WorldWideScience

Sample records for fabricating physical evidence

  1. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  2. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  3. Aligned carbon nanotubes physics, concepts, fabrication and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. The text illustrates major fabrication methods in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth techniques.

  4. Relationship between the Physical Properties and Hand of Jean Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the distinctive characteristics of jean fabrics (denim fabrics obtained from jeans and compared the physical properties and the hand. We used 13 kinds of jean fabric from commercial jeans and 26 other fabric types. The physical properties were measured using the Kawabata evaluation system, and the fabric hand was evaluated by 20 subjects using a semantic differential method. To characterise the hand of jean fabrics compared with other fabrics, we used principal component analysis and obtained three principal components. We found that jean fabrics were characterised by the second principal component, which was affected by feelings of thickness and weight. We further characterised the jean fabrics according to ‘softness & smoothness’ and ‘non-fullness’, depending on country of origin and type of manufacturer. The three principal components were analysed using multiple linear regression to characterise the components according to the physical properties. We explained the hand of fabrics including jean fabrics using its association with physical properties.

  5. Physical evidence for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  6. An Investigation on Different Physical Properties of Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Akter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “An Investigation on Different Physical Properties of Cotton Woven Fabrics”, some sample fabrics were produced with plain, 2/2 twill, 3/1 twill and 4-end satin weave structure using four different weft counts. By means of regression, the correlation coefficient and correlation between different properties of fabrics were investigated. The findings of this study revealed that the crease recovery angle and the bending length are inversely proportional to each other. It was also found that with the increasing of weft yarn counts lead to a decreasing in stiffness, abrasion resistance and increasing in crease recovery angle. The pilling and wrinkle recovery affected very low by the increase of weft yarn count and for the variation of weave structure. Plain weave was superior to other structures in stiffness where as twill weave showed higher crease recovery.

  7. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  8. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  9. Physical and Thermal Comfort Properties of Viscose Fabrics made from Vortex and Ring Spun Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, G.; Muthukumar, N.; Kumar, V. Kiran; Sadasivam, Sanjay; Sidharth, P. Mithun; Nikhil Jain, G.

    2016-11-01

    Viscose fiber is frequently preferred for various types of inner and outer knitwear products for its comfort and visual characteristics. In this study, the physical and thermal comfort properties of viscose fabrics made from ring and vortex yarns have been studied to explore the impact of spinning process on fabric properties. 100% viscose fibers were spun into yarns by ring and vortex spinning and the developed yarns were converted to single jersey fabrics. The results indicated that fabrics made from vortex spun yarns had better pilling resistance over that of those from ring spun yarns. There was no significant difference between bursting strength values of vortex and ring spun yarn fabrics. Fabrics made from ring yarn had better dimensional stability compared to fabrics made from vortex yarn. The air permeability and water vapour permeability of vortex yarn fabrics were higher than ring spun yarn fabrics. The vortex yarn fabrics had better thermal comfort properties compared to ring yarn fabrics.

  10. Influences of Cotton Fabric Treatments on Human Physical Responses during Exercise and Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influences of liquid water transfer property of cotton fabric on human physiological responses, such as ear canal temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormone, during exercise and recovery.Long sleeves cotton knitted sportswear treated to have special liquid water transfer property were prepared:(1) Hydrophilic; ( 2 ) Hydrophobic; and ( 3 ) Moisture Management (MM). Wearing these garments, human subjects ran on treadmill according to a pre-designed experimental protocol. It was found that during exercise hydrophilic cotton caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics, while during recovcry, hydrophilic and MM cotton fabrics caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than hydrophobic cotton fabric. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly lower heart rate than MM cotton fabric, lower systolic blood pressure than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.Hydrophobic cotton fabric caused significantly higher urinary catecholamine volume than hydrophilic and MM cotton fabric, indicating stronger physical stress.Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger thermal and humidity sensations than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics at the end of first and second exercise sessions. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger discomfort sensation than hydrophobic cotton fabric at the end of first session of exercise. In the end of wear trial, MM cotton fabric caused significantly higher tiredness sensation than hydrophilic and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.

  11. Effects of liquid ammonia treatment on the physical properties of knit fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. Y.; Kim, S. D.; Hwang, C. S.; Kim, S. R.; Park, S. W.

    2016-07-01

    The cellulosic knit fabric must be treated by NaOH solution in silket process to modify dyeability, luster, physical property, etc. But the silket treated knit fabric has a stiff touch, and must be treated with much of silicone softener. But it has bad durability of laundry. And the silket process has a problem that must discharge a lot of alkaline wastewater. In case of woven fabrics, as an alternative to silket process, liquid ammonia process was developed and this process is eco-friendly because the used ammonia is recovered by 98%. But the knit fabrics are not applicable to the conventional liquid ammonia process because they have selvedge curling problem and are very sensitive to tension. Recently, Korea High Tech Textile Research Institute(Korea) and Lafer SPA(Italy) worked together to develop the new liquid ammonia process for knit fabrics. In the present study, the physical properties of knit fabric after the newly-developed liquid ammonia treatment were investigated. The basic physical properties of knit fabric were measured using the Kawabata evaluation system. In addition, the dyeability, dimensional stability, eco-friendliness were investigated. The results showed that liquid ammonia treatment gave improved physical properties, which can be attributed to fast and uniform swelling, to knit fabric and resulted in a dimensional stability. The knit fabric treated in liquid ammonia showed a darker colour and unique appearance. Above all, the knit fabric treated in liquid ammonia had softer touch and superior gloss than the knit fabric of silket process. The new liquid ammonia process for knit fabrics will become the highest quality standard for knits and will be considered the preferred finish also thanks to eco-friendliness.

  12. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    -wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...... policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities....

  13. Teaching Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis: Six Bedside Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based physical diagnosis is an essential part of the bedside curriculum. By using the likelihood ratio, a simple measure of diagnostic accuracy, teachers can quickly adapt this approach to their bedside teaching. Six recurring themes in evidence-based physical diagnosis are fully reviewed, with examples, in this article.

  14. Physical Properties of Polyester Fabrics Treated with Nano, Micro and Macro Emulsion Silicones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinzadeh, M.; Hajiraissi, R.

    2007-08-01

    The processing of textile to achieve a particular handle is one of the most important aspects of finishing technology. Fabrics softeners are liquid composition added to washing machines during the rinse cycle to make clothes feel better to the touch. The first fabric softeners were developed by the textile industry during the early twentieth century. In this research polyester fabrics were treated with nano, micro and macro emulsion silicone softeners. Some of the physical properties of the treated fabric samples are discussed. The drapeability of treated samples was improved after treatment with nano silicone softeners. The colorimetric measurement of softener-treated fabrics is evaluated with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Moisture regain of treated samples is increased due to coating of silicone softeners. There is some increase in the weight of softener-treated samples. Samples treated with nano emulsion silicones gave better results compared to micro- and macro-emulsion treated ones.

  15. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija;

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...

  16. Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.S. Azzam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanoclay composites were fabricated using the synthesized poly 6-(3-aminophenoxy hexane-1-thiol, poly 8-(3-aminophenoxy octane-1-thiol and poly 10-(3-aminophenoxy decane-1-thiol surfactants with gold nanoparticles. The polymeric thiol surfactants were first assembled on gold nanoparticles and then impregnated into the clay matrix. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Transmission microscope (TEM were used to characterize the fabricated nanoclay composites. The results showed that the polymeric thiol surfactants assembled on gold nanoparticles are located in the interlayer space of the clay mineral and affected the clay structure.

  17. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  18. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged the devel...

  19. Evidence based medicine in physical medicine and rehabilitation (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the term “Evidence Based Medicine (EBM” has been increasingly applied in all areas of medicine and is often used for decision-making in the medical and public health sector. It is also used to verify the significance and/or the effectiveness of different therapies. The original definition of EBM rests on the following three pillars: the physician’s individual expertise, the patient’s needs and the best external evidence. Today, however, the term EBM is often wrongly used as a synonym for best external evidence, without taking into consideration the other two pillars of the model which was created by Gordon Guyatt, David Sackett and Archibald Cochrane. This problem becomes even greater the more social insurance institutions and politicians use external evidence alone as the main guideline for financing therapies and therapy guidelines in physical medicine and general rehabilitation without taking into account the physician’s expertise and the patient’s needs.The wrong interpretation of EBM can lead to the following problems: well established clinical therapies are either questioned or not granted and are therefore withheld from patients (for example physical pain management. An absence of evidence for individual therapy methods does not prove their ineffectiveness! In this short statement the significance of EBM in Physical Medicine and general rehabilitation will be analysed and discussed.

  20. Parallelization issues of a code for physically-based simulation of fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Eladio; Romero, Luis F.; Plata, Oscar; Zapata, Emilio L.

    2004-10-01

    The simulation of fabrics, clothes, and flexible materials is an essential topic in computer animation of realistic virtual humans and dynamic sceneries. New emerging technologies, as interactive digital TV and multimedia products, make necessary the development of powerful tools to perform real-time simulations. Parallelism is one of such tools. When analyzing computationally fabric simulations we found these codes belonging to the complex class of irregular applications. Frequently this kind of codes includes reduction operations in their core, so that an important fraction of the computational time is spent on such operations. In fabric simulators these operations appear when evaluating forces, giving rise to the equation system to be solved. For this reason, this paper discusses only this phase of the simulation. This paper analyzes and evaluates different irregular reduction parallelization techniques on ccNUMA shared memory machines, applied to a real, physically-based, fabric simulator we have developed. Several issues are taken into account in order to achieve high code performance, as exploitation of data access locality and parallelism, as well as careful use of memory resources (memory overhead). In this paper we use the concept of data affinity to develop various efficient algorithms for reduction parallelization exploiting data locality.

  1. Fabrication of CdTe solar cells by laser-driven physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.; Bhat, A.; Tabory, C.; Liu, S.; Nguyen, M.; Aydinli, A.; Tsien, L.H.; Bohn, R.G. (Toledo Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-05-01

    Polycrystalline cadmium sulfide-cadmium telluride heterojunction solar cells were fabricated for the first time using a laser-driven physical vapor deposition method. An XeCl excimer laser was used to deposit both of the II-VI semiconductor layers in a single vacuum chamber from pressed powder targets. Results are presented from optical absorption. Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and electrical characterization of the films. Solar cells were fabricated by deposition onto SnO{sub 2}-coated glass with top contacts produced by gold evaporation. Device performance was evaluated from the spectral quantum efficiency and current-voltage measurements in the dark and with air mass 1.5 solar illumination. (orig.).

  2. A mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition approach to fabricating complex hydride nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuepeng; Liu, Yongfeng; Gao, Mingxia; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Min; Pan, Hongge

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale hydrides desorb and absorb hydrogen at faster rates and lower temperatures than bulk hydrides because of their high surface areas, abundant grain boundaries and short diffusion distances. No current methods exist for the direct fabrication of nanoscale complex hydrides (for example, alanates, borohydrides) with unique morphologies because of their extremely high reducibility, relatively low thermodynamic stability and complicated elemental composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition procedure for preparing nanoscale complex hydrides without scaffolds or supports. Magnesium alanate nanorods measuring 20-40 nm in diameter and lithium borohydride nanobelts measuring 10-40 nm in width are successfully synthesised on the basis of the one-dimensional structure of the corresponding organic coordination polymers. The dehydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium alanate nanorods are improved, and the nanorod morphology persists through the dehydrogenation-hydrogenation process. Our findings may facilitate the fabrication of such hydrides with improved hydrogen storage properties for practical applications.

