, and (2) what physiological or behavioural adaptations may account for any differences identified. We examined the metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency on an incline, and gait characteristics of terrestrial locomotion of these two species on both level and inclined planes. T. chrysostoma were able to perform at a significantly greater speed than T. melanophrys without reaching a significantly different maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). Conversely, T. melanophrys were able to move up a significantly steeper incline than T. chrysostoma while maintaining a similar maximal V(O(2)). Each species demonstrates stride length, force production (behavioural) and leg length (morphological) adaptations that minimise the cost of traversing their chosen colonies, indicating a clear relationship between terrestrial performance and local topography. However, it is not possible to determine if the difference in locomotory ability results from differences in colony topography, or if choice of colony site is dictated by the ability of the species to traverse different terrain.

  20. Theoretical investigation of fabrication-related disorders on the properties of subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Changjun; Veronis, Georgios

    2010-09-27

    We theoretically investigate the effect of fabrication-related disorders on subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides. We use a Monte Carlo method to calculate the roughness-induced excess attenuation coefficient with respect to a smooth waveguide. For small roughness height, the excess optical power loss due to disorder is small compared to the material loss in a smooth waveguide. However, for large roughness height, the excess attenuation increases rapidly with height and the propagation length of the optical mode is severely affected. We find that the excess attenuation is mainly due to reflection from the rough surfaces. However, for small roughness correlation lengths, enhanced absorption is the dominant loss mechanism due to disorder. We also find that the disorder attenuation due to reflection is approximately maximized when the power spectral density of the disordered surfaces at the Bragg spatial frequency is maximized. Finally, we show that increasing the modal confinement or decreasing the guide wavelength, increase the attenuation due to disorder.

  1. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernych, Margarita; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Eimantas, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively) completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70-80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant's predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test), followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index) during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05) for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the changes in the garment

  2. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cernych

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70–80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant’s predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test, followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05 for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the

  3. Decreasing catheter-related infection and hospital costs by continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J; Ball, S

    1996-10-01

    a) To reduce the rate of catheter-related infection, using improved skin preparation and catheters impregnated with silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine; b) to decrease the number of unnecessary guidewire exchanges of existing catheters by substituting suspected catheter-related sepsis for fever alone as an indication to change an indwelling catheter; and c) to decrease the hospital costs associated with guidewire exchanges and new catheter insertions. Sequential, prospective, descriptive studies using a continuous quality management approach. A 20-bed trauma intensive care unit at a university teaching hospital. Patients (n = 147) admitted from July 1 to December 31, 1992 (phase 1); 34 patients admitted in June and September 1993 (phase 2); and 156 patients admitted between January 1 and June 30, 1994 (phase 3). Phase 1: Proportions of catheter-related infections and catheter-related bacteremia were compared with our prior reported results. Indications for guidewire exchange were analyzed, and the rate of catheter-related infection for each indication was derived. Phase 2: The rate of catheter-related infection was determined for a trial group of triple-lumen catheters impregnated with silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine. Phase 3: Four components were altered. Impregnated triple-lumen catheters were used instead of unprotected catheters. Chlorhexidine skin cleanser was substituted for povidone-iodine solution during initial aseptic preparation during catheter insertion and subsequent guidewire exchange. Suspected catheter-related sepsis was substituted for fever as an indication for guidewire exchange. The "safe" period (the time before considering changing a catheter because catheter-related sepsis was suspected) was extended from 2 to 4 days. The overall rate of catheter-related infection in phase 1 was 15% (15% for triple-lumen catheters and 16% for introducers). Catheters changed for site inflammation had a 46% rate of catheter-related infection

  4. Risk factors for cost-related medication non-adherence among older patients with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; X; Zhang; Jhee; U; Lee; David; O; Meltzer

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk factors for cost-related medication non-adherence(CRN) among older patients with diabetes in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study to assess risk factors for CRN including age, drug insurance coverage, nursing home residence, functional limitations, and frequency of hospitalization. CRN was self-reported. We conducted multivariate regression analysis to assess the effect of each risk factor. RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventy-five(18%) of 4880 diabetes patients reported CRN. Age less than 65 years, lack of drug insurance coverage, and frequent hospitalization significantly increased risk for CRN. Limitation in both activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were also generally associated with increased risk of CRN. Residence in a nursing home and Medicaid coverage significantly reduced risk.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expandingprescription coverage to uninsured, sicker, and community-dwelling individuals is likely to produce the largest decreases in CRN.

  5. Estimating the cost of diabetes mellitus-related events from inpatient admissions in Sweden using administrative hospitalization data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Clarke, Philip; Hayes, Alison; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia

    2009-01-01

    To estimate short- and long-term costs of inpatient hospitalization in Sweden for major diabetes mellitus-related events. Costs were estimated using administrative hospital data from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, which is linked to the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Data were available for 179 749 patients with diabetes in Sweden from 1998 to 2003 (mean and median duration of 6 years' follow-up). Costing of inpatient admissions was based on Nordic diagnosis-related groups (NordDRG). Multiple regression analysis (linear and generalizing estimating equation models) was used to estimate inpatient care costs controlling for age, sex and co-morbidities. The data on hospitalizations were converted to costs (euro) using 2003 exchange rates. The average annual costs (linear model) associated with inpatient admissions for a 60-year-old male in the year the first event first occurred were as follows: euro6488 (95% CI 5034, 8354) for diabetic coma; euro6850 (95% CI 6514, 7204) for heart failure; euro7853 (95% CI 7559, 8144) for non-fatal stroke; euro8121 (95% CI 7104, 9128) for peripheral circulatory complications; euro8736 (95% CI 8474, 9001) for non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI); euro10 360 (95% CI 10 085, 10 643) for ischaemic heart disease; euro11 411 (95% CI 10 298, 12 654) for renal failure; and euro14 949 (95% CI 13 849, 16 551) for amputation. On average, the costs were higher when co-morbidity was accounted for (e.g. MI with co-morbidity was twice as costly as MI alone). Average hospital inpatient costs associated with common diabetes-related events can be estimated using panel data regression methods. These could assist in modelling of long-term costs of diabetes and in evaluating the cost effectiveness of improving care.

  6. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY... Grants and Cooperative Agreements; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single.../text-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in...

  7. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  8. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  9. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  10. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  11. Social/economic costs and health-related quality of life in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bastida, Julio; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Aranda-Reneo, Isaac; Tizzano, Eduardo; Sefton, Mark; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and their caregivers in Spain. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients diagnosed with SMA in Spain. We adopted a bottom up, prevalence approach design to study patients with SMA. The patient's caregivers completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, use of healthcare services and non-healthcare services. Costs were estimated from a societal perspective (including healthcare costs and non-healthcare costs), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire. The main caregivers also answered a questionnaire on their characteristics and on their HRQOL. A total of 81 caregivers of patients with different subtypes of SMA completed the questionnaire. Based on the reference unitary prices for 2014, the average annual costs per patient were € 33,721. Direct healthcare costs were € 10,882 (representing around 32.3% of the total cost) and the direct non-healthcare costs were € 22,839 (67.7% of the total cost). The mean EQ-5D social tariff score for patients was 0.16, and the mean score of the EQ-5D visual analogue scale was 54. The mean EQ-5D social tariff score for caregivers was 0.49 and their mean score on the EQ-5D visual analogue scale was 69. The results highlight the burden that SMA has in terms of costs and decreased HRQOL, not only for patients but also for their caregivers. In particular, the substantial social/economic burden is mostly attributable to the high direct non-healthcare costs.

  12. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian–Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. PMID:27630589

  13. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  14. 论织物规格与喷水织机效率的关系%Relation between Fabric Specifications and Efficiency of Water-Jet Loom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 顾建华; 李春萍

    2001-01-01

    A success in the development of products should involve therequired fabric styles and weavability. Therefore, it is very important to know the relation between fabric specifications and loom efficiency. This paper quantitatively or qualitatively examines some essential factors for fabric specifications such as covering factor, fabric weave, warp and weft combination, loom efficiency and their relation, serving as a reference for prediction of loom efficiency in product design.%成功的产品开发既要使织物风格符合要求,又要有良好的织造性能,因此织物规格与织机效率的关系十分重要。文章定量或定性地讨论了织物规格的几个要素即织物紧度、织物组织与经纬组合与织机效率的关系,可供产品设计时预测织机效率作参考。

  15. The Relation Between Structure-Performance of Thin Film Composite Membranes and the Tools Used for Their Fabrication Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Kelly; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Guo, Haofei

    of avoiding bubble formation during fabrication as that would later compromise the function of the membrane, but each process step must be well controlled to obtain reliable and consistent membrane performance. In general, the fabrication of the polyamide membrane layer is carried out in two steps...... after the support has been in contact with the aqueous phase, because formation of irregular drops could be initiation points for defects during the second step. Several tools have been used to eliminate the drop formation including air-knifes, rubber wipers, rubber rollers, glass rollers...

  16. Advanced trans-tibial socket fabrication using selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bill; Bosker, Gordon W; Crawford, Richard H; Faustini, Mario C; Neptune, Richard R; Walden, Gail; Gitter, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    There have been a variety of efforts demonstrating the use of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for prosthetic socket fabrication though there has been little effort in leveraging the strengths of the technology. SFF encompasses a class of technologies that can create three dimensional objects directly from a geometric database without specific tooling or human intervention. A real strength of SFF is that cost of fabrication is related to the volume of the part, not the part's complexity. For prosthetic socket fabrication this means that a sophisticated socket can be fabricated at essentially the same cost as a simple socket. Adding new features to a socket design becomes a function of software. The work at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) and University of Texas at Austin (UTA) has concentrated on developing advanced sockets that incorporate structural features to increase comfort as well as built in fixtures to accommodate industry standard hardware. Selective laser sintering (SLS) was chosen as the SFF technology to use for socket fabrication as it was capable of fabricating sockets using materials appropriate for prosthetics. This paper details the development of SLS prosthetic socket fabrication techniques at UTHSCSA/UTA over a six-year period.

  17. Evaluation of Costs in Asparagus Production in Relation to Different Technological Processes in Conditions of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with analysis structure of cost on the production of asparagus in relation to three different technological processes in conditions of Slovak Republic. Obtained results can be used as a template to prepare budgets and make production decisions to estimate potential returns and to analyze investment and financial analysis decisions in the asparagus cultivation. Production practices used in the budget are based on typical practices for asparagus in this country. From the analysis of the cost structure of assessed variants different technological procedures follows that the largest share of the costs fall to purchased material and labor.

  18. Modelling Cost Effectiveness in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Impact of Using Contrast Sensitivity vs. Visual Acuity.

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, T.; Patel,P J; Tufail, A; Rubin, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    The cost utility of treatments of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is commonly assessed using health state transition models defined by levels of visual acuity. However, there is evidence that another measure of visual function, contrast sensitivity, may be better associated with utility than visual acuity. This paper investigates the difference in cost effectiveness resulting from models based on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity using the example of bevacizumab (Avastin) for neov...

  19. Proper use of drugs and relation between purchasing power and cost of treatment prescribed in Casamance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankhoba Dramé, Y

    2016-08-01

    In Senegal, health insurance is available only to employees in the private and public sector and to the elderly (through the Sesame program). The rest of the population, especially different categories of vulnerable people, has no health insurance. Their access to healthcare and to medications is thus limited. In this study, we sought to analyze the relation between purchasing power and costs of treatment prescribed in one city. We questioned the customers leaving pharmacies in Ziguinchor, the administrative center of the lower Casamance, in southern Senegal, and analyzed their prescriptions and over-the-counter purchases. In all, we examined 255 prescriptions/purchases including 643 drugs; 29.4% were written by prescribers in the public health sector. The customers with these prescriptions were less educated, had lower incomes, used taxis more often, and consulted nurses more often than customers with prescriptions from the private health sector. Injectables and INN (international nonproprietary names) were dispensed most often to customers with prescriptions. Dispensing was usually better when the drug was prescribed, and when it was prescribed by a doctor. Nurses appeared to be inadequately trained in the proper use of medications. The percentage of drugs purchased did not depend on the patients' financial means or educational level. Those who most often acquired all of the drugs prescribed were those who had consulted a doctor rather than another type of healthcare provider.

  20. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  1. Relative cost-benefits associated with alternative terrain representations in electronic warfare simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. P.

    1982-08-01

    Terrain is widely recognized as a critical influence on VHF and UHF radio signal strengths, and hence on radio communications range. The same terrain influences have major effects on other aspects of tactical operations, particularly mobility of the tactical units. Both classes of influence are considered in various ways in simulating tactical operations. Planners are faced with a conflict between the need to represent physical circumstances as accurately as possible and constraints on the resources available to the planning process. Resources of principal concern are the funds available to develop adequate representations of terrain and their mathematical analogs, and the computational power and time required to apply them during the course of planning simulations. In many cases, the need to evaluate many signal paths in each of many scenarios produces a computation-intensive process that forces approximations that are substantially cruder than the current state of the propagation prediction art could use to advantage. This paper describes several approaches to terrain treatment, summarizes their relative costs and benefits, and compares the benefits achieved in each case with the fidelity produced by comparable terrain considerations in mobility estimates. The effect on the interpretation of simulation results for both discrete and general studies is also discussed.

  2. Perceptions of social capital and cost-related non-adherence to medication among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and cost-related non-adherence (CRN) in an elderly population, using data from 1,134 respondents to the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey. CRN was lower for those elderly with a better perception of attachment to their neighbourhoods (PR = 0.68; 95%CI: 0.50-0.94), with more social contacts (one to five, PR = 0.49; 95%CI: 0.30-0.80 and more than five, PR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.26-0.67), and with private health insurance coverage (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.45-0.93). Meanwhile, CRN was significantly higher for those with fair to poor self-rated health (PR =1.66; 95%CI: 0.95-2.90 and PR = 2.62; 95%CI: 1.46-4.71 respectively), with multiple comorbidities (two, PR = 3.45; 95%CI: 1.38-8.62 and three or more, PR = 4.42; 95%CI: 1.74-11.25), and with a lower frequency of physician-patient dialogue about health/treatment (rarely/never, PR = 1.91; 95%CI: 1.16-3.13). These findings highlight the need to take into account the social context in future research on CRN.

  3. Low cost sensors for PM and related air pollutants in the US and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors have a variety of possible applications. If accurate and reliable, they have a number of benefits over conventional monitors. They are low-cost, lightweight, and have low power consumption. Because of their low cost, a dense array of sensors instal...

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis in relation to budgetary constraints and reallocative restrictions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adang, E.M.M.; Voordijk, L.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Ament, A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide not all information necessary for decision-making. One of the factors that hamper decision-making is the difficulty in reallocating resources to new technologies. In a CEA, the incremental costs and incremental benefits of a new technolo

  5. Customs-Related Transaction Costs, Firm Size and International Trade Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verwaal (Ernst); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe costs of paperwork and delays needed to clear international customs are generally perceived as a time-consuming impediment to international trade. However, few studies have empirically examined the determinants and the impact of this type of government-imposed transaction costs. This

  6. Cost-effectiveness of lung transplantation in relation to type of end-stage pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, H; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH; TenVergert, EM

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between diagnosis and the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of lung transplantation. A microsimulation model was used, based on empirical data from the Dutch lung transplantation program, collected between 1991 and 1999. We assessed life-ye

  7. An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An optimization system that supports the production of concrete while minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions or costs is presented that incorporates an evolution algorithm for the materials’ mix design stage, a trigonometric function for the transportation stage, and a stochastic model for the manufacturing stage. A case study demonstrates that applying the optimization system reduced CO2 emissions by 34% compared to the standard concrete production processes typically used. When minimizing the cost of concrete production was prioritized, the cost dropped by 1% compared to the cost of conventional concrete production. These findings confirm that this optimization system helps with the design of the concrete mix and the choice of a material supplier, thus reducing both CO2 emissions and costs.

  8. The costs of overweight and obesity-related diseases in the Brazilian public health system: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. It is well known risk factor for a number of chronic medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the direct costs associated to outpatient and inpatient care of overweight and obesity related diseases in the perspective of the Brazilian Health System (SUS. Methods Population attributable risk (PAR was calculated for selected diseases related to overweight and obesity and with the following parameters: Relative risk (RR ≥ 1.20 or RR ≥1.10 and  Results The estimated total costs in one year with all diseases related to overweight and obesity are US$ 2,1 billion; US$ 1,4 billion (68.4% of total costs due to hospitalizations and US$ 679 million due to ambulatory procedures. Approximately 10% of these cost is attributable to overweight and obesity. Conclusion The results confirm that overweight and obesity carry a great economic burden for Brazilian health system and for the society. The knowledge of these costs will be useful for future economic analysis of preventive and treatment interventions.

  9. [Evaluation of the cost of home enteral nutrition in relation to different access routes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rabaneda, R M; Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; González Fernández, B; Iglesias Rosado, C

    1998-01-01

    When home enteral nutrition is needed, there is still, despite the undisputed increase in the quality of life that can be achieved with a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG), a reservation in its use because this technique and its maintenance is considered to be very costly. We aim to assess the true cost of home enteral nutrition using the oral route, a nasogastric tube, and PEG. The data of 65 patients who required home enteral nutrition during 1996, were analyzed retrospectively. The access route was a nasogastric tube in 20 cases, 18 patients had PEG, and 27 candidates used an oral route. The average age was 56 years. 50% were men and 50% were women. The most common diagnoses that led to the indication were oropharyngeal-maxillofacial neoplasms and neurological disorders. In all cases the material and formula used was assessed, as were the associated complications and the cost of the at home enteral nutrition. The average duration of the treatment was 175 +/- 128 days, and this was similar in all three groups. The average formula/day cost was slightly higher in the patients using the oral access route. The average total day cost and the average material/day cost was slightly higher in patients with a PEG. Patients with a PEG presented fewer complications than those with a nasogastric tube. The cost derived from possible complications must be higher in the nasogastric tube group, especially considering the repeated tube changes due to obstruction or loss. The cost of home enteral nutrition is slightly lower if one uses a nasogastric tube. The greater incidence of complications that were mild but required a tube change, in this case a nasogastric tube, suggests higher indirect costs. The oral route is associated with the need for special formulae that are more expensive.

  10. Cost of presumptive source term Remedial Actions Laboratory for energy-related health research, University of California, Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Josephson, G.B.; Lanigan, D.C.; Liikala, T.L.; Newcomer, D.R.; Pearson, A.W.; Teel, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is in progress at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis. The purpose of the RI/FS is to gather sufficient information to support an informed risk management decision regarding the most appropriate remedial actions for impacted areas of the facility. In an effort to expedite remediation of the LEHR facility, the remedial project managers requested a more detailed evaluation of a selected set of remedial actions. In particular, they requested information on both characterization and remedial action costs. The US Department of Energy -- Oakland Office requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to prepare order-of-magnitude cost estimates for presumptive remedial actions being considered for the five source term operable units. The cost estimates presented in this report include characterization costs, capital costs, and annual operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. These cost estimates are intended to aid planning and direction of future environmental remediation efforts.