  3. The Effects of TiO2 Nanoparticles over Time on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of White Cotton Fabrics and Fabrics Died with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mirkhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, nano particles of titanium are used mainly in the textile industry. Examples of it can be named as cultivation of nano particles of titanium on polyester cotton fabrics, with features as white-washing, self- cleaning and also the effect of TiO2 on the dyed textiles with natural dyes as well as the effect of commodities reactive to increase the brightness and transparency of them. But, as this procedure has the added benefits, it will sure have some disadvantages and thus, the aim of this project is to study the effects of nano- TiO2 in the passage of time, at different times over the physical and mechanical properties of checked cotton fabrics. And even the study of dyed fabrics with natural dyes in reactive so that it can examine the beneficial and harmful effects of the degradation and also check the results on the Cotton Nano TiO2 Fabric.

  4. Fabric anisotropy and its influence on physical weathering of different types of Carrara marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Bernd; Weiss, Thomas

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the texture-controlled part on the thermally induced degradation of marbles, the anisotropic thermal dilatation was calculated from texture analyses of four exemplary samples from the Carrara area in Italy and compared to experimentally measured dilatation coefficients. The thermal dilatation as determined in the experiment is controlled by an intrinsic part (anisotropic single crystal properties and texture) and an extrinsic part (e.g. thermally induced microcracks). As expected from theoretical calculations, there is a correlation between the strongest dilatation and the c-axis maxima and the weakest dilatation and the a-axis maxima according to the single crystal data of calcite. However, a quantitative correlation could not be established. Obviously, other fabric parameters like the grain size, grain shape anisotropies, grain boundary geometries and microcrack formation during heating modify the texture-controlled part significantly. After thermal treatment up to 130°C, all samples show a residual strain. However, the magnitude and directional dependence is remarkably different and is unequivocally correlated to both the microstructure and the texture. Since the number of parameters controlling the physical weathering is very large, a comprehensive quantification of fabrics is indispensible for the understanding of thermally controlled degradation processes of physical weathering in marbles.

  5. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Combined Effect of Mercerized and Dyed Yarns on Physical Properties of Plain Single Jersey Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Elrys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined effect of mercerized and dyed yarns on physical properties of plain single jersey knitted fabrics has been studied. Plied cotton yarn was produced and mercerized at different NaOH concentrations and temperatures. Then, this yarn was bleached and dyed with two types of dyes, vat dyeing and reactive dyeing. Each of mechanical and color properties were measured to these treated yarns. Plain single jersey knitted fabrics were produced from these treated yarns. The total evaluation of the properties for plain single jersey fabrics was measured by using radar chart method. It was found that the highest area of radar chart, which represents the total physical properties, is achieved at 32°Be′, in case of vat dyeing. Besides, analysis of variance (AVOVA and MANOVA were applied to illustrate which of the properties would be affected by NaOH con. and types of dyeing for yarns and fabrics.

  7. Designing a light fabric metamaterial being highly macroscopically tough under directional extension: first experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Marek; Grygoruk, Roman; Greco, Leopoldo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study a metamaterial constructed with an isotropic material organized following a geometric structure which we call pantographic lattice. This relatively complex fabric was studied using a continuous model (which we call pantographic sheet) by Rivlin and Pipkin and includes two families of flexible fibers connected by internal pivots which are, in the reference configuration, orthogonal. A rectangular specimen having one side three times longer than the other is cut at 45° with respect to the fibers in reference configuration, and it is subjected to large-deformation plane-extension bias tests imposing a relative displacement of shorter sides. The continuum model used, the presented numerical models and the extraordinary advancements of the technology of 3D printing allowed for the design of some first experiments, whose preliminary results are shown and seem to be rather promising. Experimental evidence shows three distinct deformation regimes. In the first regime, the equilibrium total deformation energy depends quadratically on the relative displacement of terminal specimen sides: Applied resultant force depends linearly on relative displacement. In the second regime, the applied force varies nonlinearly on relative displacement, but the behavior remains elastic. In the third regime, damage phenomena start to occur until total failure, but the exerted resultant force continues to be increasing and reaches a value up to several times larger than the maximum shown in the linear regime before failure actually occurs. Moreover, the total energy needed to reach structural failure is larger than the maximum stored elastic energy. Finally, the volume occupied by the material in the fabric is a small fraction of the total volume, so that the ratio weight/resistance to extension is very advantageous. The results seem to require a refinement of the used theoretical and numerical methods to transform the presented concept into a promising technological

  8. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Hara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam.

  9. Physical Properties of Niobium and Specifications for Fabrication of Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, C.; Foley, M.; Dhanaraj, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    It is important to distinguish among the properties of niobium, the ones that are related to the cavity's SRF performances, the formability of the material, and the mechanical behavior of the formed cavity. In general, the properties that dictate each of the above mentioned characteristics have a detrimental effect on one another and in order to preserve the superconducting properties without subduing the mechanical behavior, a balance has to be established. Depending on the applications, some parameters become less important and an understanding of the physical origin of the requirements might help in this optimization. SRF applications require high purity niobium (high RRR), but pure niobium is very soft from fabrication viewpoint. Moreover conventional fabrication techniques tend to override the effects of any metallurgical process meant to strengthen it. As those treatments dramatically affect the forming of the material they should be avoided. These unfavorable mechanical properties have to be accounted for in the design of the cavities rather than in the material specification. The aim of this paper is to review the significance of the important mechanical properties used to characterize niobium and to present the optimal range of values. Most of the following information deals with the specification of sheets for cell forming unless otherwise noted.

  10. Enhancing the functionality of cotton fabric by physical and chemical pre-treatments: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargoubi, Sondes; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Levesque, Lucie; Ladhari, Neji; Boudokhane, Chedly; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-08-20

    Recently, antimicrobial and decontaminating textiles, such as cotton a natural carbohydrate polymer, are generating more attention. Plant materials used for natural dyes are expected to impart biofunctional properties and high added valued functional textiles. In the current study, surface modification of cotton to maximize the dye amount on the surface has been investigated. Physical modification using nitrogen-hydrogen plasma, chemical modification using chitosan and chemical modification using dopamine as biopolymers imparting amino groups were explored. Furthermore, dye exhaustion of curcumin, as a natural functional dye has been studied. Dye stability tests were also performed after fabric washing using hospital washing protocol to predict the durability of the functionalizations. The results demonstrated that cotton surfaces treated with dopamine exhibit a high level of dye uptake (78%) and a good washing fastness. The use of non-toxic and natural additives during cotton finishing process could give the opportunity of cradle to cradle design for antimicrobial textile industries.

  11. Effect of silica nanoparticles and BTCA on physical properties of cotton fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobi Nallathambi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles particles were synthesized from rice hulls and characterized. The particles were found to be amorphous in nature, ranging in size from 50 to 100 nm. The concentration of silica nanoparticles, pH and curing time were taken as independent variables to design the experiment. Box-Behnken method has been used to derive the experimental plan and fifteen experiments were conducted. Regression equations have been formed with the dependent and independent variables and the results of all possible combinations have been derived. The combination of optimized concentration of BTCA and SHP were used as crosslinking agent and catalyst respectively and silica nano particles were used to enhance the physical properties of the cotton fabric. The effect of pH and curing time on physical properties were analysed by FTIR studies. By ranking method the best combination of process parameters were identified. From this study, it was observed that higher concentration of silica nanoparticles with BTCA improve the crease recovery angle and tensile strength. FTIR studies revealed that the increase of pH and curing time increases the ester carbonyl band intensity ratio.

  12. Physical activity: from epidemiological evidence to individualized patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charansonney, Olivier Luc; Vanhees, Luc; Cohen-Solal, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), and even a few sedentary behaviors (SB) are strongly and independently linked to improved survival rate. However, key questions remain: what are the physiological interrelationships between SB, PA, and PF? How should we differently emphasize promoting PA, increasing PF with exercise, and decreasing SB among other prevention measures? What are the interrelationships of both PA and SB levels with drug treatment efficacy? To address these questions we developed an integrated patient-centric model combining physiology with epidemiological evidence to characterize the individual risk attached to PA level, PF, and SB. Epidemiological data were collected by extensive literature review. Nine meta-analyses, 198 cohort studies (3.8 million people), and 13 controlled trials were reviewed. 1. A high level of SB induces chronic stress and increases the risk of both chronic disease and mortality. 2. Vigorous PA increases PF and physiological reserve, thereby improving survival rate. This effect is not mediated by improved traditional risk factors. The risk for most individuals is a mix of high SB, low to mild PA, and low to mild PF. This model can improve the individualized prescription of PA modalities. Furthermore, the benefit of treatments such as statins or beta-blockers can be cancelled out if a decrease in PA or an increase in SB is induced by drug related side effects. To improve patient management both types of therapeutic interventions and dose should be carefully chosen for each individual in order to maintain/increase PA level while decreasing SB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of AZO TCO Films by RF-sputtering and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of Al-doped ZnO (AZO transparent-conductive oxide (TCO films on glass substrates by RF-sputtering, their physical properties, and the effect of thermal annealing on the AZO TCO films. The AZO films on glass substrates have a preferred orientation of the c-axis, irrespective of deposition conditions, which means that the AZO films have textured structures along the c-axis. The film thickness and surface roughness in the AZO films are proportional to plasma power and deposition time, while they are inverse-proportional to working gas ratio and working pressure. The AZO films have the optical transmittance over 80 % in the wavelength range of 400 – 1000 nm, irrespective of deposition conditions. The plasma power and the deposition time relatively give a large influence on the optical transmittance, compared to the working gas ratio and the working pressure. The AZO films deposited at room temperature have poor electrical properties, while the thermal annealing under Ar ambient significantly improves the electrical conductivity of the AZO films: an as-deposited sample has an electrical resistivity of 87 Wcm and an electron concentration of 1.3´1017 cm−3, while the annealed sample has an electrical resistivity of 3.7´10-2 Wcm and an electron concentration of 1.2´1020 cm−3.

  14. Evidence for a composite organic-inorganic fabric of belemnite rostra: implication for palaeoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rene; Richter, Detlev K.; Neuser, Rolf D.; Jöns, Niels; Linzmeier, Benjamin J.; Lemanis, Robert E.; Fusseis, Florian; Xiao, Xianghui; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate skeletons of fossil marine organisms are widely used to reconstruct palaeoenvironments. Specifically, the geochemistry of Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnite rostra is commonly applied to reconstruct palaeoseawater properties. This is due to the assumption that belemnites, as member of the mollusc group, precipitated their rostra in equilibrium with the palaeoenvironment and secondly it was assumed that rostra represent primary dense low Mg calcite structures and relatively stable against diagenetic overprinting. More recently an increasing number of published data, show significant scatter in geochemical data (e.g., d18O, d13C, element/Ca ratio) when comparing belemnite rostra from the same stratigraphic level or within a single belemnite rostrum. This scatter is not explained by differential diagenetic overprint alone but also by vertical and horizontal migration patterns, seasonality, or changes in salinity. In order to test for an ultrastructural-related explanation for the observed scatter we employed a wide range of state-of-the-art analytical tools, e.g., cathodoluminescence, fluorescence- and confocal laser fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with a backscatter detector, electron microprobe analysis, electron backscatter diffraction imaging to thin sections and ultra-thin sections of well-preserved specimens. We found petrographic evidence that the primary, i.e. biogenic, ultrastructure of rostra of Megateuthis (Middle Jurassic) and Belemnitella and Gonioteuthis (Late Cretaceous) was not a dense calcite structure, but contained primary porosity. The biogenic ultrastructure consists of a filigree framework of tetrahedrons of variable size with branches forming a honeycomb-like network. Data presented here suggest that these rostra yielded as much as 50 to 90% primary pore space. We propose that the pore space was originally filled with body fluid and/or organic compounds during the life time of these organisms in analogy

  15. Fabricating and Characterizing Physical Properties of Electrospun Polypeptide-based Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Dhan Bahadur

    This dissertation has aimed to fabricate polypeptide based biomaterial and characterize physical properties. Electrospinning is used as a tool for the sample fabrication. Project focused on determining the feasibility of electrospinning of certain synthetic polypeptides and certain elastin-like peptides from aqueous feedstocks and to characterize physical properties of polymer aqueous solution, cast film and spun fibers and fiber mats. The research involves peptide design, polymer electrospinning, fibers crosslinking, determining the extent of crosslinking, fibers protease degradation study, fibers stability and self-organization analysis, structure and composition determination by various spectroscopy and microscopy techniques and characterization of mechanical properties of individual suspended fibers. Fiber mats of a synthetic cationic polypeptide poly(L-ornithine) (PLO) and an anionic co-polypeptide of L-glutamic acid and L-tyrosine (PLEY) of defined composition have been produced by electrospinning. Fibers were obtained from polymer aqueous solution at concentrations of 20-45% (w/v) in PLO and at concentrations of 20-60% (w/v) in PLEY. Applied voltage and spinneret-collector distance were also found to influence polymer spinnability and fibers morphology. Oriented fibers were obtained by parallel electrodes geometry. Fiber diameter and morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PLO fibers exposed on glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor rendered fiber mats water-insoluble. A common chemical reagent, carbodiimide was used to crosslink PLEY fibers. Fiber solubility in aqueous solution varied as a function of crosslinking time and crosslinker concentration. Crosslink density has been quantified by a visible-wavelength dye-based method. Degradation of crosslinked fibers by different proteases has been demonstrated. Investigation of crosslinked PLEY fibers has provided insight into the mechanisms of stability at different

  16. Fabrication, Characterization and Thermo-physical Prop erty Evaluation of SiC Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Nikkam; Mohsin Saleemi; Ehsan B Haghighi; Morteza Ghanbarpour; Rahmatollah Khodabandeh; Mamoun Muhammed; Bjorn Palm; Muhammet S Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Nanofluids (NFs) are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles (NPs) in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to improve the heat transfer prop-erties of conventional heat transfer fluids. In this study we report in detail on fabrication, characterization and thermo-physical property evaluation of SiC NFs, prepared using SiC NPs with different crystal structures, for heat transfer applications. For this purpose, a series of SiC NFs containing SiC NPs with different crys-tal structure (α-SiC and β-SiC) were fabricated in a water (W)/ethylene glycol (EG) mixture (50/50 wt%ratio). Physicochemical properties of NPs/NFs were characterized by using various techniques, such as pow-der X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Zeta potential analysis. Thermo-physical properties including thermal conductivity (TC) and viscosity for NFs containing SiC particles (α- and β- phase) weremeasured. The results show among all suspensions NFs fabricated with α-SiC particles have more favorable thermo-physical properties compared to the NFs fabricated with β-SiC.The observed dif-ference is attributed to combination of several factors, including crystal structure (β- vs. α-), sample purity, and residual chemicals exhibited on SiCNFs. A TC enhancement of ∼20% while 14% increased viscosity were obtained for NFs containing 9 wt%of particular type ofα-SiC NPs indicating promising capability of this kind of NFs for further heat transfer characteristics investigation.

  17. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  18. Physical activity and health outcomes: evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad R; McLeod, Logan; Ruseski, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Health production models include participation in physical activity as an input. We investigate the relationship between participation in physical activity and health using a bivariate probit model. Participation is identified with an exclusion restriction on a variable reflecting sense of belonging to the community. Estimates based on data from Cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey indicate that participation in physical activity reduces the reported incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, and arthritis as well as being in fair or poor health. Increasing the intensity above the moderate level and frequency of participation in physical activity appears to have a diminishing marginal impact on adverse health outcomes. Our results provide support for guidelines about engaging in exercise regularly to achieve health benefits. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YONG KANG CHEAH; Andrew K.G. Tan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-demographic and health-lifestyle factors determine participation and duration of leisure-time physical activity in Malaysia. Based on the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 data, Heckman's sample selection model is employed to estimate the probability to participate and duration on physical activity. Results indicate that gender, age, years of education and family illness history are significant in explaining participation probability in leisure-tim...

  20. Astrophysical evidence on physics beyond the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    1995-01-01

    Astrophysics and cosmology can be used to test the standard model of particle physics under conditions and over distance and time scales not accessible to laboratory experiments. Most of the astrophysical observations are in good agreement with the standard model. In particular, primordial nucleosynthesis, supernova explosions, stellar evolution and cosmic background radiations have been used to derive strong limits on physics beyond the standard model. However, the solution of some important astrophysical and cosmological problems may require new physics beyond the standard model. These include the origin of the initial conditions, large scale structure formation, the baryon asymmetry in the observed Universe, the dark matter problem, the solar neutrino problem and some cosmic ray puzzles. Here I review some important developments relevant to some of these problems, which took place most recently.

  1. Reading Time as Evidence for Mental Models in Understanding Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Mestre, José; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2007-11-01

    We present results of a reading study that show the usefulness of probing physics students' cognitive processing by measuring reading time. According to contemporary discourse theory, when people read a text, a network of associated inferences is activated to create a mental model. If the reader encounters an idea in the text that conflicts with existing knowledge, the construction of a coherent mental model is disrupted and reading times are prolonged, as measured using a simple self-paced reading paradigm. We used this effect to study how "non-Newtonian" and "Newtonian" students create mental models of conceptual systems in physics as they read texts related to the ideas of Newton's third law, energy, and momentum. We found significant effects of prior knowledge state on patterns of reading time, suggesting that students attempt to actively integrate physics texts with their existing knowledge.

  2. Direct evidence for radar reflector originating from changes in crystal-orientation fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Eisen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of a strong continuous radar reflector observed with airborne radio-echo sounding (RES at the EPICA deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is identified as a transition in crystal fabric orientation from a vertical girdle- to increased single-pole orientation seen along the ice core. The reflector is observed with a 60 ns and 600 ns long pulse at a frequency of 150 MHz, spans one pulse length, is continuous over 5 km, and occurs at a depth of about 2020–2030 m at the drill site. Changes in conductivity as reflector origin are excluded by investigating the ice-core profile and synthetic RES data. Our observations allow to extrapolate the crystal orientation feature along the reflector in space, with implications for ice-sheet dynamics. As the conductivity profile of the EPICA shows no distinctive peak at this depths, we exclude changes in conductivity as the reflector origin. This is supported by application of numerical forward modelling of electromagnetic wave propagation, based on the conductivity profile, which is able to reproduce nearby reflections, but fails to reproduce this one. Because of background noise, the permittivity profile based on dielectric does not show prominent signals at these depths. We therefore interpret the observed reflector to originate from this change in crystal fabric.

  3. Evidence for the Social Construction of Ability in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study investigating the empirical substance of Evans' proposed social construction of ability. Data were collected through text analysis of a Senior physical education (PE) syllabus, semi-structured interviews and participant observations of students and teachers in two senior secondary school contexts (one school situated…

  4. Physical and mathematical evidences for a negative-rank tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2006-01-01

    We propose and study the properties of a new potential demanded by the self-consistency of the duality scheme in electromagnetic-like field theories of totally anti-symmetric tensors in diverse dimensions. Physical implications of this new potential is manifest under the presence of scalar condensates in the Julia-Toulouse mechanism for the nucleation of topological defects with consequences for the confinement phenomenon.

  5. Bi-based Nanowire and Nanojunction Arrays: Fabrication and Physical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang LI; Guanghai LI; Xiaosheng FANG

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in the fabrication and properties of one-dimensional (1D) Bi-based nanostructures, including Bi, Sb, BixSb1-x and Bi2Te3 nanowire arrays, and Bi-Bi and Bi-Sb nanojunction arrays. In this article, we present an efiective method to fabricate Bi nanowire arrays with difierent diameters in anodic alumina membrane (AAM) with a single pore size by the pulsed electrodeposition. The fabrication of the high-filling and ordered Bi1-xSbx and Bi2Te3 single crystalline nanowire arrays, the Bi nanowire metalsemiconductor homojunction and Bi-Sb nanowire metal-semiconductor heterojunction arrays by the pulsed electrodeposition are reported. The factors controlling the composition, diameter, growth rate and orientation of the nanowires are analyzed, and the growth mechanism of the nanowire and nanojunction arrays are discussed together with the study of the electrical and thermal properties of Bi-based nanowires and nanojunctions.Finally, this review is concluded with some perspectives on the research directions and focuses in the Bi-based nanomaterials fields.

  6. Direct evidence for continuous radar reflector originating from changes in crystal-orientation fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Eisen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of a strong continuous radar reflector observed with airborne radio-echo sounding (RES at the EPICA deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is identified as a transition in crystal fabric orientation from a vertical girdle to an increased single-pole orientation seen along the ice core. The reflector is observed with a 60 ns and 600 ns long pulse at a frequency of 150 MHz, spans one pulse length, is continuous over 5 km, and occurs at a depth of about 2025–2045 m at the drill site. Changes in conductivity as reflector origin are excluded by investigating the ice-core profile, synthetic RES data, and a RES profile with different electromagnetic polarisation azimuths. The reflector's magnitude shows maximum values for polarisation parallel to the nearby ice divide and disappears for polarisation perpendicular to it, identifying the orientation of the girdle to lie in the vertical plane parallel to the ice divide. Observations allow us to extrapolate the crystal orientation feature along the reflector in space, with implications for ice-sheet dynamics and modeling.

  7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED COTTON FABRICS AND EFFECT OF LAUNDRY CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALAMUTCU Sema

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  8. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; van de Goor, Ien;

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams from six EU member states analysed the use of research evidence and other kinds of evidence in 21 HEPA policies and interviewed 86 key policymakers involved in the policies. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on both policy documents and interview data. Results Research evidence......Background The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well...... informed by research evidence compared to others. The aims of the present article are to explore the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies, identify when research evidence was used, and find what other types of evidence were employed in HEPA policymaking. Methods...