  11. How much is it going to cost me? Bidirectional relations between adolescents' moral personality and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Fraser, Ashley M

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined bidirectional relations between adolescents' moral personality (prosocial values, self-regulation, and sympathy) and low- and high-cost prosocial behavior toward strangers. Participants included 682 adolescents (M age of child = 14.31, SD = 1.07, 50% female) who participated at two time points, approximately one year apart. Cross-lag analyses suggested that adolescents' values were associated with both low- and high-cost prosocial behavior one year later, self-regulation was associated with high-cost prosocial behavior, and sympathy was associated with low-cost prosocial behavior. Findings also suggested that low-cost prosocial behavior was associated with sympathy one year later, and high-cost prosocial behavior was associated with values. Discussion focuses on reciprocal relations between moral personality and prosocial behavior, and the need to consider a more multidimensional approach to prosocial development during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults - Clinical cure in relation to costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; van Erkel, AR; Springer, MP; Kievit, J

    Objective - To determine which treatment strategy offers the most cost-effective option in managing acute sinusitis. Design - The modelling procedure included five clinical strategies, varying from "wait and see for a week", to "prescribing antibiotics selectively" to "prescribing antibiotics

  13. Obesity-related health impacts of fuel excise taxation- an evidence review and cost-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Cobiac, L; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Carter, R

    2017-05-04

    Reducing automobile dependence and improving rates of active transport may reduce the impact of obesogenic environments, thereby decreasing population prevalence of obesity and other diseases where physical inactivity is a risk factor. Increasing the relative cost of driving by an increase in fuel taxation may therefore be a promising public health intervention for obesity prevention. A scoping review of the evidence for obesity or physical activity effect of changes in fuel price or taxation was undertaken. Potential health benefits of an increase in fuel excise taxation in Australia were quantified using Markov modelling to simulate obesity, injury and physical activity related health impacts of a fuel excise taxation intervention for the 2010 Australian population. Health adjusted life years (HALYs) gained and healthcare cost savings from diseases averted were estimated. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were reported and results were tested through sensitivity analysis. Limited evidence on the effect of policies such as fuel taxation on health-related behaviours currently exists. Only three studies were identified reporting associations between fuel price or taxation and obesity, whilst nine studies reported associations specifically with physical activity, walking or cycling. Estimates of the cross price elasticity of demand for public transport with respect to fuel price vary, with limited consensus within the literature on a probable range for the Australian context. Cost-effectiveness modelling of a AUD0.10 per litre increase in fuel excise taxation using a conservative estimate of cross price elasticity for public transport suggests that the intervention would be cost-effective from a limited societal perspective (237 HALYs gained, AUD2.6 M in healthcare cost savings), measured against a comparator of no additional increase in fuel excise. Under "best case" assumptions, the intervention would be more cost-effective (3181 HALYs gained, AUD34.2

  14. Costs and benefits related to the use of tax incentives for energy-efficient appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Bio Intelligence Service

    2008-01-01

    The study examines four products with high energy-saving potential: refrigerators, washing machines, boilers and compact fluorescent lamps. The cost-benefit analysis is done in a comparative perspective so that the costs and benefits of energy taxation and a regulatory measure are calculated for the same products. The data from four different Member States (Denmark, France, Italy and Poland) are used in the analysis.

  15. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Mark R; van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; Backx, Frank J G; de Wit, G Ardine

    2013-03-01

    Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players? Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial. 479 adult male amateur soccer players aged 18-40 years. The intervention group was instructed to perform the exercises at each training session (2 to 3 sessions per week) during one soccer season. The exercises focus on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation, and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. The control group continued their usual warm-up. All injuries and costs associated with these injuries were compared between groups after bootstrapping (5000 replications). No significant differences in the proportion of injured players and injury rate were found between the two groups. Mean overall costs in the intervention group were €161 (SD 447) per athlete and €256 (SD 555) per injured athlete. Mean overall costs in the control group were €361 (SD 1529) per athlete and €606 (SD 1944) per injured athlete. Statistically significant cost differences in favour of the intervention group were found per player (mean difference €201, 95% CI 15 to 426) and per injured player (mean difference €350, 95% CI 51 to 733). The exercises failed to significantly reduce the number of injuries in male amateur soccer players within one season, but did significantly reduce injury-related costs. The cost savings might be the result of a preventive effect on knee injuries, which often have substantial costs due to lengthy rehabilitation and lost productivity. NTR2416. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  17. A novel highly flexible, simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication tool for paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs) using technical drawing pens and in-house formulated aqueous inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Macka, Mirek

    2016-05-05

    Paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs) are capable of achieving rapid quantitative measurements of a variety of analytes inexpensively. μPADs rely on patterning hydrophilic-hydrophobic regions on a sheet of paper in order to create capillary channels within impermeable fluidic brakes on the paper. Here, we present a novel, highly flexible and low-cost fabrication method using a desktop digital craft plotter/cutter and technical drawing pens with tip size of 0.5 mm. The pens were used with either commercial black permanent ink for drawing fluidic brakes, or with specialty in-house formulated aqueous inks. With the permanent marker ink it was possible to create barriers on paper rapidly and in a variety of designs in a highly flexible manner. For instance, a design featuring eight reservoirs can be produced within 10 s for each μPAD with a consistent line width of brakes (%RSD < 1.5). Further, we investigated the optimal viscosity range of in-house formulated inks controlled with additions of poly(ethylene glycol). The viscosity was measured by capillary electrophoresis and the optimal viscosity was in the range of ∼3-6 mPa s. A functional test of these μPADs was conducted by the screening of antioxidant activity. Colorimetric measurements of flavonoid, phenolic compounds and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were carried out on μPADs. The results can be detected by the naked eye and simply quantified by using a camera phone and image analysis software. The fabrication method using technical drawing pens provides flexibility in the use of in-house formulated inks, short fabrication time, simplicity and low cost.

  18. Temperature dependent fabrication of cost-effective and nontoxic Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films for solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digraskar, Renuka; Gattu, Ketan; Sathe, Bhaskar; Ghule, Anil; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films have been fabricated onto the glass substrate by simple and economic chemical bath deposition technique1, and the effect of deposition temperature is reported. The deposition temperatures used were 50°C and 60°C for a deposition time of 60 min, which are significantly lower than earlier reports. These CZTS thin films were characterized for optical, electrical, morphological and elemental properties using, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, I-V system for photosensitivity, two probe resistivity system for resistivity, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Design and Fabrication of Low Cost Thick Film pH Sensor using Silver Chlorinated Reference Electrodes with Integrated Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto Goib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and fabrication of thick film pH sensor, in which the reference electrode has been formed by chlorination of Ag using FeCl3. The process was aimed to replace Ag/AgCl paste commonly used as reference electrodes. Fabricated using thick film screen printing technology on Al2O3 substrate, the pH sensor showed a measured sensitivity of -52.97, -53.17 and -53.68 mV/pH at 25°C, 45°C, and 65°C, respectively. The measured values were close to the theoretical Nernstian slope of -59 mV/pH 25°C.The sensor was also designed with an integrated Ruthenium based temperature sensor for future temperature compensation. The measured resistance temperature characteristics showed a linear reasponse over the range of 25 – 80°C. This miniaturised planar sensor should find wide application, especially in field water quality monitoring, replacing their glass type counterparts.

  20. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  1. 25 CFR 39.160 - Does ISEF provide supplemental funding for extraordinary costs related to a school's geographic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF provide supplemental funding for extraordinary costs related to a school's geographic isolation? 39.160 Section 39.160 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Formula Geographic Isolation Adjustment § 39.160 Does ISEF provide supplemental funding for...

  2. Smoking is Associated with Higher Disease-related Costs and Lower Health-related Quality of Life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severs, M; Mangen, M-J J; van der Valk, Mirthe Emilie; Fidder, Herma; van Bodegraven, A A; de Jong, Dirk J.; van der Woude, C J; Romberg-Camps, M J L; Clemens, C H M; Jansen, J M; van de Meeberg, P C; Mahmmod, N; Ponsioen, C Y; Vermeijden, J. Reinoud; van der Meulen-de Jong, A E; Pierik, M; Siersema, P D; Oldenburg, B; Dijkstra, G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smoking affects the course of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We aimed to study the impact of smoking on IBD-specific costs and health-related quality-of-life [HrQoL] among adults with Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]. METHODS: A large cohort of IBD patients

  3. Cost analysis of roll-to-roll fabricated ITO free single and tandem organic solar modules based on data from manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machui, Florian; Hösel, Markus; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    We present a cost analysis based on state of the art printing and coating processes to fully encapsulated, flexible ITO- and vacuum-free polymer solar cell modules. Manufacturing data for both single junctions and tandem junctions are presented and analyzed. Within this calculation the most expen...

  4. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Slager, R.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such addit

  5. Inactive Lifestyles and Obesity in Chilean Youth: Individual Costs in Health-Related Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A recent economic approach suggests that people do not account for the long-term implications of unhealthy behaviours, preventing them from performing a fully rational trade-off between current benefits and future costs, leading to negative health outcomes. We examined whether the current allocation of time to physical activity among…

  6. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive s...

  7. Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults - Clinical cure in relation to costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; van Erkel, AR; Springer, MP; Kievit, J

    2001-01-01

    Objective - To determine which treatment strategy offers the most cost-effective option in managing acute sinusitis. Design - The modelling procedure included five clinical strategies, varying from "wait and see for a week", to "prescribing antibiotics selectively" to "prescribing antibiotics immedi

  8. A framework for prioritising practices to overcome cost-related problems in reverse logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Badenhorst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years. One of the biggest problems for organisations and supply chains is reducing cost in reverse logistics. This study attempted to gain a better understanding of reverse logistics and the costs associated with it. A literature study was conducted to identify the cost problems in reverse logistics and possible practices to overcome them. Following that, a survey was conducted to determine whether the practices identified in literature are perceived to be important in South Africa and if they are viable to implement. This was done by means of a gap and opportunity analysis. Results indicated that most practices are important, but some may be difficult to implement. The framework developed in this study provides a guideline for organisations to consider, adapt and adopt the most important implementable practices to overcome cost problems in reverse logistics. The limitation of this study is that only ten respondents participated in the survey. The approach followed in this study can be used as a foundation for future studies in reverse logistics.

  9. Leaf area compounds height-related hydraulic costs of water transport in Oregon White Oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Phillips; B. J. Bond; N. G. McDowell; Michael G. Ryan; A. Schauer

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of leaf to sapwood area generally decreases with tree size, presumably to moderate hydraulic costs of tree height. This study assessed consequences of tree size and leaf area on water flux in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook (Oregon White Oak), a species in which leaf to sapwood area ratio increases with tree size. We tested hypotheses that...

  10. Towards a differentiated capitation system : relation between patient characteristics, contacts and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Marijke; Groenhof, Feikje; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective. A new payment system could curb primary health care costs. A differentiated capitation system based on patient characteristics could be the best mix for payment. To test the feasibility of such a system, we examined the number of contacts between patients and general practi

  11. Inactive Lifestyles and Obesity in Chilean Youth: Individual Costs in Health-Related Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A recent economic approach suggests that people do not account for the long-term implications of unhealthy behaviours, preventing them from performing a fully rational trade-off between current benefits and future costs, leading to negative health outcomes. We examined whether the current allocation of time to physical activity among…

  12. Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults - Clinical cure in relation to costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; van Erkel, AR; Springer, MP; Kievit, J

    2001-01-01

    Objective - To determine which treatment strategy offers the most cost-effective option in managing acute sinusitis. Design - The modelling procedure included five clinical strategies, varying from "wait and see for a week", to "prescribing antibiotics selectively" to "prescribing antibiotics immedi

  13. The association between diabetes related medical costs and glycemic control: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barron John

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this research is to quantify the association between direct medical costs attributable to type 2 diabetes and level of glycemic control. Methods A longitudinal analysis using a large health plan administrative database was performed. The index date was defined as the first date of diabetes diagnosis and individuals had to have at least two HbA1c values post index date in order to be included in the analyses. A total of 10,780 individuals were included in the analyses. Individuals were stratified into groups of good (N = 6,069, fair (N = 3,586, and poor (N = 1,125 glycemic control based upon mean HbA1c values across the study period. Differences between HbA1c groups were analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM, with differences between groups tested by utilizing z-statistics. The analyses allowed a wide range of factors to affect costs. Results 42.1% of those treated only with oral agents, 66.1% of those treated with oral agents and insulin, and 57.2% of those treated with insulin alone were found to have suboptimal control (defined as fair or poor throughout the study period (average duration of follow-up was 2.95 years. Results show that direct medical costs attributable to type 2 diabetes were 16% lower for individuals with good glycemic control than for those with fair control ($1,505 vs. $1,801, p Conclusion Almost half (44% of all patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are at sub-optimal glycemic control. Evidence from this analysis indicates that the direct medical costs of treating type 2 diabetes are significantly higher for individuals who have fair or poor glycemic control than for those who have good glycemic control. Patients under fair control account for a greater proportion of the cost burden associated with antidiabetic prescription drugs.

  14. Reality-check: Cost-related journal assessment from a practical point of view1,2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gumpenberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of global economic crisis, stretched library budgets, price inflation, bundled acquisition practices and a worldwide boycott against one of the major publishers, library managers more than ever need to have an interest in whether they provide the right content for the best price or not. This study performed at the University of Vienna explores an approach for journal evaluation with a focus on practicality. On the one hand the relationship between several defined journal subsets regarding cost, usage, publication preference and citation rate was determined. On the other hand cost-related metrics provided at eigenfactor.org and journalprices.com-namely cost-effectiveness as well as relative price index were tested in regard of their usability as potentially valuable tools for acquisition management purposes of an academic library. High correlations could only be found between citation and download rates. The usability of the tested cost-related metrics is unfortunately limited in practice due to inconsistent or outdated pricing information, incomplete explanations for calculations and lacking consideration of the prevailing acquisition practices of scientific journals in bundles. This study′s journal evaluation approach is valuable in terms of gained knowledge but hardly feasible in practical acquisition management.

  15. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A., E-mail: amos.sharoni@biu.ac.il [Department of Physics and Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 590002 (Israel)

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of Free Access to Smoking Cessation Treatment in France Considering the Economic Burden of Smoking-Related Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cadier

    Full Text Available In France more than 70,000 deaths from diseases related to smoking are recorded each year, and since 2005 prevalence of tobacco has increased. Providing free access to smoking cessation treatment would reduce this burden. The aim of our study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER of providing free access to cessation treatment taking into account the cost offsets associated with the reduction of the three main diseases related to smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. To measure the financial impact of such a measure we also conducted a probabilistic budget impact analysis.We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov state-transition model that compared free access to cessation treatment to the existing coverage of €50 provided by the French statutory health insurance, taking into account the cost offsets among current French smokers aged 15-75 years. Our results were expressed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2009 Euros per life year gained (LYG at the lifetime horizon. We estimated a base case scenario and carried out a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty. Assuming a participation rate of 7.3%, the ICER value for free access to cessation treatment was €3,868 per LYG in the base case. The variation of parameters provided a range of ICER values from -€736 to €15,715 per LYG. In 99% of cases, the ICER for full coverage was lower than €11,187 per LYG. The probabilistic budget impact analysis showed that the potential cost saving for lung cancer, COPD and CVD ranges from €15 million to €215 million at the five-year horizon for an initial cessation treatment cost of €125 million to €421 million.The results suggest that providing medical support to smokers in their attempts to quit is very cost-effective and may even result in cost savings.

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  18. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  20. Alternating between pro- and antisaccades: switch-costs manifest via decoupling the spatial relations between stimulus and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Gillen, Caitlin; Samani, Ashna

    2016-03-01

    Antisaccades are a nonstandard task requiring a response mirror-symmetrical to the location of a target. The completion of an antisaccade has been shown to delay the reaction time (RT) of a subsequent prosaccade, whereas the converse switch elicits a null RT cost (i.e., the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost). The present study sought to determine whether the prosaccade switch-cost arises from low-level interference specific to the sensory features of a target (i.e., modality-dependent) or manifests via the high-level demands of dissociating the spatial relations between stimulus and response (i.e., modality-independent). Participants alternated between pro- and antisaccades wherein the target associated with the response alternated between visual and auditory modalities. Thus, the present design involved task-switch (i.e., switching from a pro- to antisaccade and vice versa) and modality-switch (i.e., switching from a visual to auditory target and vice versa) trials as well as their task- and modality-repetition counterparts. RTs were longer for modality-switch than modality-repetition trials. Notably, however, modality-switch trials did not nullify or lessen the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost; that is, the magnitude of the RT cost for task-switch prosaccades was equivalent across modality-switch and modality-repetition trials. Thus, competitive interference within a sensory modality does not contribute to the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost. Instead, the modality-independent findings evince that dissociating the spatial relations between stimulus and response instantiates a high-level and inertially persistent nonstandard task-set that impedes the planning of a subsequent prosaccade.

  1. The direct, indirect and intangible costs of visual impairment caused by neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Kathleen Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) is a chronic, progressive disease of the central retina, and its prevalence is expected to rise with the ageing population. Using a bottom-up approach based on retrospective data, this cross-sectional study estimated average annual direct costs of nvAMD to be £4,047, and average annual indirect costs to be £449. An attempt to measure intangible costs through willingness-to-pay yielded a lower response rate and estimated intangible costs to be 11.5% of monthly income. Direct costs were significantly higher for male participants, for those who have mild or moderate visual impairment in both eyes, and for those who have been diagnosed for a shorter time. The findings of this study suggest that the availability of early diagnosis, effective treatment, support services, and sustained research into the management of nvAMD may reduce the burden of visual impairment caused by nvAMD to affected individuals and the state.

  2. Cost-Efficient Development of Acoustic Models for Speech Recognition of Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When adapting an existing speech recognition system to a new language, major development costs are associated with the creation of an appropriate acoustic model (AM. For its training, a certain amount of recorded and annotated speech is required. In this paper, we show that not only the annotation process, but also the process of speech acquisition can be automated to minimize the need of human and expert work. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on Croatian language, for which the target AM has been built via cross-lingual adaptation of a Czech AM in 2 ways: a using commercially available GlobalPhone database, and b by automatic speech data mining from HRT radio archive. The latter approach is cost-free, yet it yields comparable or better results in LVCSR experiments conducted on 3 Croatian test sets.

  3. Cost of varicella-related hospitalisations in an Italian paediatric hospital: comparison with possible vaccination expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, C; Massai, C; Poggiolesi, C; Indolfi, G; Spagnolo, G; De Luca, M; Gervaso, P; de Martino, M; Resti, M

    2007-12-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the economic burden of hospitalisations due to varicella in an Italian paediatric hospital during a 1-year period and to compare the data with potential expenses projected for a varicella mass vaccination programme. An observational, retrospective, cohort study was designed to measure hospital admission costs in a cohort of paediatric patients with varicella in a 12-month period. A cost comparison with a vaccination programme planned to prevent varicella in a whole birth cohort was performed. All children 0-16 years referred to the Anna Meyer Children's Hospital (AMCH) were considered. Since AMCH is a tertiary-level hospital and accept patients from other Italian regions, in order to avoid overestimation of hospitalisation expenses, all analyses pertaining to both vaccination and hospitalisation costs were uniquely calculated on the basis of the cohort of residents in the district of Florence. A total of 279 children were examined in the emergency department for varicella; 47/279 (16.8%) were sent to the inpatient clinic. The highest rate of hospitalisation (85.1%) was found in children hospital expenses (corresponding to euro239 654 in a 1-year period), would account for around 80% of total expenses for vaccinating an entire birth cohort (euro310353).

  4. Innovative Fabric Show Every Month in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It normally costs a long term for fabric manufacturers to develop a new product. The delay of marketing the innovative fabric not only affect the benefit of the textile mills, but also baffle the development of the industry. Shanghai Fabric Hall responses to this with a regular exhibition of

  5. Investigating the chemical profile of regenerated scorpion (Parabuthus transvaalicus) venom in relation to metabolic cost and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisani, Zia; Boskovic, Danilo S; Dunbar, Stephen G; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the biochemical profile of regenerated venom of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus in relation to its metabolic cost and toxicity. Using a closed-system respirometer, we compared oxygen consumption between milked and unmilked scorpions to determine the metabolic costs associated with the first 192 h of subsequent venom synthesis. Milked scorpions had a substantially (21%) higher mean metabolic rate than unmilked scorpions, with the largest increases in oxygen consumption occurring at approximately 120 h, 162 h, and 186 h post-milking. Lethality tests in crickets indicated that toxicity of the regenerated venom returned to normal levels within 4 d after milking. However, the chemical profile of the regenerated venom, as evaluated by FPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, suggested that regeneration of different venom components was asynchronous. Some peptides regenerated quickly, particularly those associated with the scorpion's "prevenom," whereas others required much or all of this time period for regeneration. This asynchrony could explain the different spikes detected in oxygen consumption of milked scorpions as various peptides and other venom components were resynthesized. These observations confirm the relatively high metabolic cost of venom regeneration and suggest that greater venom complexity can be associated with higher costs of venom production.

  6. Estimating health care cost savings from an educational intervention to prevent bleeding-related complications: the outcomes impact analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravyn, Dana; Ravyn, Vipa; Lowney, Rob; Ferraris, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Investments in continuing medical education (CME) exceed $2 billion annually, but few studies report the economic impact of CME activities. Analysis of patient-level economic outcomes data is often not feasible. Accordingly, we developed a model to illustrate estimation of the potential economic impact associated with CME activity outcomes. Outcomes impact analysis demonstrated how costs averted from a CME symposium that promoted prevention of bleeding-related complications (BRC) and reoperation for bleeding (RFB) in cardiac and thoracic operations could be estimated. Model parameter estimates were from published studies of costs associated with BRC and RFB. Operative volume estimates came from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons workforce data. The base case predicted 3 in 10 participants preventing one BRC or RFB in 2% or 1.5% of annual operations, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) evaluated the effect of parameter uncertainty. 92% of participants (n = 133) self-reported commitment to change, a validated measure of behavior change. For BRC, estimates for costs averted were $1,502,769 (95% confidence interval [CI], $869,860-$2,359,068) for cardiac operations and $2,715,246 (95% CI, $1,590,308-$4,217,092) for thoracic operations. For RFB, the savings estimates were $2,233,988 (95% CI, $1,223,901-$3,648,719). Our economic model demonstrates that application of CME-related learning to prevent bleeding complications may yield substantial cost savings. Model prediction of averted costs associated with CME allows estimation of the economic impact on outcomes in the absence of patient-level outcomes data related to CME activities. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  7. Integrated Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor Fabricated In A Single Fabric Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, S.; Owen, J. R.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible solid- state electrical double layer supercapacitor fabricated in a single fabric layer. The proposed supercapacitors were based on fabric electrodes fabricated with low cost carbon materials via a spray coating technique. The single layer solid state supercapacitors achieved a specific capacitances of 40.5 F.g-1, area capacitance of 40.5 mF.cm-2.

  8. Low-cost fabrication of WO{sub 3} films using a room temperature and low-vacuum air-spray based deposition system for inorganic electrochromic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Ik [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sooyeun, E-mail: sooyeunk@u.washington.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Oh; Song, Ji-Hyeon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taya, Minoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ahn, Sung-Hoon, E-mail: ahnsh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Advanced Machines and Design, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates by using a room-temperature deposition system based on low-vacuum air-spray for the fabrication of inorganic electrochromic windows. The structure of the WO{sub 3} films was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface morphology and film thickness were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The color of the prepared WO{sub 3} films changed from slight yellow to dark blue under applied voltages, demonstrating electrochromism. The WO{sub 3} film coated FTO glass exhibited a large electrochromic contrast of up to 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The electrochemical properties of the films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated using an air-spray based deposition system at room temperature under low-vacuum conditions. • Dry WO{sub 3} particles were directly deposited on FTO and ITO glasses by using a low-cost deposition system. • The FTO glass based WO{sub 3} film showed the optical contrast of 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  9. Fast and low-cost method to fabricate large-area superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate with anticorrosion and anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A facile and quick fabrication method was proposed to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on iron substrate by chemical immersion and subsequent stearic acid modification. The association between wettability and surface morphology was studied through altering the copper ion concentration and immersion time. Surface tension instrument, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical workstation were used to characterize the wettability, physical morphology, chemical composition, and corrosion resistance ability of the prepared film. Results showed that both the rough micro/nanostructures and low surface energy material play critical roles in surface wettability. The superhydrophobic film achieved a better anticorrosion property compared to barrier iron by analysis of open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and Nyquist plots. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed excellent performance of acid and alkali resistance, anti-icing, and self-cleaning through a series of environmental tests. This study provides a valid method for quick-preparation of the stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which has a promising application in steel buildings and facilities.

  10. Synthesis and fabrication of MgAl2O4 ceramic foam via a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvendu Tripathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The MgAl2O4 nanocrystalline powder was synthesized using naturally available egg white and inexpensive metal nitrate salts. During this process, the freshly extracted egg white was mixed with metal nitrate salt and subsequently heated at 350 °C in a pit furnace. The entire dehydration of the aqueous solution thus facilitates the low-density fluffy mass. From TGDTG results, it was observed that maximum decomposition of the precursors occurred below 600 °C. Therefore, the calcination temperature of as-synthesized powder was set at 600 °C. The MgAl2O4 bulk ceramic foam was fabricated by dispersing different loading of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white, and then coating on polyurethane sponge prior to drying and sintering at a higher temperature. The ceramic suspensions exhibit a typical shear thinning behavior, and its viscosity was found to be significantly influenced by MgAl2O4 powder content. An optimum loading of 40 wt% MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white was found to show maximum porosity up to 90%. The obtained ceramic foam has potential applications in catalysis, absorption and sensor.

  11. Fabrication of rectangular cross-sectional microchannels on PMMA with a CO2 laser and underwater fabricated copper mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-09-01

    CO2 lasers are commonly used for fabricating polymer based microfluidic devices. Despite several key advantages like low cost, time effectiveness, easy to operate and no requirement of clean room facility, CO2 lasers suffer from few disadvantages like thermal bulging, improper dimensional control, difficulty to produce microchannels of other than Gaussian cross sectional shapes and inclined surface walls. Many microfluidic devices require square or rectangular cross-sections which are difficult to produce using normal CO2 laser procedures. In this work, a thin copper sheet of 40 μm was used as a mask above the PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) substrate while fabricating the microchannels utilizing the raster scanning feature of the CO2 lasers. Microchannels with different width dimensions were fabricated utilizing a CO2 laser in with mask and without-mask conditions. A comparison of both the fabricating process has been made. It was found that microchannels with U shape cross section and rectangular cross-section can efficiently be produced using the with mask technique. In addition to this, this technique can provide perfect dimensional control and better surface quality of the microchannel walls. Such a microchannel fabrication process do not require any post-processing. The fabrication of mask using a nanosecond fiber laser has been discussed in details. An underwater laser fabrication method was adopted to overcome heat related defects in mask preparation. Overall, the technique was found to be easy to adopt and significant improvements were observed in microchannel fabrication.

  12. Estimate of Flood-Related Human Costs in the 1983 Flood at Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    in the three studies. TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF PERCENTAGE OF INDIVIDUALS IN EACH TRAUMA EFFECT CLASS TUG FORK, LAKE ELSINORE , AND JACKSON I II III TUG...FORK, WEST VIRGINIA & KENTUCKY 30.0 41.0 29.0 LAKE ELSINORE , CALIFORNIA 24.6 56.4 19.0 JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI (1979 Flood) 15.8 65.3 18.9 JACKSON...request of the Los Angeles District, in support of its Lake - Elinore study. In both the Tug Fork and Lake Elsinore cases the human costs were considerable

  13. Optimizing Feedlot Diagnostic Testing Strategies Using Test Characteristics, Disease Prevalence, and Relative Costs of Misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; White, Brad J; Renter, David G

    2015-11-01

    Diagnostic tests are commonly used by feedlot practitioners and range from clinical observations to more advanced physiologic testing. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, estimated prevalence in the population, and the costs of misdiagnoses need to be considered when selecting a diagnostic test strategy and interpreting results. This article describes methods for evaluating diagnostic strategies using economic outcomes to evaluate the most appropriate strategy for the expected situation. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and expected prevalence influence the likelihood of misdiagnosis in a given population, and the estimated direct economic impact can be used to quantify differences among diagnostic strategies.

  14. TOTAL COST OF HOSPITALIZATION OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY RELATED TO NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Francisco Julimar Correia de; Menezes, Lara Gadelha Luna de; Silva, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da; Melo-Filho, Antônio Aldo; Melo, Daniel Hardy; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da

    2016-01-01

    In the Western world, the population developed an overweight profile. The morbidly obese generate higher cost to the health system. However, there is a gap in this approach with regard to individuals above the eutrofic pattern, who are not considered as morbidly obese. To correlate nutritional status according to BMI with the costs of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a public hospital. Data were collected from medical records about: nutritional risk assessment, nutricional state and hospital cost in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Were enrolled 814 procedures. Average age was 39.15 (±12.16) years; 47 subjects (78.3%) were women. The cost was on average R$ 6,167.32 (±1830.85) to 4.06 (±2.76) days of hospitalization; 41 (68.4%) presented some degree of overweight; mean BMI was 28.07 (±5.41) kg/m²; six (10%) individuals presented nutritional risk ≥3. There was a weak correlation (r=0.2) and not significant (p sobrepeso; o IMC médio foi 28,07 (±5,41) kg/m²; seis (10%) indivíduos apresentavam risco nutricional ≥3. Houve correlação fraca (r=0,2) e não significativa (pSobrepeso não demonstrou correlação entre custo e tempo de internação. Entretanto, os indivíduos com sobrepeso apresentaram custo maior de internação em relação aos que não tiveram intercorrência, mas sem correlação com o estado nutricional. Em relação aos com IMC normal, houve correlação forte e estatisticamente significante com o custo para tempo de internação, reforçando que há provável distribuição normal envolvendo estado nutricional adequado e sucesso do procedimento cirúrgico com consequente impacto no custo de internação.

  15. The Cost of Social Relations Oversight in the Adaptive Appropriation of Japanese Management Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, a late July settlement of the Flint, Michigan United Auto Workers strikes at General Motors narrowly averted or postponed a labor-management confrontation fully capable of precipitating an economic meltdown with far reaching consequences for our increasingly global economy. This paper uses...... a comparative legal ecology model of the modern enterprise to gain theoretical and empirical insight into the economic and societal costs of combining Japanese manufacturing techniques with managerial prerogative pursued "the American way." I begin by introducing the comparative legal ecology of the workplace...

  16. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  17. Photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  18. Tornadoes and related damage costs: statistical modeling with a semi-Markov approach

    CERN Document Server

    Corini, Chiara; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio; Manca, Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical approach to tornadoes modeling for predicting and simulating occurrences of tornadoes and accumulated cost distributions over a time interval. This is achieved by modeling the tornadoes intensity, measured with the Fujita scale, as a stochastic process. Since the Fujita scale divides tornadoes intensity into six states, it is possible to model the tornadoes intensity by using Markov and semi-Markov models. We demonstrate that the semi-Markov approach is able to reproduce the duration effect that is detected in tornadoes occurrence. The superiority of the semi-Markov model as compared to the Markov chain model is also affirmed by means of a statistical test of hypothesis. As an application we compute the expected value and the variance of the costs generated by the tornadoes over a given time interval in a given area. he paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating that semi-Markov models represent an effective tool for physical analysis of tornadoes as well as for the estimati...

  19. One-step fabrication of highly stable, superhydrophobic composites from controllable and low-cost PMHS/TEOS sols for efficient oil cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Zhai, Shangru; Xiao, Zuoyi; An, Qingda

    2015-05-15

    Facing the issues of significant increase of industrial oily wastewater and frequent accident of oil spills, the developing of efficient and affordable absorbents for improving oil pollution is of practical significance. Herein, several superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, utilizing filter paper, filter cloth and polyester sponge as substrates, through facile coating of hybrid SiO2 colloid particles from controllable PMHS-TEOS sol system were presented. These methyl-modified particles not only provided hierarchical micro/nano-scale structure with distinct roughness, but also largely lowered the surface energy of the coated substances, leading to excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces. The modified filter cloths could be applied for oil/water separation owing to the flexible and foldable property; sponges could efficiently absorb oil or organic solvents in situ on account of its low density and high porosity, and meanwhile the absorbed oil could be easily recollected by simple squeezing. It is worth mentioning that both modified filter cloths and sponges exhibited excellent selectivity, high efficiency, outstanding rapidity and remarkable recyclability. More importantly, after treatment of 100 abrasion cycles with metal scalpel and strongly acidic and basic water droplets, the whole WCA values of resultant filter cloths still maintained superhydrophobic character (>150°), illuminating the charming mechanical and chemical stability of sol-gel processed coating with hierarchical roughness and covalently bonded methyl groups. Combining controllable fabrication process and cheap raw precursors, this method enables scalable manufacturing of stable and superhydrophobic substances, which are promising in practical applications involved in oil/water separation and oil sorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low cost fabrication of sheet structure using a new beta titanium alloy, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Davis, G. W.; Woods, C. A.; Royster, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Development efforts have been undertaken to improve the processing and structural efficiencies of advanced cold-formable beta Ti alloys, using the standard, hot-formed and rivetted construction of Ti-6Al-4V sheet structures as a basis for comparison. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) beta alloy is formable, brazable and weldable in the solution-treated condition, and after aging displays mechanical properties suitable for postulated service in the -65 to 600 F temperature range. A novel methodology using cold-formed Ti-15-3 stringers and Ti-6Al-4V face sheets that are joined by means of an out-of-furnace isothermal brazing process, followed by low temperature aging, can reduce production costs by as much as 28 per cent. Structural efficiency has been demonstrated in room and elevated temperature crippling tests of small skin-stringer assemblies.

  1. Low cost fabrication of sheet structure using a new beta titanium alloy, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Davis, G. W.; Woods, C. A.; Royster, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Development efforts have been undertaken to improve the processing and structural efficiencies of advanced cold-formable beta Ti alloys, using the standard, hot-formed and rivetted construction of Ti-6Al-4V sheet structures as a basis for comparison. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) beta alloy is formable, brazable and weldable in the solution-treated condition, and after aging displays mechanical properties suitable for postulated service in the -65 to 600 F temperature range. A novel methodology using cold-formed Ti-15-3 stringers and Ti-6Al-4V face sheets that are joined by means of an out-of-furnace isothermal brazing process, followed by low temperature aging, can reduce production costs by as much as 28 per cent. Structural efficiency has been demonstrated in room and elevated temperature crippling tests of small skin-stringer assemblies.

  2. Development and fabrication of an advanced liquid cooling garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    A tube/fin concept liquid cooling garment head cooler was developed, fabricated and delivered to NASA-ARC. The head cooler was fabricated from polyurethane film which sandwiches the transport fluid tubing and a thermally conductive fin material. The head cooler garment is sewn to form a skull cap and covered with a comfort liner. In addition, two Neonate heating garments were fabricated and supplied to NASA for further finishing and use in medical tests. The resulting garment is flexible, elastic and conforms to the head comfortably. Tests on a tube/fin element of identical construction as the head cooler demonstrated good thermal effectiveness. Use of commercially available materials and development of relatively simple fabrication techniques give the potential for a low garment cost.

  3. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs related to gait transitions in a labriform swimmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders D.;

    2010-01-01

    was to partition aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs at speeds below and above the Up–c in the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis using swimming respirometry and video analysis to test the hypothesis that the gait transition marks the switch from aerobic to anaerobic power output. Exercise oxygen consumption......Members of the family Embiotocidae exhibit a distinct gait transition from exclusively pectoral fin oscillation to combined pectoral and caudal fin propulsion with increasing swimming speed. The pectoral–caudal gait transition occurs at a threshold speed termed Up–c. The objective of this study...... included caudal fin propulsion in a mostly steady and unsteady (burst-assisted) mode, respectively. There was no evidence of EPOC after swimming at 1.4 and 1.9 L s–1, indicating that the pectoral–caudal gait transition was not a threshold for anaerobic metabolism. At 2.3 L s–1, E. lateralis switched...

  4. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs related to gait transitions in a labriform swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders D; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim; Domenici, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    Members of the family Embiotocidae exhibit a distinct gait transition from exclusively pectoral fin oscillation to combined pectoral and caudal fin propulsion with increasing swimming speed. The pectoral-caudal gait transition occurs at a threshold speed termed U(p-c). The objective of this study was to partition aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs at speeds below and above the U(p-c) in the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis using swimming respirometry and video analysis to test the hypothesis that the gait transition marks the switch from aerobic to anaerobic power output. Exercise oxygen consumption rate was measured at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.3 L s(-1). The presence and magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were evaluated after each swimming speed. The data demonstrated that 1.4 L s(-1) was below the U(p-c), whereas 1.9 and 2.3 L s(-1) were above the U(p-c). These last two swimming speeds included caudal fin propulsion in a mostly steady and unsteady (burst-assisted) mode, respectively. There was no evidence of EPOC after swimming at 1.4 and 1.9 L s(-1), indicating that the pectoral-caudal gait transition was not a threshold for anaerobic metabolism. At 2.3 L s(-1), E. lateralis switched to an unsteady burst and flap gait. This swimming speed resulted in EPOC, suggesting that anaerobic metabolism constituted 25% of the total costs. Burst activity correlated positively with the magnitude of the EPOC. Collectively, these data indicate that steady axial propulsion does not lead to EPOC whereas transition to burst-assisted swimming above U(p-c) is associated with anaerobic metabolism in this labriform swimmer.