  9. Evidence-based analysis of physical therapy in Parkinson's disease with recommendations for practice and research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendriks, E.J.M.; Bredero-Cohen, A.B.; Munneke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Physical therapy is often prescribed in Parkinson's disease. To facilitate the uniformity and efficacy of this intervention, we analyzed current evidence and developed practice recommendations. We carried out an evidence-based literature review. The results were supplemented with clinical expertise

  10. Evidence-based analysis of physical therapy in Parkinson's disease with recommendations for practice and research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendriks, E.J.M.; Bredero-Cohen, A.B.; Munneke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Physical therapy is often prescribed in Parkinson's disease. To facilitate the uniformity and efficacy of this intervention, we analyzed current evidence and developed practice recommendations. We carried out an evidence-based literature review. The results were supplemented with clinical expertise

  11. Evidence-based approaches to dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neville; Glanz, Karen; Sallis, James F; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-10-01

    With the increasing availability of effective, evidence-based physical activity interventions, widespread diffusion is needed. We examine conceptual foundations for research on dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions; describe two school-based program examples; review examples of dissemination and diffusion research on other health behaviors; and examine policies that may accelerate the diffusion process. Lack of dissemination and diffusion evaluation research and policy advocacy is one of the factors limiting the impact of evidence-based physical activity interventions on public health. There is the need to collaborate with policy experts from other fields to improve the interdisciplinary science base for dissemination and diffusion. The promise of widespread adoption of evidence-based physical activity interventions to improve public health is sufficient to justify devotion of substantial resources to the relevant research on dissemination and diffusion.

  12. SAMBA RECEPTION DESK: COMPROMISING AESTHETICS, FABRICATION AND STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE USE OF VIRTUAL AND PHYSICAL MODELS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Barbosa Neto; André Araujo; Guilherme Carvalho; Gabriela Celani

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes an integrative design experiment in which different types of models were used in order to achieve a design that compromises aesthetics, lightness, fabrication, assembly and structural performance. It shows how an integrative aproach, through the use of both virtual and physical models, can provide valuable feedback in different phases of the design and fabrication process. It was possible to conclude that the design method used allowed solving many problems and had...

  13. Why evidence-based medicine is a good approach in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S

    2014-10-01

    According to a good definition, evidence-based medicine (EBM) is: "The explicit, conscientious, and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients (and populations)". More appropriate in a clinical context like that of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) is looking at evidence based clinical practice (EBCP), whose definition is: "The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values". In the past the term evidence-based physical and rehabilitation medicine (EBPRM) was also proposed. In this thesis, after some historical notes on EBM and on PRM, we will discuss why in our view EBPRM must be the real foundation of our everyday PRM clinical practice.

  14. Effect of particle size on thermo-physical properties of SiCp/Cu composites fabricated by squeeze casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-hui; CHEN Guo-qin; ZHU De-zhi; ZHANG Qiang; JIANG Long-tao

    2005-01-01

    For the electronic packaging applications, copper matrix composites reinforced with different sized SiC particles (10 μm, 20 μm and 63 μm) were fabricated by squeeze casting technology. And the effect of particle size on their thermo-physical properties was discussed. The composites are free of porosity and the SiC particles are distributed uniformly in the composites. It is found that the mean linear thermal expansion coefficients(20 - 100 ℃ ) of SiCp/Cu composites are in the range of (8.4 - 9.2) × 10-6/℃, and smaller expansion coefficient can be obtained for the composites with finer SiC particles because of the larger restriction in expansion through interfaces. Their thermal conductivities are reduced with the decrease of SiC sizes. This is attributed to the fact that the negative effect of interfacial thermal resistance becomes increasingly dominant as the particles becomes smaller.

  15. Design, fabrication and physical analysis of TiN/AlN deep UV photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkad, H A; Soltani, A; Mattalah, M; Gerbedoen, J-C; Rousseau, M; De Jaeger, J-C [IEMN, UMR-CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincare, Universite de Lille1, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); BenMoussa, A [Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB, STCE), Circular 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mortet, V; Haenen, K [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Wetenschapark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Wetenschapark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Benbakhti, B [DEEE, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue. University of Glasgow, G12 8LT Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Moreau, M [LASIR, USTL, C5, BP 69, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Dupuis, R [CCS-SECE, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Ougazzaden, A, E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.f [Georgia Tech-Lorraine (GTL), UMI 2958 GT-CNRS, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France)

    2010-11-24

    Deep-ultraviolet solar-blind photodiodes based on high-quality AlN films grown on sapphire substrates with a metal-semiconductor-metal configuration were simulated and fabricated. The Schottky contact is based on TiN metallization. The material is characterized by the micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The detector presents an extremely low dark current of 100 fA at -100 V dc bias for large device area as high as 3.1 mm{sup 2}. It also exhibits a rejection ratio between 180 and 300 nm of three orders of magnitude with a very sharp cut-off wavelength at 203 nm ({approx}6.1 eV). The simulation to optimize the photodiode topology is based on a 2D energy-balance model using the COMSOL (registered) software. Simulation performed for different spacing for a given bias between electrodes show that a compromise must be found between the dark current and the responsivity for the optimization of the device performance. The measurement results are in good agreement with the model predictions.

  16. Artificial Earth Satellites Designed and Fabricated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    first gallium arsenide solar cell was orbited on ANNA-lB. The predicted sublimation rates of biphenyl, camphor , and napthalene were contirmed in the...orientation of the gravity gradient because of the thrust of subliming biphenyl at the end of the 100-foot boom. This resulted in a 25 dB reduction in the...SDO 1600 APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY LAUREL MARYLAND Solar cell experiments Subliming materials experiment 352-bit magnetic core shift register memory

  17. Fabrication and physical and biological properties of fibrin gel derived from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Ma, Lie; Zhou, Jie; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Shen, Jiacong

    2008-03-01

    The fast development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine drives the old biomaterials, for example, fibrin glue, to find new applications in these areas. Aiming at developing a commercially available hydrogel for cell entrapment and delivery, in this study we optimized the fabrication and gelation conditions of fibrin gel. Fibrinogen was isolated from human plasma by a freeze-thaw circle. Gelation of the fibrinogen was accomplished by mixing with thrombin. Absorbance of the fibrinogen/thrombin mixture at 550 nm as a function of reaction time was monitored by UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was found that the clotting time is significantly influenced by the thrombin concentration and the temperature, while less influenced by the fibrinogen concentration. After freeze-drying, the fibrin gel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing fibrous microstructure. Thermal gravimetric analysis found that the degradation temperature of the crosslinked fibrin gel starts from 288 degrees C, which is about 30 degrees C higher than that of the fibrinogen. The hydrogel has an initial water-uptake ratio of approximately 50, decreased to 30-40 after incubation in water for 11 h depending on the thrombin concentration. The fibrin gels lost their weights in PBS very rapidly, while slowly in DMEM/fetal bovine serum and DMEM. In vitro cell culture found that human fibroblasts could normally proliferate in the fibrin gel with spreading morphology. In conclusion, the fibrin gel containing higher concentration of fibrinogen (20 mg ml(-1)) and thrombin (5 U ml(-1)) has suitable gelation time and handling properties, and thus is applicable as a delivery vehicle for cells such as fibroblasts.

  18. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Lang, Andrew C.; Taheri, Mitra; Cunnane, Dan; Karasik, Boris. S.; Xi, X. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  19. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  20. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Arja R; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Van De Goor, Ien; Skovgaard, Thomas; Valente, Adriana; Castellani, Tommaso; Chereches, Razvan; Edwards, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration and organizational change processes in the use of evidence and locally tailored interventions to increase knowledge integration. The results of the first two study phases will be tested and validated among policy makers and other stakeholders in the third phase using a Delphi process. Initial results from the first project phase showed the lack of explicit evidence use in HEPA policy making. Facilitators and barriers of the evidence use were the availability of institutional resources and support but also networking between researchers and policy makers. REPOPA will increase understanding use of research evidence in different contexts; develop guidance and tools and establish sustainable structures such as networks and platforms between academics and policy makers across relevant sectors.

  1. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  2. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  3. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of fabrication of Cu mono-component metallic glass by physical vapor deposition on Zr substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Cui, Fenping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the single-component Cu metallic glass was fabricated by the physical vapor deposition on the Zr (0001) crystal substrate at 100 K using the classical molecular dynamic simulation. The same deposition process was performed on the Cu (1 0 0) and Ni (1 0 0) crystal substrate for comparison, only the Cu crystal deposited layer with the fcc structure can be obtained. When depositing the Cu atoms on the Zr substrate at 300 K, the crystal structure was formed, which indicates that except the suitable substrate, low temperature is also a key factor for the amorphous structure formation. The Cu liquid quenching from 2000 K to 100 K were also simulated with the cooling rate 1012 K/s to form the Cu glass film in this work. The Cu metallic glass from the two different processes (physical vapor deposition and rapid thermal quenching from liquid) revealed the same radial distribution function and X-ray diffraction pattern, but the different microstructure from the coordination number and Voronoi tessellation...

  5. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) among Brazilian physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Mark R.; Moseley, Anne M.; Pinto, Rafael Z.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice. OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period. METHOD: PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014). Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO) in Brazil. RESULTS: Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year), with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486). Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755). Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year. CONCLUSIONS: PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed. PMID:26443980

  6. Facile approach to fabricate waterborne polyaniline nanocomposites with environmental benignity and high physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Wen, Huan; Hu, Bin; Fei, Guiqiang; Shen, Yiding; Sun, Liyu; Yang, Dong

    2017-03-01

    Waterborne polyaniline (PANI) dispersion has got extensive attention due to its environmental friendliness and good processability, whereas the storage stability and mechanical property have been the challenge for the waterborne PANI composites. Here we prepare for waterborne PANI dispersion through the chemical graft polymerisation of PANI into epichlorohydrin modified poly (vinyl alcohol) (EPVA). In comparison with waterborne PANI dispersion prepared through physical blend and in situ polymerisation, the storage stability of PANI-g-EPVA dispersion is greatly improved and the dispersion keeps stable for one year. In addition, the as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA film displays more uniform and smooth morphology, as well as enhanced phase compatibility. PANI is homogeneously distributed in the EPVA matrix on the nanoscale. PANI-g-EPVA displays different morphology at different aniline content. The electrical conductivity corresponds to 7.3 S/cm when only 30% PANI is incorporated into the composites, and then increases up to 20.83 S/cm with further increase in the aniline content. Simultaneously, the tensile strength increases from 35 MPa to 64 MPa. The as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA dispersion can be directly used as the conductive ink or coatings for cellulose fibre paper to prepare flexible conductive paper with high conductivity and mechanical property, which is also suitable for large scalable production.