  5. Relative effects of submersion and increased pressure on respiratory mechanics, work, and energy cost of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Heather E; Pendergast, David R

    2013-03-01

    Submersion and increased pressure (depth) characterize the diving environment and may independently increase demand on the respiratory system. To quantify changes in respiratory mechanics, this study employed a unique protocol and techniques to measure, in a hyperbaric chamber, inspiratory and expiratory alveolar pressures (interrupter technique), inspiratory and expiratory resistance in the airways (RawI and RawE, esophageal balloon technique), nitric oxide elimination (thought to correlate with Raw), inspiratory and expiratory mechanical power of breathing, and the total energy cost of ventilation. Eight healthy adult men underwent experiments at 1, 2.7, and 4.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in dry and fully submersed conditions. Subjects rested, cycled on an ergometer at 100 W, and rested while voluntarily matching their ventilation to their own exercise hyperpnea (isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation). During isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation, increased O2 uptake (above rest values) resulted from increased expired ventilation. RawI decreased with submersion (mean 43% during rest and 20% during exercise) but increased from 1 to 4.6 ATA (19% during rest and 75% during exercise), as did RawE (53% decrease with submersion during rest and 10% during exercise; 9% increase from 1 to 4.6 ATA during rest and 66% during exercise). Nitric oxide elimination did not correlate with Raw. Depth increased inspiratory mechanical power of breathing during rest (40%) and exercise (20%). Expiratory mechanical power of breathing was largely unchanged. These results suggest that the diving environment affects ventilatory mechanics primarily by increasing Raw, secondary to increased gas density. This necessitates increased alveolar pressure and increases the work and energy cost of breathing as the diver descends. These findings can inform physician assessment of diver fitness and the pulmonary risks of hyperbaric O2 therapy.

  6. Intangible costs of alcohol dependence from the perspective of patients and their relatives: A contingent valuation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2016-09-29

    Alcohol dependence causes multiple problems not only for the person suffering dependence but also for others. In this study, the contingent valuation method is proposed to measure the intangible effects of alcohol dependence from the perspective of the persons directly involved: the patients and their relatives. Interviews were conducted with 145 patients and 61 relatives. Intangible effects of alcohol dependence were determined based on willingness to pay for a hypothetical treatment for dependence, with different success scenarios (100% and 50%). The mean monthly willingness to pay among the alcohol-dependent population was €129 and €168, respectively, for the treatments with 100% and 50% success. The willingness to pay of relatives was greater in both scenarios (€307 and €420, respectively), which could be explained by their greater perception of the family, labour, and health problems resulting from alcohol dependence. Regression analysis showed that patients' willingness to pay is positively related to treatment efficacy, personal income and moderate health deterioration, and negatively related to feeling discouraged and depressed. The results from this study can be applied to economic valuation studies that aim to measure the benefits of programs intended to reduce the prevalence of alcohol dependence. The intangible costs estimated can be added to the direct and indirect costs commonly used.

  7. Trends in asthma-related direct medical costs from 2002 to 2007 in British Columbia, Canada: a population based-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Bedouch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications. METHODS: A cohort of asthma patients from British Columbia (BC, Canada, was created. Asthma patients were identified using a validated case definition. Costs for hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications were calculated from billing records (in 2008 Canadian dollars. Trends in total and per-patient costs over the study period were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: 398,235 patients satisfied the asthma case definition (mid-point prevalence 8.0%. Patients consumed $315.9 million (M in direct asthma-related health resources between 2002 and 2007. Hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication costs accounted for 16.0%, 15.7% and 68.2% of total costs, respectively. Cost of asthma increased from $49.4 M in 2002 to $54.7 M in 2007. Total annual costs attributable to hospitalizations and physician visits decreased (-39.8% and -25.5%, respectively; p<0.001, while medication costs increased (+38.7%; p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: This population-based analysis shows that the total direct cost of asthma in BC has increased since 2002, mainly due to a rise in asthma prevalence and cost of medication. Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-agonists has become a significant component of the cost of asthma. Although billing records capture only a fraction of the true burden of asthma, the simultaneous increase in medication costs and reductions in hospitalization and physician visit costs provides valuable insight for policy makers into the shifts in asthma-related resource use.

  8. Health-related quality of life and rehabilitation cost following intensive care unit stay in multiple trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiannis, Pantelis; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Fildissis, George; Intas, George; Galanis, Peter; Kosta, Natalia; Zidianakis, Vasilios; Baltopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiple trauma patients due to motor vehicle crashes during a follow-up period of 2 years after discharge from an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effect of income and financial cost of rehabilitation in HRQOL. The study was a prospective observational study of multiple trauma patients from January 2009 to January 2011 who were hospitalized in a general, medical, and surgical ICU of a district hospital in Athens, Greece. Eighty-five patients with multiple traumas due to motor vehicle crashes and with an ICU stay of more than 24 hours were included in the study. HRQOL was assessed by a general questionnaire, the EuroQol 5D. Increased monthly household income and absence of traumatic brain injuries were associated with an improved EQ-VAS score. The frequency of severe problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression decreased over time. The financial cost of rehabilitation was initially high but decreased over time. Severely injured victims of motor vehicle crashes suffer from serious problems in terms of HRQOL which is gradually improved even 2 years after hospital discharge. In addition, HRQOL is significantly related to income. Resources used for rehabilitation decrease over time, but even at 24 months, the patients still use half of the amount as compared with the cost of the first 6 months after trauma.

  9. Cost of preventing workplace heat-related illness through worker breaks and the benefit of climate-change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Honda, Yasushi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    The exposure of workers to hot environments is expected to increase as a result of climate change. In order to prevent heat-related illness, it is recommended that workers take breaks during working hours. However, this would lead to reductions in worktime and labor productivity. In this study, we estimate the economic cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks associated with climate change under a wide range of climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We calculate the worktime reduction based on the recommendation of work/rest ratio and the estimated future wet bulb glove temperature, which is an index of heat stresses. Corresponding GDP losses (cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks) are estimated using a computable general equilibrium model throughout this century. Under the highest emission scenario, GDP losses in 2100 will range from 2.6 to 4.0% compared to the current climate conditions. On the other hand, GDP losses will be less than 0.5% if the 2.0 °C goal is achieved. The benefit of climate-change mitigation for avoiding worktime loss is comparable to the cost of mitigation (cost of the greenhouse gas emission reduction) under the 2.0 °C goal. The relationship between the cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks and global average temperature rise is approximately linear, and the difference in economic loss between the 1.5 °C goal and the 2.0 °C goal is expected to be approximately 0.3% of global GDP in 2100. Although climate mitigation and socioeconomic development can limit the vulnerable regions and sectors, particularly in developing countries, outdoor work is still expected to be affected. The effectiveness of some adaptation measures such as additional installation of air conditioning devices or shifting the time of day for working are also suggested. In order to reduce the economic impacts, adaptation measures should also be implemented as well as pursing ambitious climate change

  10. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  11. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs related to gait transitions in a labriform fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders Drud;

    -c. The objective of this study was to quantify aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs at speeds below and above the Up-c in E. lateralis using swimming respirometry and video recordings to test the hypothesis that the gait transition leads to anaerobic metabolism. In this species, 1.4 body lengths per second (bl s-1......) is below the Up-c, whereas both 1.9 and 2.3 bl s-1 are above the Up-c. Exercise oxygen consumption (MO2) while the fish were swimming at these speeds was determined. The presence and magnitude of excessive post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was evaluated after the three swimming speeds......% to the exercise MO2. E. lateralis switched to an unsteady burst and flap gait at 2.3 bl s-1. Burst activity correlated linearly and positively with the magnitude of the resulting EPOC. Collectively, these data suggest that steady axial propulsion does not lead to EPOC whereas transition to burst assisted swimming...

  12. Magnetic fabric of the rocks from the Klodzko Metamorphic Complex (West Sudetes, Poland) and relation to tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzialko-Hofmokl, M.; Werner, T.; Kruczyk, J.; Mazur, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Klodzko Metamorphic Complex KMC consists of metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks of Early Paleozoic and Precambrian age occurring as fragments of a nappe pile lying between the weakly metamorphosed Givetian sediments and Frasnian-Fammenian limestones and shales. At the basis of the Givetian sediments lies a fragment of the Silurian Sudetic ophiolite from which some pillow lavas were sampled. The study concerns the 5 KMC units, Silurian pillow lavas and both Devonian sets of sediments. According to Mazur the rocks under study underwent 6 deformational episodes out of which four D1-D4 took place at the Middle/Late Devonian and two other D5 and D6 - after the Namurian A. The D1 episode was connected with the WNW thrusting, the D2 and subsequent episodes - to dextral transpression or NNE-SSW compression. The mesoscopic mineral lineations L1 and L3 have an azimuth 90-135°E with dip ranging between 15° and 45°. This direction is common in the Sudetes and compatible with the direction of the Intrasudetic and Boundary Sudetic faults. The results of the AMS study agree with the structural conclusions. The Kmax directions calculated in situ for metaigneous rocks, part of metasediments, pillow lavas and Givetian limestones agree well with the mineral lineations. In metasediments from the passive continental margin where the diamagnetics prevail inversion of the anisotropy axes was observed in the fresh specimens. After heating them to 650°C, directions of Kmax became similar to the lineation. Directions of maximum axes of anisotropy of remanence were similar to magnetic lineation in the unheated specimens supporting the conclusion about the inversion of the AMS axes. In the Frasnian-Fammenian limestones the directions of Kmax axes are similar to the results from other units only after correction .for bedding. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: the magnetic fabric of all studied rock units reflects one or more deformational episodes described by

  13. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    .../PGA_055834 ); the Department of Labor's Workforce Innovation Fund ( http://www.doleta.gov/grants/find... management purposes, forecasting, calculations used for the preparation of proposals for federal funding (e.g., forecasting contingencies) or otherwise, and regardless of whether related to assets, liabilities, or expenses...

  14. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  15. Liver transplant-related anastomotic biliary strictures: a novel, rapid, safe, radiation-sparing, and cost-effective management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; Huang, Robert J; Thosani, Nirav C; Choudhary, Abhishek; Girotra, Mohit; Banerjee, Subhas

    2017-07-27

    Biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are typically managed by sequential ERCP procedures, with incremental dilation of the stricture and stent exchange (IDSE) and placement of new stents. This approach resolves >80% of strictures after 12 months, but requires costly, lengthy ERCPs with significant patient radiation exposure. Increasing awareness of the harmful effects of radiation, escalating health care costs, and decreasing reimbursement for procedures mandate maximal efficiency in performing ERCP. We compared the traditional IDSE protocol with a sequential stent addition (SSA) protocol, in which additional stents are placed across the stricture during sequential ERCPs, without stent removal/exchange or stricture dilation. Patients undergoing ERCP for OLT-related anastomotic strictures from 2010-2016 were identified from a prospectively maintained endoscopy database. Procedure duration, fluoroscopy time, stricture resolution rates, adverse events, materials fees, and facility fees were analyzed for IDSE and SSA procedures. Seventy-seven patients underwent 277 IDSE and 132 SSA procedures. Mean fluoroscopy time was 64.5% shorter (p95% and low adverse event rates did not significantly differ. Sequential stent addition results in shorter, cost-effective procedures requiring fewer accessory devices and exposing patients to less radiation. Stricture resolution rates are equivalent to incremental dilation and stent exchange and adverse events do not differ significantly, even in this immunocompromised population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An ideal point method adopting grey relational entropy to estimate life cycle cost with effectiveness of torpedo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qing-wei; SONG Bao-wei

    2008-01-01

    To making the decision of the developing blue prints, ideal point method was selected to estimate the life cycle cost with effectiveness of torpedo. At the same time, the concept of grey relational entropy of the grey system theory was adopted to compute the distance between each blue print and the ideal point (or negative ide-al point). The blue print, nearest to the ideal point and farthest to the negative ideal point, is the best one. As an example, four blue prints of torpedo were estimated. The result indicates the practical value of this method.

  17. Does non-adherence to DMARDs influence hospital-related healthcare costs for early arthritis in the first year of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Annelieke; Schenk, Charlotte; Timman, Reinier; van ‘t Spijker, Adriaan; Appels, Cathelijne; van der Laan, Willemijn H.; van den Bemt, Bart; Goekoop, Robert; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Non-adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is suspected to relate to health care costs. In this study we investigated this relation in the first year of treatment. Methods In a multi-center cohort study with a one year follow up, non-adherence was continuously measured using electronic monitored medication jars. Non-adherence was defined as the number of days with a negative difference between expected and observed opening of the container. Cost measurement focused on hospital costs in the first year: consultations, emergency room visits, hospitalization, medical procedures, imaging modalities, medication costs, and laboratory tests. Cost volumes were registered from patient medical files. We applied multivariate regression analyses for the association between non-adherence and costs, and other variables (age, sex, center, baseline disease activity, diagnosis, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression) and costs. Results Of the 275 invited patients, 206 were willing to participate. 74.2% had rheumatoid arthritis, 20.9% had psoriatic arthritis and 4.9% undifferentiated arthritis. 23.7% of the patients were more than 20% non-adherent over the follow-up period. Mean costs are € 2117.25 (SD € 3020.32). Non-adherence was positively related to costs in addition to baseline anxiety. Conclusion Non-adherence is associated with health care costs in the first year of treatment for arthritis. This suggests that improving adherence is not only associated with better outcome, but also with savings. PMID:28152001

  18. Reliability of a patient survey assessing cost-related changes in health care use among high deductible health plan enrollees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith Alison A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent increases in patient cost-sharing for health care have lent increasing importance to monitoring cost-related changes in health care use. Despite the widespread use of survey questions to measure changes in health care use and related behaviors, scant data exists on the reliability of such questions. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to a stratified random sample of families in a New England health plan's high deductible health plan (HDHP with ≥ $500 in annualized out-of-pocket expenditures. Enrollees were asked about their knowledge of their plan, information seeking, behavior change associated with having a deductible, experience of delay in care due in part to cost, and hypothetical delay in care due in part to cost. Initial respondents were mailed a follow-up survey within two weeks of each family returning the original survey. We computed several agreement statistics to measure the test-retest reliability for select questions. We also conducted continuity adjusted chi-square, and McNemar tests in both the original and follow-up samples to measure the degree to which our results could be reproduced. Analyses were stratified by self-reported income. Results The test-retest reliability was moderate for the majority of questions (0.41 - 0.60 and the level of test-retest reliability did not differ substantially across each of the broader domains of questions. The observed proportions of respondents with delayed or foregone pediatric, adult, or any family care were similar when comparing the original and follow-up surveys. In the original survey, respondents in the lower-income group were more likely to delay or forego pediatric care, adult care, or any family care. All of the tests comparing income groups in the follow-up survey produced the same result as in the original survey. Conclusions In this population of HDHP beneficiaries, we found that survey questions concerning plan knowledge, information

  19. Predation-related costs and benefits of conspecific attraction in songbirds--an agent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect) or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution). Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds' aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction for

  20. Predation-related costs and benefits of conspecific attraction in songbirds--an agent-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Szymkowiak

    Full Text Available Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution. Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds' aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific

  1. Predation-Related Costs and Benefits of Conspecific Attraction in Songbirds—An Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect) or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution). Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds’ aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction for

  2. Health-related quality of life, work productivity, and indirect costs among patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Jessica L; Carson, Robyn T; Flores, Natalia M

    2017-02-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of adults in the US, and is associated with significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, information specific to the diarrhea subtype (IBS-D) is lacking. We assessed the impact of IBS-D on HRQoL, work productivity, and daily activities, and the associated indirect costs, among a sample of the US population. Respondents (≥18 years) from the 2012 US National Health and Wellness Survey who reported an IBS-D diagnosis by a physician or symptoms consistent with Rome II criteria for IBS-D were identified as having IBS-D. Controls included respondents without IBS-D or inflammatory bowel disease. HRQoL was assessed via the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 questionnaire and summarized into Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS; PCS) scores and a Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) utility score. Work and activity impairment were assessed via the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health version (WPAI:GH), which measures absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work productivity loss, and daily activity impairment. Indirect costs were calculated using unit cost data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and variables from the WPAI:GH. Generalized linear models were used to examine differences in health outcomes between respondents with IBS-D and controls, controlling for demographic and health characteristics. In total, 66,491 respondents (1102 IBS-D; 65,389 controls) were analyzed. Mean age was 48.7 years; 50% were female. Compared with controls, the IBS-D cohort reported significantly lower HRQoL (mean MCS: 45.16 vs. 49.48; p work productivity loss (20.7% vs. 13.2%; p work and daily activities, and higher indirect costs, imposing a substantial burden on patients and employers. These findings suggest a significant unmet need exists for effective IBS-D treatments.

  3. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  4. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (CdS/CdTe solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (CdTe taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CdS/CdTe solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology for high-efficiency large-area solar cells, high-quality CdTe active layer was studied. S content taken in the active layer at sintering of CdTe decreased with an increase in formed CdTe, resulting in improvement of Voc of cells. (2) On the window layer with wide band gap, the solar cell superior in collection efficiency and photoelectric characteristics could be obtained using the newly developed mixed crystal film of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S. (3) On the forming technology of large-area coating/sintering films, improvement of CdS film quality was studied by pressurized processing of printed CdS films. As a result, improvement of film density and light transmissivity was confirmed. (4) On the leveling process technology of CdTe films, smooth surface films were obtained by experiment using an equipment simultaneously exciting samples in all directions as one of uniform coating methods of films. 7 figs.

  5. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution.

  6. Use of inverse gas chromatography to characterize cotton fabrics and their interactions with fragrance molecules at controlled relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergiani, Ennio; Benczédi, Daniel

    2002-09-06

    The present work focused on the surface characterization and fragrance interactions of a common cotton towel at different relative humidities (RHs) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and dynamic vapour sorption. The sigmoidal water sorption isotherms showed a maximum of 16% (w/w) water uptake with limited swelling at 100% RH. This means that water interacts strongly with cotton and might change its initial physico-chemical properties. The same cotton towel was then packed in a glass column and characterized by IGC at different relative humidities, calculating the dispersive and specific surface energy components. The dispersive component of the surface energy decreases slightly as a function of relative humidity (42 mJ/m2 at 0% RH to 36 mJ/m2 at 80% RH) which would be expected from swelling of the humidified cotton. The Gutmann's donor constant Kd increased from 0.28 kJ/mol at 0% RH to 0.42 kJ/mol at 80% RH, indicating that a greater hydrophilic surface exists at 80% RH, which is also as expected. Water, undecane and four fragrance molecules (dimetol, benzyl acetate, decanal and phenylethanol) were used to investigate cotton-fragrance interactions between 0 and 80% RH. The adsorption enthalpies and the Henry's constants were calculated and are discussed. The higher values for the adsorption enthalpies of polar molecules such as dimetol and phenylethanol suggest the presence of hydrogen bonds as the main adsorption mechanism. The Henry's constant of dimetol was also determined by headspace gas chromatography measurements at 20% RH, giving a similar value (230 nmol/Pa g by IGC and 130 nmol/Pa g by headspace GC), supporting the usefulness of IGC for such determinations. This work confirms the usefulness of chromatographic methods to investigate biopolymers such as textiles, starches and hairs.