  7. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications. PMID:28117421

  8. Fabrication and physical characteristics of new glasses from wastes of limestone and phosphorite rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YASSER B SADDEEK; K A ALY; RABIE S FARAG; M A M UOSIF; K H S SHAABAN

    2016-12-01

    In this work, new glasses were synthesized from wastes of limestone and phosphate rocks besides commercial borax. The glasses were characterized by FTIR, DTA, ultrasonic techniques and UV spectroscopy. It was found that the concentration of both CaO and P$_2$O$_5$ increases and the concentrations of B$_2$O$_3$ and Na$_2$O decrease as the content of phosphate rocks increases. Variation of the contents of the different oxides affects the concentration of the structural units constituting the glass, which was indicated by the behaviour of the fraction N$_4$ of BO$_4$ units in the borate matrix. The density and the refractive index of the glasses decrease as the CaO and P$_2$O$_5$ contents increase, which was attributed to the increase of [BO$_3$] structural units. On the other hand, the physical parameterssuch as the ultrasonic velocity, the elastic moduli, the optical bandgap and the optical polarizability increased, which was attributed to the higher coordination number of CaO$_6$ compared with the coordination of borate structuralunits and to the former effect of P$_2$O$_5$. As a result, a polymerization of the total co-ordination number of the glass, crosslink density and connectivity within the glass network will occur.

  9. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  10. Physical and electrochemical properties of ZnO films fabricated from highly cathodic electrodeposition potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdul Hadi; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2017-03-01

    The physical and electrochemical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) film electrode that were prepared electrochemically were studied. ZnO was electrodeposited on ITO glass substrate by applying three different highly cathodic potentials (-1.3 V, -1.5 V, -1.7 V) in a solution containing 70 mM of Zn(NO3)2.xH2O and 0.1 M KCl with bath temperatures of 70 °C and 80 °C. The presence of ZnO was asserted from XRD analysis where the corresponding peaks in the spectra were assigned. SEM images revealed the plate-like hexagonal morphology of ZnO which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. The areal capacitance of the ZnO was observed to increase when the applied electrodeposition potential is increased from -1.3 V to -1.5 V. However, the areal capacitance is found to decrease when the applied electrodeposition potential is further increased to -1.7 V. The resistance of charge transfer (Rct) of the ZnO decreased when the applied electrodeposition potential varies from -1.3 V to -1.7 V due to the decreased particle size of ZnO when more cathodic electrodeposition potential is applied.

  11. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S; Heredia-Guerrero, Jose A; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-24

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young's modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials' properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  12. Design and Fabrication of an Integrated Circuit for Monitoring UV Radiation for Health Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reyhaneh [Kashan Univ., Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Champiri, Afshin Mahmoudieh [Shahid Chamran Univ., Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norov, Enkhbat [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A particularly important term in the clinical photobiology is the standard erythemal dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. However, both the quality and quantity of the UV radiation are important factors for the UV monitoring. This paper aims to introduce and investigate a UV radiation meter in order to establish its applicability for non-ionizing radiation detection. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further divided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. There is increasing evidence that long wave UV radiation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of photo-dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption as well as photo-aging. UVA, UVB, and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and, therefore, accelerate aging of the skin. Both UVA and UVB destroy vitamin A in the skin, which may cause further damage. The quantities of the UV radiation are generally expressed using the radiometric terminology.

  13. Evidence for the validity of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity questionnaire (CAPA) with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth; Larkin, Dawne; Hands, Beth; Howard, Barbara; Parker, Helen

    2009-09-01

    Attraction to physical activity is important to an individual's intrinsic motivation to engage in play, games and sports. While there are instruments designed to measure attraction to physical activity in middle childhood years, the lack of authentic measures in young children has impeded research in this area. In this study we sought to address the validity of a scale to tap young children's attraction to physical activity. Evidence for validity was based on internal consistency, content analysis, and factor structure. Australian school children (180 boys and 154 girls) from school year two, aged 6-8 years, were individually administered a modified version of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity Scale (CAPA) [Brustad RJ. Who will go out to play? Parental and psychological influences on children's attraction to physical activity. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1993;5:210-23; Brustad RJ. Attraction to physical activity in urban school children: parental socialization and gender influences. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996;67:316-23]. The results indicated that internal consistency was acceptable for most of the subscales when negative statements were excluded from the analyses. Factor analysis revealed that the liking of games and sports, liking of physical exertion and exercise, and the importance of exercise subscales were more robust. Second order factor analysis indicated that the overall construct of attraction to physical activity was viable in this age group. With some modifications, the scale appears to provide a valid approach to the measurement of attraction to physical activity in young children.

  14. Nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint: a synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-06-01

      This article is a report of a review that aimed to synthesize the available qualitative evidence on nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint.   The use of physical restraint in acute and residential healthcare facilities is a widespread practice in many countries. Decisions about the use of physical restraints are complex and ethically laden. The lack of evidence supporting the use of physical restraints, the negative consequences of restraint for patients, and the low availability of alternatives obviously complicate the decision-making.   Research papers published between January 1990 and January 2010 were identified in Cinahl, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science.   A systematic review was carried out to obtain a meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence. The process of meta-synthesis was supported by the Joanna Briggs Institute's guidelines.   The decision-making of nurses dealing with the use of physical restraints is a complex trajectory primarily focused on safety. However, thoughtful decision-making requires nurses to carefully balance different options and associated ethical values. The decision-making process of nurses is influenced by both nurse- and context-related factors.   This review provides a deeper understanding of nurses' decision-making process on the use of physical restraints. Context- and nurse-related factors can hinder nurses from making an ethical decision on the appropriate use of physical restraints. There is an urgent need to stimulate and educate nurses to arrive at an appropriate decision about the use of physical restraints. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, J.M.; Wegen, E. van; Peppen, R. van; Wees, P.J. van der; Hendriks, E.; Rietberg, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical therapy (PT) is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs

  16. Girls' Biology, Boys' Physics: Evidence from Free-Choice Science Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Many of the explanations for girls' disinterest in physics focus on the role of the educational system in creating this situation. Here, we use evidence from free-choice science learning settings to study if this lack of interest is also expressed in non-school settings. Three sets of self-generated questions raised by children, adolescents and…

  17. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is th

  18. A Critical Quest: Confirming Physical Therapists' Attitudes and Knowledge toward Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Beverly Cumberland

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to investigate physical therapists attitudes and knowledge toward research and evidence-based practice (EBP). The research design was based on a realist theoretical framework. Twenty-five interviews were conducted asking standardized open-end questions which allowed the participants to relate their real world…

  19. Evidence-based analysis of physical therapy in Parkinson's disease with recommendations for practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, Samyra H J; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Hendriks, Erik J M; Bredero-Cohen, Alexandra B; Munneke, Marten

    2007-03-15

    Physical therapy is often prescribed in Parkinson's disease. To facilitate the uniformity and efficacy of this intervention, we analyzed current evidence and developed practice recommendations. We carried out an evidence-based literature review. The results were supplemented with clinical expertise and patient values and translated into practice recommendations, developed according to international standards for guideline development. A systematic literature search yielded 6 systematic reviews and 23 randomized controlled trials of moderate methodological quality with sufficient data. Six specific core areas for physical therapy were identified: transfers, posture, reaching and grasping, balance, gait, and physical capacity. We extracted four specific treatment recommendations that were based on evidence from more than two controlled trials: cueing strategies to improve gait; cognitive movement strategies to improve transfers; exercises to improve balance; and training of joint mobility and muscle power to improve physical capacity. These practice recommendations provide a basis for current physical therapy in Parkinson's disease in everyday clinical practice, as well as for future research in this field.

  20. Striding Out With Parkinson Disease: Evidence-Based Physical Therapy for Gait Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clarissa L.; Schenkman, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Although Parkinson disease (PD) is common throughout the world, the evidence for physical therapy interventions that enable long-term improvement in walking is still emerging. This article critiques the major physical therapy approaches related to gait rehabilitation in people with PD: compensatory strategies, motor skill learning, management of secondary sequelae, and education to optimize physical activity and reduce falls. The emphasis of this review is on gait specifically, although balance and falls are of direct importance to gait and are addressed in that context. Although the researchers who have provided the evidence for these approaches grounded their studies on different theoretical paradigms, each approach is argued to have a valid place in the comprehensive management of PD generally and of gait in particular. The optimal mix of interventions for each individual varies according to the stage of disease progression and the patient's preferred form of exercise, capacity for learning, and age. PMID:20022998

  1. Foot orthoses for pediatric flexible flatfoot: evidence and current practices among Canadian physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the evidence for flatfoot intervention in children with gross motor delay of neurological origin, and to understand how physical therapists use foot orthoses (FOs) to treat this population. Thirty-four physical therapists employed in Canadian publicly funded pediatric centers were surveyed to explore current practices and beliefs related to FOs. Responses are discussed in the context of the research literature. Objective physical examination and differentiation between developmental and pathological flatfeet can help clinicians to identify suitable FO candidates, monitor foot posture over time, and evaluate treatment effectiveness. An evidence-informed approach to assessment and intervention has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for clients with pediatric flatfoot.

  2. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile

    2017-10-01

    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  3. Secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence: An exploratory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph A.; Dana, Thomas M.

    2003-10-01

    This article describes an exploratory case study of secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence. The nature of teachers' conceptions of evidence was derived from an analysis of data collected from 1 preservice and 2 in-service teachers. Each teacher responded to a series of research prompts in multiple interviews and handwritten tasks. In these research prompts, the teachers thought aloud while designing experiments and critically evaluating student-collected data as presented in hypothetical classroom scenarios. Spoken and written data were recorded. The data set was coded and analyzed using standard qualitative analysis techniques. Data from this study suggest that, while contemplating the reliability and validity of hypothetical student-generated scientific evidence, the teachers frequently intertwined conceptions of evidence with subject matter concepts centrally relevant to the hypothetical investigation. Data also indicate that the relationship between subject matter knowledge and conceptions of evidence was more pronounced for some conceptions of evidence than for others. Results suggest that a fuller study is warranted. Suggestions for future research include exploring such relationships in other physics content areas as well as other scientific disciplines. Implications for science teacher education suggest that science and science methods courses should encourage preservice teachers to engage in original scientific research, as well as participate in peer review and critique.

  4. MgB2UltrathinFilms Fabricated by Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition and Subsequent Ion Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthaeus; Tan, Teng; Cunnane, Daniel; Karasik, Boris; Xi, Xiaoxing

    Hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers are a great tool for measuring high-resolution spectroscopy at Terahertz frequencies. MgB2offers a higher critical temperature (39 K) compared to commonly used Nb and NbN and boasts a shorter intrinsic electron-phonon relaxation time, giving rise to a broader intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth. We have fabricated high quality ultrathin MgB2films using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) and employing ion milling to achieve thickness down to 2 nm. The thinnest achieved films show high Tc of 28 K with residual resistivity below 28 µ Ωcm and high critical current Jcof 1x106 A/cm2at 20 K. As a result of the employed low angle ion milling process, the films remain well connected even after being thinned down since the initial thick films offer a better connectivity than as-grown thin films. The established process offers a way to realize MgB2 based HEB mixers of extremely low thickness and therefore small local oscillator power requirements and increased IF bandwidth.

  5. Surface physical-morphological and chemical changes leading to performance enhancement of atmospheric pressure plasma treated polyester fabrics for inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuanjun; Zhang, Chunming

    2009-06-01

    Without any preprocessing, polyester fabric has lower ability to hold on water due to the smooth morphology and chemistry property of polyester fibers. Therefore, patterns directly printed with pigment inks have poor color yields and easily bleed. In this paper, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to pretreat polyester fabric in order to provide an active surface for the inkjet printing. The results showed that surface-modified polyester fabrics could obtain the effects of features with enhanced color yields and excellent pattern sharpness. SEM images indicated that the rough surface of plasma treated fibers could provide more capacities for the fabric to capture inks and also facilitate the penetration of colorant particles into the polyester fabric. XPS analysis revealed that air + 50%Ar plasma introduced more oxygen-containing groups onto the fabric surface than air plasma. Although AFM images indicated that etching effects generated by air plasma treatments were more evident, the air/Ar plasma treated sample has higher K/ S value and better color performance. These studies have also shown that the chemical modification of plasma appears to be relatively more significant for improving the effect of inkjet printing.

  6. Integration of critically appraised topics into evidence-based physical therapist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael S; Tragord, Bradley S; Taylor, Alden L; Deyle, Gail D

    2012-10-01

    Physical therapists frequently encounter situations that require complex differential-diagnosis decisions and the ability to consistently screen for serious pathology that may mimic a musculoskeletal complaint. By applying the evidence-based-practice process to diagnosis, screening, and referral, physical therapists can identify diagnostic and screening strategies that positively influence clinical decisions. A critically appraised topic document (a standard 1-page summary of the literature appraisal and clinical relevance in response to a specific clinical question) is a valuable tool in evidence-based practice. The creation of a critically appraised topic makes the educational process cumulative instead of duplicative, allowing the individual clinician to assimilate and consolidate knowledge after a search effort and improving search and appraisal skills. The purpose of this clinical commentary is as follows: (1) to describe the clinical reasoning process of 3 orthopaedic physical therapists that led to the development of specific clinical questions related to screening for nonmusculoskeletal pathology, (2) to describe the search and triage strategy that led each physical therapist to the current best evidence needed to rule out nonmusculoskeletal pathology in the patient, and (3) to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a critically appraised topic, the implementation of this process, and the tailoring of search strategies to find diagnostic and screening strategies.

  7. Levels of evidence of articles published in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Matteo; Briganti, Gennaro; Lombardi, Bruna

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and assess the levels of evidence of research and review articles published in professional Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine journals with international circulations. Quantitative analysis of articles published in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine journals. Selected articles from 7 Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine journals, published over a period of 6 years,were classified according to their level of evidence. Differences in the mean number of each type of article among journals and among years were analysed. A total of 5,451 articles were included in this study,of which 636 (11.7%) were randomized controlled trials. Articles published with the highest frequency were those classified as Level III (n = 2,424, 44.5%), whereas “systematic reviews”were the least frequent (n = 164, 3.0%). Heterogeneity was found only in terms of distribution over journals. The distribution of different types of article in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine journals is similar to that in other disciplines. No increase in articles with a high level of evidence was found in the selected journals over the period of study.

  8. SAMBA RECEPTION DESK: COMPROMISING AESTHETICS, FABRICATION AND STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE USE OF VIRTUAL AND PHYSICAL MODELS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an integrative design experiment in which different types of models were used in order to achieve a design that compromises aesthetics, lightness, fabrication, assembly and structural performance. It shows how an integrative aproach, through the use of both virtual and physical models, can provide valuable feedback in different phases of the design and fabrication process. It was possible to conclude that the design method used allowed solving many problems and had a significant impact in the resulting object.

  9. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro among Brazilian physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Elkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice.OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period.METHOD: PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014. Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO in Brazil.RESULTS: Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year, with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486. Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755. Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year.CONCLUSIONS: PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed.

  10. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Beth A.; Kalasky, Martha J.; Proctor, David N.

    2010-01-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences—or perhaps even as an underlying cause—the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. ...

  11. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Changing the Practice of Physical Restraint Use in Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Helen W; Leach, Kathy M; Butcher, Howard K

    2016-02-01

    Physical restraints continue to be used in acute care settings, despite the challenges and calls to reduce this practice. The current guideline on restraint use is updated with evidence that includes critical care settings and issues related to restraint use in acute care units. Nurses play a significant role in the use of restraints. Factors such as nurse's knowledge and patient characteristics combined with the culture and resources in health care facilities influence the practice of physical restraint use. Nurses can identify patients at high risk for restraint use; assess the potential causes of unsafe behaviors; and target interventions in the areas of physiological, psychological, and environmental approaches to address those unsafe behaviors. Members of the interdisciplinary team can provide additional consultation, and institutions can provide resources and education and implement monitoring processes and quality improvement practices to help reduce the practice of physical restraint use. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 17-26.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Velez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP, their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al.Results:The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2% aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%. Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%. The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%, the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%, EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1% and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%. Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice.Conclusion:The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice.

  13. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383

  14. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: Consensus Document 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K; Bredin, Shannon S D; McKenzie, Don C; Stone, James; Charlesworth, Sarah; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-07-01

    The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X) are internationally known preparticipation screening tools developed on the basis of expert opinion. The primary purposes of this consensus document were to seek evidence-based support for the PAR-Q and PARmed-X forms, to identify whether further revisions of these instruments are warranted, to determine how people responding positively to questions on the PAR-Q can be safely cleared without medical referral, and to develop exercise clearance procedures appropriate for various clinical conditions across the human lifespan. Seven systematic reviews were conducted, examining physical-activity-related risks and effective risk-stratification procedures for various prevalent chronic conditions. An additional systematic review assessed the risks associated with exercise testing and training of the general population. Two gap areas were identified and evaluated systematically: the role of the qualified exercise professional and the requisite core competencies required by those working with various chronic conditions; and the risks associated with physical activity during pregnancy. The risks associated with being physically inactive are markedly higher than transient risks during and following an acute bout of exercise in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations across the lifespan. Further refinements of the PAR-Q and the PARmed-X (including online versions of the forms) are required to address the unique limitations imposed by various chronic health conditions, and to allow the inclusion of individuals across their entire lifespan. A probing decision-tree process is proposed to assist in risk stratification and to reduce barriers to physical activity. Qualified exercise professionals will play an essential role in this revised physical activity clearance process.

  15. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  16. Young infants view physically possible support events as unexpected: New evidence for rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Baillargeon, Renée

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that one of the mechanisms by which infants acquire their physical knowledge is rule learning: Infants generate rules about the likely outcomes of events and revise these rules when confronted with discrepant outcomes. This approach predicts that when infants' rules are only partially correct, they will view as unexpected events that are physically possible and even ordinary but happen to contradict their faulty rules. Here we provide evidence for this prediction in young infants' responses to support events. According to prior findings, by 6.5months of age, most infants expect an object to be stable if released with half or more of its bottom surface on a support; by 8months, most infants have refined this rule and realize that an object can be stable with less support as long as the middle of the object's bottom surface is supported. In line with these findings, 7.5- but not 8.5-month-olds viewed as unexpected a possible event in which a wide box remained stable when released with only the middle third of its bottom surface resting on a narrow platform. These results provide new evidence that young infants, like older children and adults, generate and revise rules to make sense of physical events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence-based guidelines for the wise use of computers by children: physical development guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Maslen, B; Burgess-Limerick, R; Johnson, P; Dennerlein, J

    2010-04-01

    Computer use by children is common and there is concern over the potential impact of this exposure on child physical development. Recently principles for child-specific evidence-based guidelines for wise use of computers have been published and these included one concerning the facilitation of appropriate physical development. This paper reviews the evidence and presents detailed guidelines for this principle. The guidelines include encouraging a mix of sedentary and whole body movement tasks, encouraging reasonable postures during computing tasks through workstation, chair, desk, display and input device selection and adjustment and special issues regarding notebook computer use and carriage, computing skills and responding to discomfort. The evidence limitations highlight opportunities for future research. The guidelines themselves can inform parents and teachers, equipment designers and suppliers and form the basis of content for teaching children the wise use of computers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Many children use computers and computer-use habits formed in childhood may track into adulthood. Therefore child-computer interaction needs to be carefully managed. These guidelines inform those responsible for children to assist in the wise use of computers.

  18. Professional Development of Physics Teachers in an Evidence-Based Blended Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined continuity of learning between face-to-face and online environments in a "blended" professional development program designed for 16 physics teachers. The program had nine face-to-face meetings as well as continuous online exchanges between them through a website. The program focused on "knowledge integration" (KI) innovative activities in physics classes using an "evidence-based" approach: The teachers implemented the activities, collected and analyzed data about their practice and their students' learning, and reflected on the evidence with their peers. Five reflective tools were used to promote continuity: Your Comments, Hot Polls, Smashing Sentences, Hot Reports, and Mini Research. Continuity was assessed with regard to the ideas discussed by the teachers and the reasoning patterns that they employed. Analysis of the online exchanges in relation to teachers' face-to-face discourse revealed that the teachers discussed the same ideas (KI, evidence and learner-centered pedagogies), employed the same reasoning patterns (e.g., forming generalizations), and extended ideas in re-visitation. The online and face-to-face environments played different and complementary roles in the teachers' learning. This study shows that appropriate use of an online environment in a blended program can lead to a continuous course of learning and can transform a "9 once-a-month-meetings" workshop into a "9-month" workshop.

  19. Physical Therapy Interventions in Back Pain Management: What Does evidence say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Bindra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non specific low back pain affects 85% of patients who present to primary care and is one which cannot be reliably attributed to a specific disease or spinal abnormality. Physical therapy modalities are frequently used for its management but the best evidence for the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the treatment is provided by well designed systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. The study includes recent evidences for the same from Cochrane library. The results have revealed the efficacy of superficial heat, patient education and advice to stay active than bed rest in acute LBP. Graded activity exercise, superficial heat, massage, physical conditioning and individual patient education are effective in sub acute LBP. Exercise, massage, spinal manipulative therapy, back schools, physical conditioning programs are moderately effective in chronic LBP. Tens and traction are found to be ineffective in LBP besides the duration of symptoms. Evidence is inconclusive about the role of laser, ultrasound, lumbar supports, superficial cold, use of insoles, advice on manual material handling and use of assistive devices. Multidisciplinary bio psychosocial rehabilitation and behavioral therapy have been found to be at least moderately effective in sub acute to chronic LBP. But most of the studies were found to be inadequate in terms of poor methodological quality. In addition the heterogenecity of the non specific LBP population cannot be ignored. There is a need to establish a classification system for non specific LBP that would allow determining how subgroups differ in terms of natural course and whether treatment and management strategies could be tailored to each subgroup. This should be followed by designing future trials of high methodological quality.

  20. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  1. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Mainini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2–4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes.

  2. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia Fs; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2-4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes.

  3. Multi-physics simulation and fabrication of a compact 128 × 128 micro-electro-mechanical system Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter array for infrared hyperspectral imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghua; Chen, Sihai; Lai, Jianjun; Huang, Ying; Sun, Zhenjun

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and fabrication of a 128×128 micro-electro-mechanical systems Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity filter array, which can be applied for the hyperspectral imager. To obtain better mechanical performance of the filters, F-P cavity supporting structures are analyzed by multi-physics finite element modeling. The simulation results indicate that Z-arm is the key component of the structure. The F-P cavity array with Z-arm structures was also fabricated. The experimental results show excellent parallelism of the bridge deck, which agree with the simulation results. A conclusion is drawn that Z-arm supporting structures are important to hyperspectral imaging system, which can achieve a large tuning range and high fill factor compared to straight arm structures. The filter arrays have the potential to replace the traditional dispersive element.