  7. [Work-related disability among postal employees: incidence, duration, and social security costs in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Flávia Alves Neves; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the characteristics of Brazilian postal workers that received sick leave benefits in 2008. The databases were from the Unified Benefits System (SUB) and the National Registry of Social Information (CNIS). The incidence rate was 556.5 benefits per 10,000 employees, and the leading causes of work-related sick leave were injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders. Areas most frequently reported in injuries were knees and legs, wrists and hands, ankles and feet, and shoulders and arms, with higher incidence rates in men. Women were more affected by musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders. Average sick leave lasted longer in men, and the incidence of benefits increased with age. The States with the highest incidence rates were Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Santa Catarina, and security benefits averaged BRL 1,847.00. Postal work may involve additional risk of injuries to the limbs, due to the long distances carrying heavy weight, assault, and dog bites.

  8. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  9. Advanced materials and fabrication processes for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, M. K.; Kaneko, R. S.; Wald, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Research and development programs to develop high-strength aluminum alloys and low-cost materials and fabrication techniques for titanium alloys are being conducted. Thirteen aluminum alloy compositions are being evaluated. A section of a production component was fabricated using superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) and fabrication studies are being conducted on three low temperature forming beta titanium alloys. Cost studies indicate substantial structural cost reduction potentials resulting from the use of both aluminum alloys and low-cost titanium fabrication techniques. Lowest overall costs are indicated for a composite/aluminum or composite titanium structure.

  10. Quantifying the demographic cost of human-related mortality to a raptor population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. Grainger; Wiens, David; Law, Peter R.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, Teresa L.; Driscoll, Daniel E.; Jackman, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to a wide variety of human-related mortality agents, and yet population-level effects are rarely quantified. Doing so requires modeling vital rates in the context of species life-history, behavior, and population dynamics theory. In this paper, we explore the details of such an analysis by focusing on the demography of a resident, tree-nesting population of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of an extensive (142 km2) windfarm in California. During 1994–2000, we tracked the fates of >250 radio-marked individuals of four life-stages and conducted five annual surveys of territory occupancy and reproduction. Collisions with wind turbines accounted for 41% of 88 uncensored fatalities, most of which were subadults and nonbreeding adults (floaters). A consistent overall male preponderance in the population meant that females were the limiting sex in this territorial, monogamous species. Estimates of potential population growth rate and associated variance indicated a stable breeding population, but one for which any further decrease in vital rates would require immigrant floaters to fill territory vacancies. Occupancy surveys 5 and 13 years later (2005 and 2013) showed that the nesting population remained intact, and no upward trend was apparent in the proportion of subadult eagles as pair members, a condition that would have suggested a deficit of adult replacements. However, the number of golden eagle pairs required to support windfarm mortality was large. We estimated that the entire annual reproductive output of 216–255 breeding pairs would have been necessary to support published estimates of 55–65 turbine blade-strike fatalities per year. Although the vital rates forming the basis for these calculations may have changed since the data were collected, our approach should be useful for gaining a clearer understanding of how anthropogenic mortality affects the health of raptor populations, particularly those species with delayed

  11. Quantifying the demographic cost of human-related mortality to a raptor population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger Hunt, W.; David Wiens, J.; Law, Peter R.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, Teresa L.; Driscoll, Daniel E.; Jackman, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to a wide variety of human-related mortality agents, and yet population-level effects are rarely quantified. Doing so requires modeling vital rates in the context of species life-history, behavior, and population dynamics theory. In this paper, we explore the details of such an analysis by focusing on the demography of a resident, tree-nesting population of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of an extensive (142 km2) windfarm in California. During 1994–2000, we tracked the fates of >250 radio-marked individuals of four life-stages and conducted five annual surveys of territory occupancy and reproduction. Collisions with wind turbines accounted for 41% of 88 uncensored fatalities, most of which were subadults and nonbreeding adults (floaters). A consistent overall male preponderance in the population meant that females were the limiting sex in this territorial, monogamous species. Estimates of potential population growth rate and associated variance indicated a stable breeding population, but one for which any further decrease in vital rates would require immigrant floaters to fill territory vacancies. Occupancy surveys 5 and 13 years later (2005 and 2013) showed that the nesting population remained intact, and no upward trend was apparent in the proportion of subadult eagles as pair members, a condition that would have suggested a deficit of adult replacements. However, the number of golden eagle pairs required to support windfarm mortality was large. We estimated that the entire annual reproductive output of 216–255 breeding pairs would have been necessary to support published estimates of 55–65 turbine blade-strike fatalities per year. Although the vital rates forming the basis for these calculations may have changed since the data were collected, our approach should be useful for gaining a clearer understanding of how anthropogenic mortality affects the health of raptor populations, particularly those species with delayed

  12. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  13. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  14. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  15. Measuring Use and Cost of Health Sector and Related Care in a Population of Girls and Young Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Delia; Bebbington, Ami; Bower, Carol; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study measured use and cost of health sector and related services in Rett syndrome and effects of socio-demographic, clinical severity and genetic factors on costs. The study population consisted of individuals with Rett syndrome registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database in 2004. Descriptive analysis was used to examine patterns…

  16. Measuring Use and Cost of Health Sector and Related Care in a Population of Girls and Young Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Delia; Bebbington, Ami; Bower, Carol; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study measured use and cost of health sector and related services in Rett syndrome and effects of socio-demographic, clinical severity and genetic factors on costs. The study population consisted of individuals with Rett syndrome registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database in 2004. Descriptive analysis was used to examine patterns…

  17. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifsa Pervez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2, barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  18. Fabrication of ZrC–SiC composites using zirconium salt as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ZrC–SiC matrix was fabricated by means of in situ reaction method, using zirconium salt, silicon powder and phenolic resin as raw materials. The performances of zirconium salt determined the possibility of ZrC–SiC matrix fabricated using them. The reactions were completed at a relatively low temperature (∼1500 °C. With this concept to produce a ZrC–SiC matrix costs can be reduced. Three-dimensional needle Cf/ZrC–SiC composites were successfully fabricated via the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP process using zirconium salt, silicon powder and phenolic resin as raw materials.

  19. Free Form Low Cost Fabrication Using Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-29

    Metals", 2006 Edition, Annex F "Supplementary Information on Titanium" "* Terry T. Wohlers , Wohlers Report 2005 "Rapid Prototyping, Tooling...Manufacturing State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report ", 2005, Wohlers Associates "* R.M. German, "Sintering Theory and Practice", 1996, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Page 52 ...Metals, Inc., of Nashua, NH. Further descriptions of these powders can be found in subsequent sections of this report The following table contains

  20. Drivers of cost and health-related quality of life in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a Swedish nationwide study based on patient reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, C; Wachtmeister, K; Skare, P; Jönsson, L; Vollenhoven, R van

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate drivers of cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) related to disease activity and fatigue among patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). A questionnaire was sent to members of a patient organization with a self-reported diagnosis of SLE, requesting information on demographics and disease characteristics, medications, resource utilization, informal care, loss of productivity, fatigue and HRQoL in relation to SLE. Mean annual costs per patient were estimated from a societal perspective. HRQoL was measured through EQ-5D and fatigue was measured through a 10 cm VAS scale. Patient-reported disease activity was measured through the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) and corticosteroid dose. Drivers of costs and HRQoL were analyzed through regression analysis. A total of 339 patients out of 737 returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 55; 94% were female. The mean HRQoL measured through the five-item EQ-5D instrument was 0.64 and total costs were estimated at €22,594 (direct costs €7818; indirect costs €14,776). Disease activity, fatigue and corticosteroid doses had a statistically significant impact on costs and HRQoL. This study demonstrates that Swedish patients with SLE have low HRQoL and incur high societal costs and that are both associated with and most likely driven by disease activity, fatigue and corticosteroid use.

  1. 一种低成本压电无阀微泵的研制%Research and fabrication of a low-cost valveless micropump based on piezoelectric actuation*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 应济; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种低成本的由压电材料驱动的平面扩张/收缩管无阀微泵的制作工艺.通过数值模拟确定了扩张/收缩管扩张角的最优值,在此基础上,采用光刻和湿法刻蚀工艺,刻蚀了300μm深的泵腔基片和100 μm深的盖片;使用等离子体清洗技术将其与PDMS薄膜键合,完成了可以实现单向泵送的压电无阀微泵样机制作.研究了该压电无阀微泵样机的性能,分别分析了压电振子的激励频率、电压和微泵背压对其流量的影响.实验结果表明:在100V,110Hz交流方波电压信号的作用下,微泵有最大输出流量为436μL/min,最大背压为620 Pa.%A low-cost valveless micropump based on piezoelectric actuation is presented. The optimized value of opening angle is obtained by numerical simulation, which is the reference of design parameters of the diffuser/ nozzle element. A 300 μm depth of pump chamber substrate and a 100 μm depth of cover are fabricated on pyrex glass using photographic and wet chemical etching processes. Then, by using plasma cleaning technology, they are bonded to PDMS membrane to accomplish the fabrication of the micropump. The maximum flow rate and baekpressure of the pump are about 436 μL/min and 620 Pa when applying a 100V square wave driving voltage at 110 Hz across the piezoelectric-disc.

  2. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tontodonati, M.; Sozio, F; F Vadini; Polilli, E.; Ursini, T; G. Calella; Di Stefano, P.; Mazzotta, E.; Costantini, A.; C D'Amario; Parruti, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  3. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices. © 2009 Springer-Verlag....

  5. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country

  6. Robust Polypropylene Fabrics Super-Repelling Various Liquids: A Simple, Rapid and Scalable Fabrication Method by Solvent Swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Duan, Chunting; Zhai, Shuai; Liang, Songmiao; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    A simple, rapid (10 s) and scalable method to fabricate superhydrophobic polypropylene (PP) fabrics is developed by swelling the fabrics in cyclohexane/heptane mixture at 80 °C. The recrystallization of the swollen macromolecules on the fiber surface contributes to the formation of submicron protuberances, which increase the surface roughness dramatically and result in superhydrophobic behavior. The superhydrophobic PP fabrics possess excellent repellency to blood, urine, milk, coffee, and other common liquids, and show good durability and robustness, such as remarkable resistances to water penetration, abrasion, acidic/alkaline solution, and boiling water. The excellent comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic PP fabrics indicates their potential applications as oil/water separation materials, protective garments, diaper pads, or other medical and health supplies. This simple, fast and low cost method operating at a relatively low temperature is superior to other reported techniques for fabricating superhydrophobic PP materials as far as large scale manufacturing is considered. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable for preparing superhydrophobic PP films and sheets as well.

  7. Statistical Estimation of Dose-response Functions of Respiratory Diseases and Societal Costs of Haze-related Air Pollution in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaman, K. A.; Ibrahim, N.

    - The effects on human health resulting from the January to April 1998 haze-related air pollution episode in Brunei Darussalam were analysed for five groups of diseases of the respiratory system. The analysis concentrated on the statistical estimation of dose-response functions which related the number of cases of respiratory diseases to the level of quality of ambient environment as measured by the pollutants standards index (PSI) and other environmental variables. The total number of cases of the five groups of diseases was shown to be significantly related to PSI and temperature. Societal costs were also estimated. The results showed that societal costs were significantly related to PSI, temperature and relative humidity. Societal costs increased with higher PSI and relative humidity but decreased with increasing temperature.

  8. Comparison of cost-in-use between disposable non-woven fabric and traditional cotton packaging sterile items%一次性无纺布与传统棉布包装无菌物品使用费用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建平; 阎倩; 常青

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较一次性无纺布与传统棉布包装手术室无菌物品的使用费用.方法 2011年2-12月,选择传统棉布包为对照组,一次性无纺布组作为实验组,分别使用120 cm×120 cm和60 cm×60 cm两组包装手术室无菌物品的使用费用.结果 实验组使用费用明显低于对照组.结论 使用一次性无纺布包装无菌器械,其费用低于传统棉布包,有利于降低科室的成本,并节省人力资源.%Objective To compare the cost-in-use of disposable non-woven fabric and traditional cotton packaging sterile items. Methods The study was carried out in our hospital from February to December 2011. The cost-in-use of disposable non-woven fabric (experimental group) and traditional cotton (control group) packaging sterile items was compared. Results The cost-in-use in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusion The use of disposable non-woven fabric packaging sterile items can greatly cut down the cost, and save human resources.

  9. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  10. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  11. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  12. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    is between now and 2016 when the candidate processes are down-selected in preparation for the MP-1, FSP-1, and MP-2 plate manufacturing campaigns. A number of key risks identified by the FFC are discussed in this plan, with recommended mitigating actions for those activities within FFC, and identification of risks that are impacted by activities in other areas of the Convert Program. The R&D Plan does not include discussion of FFC initiatives related to production-scale manufacturing of fuel (e.g., establishment of the Pilot Line Production Facility), rather, the goal of this plan is to document the R&D activities needed ultimately to enable high-quality and cost-effective production of the fuel by the commercial fuel fabricator. The intent is for this R&D Plan to be a living document that will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis (e.g., annually) to ensure that FFC R&D activities remain properly aligned to the needs of the Convert Program. This version of the R&D Plan represents the first annual review and revision.

  13. Design and fabrication of an automatic dual axis solar tracker by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the rotation of the earth in an orbit, direction of the Sun changes relatively. This paper ... This mechanism is derived by DC motors having a high reduction ratio. ... The motive of the work is to fabricate a solar tracker at a very low cost.

  14. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  15. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Pathways, as table 3 below shows. While Pacific Pathways carries an additional cost , based on USARPAC’s estimates, it would have been more costly to...Center—about 160 miles from Joint Base Lewis McChord—for such training. Finally, none of the assessments compare Pacific Pathways costs and benefits...www.gao.gov and select “E-mail Updates.” The price of each GAO publication reflects GAO’s actual cost of production and distribution and depends on the

  16. DO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PROVIDE ADEQUATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CAPITALIZATION OF COSTS RELATED TO INTANGIBLE ASSETS?: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON ITALIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Vignini, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our research is to verify if Italian listed companies financial statements provide adequate information about the capitalization of costs related to intangible assets and if the information provided are reliable. Moreover, we investigated if they merely comply with law or provide additional information on cost capitalization and reveal if internal control systems (especially managerial accounting systems) or other information systems are applied to support the measurement proces...

  17. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-

  18. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  19. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the dietary guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  1. Relative Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Adolescent Depression: 36-Week Results from the TADS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Foster, E. Michael; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Burns, Barbara J.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials that involve 327 participants aged 12 to 18 who were diagnosed with major depression were given either fluoxetine alone, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a combination of both. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves suggest that combination treatment is highly likely to be the most cost-effective treatment than…

  2. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  3. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  4. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  5. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-06-01

    To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed) for wet AMD. (b) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly) for wet AMD. (c) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen). Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers' perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively). However, bevacizumab (monthly injections) alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed for wet AMD. (b AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly for wet AMD. (c AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen. Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers′ perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Results: Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively. However, bevacizumab (monthly injections alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  7. Prevention of low back pain in the military cluster randomized trial: effects of brief psychosocial education on total and low back pain-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, John D; Wu, Samuel S; Teyhen, Deydre S; Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z

    2014-04-01

    Effective strategies for preventing low back pain (LBP) have remained elusive, despite annual direct health care costs exceeding $85 billion dollars annually. In our recently completed Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) trial, a brief psychosocial education program (PSEP) that reduced fear and threat of LBP reduced the incidence of health care-seeking for LBP. The purpose of this cost analysis was to determine if soldiers who received psychosocial education experienced lower health care costs compared with soldiers who did not receive psychosocial education. The POLM trial was a cluster randomized trial with four intervention arms and a 2-year follow-up. Consecutive subjects (n=4,295) entering a 16-week training program at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to become a combat medic in the U.S. Army were considered for participation. In addition to an assigned exercise program, soldiers were cluster randomized to receive or not receive a brief psychosocial education program delivered in a group setting. The Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool was used to extract total and LBP-related health care costs associated with LBP incidence over a 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for postrandomization differences between the groups, the median total LBP-related health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred LBP-related costs during the 2-year follow-up period were $26 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($60 vs. $86, respectively, p=.034). The adjusted median total health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred at least some health care costs during the 2-year follow-up period were estimated at $2 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($2,439 vs. $2,441, respectively, p=.242). The results from this analysis demonstrate that a brief psychosocial education program was only marginally effective in reducing LBP-related health care costs and was not effective in reducing

  8. Monetary cost of self-reported diet in relation to biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    All previous studies on monetary diet cost have examined the relationship of monetary cost of self-reported diet to self-reported, rather than biomarker-based, estimates of dietary intake. The present cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary costs of self-reported diet and biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake. Monetary diet cost (Japanese yen/1000 kJ) was calculated based on dietary intake information from a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire using retail food prices. Biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake (percentage of energy for protein and mg/1000 kJ for K and Na) were estimated based on 24 h urinary excretion and estimated energy expenditure. A total of fifteen universities and colleges in Japan. A total of 1046 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Total monetary diet cost showed a significant positive association with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na. Vegetables and fish were not only the main contributors to total monetary diet cost (16.4 % and 15.5 %, respectively) but also were relatively strongly correlated with total monetary diet cost (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.70 and 0.68, respectively). Monetary cost of vegetables was significantly positively associated with all three nutrients, while that of fish showed a significant and positive association only with protein. Total monetary cost of self-reported diet was positively associated with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na intake in young Japanese women, and appeared mainly to be explained by the monetary costs of vegetables and fish.

  9. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. Methods. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012–2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Results. Living in a higher-cost county—particularly one with high rent costs—was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Conclusions. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living. PMID:27631742

  10. Combined AFM nano-machining and reactive ion etching to fabricate high aspect ratio structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new combined method of sub-micron high aspect ratio structure fabrication is developed which can be used for production of nano imprint template. The process includes atomic force microscope (AFM) scratch nano-machining and reactive ion etching (RIE) fabrication. First, 40 nm aluminum film was deposited on the silicon substrate by magnetron sputtering, and then sub-micron grooves were fabricated on the aluminum film by nano scratch using AFM diamond tip. As aluminum film is a good mask for etching silicon, high aspect ratio structures were finally fabricated by RIE process. The fabricated structures were studied by SEM, which shows that the grooves are about 400 nm in width and 5 microm in depth. To obtain sub-micron scale groove structures on the aluminum film, experiments of nanomachining on aluminum films under various machining conditions were conducted. The depths of the grooves fabricated using different scratch loads were also studied by the AFM. The result shows that the material properties of the film/substrate are elastic-plastic following nearly a bilinear law with isotropic strain hardening. Combined AFM nanomachining and RIE process provides a relative lower cost nano fabrication technique than traditional e-beam lithography, and it has a good prospect in nano imprint template fabrication.