  4. The Evidence in Support of Physicians and Health Care Providers as Physical Activity Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; de Quevedo, Isabel Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity constitutes the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) should play a key role in counseling and appropriately referring their patients to adopt physical activity (PA). Previous reports suggest that active HCPs are more likely to provide better, more credible, and motivating preventive counseling to their patients. This review summarizes the available evidence on the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their related PA counseling practices. Based on relevant studies, a snowball search strategy identified, out of 196 studies screened, a total of 47 pertinent articles published between 1979 and 2012. Of those, 23 described HCPs’ PA habits and/or their counseling practices and 24 analytic studies evaluated the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their PA counseling practices. The majority of studies came from the United States (n = 33), and 9 studies included nonphysicians (nurses, pharmacists, and other HCPs). PA levels were mostly self-reported, and counseling was typically assessed as self-reported frequency or perceived self-efficacy in clinical practice. Most (19 out of 24) analytic studies reported a significant positive association between HCPs’ PA habits and counseling frequency, with odds ratios ranging between 1.4 and 5.7 (P < .05), in 6 studies allowing direct comparison. This review found consistent evidence supporting the notion that physically active physicians and other HCPs are more likely to provide PA counseling to their patients and can indeed become powerful PA role models. This evidence appears sufficient to justify randomized trials to determine if adding interventions to promote PA among HCPs, also results in improvements in the frequency and quality of PA preventive counseling and referrals, delivered by HCPs, to patients in primary care settings. Future studies should also aim at objectively quantifying the effect of HCPs’ PA role-modeling and how it

  5. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  6. What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Marieke Veerbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical therapy (PT is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs regarding PT in stroke rehabilitation were retrieved through a systematic search. Outcomes were classified according to the ICF. RCTs with a low risk of bias were quantitatively analyzed. Differences between phases poststroke were explored in subgroup analyses. A best evidence synthesis was performed for neurological treatment approaches. The search yielded 467 RCTs (N = 25373; median PEDro score 6 [IQR 5-7], identifying 53 interventions. No adverse events were reported. Strong evidence was found for significant positive effects of 13 interventions related to gait, 11 interventions related to arm-hand activities, 1 intervention for ADL, and 3 interventions for physical fitness. Summary Effect Sizes (SESs ranged from 0.17 (95%CI 0.03-0.70; I(2 = 0% for therapeutic positioning of the paretic arm to 2.47 (95%CI 0.84-4.11; I(2 = 77% for training of sitting balance. There is strong evidence that a higher dose of practice is better, with SESs ranging from 0.21 (95%CI 0.02-0.39; I(2 = 6% for motor function of the paretic arm to 0.61 (95%CI 0.41-0.82; I(2 = 41% for muscle strength of the paretic leg. Subgroup analyses yielded significant differences with respect to timing poststroke for 10 interventions. Neurological treatment approaches to training of body functions and activities showed equal or unfavorable effects when compared to other training interventions. Main limitations of the present review are not using individual patient data for meta-analyses and absence of correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: There is strong evidence for PT interventions favoring intensive high repetitive task-oriented and task-specific training in all phases

  7. What Is the Evidence for Physical Therapy Poststroke? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Janne Marieke; van Wegen, Erwin; van Peppen, Roland; van der Wees, Philip Jan; Hendriks, Erik; Rietberg, Marc; Kwakkel, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical therapy (PT) is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT. Methods and Findings Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding PT in stroke rehabilitation were retrieved through a systematic search. Outcomes were classified according to the ICF. RCTs with a low risk of bias were quantitatively analyzed. Differences between phases poststroke were explored in subgroup analyses. A best evidence synthesis was performed for neurological treatment approaches. The search yielded 467 RCTs (N = 25373; median PEDro score 6 [IQR 5–7]), identifying 53 interventions. No adverse events were reported. Strong evidence was found for significant positive effects of 13 interventions related to gait, 11 interventions related to arm-hand activities, 1 intervention for ADL, and 3 interventions for physical fitness. Summary Effect Sizes (SESs) ranged from 0.17 (95%CI 0.03–0.70; I2 = 0%) for therapeutic positioning of the paretic arm to 2.47 (95%CI 0.84–4.11; I2 = 77%) for training of sitting balance. There is strong evidence that a higher dose of practice is better, with SESs ranging from 0.21 (95%CI 0.02–0.39; I2 = 6%) for motor function of the paretic arm to 0.61 (95%CI 0.41–0.82; I2 = 41%) for muscle strength of the paretic leg. Subgroup analyses yielded significant differences with respect to timing poststroke for 10 interventions. Neurological treatment approaches to training of body functions and activities showed equal or unfavorable effects when compared to other training interventions. Main limitations of the present review are not using individual patient data for meta-analyses and absence of correction for multiple testing. Conclusions There is strong evidence for PT interventions favoring intensive high repetitive task-oriented and task-specific training in all

  8. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  9. The effect of physical activity on adult obesity: evidence from the Canadian NPHS panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sisira; Zaric, Gregory S; Campbell, M Karen; Gilliland, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Although physical activity has been considered as an important modifiable risk factor for obesity, the empirical evidence on the relationship between physical activity and obesity is mixed. Observational studies in the public health literature fail to account for time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity and dynamics of weight, leading to biased estimation of the effect of physical activity on obesity. To overcome this limitation, we propose dynamic fixed-effects models to account for unobserved heterogeneity bias and the dynamics of obesity. We use nationally representative longitudinal data on the cohort of adults aged 18-50 years in 1994/95 from Canada's National Population Health Survey and followed them over 16 years. Obesity is measured by BMI (body mass index). After controlling for a wide range of socio-economic factors, the impact of four alternative measures of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and work-related physical activity (WRPA) are analyzed. The results show that each measure of LTPA exerts a negative effect on BMI and the effects are larger for females. Our key results show that participation in LTPA exceeding 1.5 kcal/kg per day (i.e., at least 30 min of walking) reduces BMI by about 0.11-0.14 points in males and 0.20 points in females relative to physically inactive counterparts. Compared to those who are inactive at workplace, being able to stand or walk at work is associated with a reduction in BMI in the range of 0.16-0.19 points in males and 0.24-0.28 points in females. Lifting loads at workplace is associated with a reduction in BMI by 0.2-0.3 points in males and 0.3-0.4 points in females relative to those who are reported sedentary. Policies aimed at promotion of LTPA combined with WRPA like walking or climbing stairs daily would help reduce adult obesity risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advancing the future of physical activity guidelines in Canada: an independent expert panel interpretation of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesäniemi, Antero; Riddoch, Chris J; Reeder, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada, has initiated a review of their physical activity guidelines to promote healthy active living for Canadian children, youth, adults and older adults; previous guidelines were released...... of physical activity guidelines for asymptomatic populations. The overall guideline development process is being guided and assessed by the AGREE II instrument. A meeting of experts was convened to present the evidence complied to inform the guideline revisions. An independent expert panel was assembled...... research. The paper includes also their recommendations for evidence-informed physical activity guidelines....

  11. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  12. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  13. Physical therapies in the management of osteoarthritis: current state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-05-01

    This review considers the role of physical therapies in osteoarthritis management, highlighting key findings from systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials published in the last 2 years. Three new trials question the role of manual therapy for hip and knee osteoarthritis. No between-group differences in outcome were detected between a multimodal programme including manual therapy and home exercise, and placebo in one trial; a second trial found no benefit of adding manual therapy to an exercise programme, while a third trial reported marginal benefits over usual care that were of doubtful importance. Recent trials have also found no or uncertain clinical benefits of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or acupuncture, or of valgus braces or lateral wedge insoles for pain and function in knee osteoarthritis. Available evidence suggests a small to moderate effect of exercise in comparison with not exercising for hip or knee osteoarthritis, although optimum exercise prescription and dosage are unclear. One trial also observed a delay in joint replacement in people with hip osteoarthritis. Two trials have reported conflicting findings about the effects of exercise for hand osteoarthritis. Other than exercise, recent data suggest that the role of physical therapies in the treatment of osteoarthritis appears limited.

  14. Psychological and physical pain as predictors of suicide risk: evidence from clinical and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Iskric, Adam; Calati, Raffaella; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear. This review will focus on integrating current clinical and neurobiological findings by which psychache and pain tolerance confer suicide risk. Results indicate that psychache has been identified as a significant risk factor for suicide and that psychache may be associated with the neurocircuitry involved in the modulation of physical pain. Converging evidence has also been found linking pain tolerance to self-injurious behaviours and suicide risk. The experience of psychache and physical pain in relation to other predictors of suicide, including reward processing, hopelessness and depression, are further discussed. Future research examining the pain-suicide connection is required to understand the mechanism behind clinically relevant risk factors for suicide, which can ultimately inform the construction of empirically supported suicide risk assessment and intervention techniques.

  15. Integrating evidence-based practice and information literacy skills in teaching physical and occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruff, Jill T; Thomas, Aliki

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that physical and occupational therapy graduates develop evidence-based practice (EBP) competencies, their academic training must promote EBP skills, such as posing a clinical question and retrieving relevant literature, and the information literacy skills needed to practice these EBP skills. This article describes the collaborative process and outcome of integrating EBP and information literacy early in a professional physical therapy and occupational therapy programme. The liaison librarian and a faculty member designed an instructional activity that included a lecture, workshop and assignment that integrated EBP skills and information literacy skills in the first year of the programme. The assignment was designed to assess students' ability to conduct a search independently. The lecture and workshop were successful in their objectives, as 101 of the 104 students received at least 8 out of 10 points on the search assignment. The teaching activities developed for the students in this course appear to have achieved the goal of teaching students the EBP research cycle so that they might begin to emulate it. The collaboration between the faculty member and the librarian was integral to the success of this endeavour. Future work will include the evaluation of students' long-term retention of information literacy objectives. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Qualitative research ethics: enhancing evidence-based practice in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C

    2010-04-01

    Increasing challenges to health care systems and the prominence of patient-centered care and evidence-based practice have fostered the application of qualitative approaches in health care settings, prompting discussions of associated ethical issues in a range of disciplines. The purposes of this work were to identify and describe the application and value of qualitative health research for physical therapy and to identify ethical considerations in a qualitative research study. This was a qualitative interview study with telephone follow-ups. Forty-six participants were interviewed about their early experiences with rheumatoid arthritis. They also were asked what motivated them to volunteer for the study. To inform the discussion of ethics in qualitative health research, this study drew on the in-depth interviews, took a descriptive approach to the data, and applied the traditional ethical principles of autonomy, justice, and beneficence to the study process. Ethical issues emerged in this qualitative health research study that were both similar to and different from those that exist in a positivist paradigm (eg, clinical research). With flexibility and latitude, the traditional principle approach can be applied usefully to qualitative health research. These findings build on previous research and discussion in physical therapy and other disciplines that urge a flexible approach to qualitative research ethics and recognize that ethics are embedded in an unfolding research process involving the role of the subjective researcher and an active participant. We suggest reflexivity as a way to recognize ethical moments throughout qualitative research and to help build methodological and ethical rigor in research relevant to physical therapist practice.