  11. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Martín

    Full Text Available To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL determined PD costs over a 4-year period.Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL.One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD age: 63 (11 years, mean (SD disease duration: 8 (6 years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease. Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from € 2,082.17 (€ 2,889.86 in year 1 to € 4,008.6 (€ 7,757.35 in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased € 75.72 (p = 0.0174; for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented € 49.21 (p = 0.0094 and € 44.81 (p = 0.0404, respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased € 16.31 (p = 0.0228.PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses.

  12. The efficiency of life insurance and family Takaful in Malaysia: Relative efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Roziana; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the Stochastic cost Frontier Analysis (SFA) approach, in an attempt to measure the relationship between efficiency and organizational structure for Takaful and insurance operators in Malaysia's dual financial system. This study applied a flexible cost functional form i.e., Fourier Flexible Functional Form, for a sample consisting of 19 firms, chosen between 2002 and 2010, by employing the Battese and Coelli invariant efficiency model. The findings show that on average, there is a significant difference in cost efficiency between the Takaful industry and the insurance industry. It was found that Takaful has lower cost efficiency than conventional insurance, which shows that the organization form has an influence on efficiency. Overall, it was observed that the level of efficiency scores for both life insurance and family Takaful do not vary across time.

  13. Costs and hospital procedures in an urology department of a tertiary hospital. Analysis of groups related by their diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, F; Barrachina, I; Budia, A; Vivas Consuelo, D; Criado, M C

    The health care system has management tools available in hospitals that facilitate the assessment of efficiency through the study of costs and management control in order to make a better use of the resources. The aim of the study was the calculation and analysis of the total cost of a urology department, including ambulatory, hospitalization and surgery activity and the drafting of an income statement where service costs are compared with income earned from the Government fees during 2014. From the information recorded by the Economic Information System of the Department of Health, ABC and top-down method of cost calculation was applied by process care activity. The cost results obtained were compared with the rates established for ambulatory and hospital production in the Tax Law of the Generalitat Valenciana. The production was structured into outpatient (external and technical consultations) and hospital stays and surgeries (inpatient). A total of 32,510 outpatient consultations, 7,527 techniques, 2,860 interventions and 4,855 hospital stays were made during 2014. The total cost was 7,579,327€; the cost for outpatient consultations was 1,748,145€, 1,229,836 Euros for technical consultations, 2,621,036€ for surgery procedures and 1,980,310€ for hospital admissions. Considered as income the current rates applied in 2014 (a total of 15,035,843€), the difference between income and expenditure was 7,456,516€. The economic balance was positive with savings over 50% and a mean adjusted hospitalization stay rate (IEMAC) rate of 0.67 (33% better than the standard). CMA had a favorable impact on cost control. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  15. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  16. Benign thyroid disorders, radioiodine therapy and diagnosis related groups (DRGs): aspects of cost/benefit; Benigne Schilddruesenerkrankungen, Radioiodtherapie und Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs): Kosten-Nutzen-Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in older patients is accompanied by an increasing frequency of treatment and cost. Cost-effectiveness is given for programs of prophylaxis (primary prevention, e.g. alimentary iodine supplementation), for programs of screening (secondary prevention. e.g. TSH-screening), and for therapeutic strategies to avoid complications of thyroid dysfunction (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, death for cardiac reasons) and to minimize iatrogenic complications (tertiary prevention). Examples of tertiary prevention are radioiodine-therapy of Graves' disease in patients who have an increased risk of relapse after antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioiodine therapy of ouvert or subclinical hyperthyroidism, and radioiodine therapy of large goiters in older patients or in patients suffering from a relevant co-morbidity. A cost-effectiveness-analysis for different therapeutic strategies of Graves' disease has been published using a lifelong time-horizon. The ablative radioiodine dose-regime is cost-effective as a first line therapy if the risk of relapse after ATD exceeds 60%. Cost-minimization-analysis, comparing resection of goiter and radioiodine, has shown lower cost of radioiodine therapy for toxic multinodular goiter up to 100 ml and for Graves' disease up to 60 ml goiter volume. Medical aspects (volume of goiter, uptake of nodules, regressive goiter, suspicion on malignancy, patients' age, co-morbidity, patients' decision) remain decisive for the choice of treatment. (orig.)

  17. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  18. [Costs of Mental Health Care in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Sexual Abuse One Year Before and After Inpatient DBT-PTSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Kathlen; Roth, Mascha; Krüger, Antje; Glöckner-Fink, Kristina; Dyer, Anne; Steil, Regina; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Objective In Germany, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) often receive inpatient treatment. However, data on utilization and costs of mental health care as well as on the impact of trauma-focused treatment are missing. Methods Within the context of a randomized controlled trial mental health service utilization was assessed in female patients with PTSD related to CSA. Data on psychiatric-psychotherapeutic inpatient and outpatient treatment and psychotropic medication was obtained for the year before and after inpatient DBT-PTSD. Results The mean total costs of utilization of psychiatric-psychotherapeutic care and use of psychotropics were € 18.100 per patient in the year before and € 7.233 in the year after DBT-PTSD. The significant cost decrease was due to large reductions in inpatient treatment days (on average 57 days before and 14 days after DBT-PTSD), while outpatient treatment and psychotropic medication remained unchanged. Conclusion PTSD related to CSA is associated with high utilization and costs of mental health care. The results suggest that DBT-PTSD might contribute to reducing the mental health care costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. [A population-based study on cost-related underuse of medicines by the elderly in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cost-related underuse of medicines and associated factors in a representative sample of 1,134 elderly individuals in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of cost-related underuse was 12.9%. After adjustments in the multivariate model, cost-related underuse was higher in individuals with income less than twice the minimum wage (PR = 0.57; 95%CI: 0.34-0.97), without health plan coverage (PR = 0.68; CI95%: 0.46-0.99), with low frequencies of physician-patient dialogue concerning health/treatment (rarely/never, PR = 1.79; 95%CI: 1.10-2.90), with fair to poor self-rated health (PR = 1.66; 95%CI: 0.95-2.90 and PR = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.38-4.48, respectively), and with multiple comorbidities (one, PR = 2.51; 95%CI: 0.99-6.35; two, PR = 3.51; 95%CI: 1.40-8.72 and three or more, PR = 4.52; 95%CI: 1.79-11.41). Our results suggest adherence problems within this population due to a communication gap between seniors and physicians on treatment-related aspects and to the lack of health plan coverage. Especially worrisome is the high risk of cost-related underuse among elderly with poor health.

  20. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  1. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Denosumab in the Prevention of Skeletal-related Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bektur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bone mass loss (BML is one of the adverse effects of oncological chemotherapy, especially in cases of hormonal types of cancer, such as a prostate cancer (PC. BML is strongly associated with skeletal-related events (SREs, therefore decreasing the quality of patient’s life. Denosumab shows an advantage over zoledronic acid (ZA in delaying the first onset of SREs and subsequent SREs in adults with PC in several phase III clinical trials. Since generic ZA recently became available, the purpose of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of denosumab vs. brand or generic ZA in the prevention of SREs in Kazakhstani patients with PC.Methods. A Markov model was constructed in Tree-Age Pro 2013 software program with 4-week model cycles to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the treatments from the perspective of Ministry of Health (MoH over a 10-year PC cohort. Direct costs (in Kazakhstani monetary units “tenge” in 2014 included costs of drug, SRE (pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, radiation to bone, spinal cord compression, and adverse events treatment. All costs were discounted for 3% per year. Effectiveness was appraised based on the number of SREs. Health states were defined according to SRE occurrence, SRE history, and death. The model assumed that a maximum of 1 SRE could occur in each cycle. Transition probabilities were derived from the relevant phase III trials. Results were present in the incremental total cost per SRE avoided. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Results. Over the 10-year period, denosumab incurred 103,091 tenge higher costs than brand ZA, 677,133 tenge higher costs than generic ZA, and 0.58 fewer SREs per patient with PC. The estimated incremental total direct costs per SRE avoided with the use of denosumab were 177,743 tenge (instead of brand ZA and 1,167,470 tenge (instead of generic ZA. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analyses

  2. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point

  3. Shared networks of interpreter services, at relatively low cost, can help providers serve patients with limited english skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services.

  4. Strength Properties of 3D Solid Orthogonal Panel Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cai-yun; LI Jia-lu

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the related strength properties of 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics under the condition of low strain, then analyses the response of these fabrics to low tensile loads, as well as presents how it is possible to deduce the tensile properties of 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics from the known properties of their constituent yarns and the fabric structural geometry while fabrics suffer from low strain (less than 10%). The experiments indicate that the relationship between stress and strain for 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics is parabolic, and the relationship between fabric strain and yarn strain is linear. In addition, yarn strain is much less than fabric strain.

  5. Conceptual design study of advanced fuel fabrication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken-ya, Tanaka; Shusaku, Kono; Kiyoshi, Ono [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development JNC, Fuel Fabrication System Group, O-Arai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The fuel fabrication plant images based on the advanced equipment with availability to operate in hot-cell facility are constructed. The characteristics of each fuel fabrication system for economical and environmental are evaluated roughly. The advanced fuel fabrication routes such as simplified pelletizing, vibration compaction and casting process would have the potential for reducing plant construction cost and minimizing the radioactive waste generated from fuel fabrication process. (author)

  6. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  7. Simplified versus traditional techniques for complete denture fabrication: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Marcília R; Alves, Luana R; Gurgel, Bruno C V; Calderon, Patrícia S

    2015-01-01

    A number of methods have been described for the fabrication of complete dentures. There are 2 common ways to make conventional complete dentures: a traditional method and a simplified method. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficiency of simplified and traditional methods for the fabrication of complete dentures. The review was conducted by 3 independent reviewers and included articles published up to December 2013. Three electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE-PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science. A manual search also was performed to identify clinical trials of simplified versus traditional fabrication of complete dentures. Six articles were classified as randomized controlled clinical trials and were included in this review. The majority of the selected articles analyzed general satisfaction, denture stability, chewing ability and function, comfort, hygiene, esthetics, speech function, quality of life, cost, and fabrication time. Although the studies reviewed demonstrate some advantages of simplified over traditional prostheses, such as lower cost and clinical time, good chewing efficiency, and a positive effect on the quality of life, the reports related the use of different simplified methods for the fabrication of complete dentures. Additional randomized controlled trials that used similar simplified techniques for the fabrication of complete dentures should be performed with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Correlations between the Level of Partnering Relations and their Influence on the Time, Cost, Quality and Safety of Implementation of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper uses the developed model of the influence of partnering relations on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. On its basis, a questionnaire has been created and a preliminary survey has been conducted. The paper presents an analysis of correlations between the level of partnering relations in the context of the partnering measures indicated in the model and their influence on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. The analysis was conducted based on the data collected in 52 construction projects. The values of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient have been calculated for the examined relations. The analysis allowed for indicating the measures of partnering whose improvement most often brings benefits with regard to the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. Among the 80 analysed correlations, the ones identified as strong were: 15 relations connected with the time, 8 with the cost, 5 with the quality and 1 with the safety of implementation of construction projects.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life, Treatment Satisfaction, and Costs Associated With Intraperitoneal Versus Subcutaneous Insulin Administration in Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Gans, Reinold O.; Bilo, Henk J.

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate the effects of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) compared with subcutaneous insulin on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and treatment satisfaction, and to perform a cost analysis in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used an

  10. Hospital cost and quality performance in relation to market forces: an examination of U.S. community hospitals in the "post-managed care era".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H Joanna; Friedman, Bernard; Jiang, Shenyi

    2013-03-01

    Managed care substantially transformed the U.S. healthcare sector in the last two decades of the twentieth century, injecting price competition among hospitals for the first time in history. However, total HMO enrollment has declined since 2000. This study addresses whether managed care and hospital competition continued to show positive effects on hospital cost and quality performance in the "post-managed care era." Using data for 1,521 urban hospitals drawn from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, we examined hospital cost per stay and mortality rate in relation to HMO penetration and hospital competition between 2001 and 2005, controlling for patient, hospital, and other market characteristics. Regression analyses were employed to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in hospital performance. We found that in markets with high HMO penetration, increase in hospital competition over time was associated with decrease in mortality but no change in cost. In markets without high HMO penetration, increase in hospital competition was associated with increase in cost but no change in mortality. Overall, hospitals in high HMO penetration markets consistently showed lower average costs, and hospitals in markets with high hospital competition consistently showed lower mortality rates. Hospitals in markets with high HMO penetration also showed lower mortality rates in 2005 with no such difference found in 2001. Our findings suggest that while managed care may have lost its strength in slowing hospital cost growth, differences in average hospital cost associated with different levels of HMO penetration across markets still persist. Furthermore, these health plans appear to put quality of care on a higher priority than before.

  11. Transmission rates, screening methods and costs of MRSA--a systematic literature review related to the prevalence in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tübbicke, A; Hübner, C; Kramer, A; Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S

    2012-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections represent a serious challenge for health care institutions, which is inherent in the combination of prevalence, transmission rates and costs. Furthermore, performing an MRSA screening requires information on the complex system of effectiveness, accuracy and costs of different screening methods. The purpose of this study was to give an overview of parameters with decisive significance for the burden of MRSA and the selection of a specific MRSA screening strategy. A systematic literature search for peer-reviewed health economic studies associated with MRSA was performed (from 1995 to the present). Eighty-seven different studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary outcomes included the prevalence of MRSA, MRSA transmission rates, performance characteristics of MRSA screening methods, costs for pre-emptive isolation precautions and costs per MRSA case. The prevalence rates reported for all inpatients (1.2-5.3 %) as well as for inpatients with risk factors or patients in risk areas (3.85-20.6 %) vary greatly. The range of cross-transmission rates per day reported for patients with MRSA in isolation is 0.00081-0.009 and for carriers not in isolation is 0.00137-0.140, respectively. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 91.09 and 95.79 %, respectively. Culture methods show an average sensitivity of 89.01 % and an average specificity of 93.21 %. The turn-around time for PCR methods averages 15 h, while for the culture method, it can only be estimated as 48-72 h. This review filtered important parameters and cost drivers, and covered them with literature-based averages. These findings serve as an ideal evidence base for further health economic considerations of the cost-effectiveness of different MRSA screening methods.

  12. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  13. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  14. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  15. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  16. Distance costs and the degree of inter-partner involvement in international relational-based technology alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international

  17. Cost related sensitivity analysis for optimal operation of a grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Tanrioven, M.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M. S.

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPP) as a combined source of heat, power and hydrogen (CHP&H) can be considered as a potential option to supply both thermal and electrical loads. Hydrogen produced from the FCPP can be stored for future use of the FCPP or can be sold for profit. In such a system, tariff rates for purchasing or selling electricity, the fuel cost for the FCPP/thermal load, and hydrogen selling price are the main factors that affect the operational strategy. This paper presents a hybrid evolutionary programming and Hill-Climbing based approach to evaluate the impact of change of the above mentioned cost parameters on the optimal operational strategy of the FCPP. The optimal operational strategy of the FCPP for different tariffs is achieved through the estimation of the following: hourly generated power, the amount of thermal power recovered, power trade with the local grid, and the quantity of hydrogen that can be produced. Results show the importance of optimizing system cost parameters in order to minimize overall operating cost.

  18. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  19. Image and surgery-related costs comparing cone beam CT and panoramic imaging before removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Bo; Olsen, Kim Rose; Christensen, Jennifer Heather

    2014-01-01

    such as differences in surgery time, treatment time for complications, pre- and post-surgical medication, sickness absence, specialist treatment and hospitalization were not statistically significant between the two diagnostic method groups. Conclusions: Costs for a CBCT examination were approximately four times...

  20. A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-08-01

    Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.

  1. Design Thinking for Digital Fabrication in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjorth, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that digital fabrication in education may benefit from design thinking, to foster a more profound understanding of digital fabrication processes among students. Two related studies of digital fabrication in education are presented in the paper. In an observational study we...... found that students (eleven to fifteen) lacked an understanding of the complexity of the digital fabrication process impeding on the potentials of digital fabrication in education. In a second explorative research through design study, we investigated how a focus on design thinking affected the students......’ performance in digital fabrication processes. Our findings indicate that design thinking can provide students with a general understanding of the creative and complex process through which artifacts and futures emerge in processes of digital fabrication....

  2. IMPROVING KNITTED FABRICS BY A STATISTICAL CONTROL OF DIMENSIONAL CHANGES AFTER THE DYEING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLINARES-BERENGUER Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that cotton knitted fabrics present during the manufacturing process is their dimensional instability, which needs to be minimised. Some of the variables that intervene in fabric shrinkage are related with its structural characteristics, use of fiber when producing yarn, the yarn count used or the dyeing process employed. Conducted under real factory conditions, the present study attempted to model the behaviour of a fabric structure after a dyeing process by contributing several algorithms that calculate dyed fabric stability after the first wash cycle. Small-diameter circular machines are used to produce garments with no side seams. This is the reason why a list of machines that produce the same fabrics for different widths needs to be made available to produce all the sizes of a given garment. Two relaxation states were distingued for interlock fabric: dyed and dry relaxation, and dyed and wash relaxation. The linear density of the yarn employed to produce sample fabric was combed cotton Ne 30. The machines used for optic bleaching were Overflow. To obtain knitting structures with optimum dimensional stability, different statistical tools were used to help us to evaluate all the production process variables (raw material, machines and process responsible for this variation. This allowed to guarantee product quality without creating costs and losses.

  3. The Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan: A Markov Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tamura

    Full Text Available To investigate the cost-effectiveness of screening and subsequent intervention for age-related macular degeneration (AMD in Japan.The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening and subsequent intervention for AMD were assessed using a Markov model. The Markov model simulation began at the age of 40 years and concluded at the age of 90 years. The first-eye and second-eye combined model assumed an annual state-transition probability, development of prodromal symptoms, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, and reduction in visual acuity. Anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (anti-VEGF intravitreal injection therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT were performed to treat CNV. Intake of supplements was recommended to patients who had prodromal symptoms and unilateral AMD. Data on prevalence, morbidity, transition probability, utility value of each AMD patient, and treatment costs were obtained from published clinical reports.In the base-case analysis, screening for AMD every 5 years, beginning at the age of 50 years, showed a decrease of 41% in the total number of blind patients. The screening program reduced the incidence of blindness more than did the additional intake of supplements. However, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of screening versus no screening was 27,486,352 Japanese yen (JPY, or 259,942 US dollars (USD per quality-adjusted life year (QALY. In the sensitivity analysis, prodromal symptom-related factors for AMD had great impacts on the cost-effectiveness of screening. The lowest ICER obtained from the best scenario was 4,913,717 JPY (46,470 USD per QALY, which was approximately equal to the willingness to pay in Japan.Ophthalmologic screening for AMD in adults is highly effective in reducing the number of patients with blindness but not cost-effective as demonstrated by a Markov model based on clinical data from Japan.

  4. The Feto-Maternal Health Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Among Delivery-Related Discharges in the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogos, Mulubrhan F; Araya, Winta N; Masho, Saba W; Salemi, Jason L; Shieh, Carol; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2016-02-01

    Our purpose was to estimate the national prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among delivery-related discharges and to investigate its association with adverse feto-maternal birth outcomes and delivery-related cost. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of delivery-related hospital discharges from 2002 to 2009 was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify IPV, covariates, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between IPV and each outcome. Joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. During the study period, 3,649 delivery-related discharges were diagnosed with IPV (11.2 per 100,000; 95% CI = [10.0, 12.4]). IPV diagnosis during delivery is associated with stillbirth (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = [2.75, 6.17]), preterm birth (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI = [1.59, 2.44]), fetal death (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI = [1.99, 5.61]), infant with poor intrauterine growth (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.40]), and increased inpatient hospital care cost (US$5,438.2 vs. US$4,080.1) per each discharge, incurring an additional cost of US$4,955,707 during the study period. IPV occurring during pregnancy has a significant health burden to both the mother and infant. Education about IPV; screening at periodic intervals, including during obstetric visits; and ongoing clinical care could help to reduce or eliminate adverse effects of pregnancy-related IPV. Preventing the lifelong consequences associated with IPV can have a positive effect on the overall health of all women and delivery-related health care cost. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Fabrication of High T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperley, Miles Hyam

    1992-01-01

    Metal-clad high-T_{rm c} superconductor wires have been fabricated by conventional hot extrusion and wire drawing techniques. The fabrication processes which were used influenced the microstructure which, in turn, governed the superconducting properties of metal-clad Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) and Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) superconductors. The ability to form these materials into long thin wires and the electrical properties of the wires were assessed. Extruded metal-clad wire was fabricated by coextruding a Cu billet containing a Ag-clad superconductor core at 920^circC and 800 ^circC for YBCO and BPSCCO materials, respectively. The deformation behaviour of the composite billets was investigated by extruding through dies with semicone angle alpha = 30 ^circ and using a range of core diameters and reduction ratios. For combinations of initial core diameter and reduction ratio, domains of deformation behaviour were established including sound flow, nonuniform flow, core fracture and sleeve fracture. Hot extruded YBCO and BPSCCO superconductor had densities estimated to be between 95% and 98% of the theoretical values. The material contained transverse cracks except for a sample of YBCO which had an addition of 10 wt% Ag. The microstructure of the YBCO material consisted of YBa _2Cu_3O{_{7-x}}, while the BPSCCO material contained an intimate mixture of the high-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_2Cu _3O{_ {10-x}} (110 K) and low-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_1Cu _2O{_ {8-x}} (80 K) phases with Ca _2CuO_3 and Sr-Ca -Cu-O impurity particles. X-ray polefigure goniometry of extruded BPSCCO superconductor revealed that the material was relatively untextured. As-extruded YBCO and BPSCCO were semiconducting. Oxygen treated YBCO had a lower normal-state resistivity than the as-extruded material, and a superconducting transition above 77 K was not achieved. Heat treatment of extruded BPSCCO regenerated superconductivity above 77 K, with the transition behaviour dependent on the proportion of high

  6. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  7. Predation-Related Costs and Benefits of Conspecific Attraction in Songbirds?An Agent-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Szymkowiak; Lechosław Kuczyński

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect) or costs (e.g., possibly...

  8. The Relation Between Smoking Habit Among the Students and Faculty Members in Marmara University and Steady Cost of Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül YILDIRIM KAPTANOĞLU; Gülden POLAT; Makbule SOYER

    2012-01-01

    It was aimed in this study to quantify smoking habits and nicotine dependency of future health care professionals such as doctors, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, and midwives, as well as academic members of associated faculties and to calculate the economic steady cost of smoking. Students in the faculties of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy, and Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Nursing and Midwifery and faculty members in Marmara University were included in the study. As a means of ...

  9. 10-kilowatt photovoltaic concentrator array fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.A.; Donovan, R.L.; Broadbent, S.

    1980-12-01

    The PCA is based on the use of an acrylic Fresnel lens to concentrate sunlight on high intensity solar cells. The array with modified heat sinks was fabricated to determine the impact on electrical performance due to lower weight heat sinks and reduced thermal dissipation surfaces. The array with modified heat sinks was fabricated to determine the impact on electrical performance due to lower weight heat sinks and reduced thermal dissipation surfaces. The array fabrication proceeded with normal problems expected of preproduction prototypes. Three major problems occurred in the areas of the dimensional adequacy of the environmental housing for the Photovoltaic Modules, the cell/substrate assembly and the azimuth drive structural integrity. The cost optimization study identified a new lower weight heat sink design that would reduce the heat sink weight by 50% and the array cost by approximately 3.1% for a loss of only 7% in annularized electrical power generation. The production cost estimate provides an indicator that an overall 87% learning curve can be achieved and the cost of the 5000th unit could be $5.30 per watt in 1979 dollars. System level costs were also developed to project a busbar energy cost for a 10 MW system produced at the 500th unit. This system would provide energy at 24 cents per kilowatt hour average over a 30 year projected life. As a result of wind tunnel tests and the fabrication experience, an array has been designed for production. The key elements of the redesign are discussed. (MHR)

  10. Evidence summary: what 'cost of illness' evidence is there about cross-infection related infections in dental practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Chris

    2010-07-24

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.The paper below details a summary of the findings of the seventh critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal identified no evidence on the epidemiological scale of cross-infection caused in dental practices and therefore also of the cost impact of cross-infection caused in primary dental practices. As a result, no 'cost of illness', or cost-benefit assessment, exists or is feasible at this time.

  11. Costs of reproduction as related to the timing of phenological phases in the dioecious Shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, R; Castro-Díez, P; Maestro-Martínez, M; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2006-01-01

    Females of woody dioecious species usually devote more resources to reproduction than males. This may lead to a decrease in female survival and growth. The costs of reproduction, however, can be lightened through a number of mechanisms, as for example avoiding the temporal coincidence of reproduction and vegetative growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether males and females of P. lentiscus differ in the timing of their vegetative growth, and to assess whether the sequencing of vegetative growth and reproduction reduces reproductive costs. We monitored phenology in males and females. We also compared male and female allocation of nutrients and biomass in the branch, and the developmental stability of the growing shoots. We did this both prior to and at the end of the fruiting period. Males and females showed similar vegetative and flowering phenologies. Males invested more biomass in flowering, but the sexes showed equal vegetative biomass and nutrient content prior to the fruiting period. In female branches, no trade-off was found between fruit load and current-year vegetative growth. In P. lentiscus, avoiding the overlap of flowering, vegetative growth and fruiting probably contributes to reduce the immediate costs of reproductive efforts, both in males and females.

  12. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. METHODS: A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. RESULTS: Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY, it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is

  13. The design of three-dimensional spacer fabrics and the development of related loom%三维间隔机织物的设计及织机开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩斌斌; 王益轩

    2015-01-01

    The rectangular spacer woven fabric of carbon fiber was studied and its structure, weaving process and principle were also introduced.Meanwhile, the research and development of related loom were discussed mainly to provide the references for the development of three-dimensional spacer fabric composite and the weaving of preform in future.%以碳纤维矩形截面间隔机织物为研究对象,介绍其织物结构、织造过程及原理,并进行织机的开发,为三维间隔机织物复合材料的开发、预成型件织造及织机的开发提供参考依据。

  14. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow's milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow's milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013-2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow's milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow's milk.

  16. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow’s milk. PMID:27418845

  17. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  18. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  19. Fabrication of periodic gold nanocup arrays using colloidal lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-09-02

    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  20. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  1. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow's milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow's milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed.

  2. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  3. Proposed technique for fabricating complete denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Ali Zwiad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduction of the visits for fabricating complete dentures are welcomed by both dentists and patients and this might be an aspect of the new changes in prosthodontic treatment according to the suggested new methods. Clinical Innovation: Complete dentures fabricated by the technique described in this report reduce processing time, cost and efforts since the technique does not require the use of gypsum materials, metal flasks or other related materials to obtain a mold for packing the heat cured acrylic resin as might be needed with the conventional method. This method requires only an appropriate volume of silicone impression material to provide the required mold and a heat pressure machine for processing and polymerization of the heat-cured acrylic resin. Although this technique might be difficult to be applicable by all dentist but it could be consider an advisable method. Discussion: Because the record base in this technique is made of heat cured resin, it provides a reliable denture base with better retention and stability and it overcomes the shortcomings that may be faced during registration of vertical dimension. This technique meets the basic requirements for a successful complete denture which is well tolerated by the patient′s mouth.

  4. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-07-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0-1 V and 0-2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg-1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg-1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC.

  5. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment.

  6. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  7. Personality Strengths in Romantic relationships: Measuring Perceptions of Benefits and Costs and Their Impact on Personal and Relational Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Blalock, Dan V; Young, Kevin C; Machell, Kyla A; Monfort, Samuel S; McKnight, Patrick E; Ferssizidis, Patty

    2017-04-06

    Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and we found that greater appreciation of partner strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, investment, intimacy, self-expansion, and support for goal pursuit; recognizing significant costs with partner strengths was inversely related to several outcomes. Using a 1-week daily diary, we found that appreciation of partner strength use and recognition of costs associated with these strengths predicted daily relationship satisfaction and whether basic psychological needs were met within the relationship. The explanatory power of partner strength perceptions could not be explained by the actual character strengths or Big Five personality traits of partners, support for positive self-disclosures (capitalization), or gratitude for relationship partners. Finally, we found that the relational consequences of partner strength perceptions were not just "in the head" of the perceiver-influencing partner relational outcomes. This research program provides evidence for the use of a new measure of how strengths are perceived to better understand romantic couples and aspirational targets in clinical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  9. Organic-acid-assisted fabrication of low-cost Li-rich cathode material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O2) for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-24

    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O2 (0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiFe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2) was synthesized by a sol-gel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical α-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3̅m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.5-4.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the sol-gel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries.

  10. AB037. Drug-related costs of rhinitis in Australia: a NostraData cross-sectional study of pharmacy ​​purchases​

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, A. Simon; Price, David B.; Smith, Pete; Harvey, Richard; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Christian, Louise; Skinner, Derek; Carter, Victoria; Durieux, Alice M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intranasal corticosteroids (INS) are a first-line therapy for rhinitis according to all international clinical guidelines for rhinitis. Although many added treatments are not recommended, the use of multiple therapies to control symptoms is frequent, as patients often continue to experience debilitating symptoms while on medication. Previous estimates of multiple therapy prescriptions may have been too conservative, as most rhinitis therapies are also available over-the-counter (OTC). This may affect the cost burden of rhinitis treatment. To investigate the extent of multiple therapy use to treat rhinitis in Australia, using doctor prescriptions and OTC medication; and to assess the additional cost incurred by multiple therapy use. Methods This was a historical cohort study of pharmacy-related claims from NostraData, Australia. We examined all rhinitis therapy purchases (antihistamines, INS, combination treatments of both such as Dymista, non-steroidal nasal sprays, leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis, oral steroids and systemic steroids) from 909 pharmacies, including OTC and prescription drugs. We used therapies purchased at the same transaction to assess the proportion of multiple therapy purchases and their cost. Results A total of 4,247,193 pharmacy transactions including rhinitis therapies were analysed; 4% of transactions included multiple rhinitis therapy classes. The average transaction cost was 12.82 EUR for single therapy purchases and 26.72 EUR for multiple therapy purchases. 15% of single therapy purchases were INS, for an average cost of 20.68 EUR. The most frequent additions to INS therapy were antihistamine (74%) and non-steroidal nasal spray (10%). About 94% of antihistamine and 97% of non-steroidal nasal spray purchased as add-on therapy to INS were bought over-the-counter. The average cost of INS & antihistamine and INS & non-steroidal nasal spray transactions was 30.65 and 26.57 EUR

  11. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tontodonati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic characteristics, HIV history, cardiovascular risk factors, low energy fractures, bone density. Psychological factors were assessed by BDI, DS14 and TAS-20. The MFRS was calculated as the sum of the following: age (<30y 1 point; 1 point increase every 5y, 10 for≥70; AIDS diagnosis (5; CD4 nadir (5 if <100; 1 point less every 100 CD4 increase; ART line (0 first, up to 5 for≥6 lines; lipodistrophy (5; HCV coinfection (7; education (1 degree, 2 secondary, 3 primary; alcohol (3 and drug abuse (5; working activity (3 if unemployed; hypertension (3; cholesterol≥200 mg/dl (3; diabetes (3; Framingham score (7 if>7%; creatinine (0 if <1 mg/dl, 1 if<1.2; 2 if<1.5>1.2, 5 if<2> 1.5, 7 if≥2; bone fractures (7; bone status at DEXA (0 normal, 3 osteopenic, 5 osteoporotic; cancer (5; depression (3 if BDI>17; other psychiatric illness (5. Annual costs of individual ART regimens were calculated. MFRS was correlated in univariate and multivariate models with all variables. All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 10.1. Summary of results: We enrolled 241 HIV patients, 74.3% males, aged 44.5±9.9y; 19 patients (7.8% were untreated, 74.8% of treated had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean Nadir CD4 counts were 218±168, 38.5% of patients had an AIDS diagnosis. Mean individual ARV annual cost was 10,976±5,360. Mean MFRS was 28.5±13.9 (4–64. MFRS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in patients with older age, longer duration of HIV infection, lower CD4 nadirs, AIDS diagnosis

  12. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  13. Fabrication of toroidal composite pressure vessels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, W.G.; Escalona, A.

    1996-11-24

    A method for fabricating composite pressure vessels having toroidal geometry was evaluated. Eight units were fabricated using fibrous graphite material wrapped over a thin-walled aluminum liner. The material was wrapped using a machine designed for wrapping, the graphite material was impregnated with an epoxy resin that was subsequently thermally cured. The units were fabricated using various winding patterns. They were hydrostatically tested to determine their performance. The method of fabrication was demonstrated. However, the improvement in performance to weight ratio over that obtainable by an all metal vessel probably does not justify the extra cost of fabrication.

  14. Orthotic management of instability of the knee related to neuromuscular and central nervous system disorders: systematic review, qualitative study, survey and costing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Joanne; McCaughan, Dorothy; McDaid, Catriona; Booth, Alison; Fayter, Debra; Rodriguez-Lopez, Roccio; Bowers, Roy; Dyson, Lisa; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Lalor, Simon; O'Connor, Rory J; Phillips, Margaret; Ramdharry, Gita

    2016-07-01

    Patients who have knee instability that is associated with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions can be treated using orthoses, such as knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs). To assess existing evidence on the effectiveness of orthoses; patient perspectives; types of orthotic devices prescribed in the UK NHS; and associated costs. Qualitative study of views of orthoses users - a qualitative in-depth interview study was undertaken. Data were analysed for thematic content. A coding scheme was developed and an inductive approach was used to identify themes. Systematic review - 18 databases were searched up to November 2014: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, EMBASE, PASCAL, Scopus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Recal Legacy, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science, Health Management Consortium, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and National Technical Information Service. Studies of adults using an orthosis for instability of the knee related to NMD or a CNS disorder were included. Data were extracted and quality was assessed by two researchers. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. Survey and costing analysis - a web survey of orthotists, physiotherapists and rehabilitation medicine physicians was undertaken. Telephone interviews with orthotists informed a costing analysis. Qualitative study - a total of 24 people participated. Potential for engagement in daily activities was of vital importance to patients; the extent to which their device enabled this was the yardstick by which it was measured. Patients' prime desired outcome was a reduction in pain, falls or trips, with improved balance and stability. Effectiveness

  15. Orthotic management of instability of the knee related to neuromuscular and central nervous system disorders: systematic review, qualitative study, survey and costing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Joanne; McCaughan, Dorothy; McDaid, Catriona; Booth, Alison; Fayter, Debra; Rodriguez-Lopez, Roccio; Bowers, Roy; Dyson, Lisa; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Lalor, Simon; O'Connor, Rory J; Phillips, Margaret; Ramdharry, Gita

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients who have knee instability that is associated with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions can be treated using orthoses, such as knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs). OBJECTIVES To assess existing evidence on the effectiveness of orthoses; patient perspectives; types of orthotic devices prescribed in the UK NHS; and associated costs. METHODS Qualitative study of views of orthoses users - a qualitative in-depth interview study was undertaken. Data were analysed for thematic content. A coding scheme was developed and an inductive approach was used to identify themes. Systematic review - 18 databases were searched up to November 2014: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, EMBASE, PASCAL, Scopus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Recal Legacy, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science, Health Management Consortium, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and National Technical Information Service. Studies of adults using an orthosis for instability of the knee related to NMD or a CNS disorder were included. Data were extracted and quality was assessed by two researchers. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. Survey and costing analysis - a web survey of orthotists, physiotherapists and rehabilitation medicine physicians was undertaken. Telephone interviews with orthotists informed a costing analysis. RESULTS Qualitative study - a total of 24 people participated. Potential for engagement in daily activities was of vital importance to patients; the extent to which their device enabled this was the yardstick by which it was measured. Patients' prime desired outcome was a reduction in pain, falls or trips, with improved

  16. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40–79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treat...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nakul Saxena; Pradeep Paul George; Bee Hoon Heng; Tock Han Lim; Shao Onn Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treat...

  18. Investigating the microbiome of the bovine uterus in relation to endometritis, a costly disease for dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødtness Vesterby Knudsen, Lif; Rasmussen, Eva Láadal; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    the disease have been based on microbiological culturing, and no conclusive evidence has been found. Only a fraction of the bacterial flora is cultivable, and therefore more than 90% of the uterine microbiome has not been characterised. With incomplete knowledge of the pathogens, treatment is performed...... without an option for choosing the best suited antimicrobial agent, which may lead to unnecessary antibiotic resistance development. The present study is based on 16S rRNA PCR, which in combination with 454 next generation sequencing allows phylogenetic identification of the bacteria present in the sample......Endometritis is inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus, affecting up to 20% of the dairy cows after calving in Denmark. The disease causes reduced pregnancy rates, which often leads to culling of the cows and is costly for the farmer. Until now, investigations of which pathogens may cause...