  17. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  18. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  19. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Kari

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day. In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  20. Evidence-based concepts and procedures for bonded inlays and onlays. Part II. Guidelines for cavity preparation and restoration fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Rizcalla, Nicolas; Krejci, Ivo; Dietschi, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The second part of this article series presents an evidence-based update of clinical protocols and procedures for cavity preparation and restoration selection for bonded inlays and onlays. More than ever, tissue conservation dictates preparation concepts, even though some minimal dimensions still have to be considered for all restorative materials. In cases of severe bruxism or tooth fragilization, CAD/CAM composite resins or pressed CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics are often recommended, although this choice relies mainly on scarce in vitro research as there is still a lack of medium- to long-term clinical evidence. The decision about whether or not to cover a cusp can only be made after a multifactorial analysis, which includes cavity dimensions and the resulting tooth biomechanical status, as well as occlusal and esthetic factors. The clinical impact of the modern treatment concepts that were outlined in the previous article - Dual Bonding (DB)/Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS), Cavity Design Optimization (CDO), and Cervical Margins Relocation (CMR) - are described in detail in this article and discussed in light of existing clinical and scientific evidence for simpler, more predictable, and more durable results. Despite the wide choice of restorative materials (composite resin or ceramic) and techniques (classical or CAD/CAM), the cavity for an indirect restoration should meet five objective criteria before the impression.

  1. The development of an evidence-based physical self-management rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; May, Anne M.; Korstjens, Irene; Ros, Wynand J. G.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the development of a physical training programme for cancer patients. Four related but conceptually and empirically distinct physical problems are described: decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscle strength, fatigue and impaired role physical functioning. The stu

  2. Online evaluation system for the photo-physical properties of organic photoelectric materials and device integrated with the device fabrication instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Meng, Lingqiang; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-09-01

    Organic photoelectric materials have showing a wide application prospect in the fields of energy, environment, information and biology because of their unique advantages. However, it is still not clear for us to understand some basic photo-physical processes (i.e. energy transfer, charge transfer, charge separation and recombination, etc.), which has affected the performance of materials and devices. This is very incompatible with the rapidly growing demand of the organic photoelectric materials and devices, and it has been one of the core problems that constraints the further applications of organic photoelectric materials and devices. The lack of the necessary systems and means is a major reason. Thus, it is a very necessary urgent task to develop new methods and technologies to evaluate the photo-physical properties of organic photoelectric materials and equipment systems. In this paper, an on-line research system for photo-physical properties is established to detect the intrinsic character of the organic photoelectric materials and devices, which integrates the fabrication instrument of the film materials and devices with the online measuring equipment combing with the high vacuum technology and the steady state transient spectrum measurement. A standard OLED device was fabricated and the electrluminescence spectra, current density, brightness, current efficiency and the power efficiency were got using this system avoiding the affect of the air and water. The results indict this system not only plays an important promoting role for the theoretical research of organic photoelectric materials and devices, but also helps improving the research level of organic photoelectric materials and devices. This work is expected to produce some potential innovating results with the international advanced level and make contributions to needs of national strategy.

  3. The influence of environmental factors on the generalisability of public health research evidence: physical activity as a worked example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare that decisions about investing in public health interventions in a city, town or other location can be informed by research generated in that specific place. It is therefore necessary to base decisions on evidence generated elsewhere and to make inferences about the extent to which this evidence is generalisable to the place of interest. In this paper we discuss the issues involved in making such inferences, using physical activity as an example. We discuss the ways in which elements of the structural, physical, social and/or cultural environment (environmental factors [EFs] can shape physical activity (PA and also how EFs may influence the effectiveness of interventions that aim to promote PA. We then highlight the ways in which EFs may impact on the generalisability of different types of evidence. Discussion We present a framework for thinking about the influence of EFs when assessing the generalisability of evidence from the location in which the evidence was generated (place A to the location to which the evidence is to be applied (place B. The framework relates to similarities and differences between place A and place B with respect to: a the distributions of EFs; b the causal pathways through which EFs or interventions are thought to exert their effect on PA and c the ways in which EFs interact with each other. We suggest, using examples, how this scheme can be used by public health professionals who are designing, executing, reporting and synthesising research on PA; or designing/implementing interventions. Summary Our analysis and scheme, although developed for physical activity, may potentially be adapted and applied to other evidence and interventions which are likely to be sensitive to influence by elements of the structural, physical, social and/or cultural environment such as the epidemiology of obesity and healthy weight promotion.

  4. Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craft Lynette L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ≥10 minutes of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (≥ 30 min of MVPA or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ≥10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22 compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4. Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22, standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15, and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06 did not differ between days with (~55 min/day and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More

  5. Advancing the future of physical activity guidelines in Canada: an independent expert panel interpretation of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Steven N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada, has initiated a review of their physical activity guidelines to promote healthy active living for Canadian children, youth, adults and older adults; previous guidelines were released in 2002, 2002, 1998 and 1999 respectively. Several background papers from this project were published recently and provide foundation evidence upon which to base new guidelines. Furthermore, comprehensive systematic reviews were completed to ensure a rigorous evaluation of evidence informing the revision of physical activity guidelines for asymptomatic populations. The overall guideline development process is being guided and assessed by the AGREE II instrument. A meeting of experts was convened to present the evidence complied to inform the guideline revisions. An independent expert panel was assembled to review the background materials and systematic reviews; listen to the presentations and discussions at the expert meeting; ask for clarification; and produce the present paper representing their interpretation of the evidence including grading of the evidence and their identification of needs for future research. The paper includes also their recommendations for evidence-informed physical activity guidelines.

  6. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Fiona C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher

  7. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  8. Comparative analysis of the physical properties of the knitted and woven fabrics before and after sewing%针梭织面料拼接前后物理性能的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍卫君; 赵留云; 肖亚

    2011-01-01

    探讨针织、梭织面料拼接前后的物理性能.选取几种常用于拼接的针织、梭织面料试样,利用FAST风格测试仪和KES-FB4表面测试仪测试试样拼接前后的压缩、弯曲、拉伸及表面摩擦、表面粗糙度等物理性能,运用SPSS软件的非参数检验方法,结合具体图表对其进行对比分析.结果表明,针织、梭织面料拼接后的物理性能与拼接前试样存在显著差异.%This paper firstly select several woven fabrics and knitted fabrics as experimental samples, which are used to be sewed together and then format the combination of woven and knitted fabrics. Then we get the properties of knitted sample, woven sample and the combination with seam allowance of both types fabric through FAST style tester and KES-FB4 surface property tester. And then use the charts and SPSS software to carry on the comparative analysis about the physical properties between the knitted fabric and woven fabric before and after sewing. Through non-parameter test and the contrast of growth rate of every physical property, we get the conclusion that there are significant difference on physical properties between the knitted fabric and woven fabric before and after sewing.

  9. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.

  10. How the rock fabrics can control the physical properties - A contribution to the understanding of carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrast, H.; Siegesmund, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The correlation between microfabrics and physical properties will be illustrated in detail on three dolomitic carbonate reservoir rocks with different porosity. For this study core segments from the Zechstein Ca2-layer (Permian) of the Northwest German Basin were kindly provided by the Preussag Energie GmbH, Lingen. The mineral composition was determined by using the X-ray diffraction method. Petrographic and detailed investigation of the microfabrics, including the distribution and orientation of the cracks were done macroscopally (core segments) and microscopally with the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (thin sections in three orthogonally to each other oriented directions). Different kinds of petrophysical measurements were carried out, e.g. porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity, seismic velocities. (orig.)

  11. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change.

  12. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  13. Physical Exercise for the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Alzheimer's Dementia: Possible Mechanisms, Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matura, Silke; Carvalho, André F; Alves, Gilberto S; Pantel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric or non-cognitive symptoms are common and often distressing features of Alzheimer's Dementia. BPSD significantly increase patient suffering, early institutionalization and caregiver's burden. The clinical management of BPSD is dominated by a pharmacological approach, although these medications often come with serious adverse side-effects. There are only few nonpharmacological treatment strategies for BPSD. A substantial amount of intervention studies that have investigated non-pharmacological treatment options for BPSD have focused on physical exercise. Although these studies are very heterogeneous in terms of type and severity of dementia, as well as type and duration of the exercise intervention, the overall picture shows a positive effect of physical exercise in alleviating BPSD. There is evidence that numerous mechanisms contribute to the positive effect of physical exercise on BPSD. No attempt has been undertaken so far to give an overview of the existing knowledge regarding these mechanisms. Therefore, the current review aims to integrate the existing evidence on psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effects of physical exercise in ameliorating BPSD in Alzheimer's dementia. A discussion of psychological mechanisms such as improved sleep and stress reduction will be followed by a discussion of neurobiological mechanisms including the exercise induced change in neurotransmitter concentrations, increased synthesis of neurotrophins and immune activation. The review closes with recommendations for future research to overcome the shortcomings of existing studies and broaden the current knowledge on the positive effects of physical exercise on BPSD.

  14. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  15. Validity and reliability evidence of the attitudes towards physical activity of Greek prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANTELIS KONSTANTINAKOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess the attitudes of Greek prisoners regarding physical activity and sports. A total of 308 male adult Greek prison inmates participated voluntarily, from three Greek prisons. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors consisting of 11 physical activity and sport items that explained 51.75% of the total variability. These factors were named: a «need for physical activity» (7 items, b «physical activity before and during imprisonment» (2 items, and c «non - participation in physical activity» (2 items. The internal consistency for the whole scale was .70, while reliability indexes ranged from .88 to .58 for the three factors. Results showed that Greek prisoners identified the neediness for physical activities and sport during imprisonment and rated high the respective items. Overall findings showed that the new questionnaire, named Attitudes Towards Physical Activity of Greek Prisoners (ATPA - GP may be perceived as a reliable and valid instrument to identify the attitudes of Greek prison inmates towards physical activity and sports. Further research is required to confirm the present findings, with a wider sample, using confirmatory factor analysis, examining the differences across gender, age, marital status, type of prison, sentence, etc.

  16. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  17. Factors Influencing Adult Physical Health after Controlling for Current Health Conditions: Evidence from a British Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs), personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs), after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness). Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health). Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23826090

  18. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  19. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  20. Positive Youth Development through an Outdoor Physical Activity Programme: Evidence from a Four-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen; Sandford, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Sandford, Armour and Warmington undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of physical activity/sport and physical education in promoting positive development for disaffected youth. This paper revisits the findings of the literature review in light of data from a four-year evaluation of one corporate-sponsored physical…

  1. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Max Azila-Gbettor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the value of physical environment in the delivering of quality healthcare or service in public hospitals in Ghana. Twelve set of self-administered questions were designed using Baker’s (1987 typology of servicescape. A descriptive univariate analysis was applied for the study