  19. The Trends of Atrial Fibrillation-Related Hospital Visit and Cost, Treatment Pattern and Mortality in Korea: 10-Year Nationwide Sample Cohort Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hancheol; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Baek, Yong-Soo; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The change of in-hospital and out-hospital treatments, and hospital costs for atrial fibrillation (AF) were not well known in rapidly aging Asian countries. This study is to examine the trends of AF management and outcomes in Korea. Subjects and Methods In the sample cohort from Korean National Health Insurance Data Sample Cohort (K-NHID-Sample Cohort) from 2004 through 2013, we identified patients with AF and hospital visit records using Korean Classification of Diseases, 6th Revision (KCD-6). Hospital cost, prescribed medications, radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), morbidity and mortality were identified. Results AF-related hospitalization and outpatient clinic visits increased by 2.19 and 3.06-fold, respectively. While the total cost increased from 3.6 to 11.3 billion won (p<0.001), the mean cost per patient increased from 0.68 to 0.83 million won (p<0.001). Although the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score increased from 3.5 to 4.4 in the total AF population, the proportion of patients who receive anticoagulation therapy with warfarin showed no significant change for the decade. The proportion of hospitalization for RFCA was increased (0.4% to 1.1%, p<0.001). All-cause mortality (6.7% to 5.0%), cardiovascular mortality (1.4% to 1.1%) and stroke-related death (1.3% to 0.8%) showed a modest decrease from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion During the last decade, AF-related hospitalization and outpatient clinic visits have increased with the increase of many other comorbidities, whereas the rate of anticoagulation did not improved. Although mortality in patients with AF showed a modest decrease from 2004 to 2013, proper anticoagulation therapy is warranted for the improvement of public health.

  20. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  1. Quantifying relationships between selected work-related risk factors and back pain: a systematic review of objective biomechanical measures and cost-related health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nancy A; Hughes, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to use published literature to demonstrate that specific changes in workplace biomechanical exposure levels can predict reductions in back injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify epidemiologic studies which could be used to quantify relationships between several well-recognized biomechanical measures of back stress and economically relevant outcome measures. Eighteen publications, describing 15 research studies, which fulfilled search criteria were found. Quantitative associations were observed between back injuries and measures of spinal compression, lifting, lifting ratios, postures, and combinations thereof. Results were intended to provide safety practitioners with information that could be applied to their own work situations to estimate costs and benefits of ergonomic intervention strategies before they are implemented.

  2. Negotiators who give too much: unmitigated communion, relational anxieties, and economic costs in distributive and integrative bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatullah, Emily T; Morris, Michael W; Curhan, Jared R

    2008-09-01

    A series of studies found that the personality dimension of unmitigated communion (H. L. Fritz & V. S. Helgeson, 1998) leads negotiators to make concessions to avoid straining relationships. Results indicate that even within the population of successful business executives, this dimension of relational anxiety can be identified distinctly from more general relational orientations, such as agreeableness, and that it distinctly predicts accommodating tendencies in everyday conflicts. In economic games, unmitigated communion predicts giving in contexts in which the relational norm of reciprocity applies, but not in contexts tapping instrumental or altruistic motives for cooperation. In distributive negotiations, the effect of unmitigated communion in lowering a negotiator's outcome is mediated by prenegotiation anxieties about relational strain and plans to make large concessions if needed to avoid impasse (lower reservation points). In integrative negotiations, high unmitigated communion on both sides of the negotiation dyad results in relational accommodation, evidenced by decreased success in maximizing economic joint gain but increased subjective satisfaction with the relationship.

  3. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  4. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags. However, the advent of today’s high performance fibers...were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low pressures because of fabric...environmental exposure to ultraviolet rays, moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating such as urethane , PVC (polyvinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene

  5. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  6. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Monica Panca,1 Olga Ovcinnikova,1 Rita Nocerino3 1CATALYST Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College, London, UK; 3Department of Translational Medical Science, Pediatric Section, University of Naples 'Federico II', Naples, Italy Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as first-line management for cow's milk allergy (CMA compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF, hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF, and amino acid formulae (AAF in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion: Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents' perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized

  7. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  8. Beyond co-pays and out-of-pocket costs: perceptions of health-related financial burden in managing asthma among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Nelson, Belinda W; Id-Deen, Effat; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define perceptions of health-related financial burden based on the views of individuals who report these perceptions through qualitative approaches. Four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview was employed by facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding dimensions of the meaning of financial burden. Major domains of financial burden identified included (1) high out-of-pocket expenses; (2) lost wages from exacerbations, inability to maintain a stable job and stress from making decisions about taking a sick day or coming to work; (3) transport costs; (4) both costs and stress of managing insurance eligibility and correcting erroneous bills. Greater awareness of factors that add to perceptions of financial burden might better equip researchers to develop interventions to help care teams manage such concerns with their patients.

  9. Orangutans (Pongo abelii) "play the odds": information-seeking strategies in relation to cost, risk, and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2012-08-01

    Recent research has examined whether animals possess metacognition, or the ability to monitor their knowledge states. However, the extent to which animals actively control their knowledge states is still not well delineated. Although organisms might be capable of seeking information when it is lacking, it does not mean that it is always adaptive to do so. In the present set of experiments, we examined the flexibility of this behavior in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii; two adults and one juvenile) in a foraging task, by varying the necessity of information-seeking, the cost associated with it, the likelihood of error, and the value of the reward. In Experiment 1, subjects searched for information most often when it was "cheapest" energetically. In Experiment 2, subjects searched for information most often when the odds of making an error were the greatest. In Experiment 3, subjects searched for information more when the reward was doubled in value. In Experiment 4, adult subjects adapted to risk/benefit trade-offs in their searching behavior. In every experiment, subjects sought information more often when they needed it than when they already knew the solution to the problem. Therefore, the current research suggests that information-seeking behavior in orangutans shows a sophisticated level of flexibility, comparable to that seen in human children, as they appear to "play the odds" when making the decision to seek information or not.

  10. Both costs and benefits of sex correlate with relative frequency of asexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenic Daphnia pulicaria populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Desiree E; Lynch, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Sexual reproduction is generally believed to yield beneficial effects via the expansion of expressed genetic variation, which increases the efficiency of selection and the adaptive potential of a population. However, when nonadditive gene action is involved, sex can actually impede the adaptive progress of a population. If selection promotes coupling disequilibria between genes of similar effect, recombination and segregation can result in a decrease in expressed genetic variance in the offspring population. In addition, when nonadditive gene action underlies a quantitative trait, sex can produce a change in trait means in a direction opposite to that favored by selection. In this study we measured the change in genotypic trait means and genetic variances across a sexual generation in four populations of the cyclical parthenogen Daphnia pulicaria, which vary predictably in their incidence of sexual reproduction. We show that both the costs and benefits of sex, as measured by changes in means and variances in life-history traits, increase substantially with decreasing frequency of sex.

  11. Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of developmental disorders is key to child outcome, allowing interventions to be initiated which promote development and improve prognosis. Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that behavioral signs can be observed late in the first year of life. Many of these studies involve extensive frame-by-frame video observation and analysis of a child's natural behavior. Although nonintrusive, these methods are extremely time-intensive and require a high level of observer training; thus, they are burdensome for clinical and large population research purposes. This work is a first milestone in a long-term project on non-invasive early observation of children in order to aid in risk detection and research of neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on providing low-cost computer vision tools to measure and identify ASD behavioral signs based on components of the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI. In particular, we develop algorithms to measure responses to general ASD risk assessment tasks and activities outlined by the AOSI which assess visual attention by tracking facial features. We show results, including comparisons with expert and nonexpert clinicians, which demonstrate that the proposed computer vision tools can capture critical behavioral observations and potentially augment the clinician's behavioral observations obtained from real in-clinic assessments.

  12. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Diana Weidlich,1 Maciej Kaczmarski,3 Elzbieta Jarocka-Cyrta,4 Natalia Kobelska-Dubiel,5 Agnieszka Krauze,6 Iwona Sakowska-Maliszewska,7 Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska8 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Allergology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, 4Uniwersytet Warmińsko‑Mazurski, Wydział Nauk Medycznych, Katedra Pediatrii Klinicznej, Olsztyn, 5Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, 6Klinika Pneumonologii i Alergologii Wieku Dziecięcego, Warsaw, 7Poradnia Gastroenterologiczna Centrum Pediatrii, Sosnowiec, 8Department of Pediatric Pneumonology and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ] and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82 compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53 or an AAF (0.22. An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other

  13. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  14. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  15. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  16. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associ

  17. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associ

  18. Teradata University Network: A No Cost Web-Portal for Teaching Database, Data Warehousing, and Data-Related Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Nenad; Gray, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the value that information systems faculty and students in classes dealing with database management, data warehousing, decision support systems, and related topics, could derive from the use of the Teradata University Network (TUN), a free comprehensive web-portal. A detailed overview of TUN functionalities and content is…

  19. In-office fabrication of dental implant surgical guides using desktop stereolithographic printing and implant treatment planning software: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Daniel; Eidson, R Scott; Rudek, Ivan; Bencharit, Sompop

    2017-09-01

    Guided surgery is accepted as the most accurate way to place an implant and predictably relate the implant to its definitive prosthesis, although few clinicians use it. However, recent developments in high-quality desktop 3-dimensional stereolithographic printers have led to the in-office fabrication of stereolithographic surgical guides at reduced cost. This clinical report demonstrates a protocol for using a cost-effective, in-office rapid prototyping technique to fabricate a surgical guide for dental implant placement. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  1. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  2. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e......Statistical analysis of cost data is often difficult because of highly skewed data resulting from a few patients who incur high costs relative to the majority of patients. When the objective is to predict the cost for an individual patient, the literature suggests that one should choose...... a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age...

  3. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  4. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Yang, Ariana C; Oba, Jane; Rodrigues, Maraci; Caetano, Rosane; Polster, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three alternative dietetic strategies for cow’s milk allergy in Brazil: 1) using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF; Nutramigen) as a first-line formula, but switching to an amino acid formula (AAF) if infants remain symptomatic; 2) using an AAF as a first-line formula and then switching to an eHCF after 4 weeks once infants are symptom-free, but switching back to an AAF if infants become symptomatic; and 3) using an AAF as a first-line formula and keeping all infants on that formula. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Brazilian public health care system, Sistema Único de Saude. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula. The models also estimated the Sistema Único de Saude cost (at 2013/2014 prices) of managing infants over 12 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the dietetic strategies. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 12 months from starting a formula was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were initially fed with an eHCF, compared with those who were initially fed with an AAF. The total health care cost of initially feeding an eHCF to cow’s milk allergic infants was less than that of initially feeding both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated infants with an AAF. Conclusion Within the study’s limitations, using an eHCF instead of an AAF for the first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, since it improves the outcome for less cost. PMID:27799804

  5. Tritium Systems Test Assembly: design for major device fabrication review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.L.; Sherman, R.H.

    1977-06-01

    This document has been prepared for the Major Device Fabrication Review for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). The TSTA is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems. The principal objectives for TSTA are: (a) demonstrate the fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems; (b) develop test and qualify equipment for tritium service in the fusion program; (c) develop and test environmental and personnel protective systems; (d) evaluate long-term reliability of components; (e) demonstrate long-term safe handling of tritium with no major releases or incidents; and (f) investigate and evaluate the response of the fuel cycle and environmental packages to normal, off-normal, and emergency situations. This document presents the current status of a conceptual design and cost estimate for TSTA. The total cost to design, construct, and operate TSTA through FY-1981 is estimated to be approximately $12.2 M.

  6. The Cost of Mating: Influences of Life History Traits and Mating Strategies on Lifespan in Two Closely Related Yponomeuta Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and thus reproductive fitness. We tested an extension of this idea and compared male and female lifespan of two closely related Yponomeuta species with different degree of polyandry. Our results confirmed the theoretical prediction that male lifespan is fine-tuned to female receptive lifespan; once-mated males and females of both polyandrous species had an equal lifespan. However, the degree of polyandry was not reflected in male relative to female lifespan. The observed similar female and male lifespan could largely be attributed to a dramatic reduction of female lifespan after mating.

  7. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  8. Impact of telephone medication therapy management on medication and health-related problems, medication adherence, and Medicare Part D drug costs: a 6-month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczygemba, Leticia R; Barner, Jamie C; Lawson, Kenneth A; Brown, Carolyn M; Gabrillo, Evelyn R; Godley, Paul; Johnsrud, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 mandated the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) to eligible Part D beneficiaries to improve medication-related outcomes. As MTM programs evolve, evaluation is necessary to help inform MTM best practices. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of pharmacist-provided telephone MTM on: (1) medication and health-related problems (MHRPs); (2) medication adherence; and (3) Part D drug costs. This quasi-experimental study included Part D beneficiaries from a Texas health plan. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use served as the study framework. MTM utilization was the health behavior. Age, gender, and race were predisposing factors, and number of medications, chronic diseases, and medication regimen complexity were need factors. Outcomes were pre-to-post changes in: (1) MHRPs; (2) medication adherence, using the medication possession ratio (MPR); and (3) total drug costs. Multiple regression was used to analyze group differences while controlling for predisposing and need factors. At baseline, the intervention (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups were not statistically different regarding predisposing and need factors, with the exception of gender. The intervention group had significantly (P = 0.009) more men compared with the control group (51.7% vs 28.3%). There were 4.8 (2.7) and 9.2 (2.9) MHRPs identified at baseline and 2.5 (2.0) and 7.9 (3.0) MHRPs remained at the 6-month follow up in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group (vs control) had significantly more MHRPs resolved (P = 0.0003). There were no significant predictors of change in MPR or total drug costs from baseline to follow up, although total drug costs decreased by $158 in the intervention group compared with a $118 increase in the control group. A telephone MTM program resolved significantly more MHRPs compared with a control group, but there were no significant changes in adherence and

  9. The distal shoe space maintainer chairside fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Warren A

    2002-01-01

    The chairside-fabricated distal shoe appliance, with a stainless steel crown as the retainer, is an efficacious and cost-effective appliance for guiding the unerupted permanent first molar into position after premature loss or extraction of the second primary molar. The fabrication technique is illustrated in this case report and data is presented on the success rate of the appliance.

  10. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths of...

  11. How Costly is Welfare Stigma? Separating Psychological Costs from Time Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen Flaherty Manchester; Kevin J. Mumford

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically decomposes the costs of welfare participation using a model of labor supply and participation in multiple welfare programs. Prior estimates of the cost of welfare participation have not differentiated psychological costs, or stigma, from the effort required to become eligible and maintain eligibility (time costs). The relative size of these two costs has implications for policy. We find that psychological costs are at least as large as the time costs associated with par...

  12. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  13. Low cost continuous femoral nerve block for relief of acute severe cancer related pain due to pathological fracture femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cherian Koshy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fractures in cancer patient cause severe pain that is difficult to control pharmacologically. Even with good pain relief at rest, breakthrough and incident pain can be unmanageable. Continuous regional nerve blocks have a definite role in controlling such intractable pain. We describe two such cases where severe pain was adequately relieved in the acute phase. Continuous femoral nerve block was used as an efficient, cheap and safe method of pain relief for two of our patients with pathological fracture femur. This method was proved to be quite efficient in decreasing the fracture-related pain and improving the level of well being.

  14. Economic burden of fire-related deaths in Finland, 2000-2010: Indirect costs using a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikonen, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo M; Lunetta, Philippe; Kokki, Esa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the indirect economic burden of fire-related deaths in Finland in the period 2000-2010. The Human Capital (HC) approach was the main method used to estimate productivity losses due to fire-related deaths. Additionally, Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) due to deaths were reported. A total of 1090 fire-related deaths occurred in the period 2000-2010 within a population of some 5.4 million. The majority were male (76% vs 24%), with a mean age of 52 (CI: 51.0-53.2) years for males and 57 (CI: 54.6-59.6) for females; 24% (CI: 21.1-26.2%) of victims were over the retirement age. Most of the victims died of combustion gas poisoning (65%, CI: 61.8-67.6%), followed by burns (33%, CI: 30.6-36.3%). Alcohol was often involved and victims were often socially disadvantaged, with socioeconomic features significantly deviating from those of the general population. Annual PYLL ranged from 2094 (CI: 1861-2326) to 3299 (CI: 3008-3594), with an annual average PYLL of 2763 (CI: 2675-2851). PYLL per death fell in the study period from 34.3 (2000, CI: 31.0-37.7) to 24.6 (2010, CI: 21.8-27.6). The reduction is attributable to a decreasing fraction of young victims and an increase in average ages. Total productivity loss in the period 2000-2010 was c.a. EUR 342 million (CI: 330-354 million), giving an annual average of EUR 31.1 million (CI: 30.0-32.2 million), with the mean for a victim being EUR 0.315 million (CI: 0.30-0.33 million). The economic burden of deaths is considerable and this study remedies the lack of academic knowledge about the burden of fire-related deaths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-world dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost comparison of conversion between sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate and lanthanum carbonate monotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Michael S; Sibbel, Scott; Copley, J Brian; Wilson, Rosamund J; Brunelli, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate (SH/C) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) are noncalcium-based phosphate binders used for the management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost difference of bidirectional conversion between SH/C and LC monotherapy in a large cohort of real-world patients with ESRD. This retrospective cohort study included three 30-day preconversion periods (days -90 to -61, -60 to -31, and -30 to -1) followed by three 30-day postconversion periods (days 1 to 30, 31 to 60, and 61 to 90); day 0 was the index date of conversion. The full analysis population (FAP) comprised two cohorts: SH/C to LC (S-L) converters and LC to SH/C (L-S) converters. The SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was assessed in the dose-relativity subset, defined as patients whose serum phosphate levels fell within a caliper range of ± 0.5 mg/dL in the final preconversion (days -30 to -1) and postconversion (days 61 to 90) periods. Tablet burden and phosphate binder costs were assessed in the FAP. Phosphate binder costs were based on average wholesale prices. The FAP contained a total of 303 patients, comprising the S-L (128 patients) and L-S (175 patients) converter cohorts. The dose-relativity subset contained 159 patients, 72 from the S-L cohort and 87 from the L-S cohort. The overall mean SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was 2.27 (95% CI, 2.04 to 2.52). In SH/C dose strata >800 to 2400, >2400 to 4800, >4800 to 7200, and >7200 mg/d, overall mean dose-relativity ratios were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.57 to 1.10), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75), 2.05 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.39), and 3.24 (95% CI, 2.89 to 3.66), respectively. The overall mean tablet burden was 6.6 tablets per day lower with LC monotherapy than with SH/C monotherapy (95% CI, -7.1 to -6.0; P 7800 mg/d was the inflection point at which conversion to LC resulted in mean cost savings. Patients requiring SH/C >7800 mg/d comprised

  16. Fabrication of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel slug for SFR by Injection Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The fabrication technology of metal fuel has been developed by various methods such as rolling, swaging, wire drawing, and co-extrusion, but each of these methods had process limitations requiring an additional subsequent process, and needing the fabrication equipment is complex, which is not favorable for remote use. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, in the early 1950s, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, vacuum injection casting suitable for remote operation has been developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. Vacuum injection casting technique was developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. The appearance of the fabricated U-10wt.%Zr fuel was generally sound and the internal integrity was found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. Minimum fuel losses after casting relative to the initial charge amount of U-10wt.%Zr fuel slugs met the proposed goal of less than 0.1% fuel losses during fabrication. Modifications of the current facility system and advanced casting techniques are underway to produce higher quality fuel slugs.

  17. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes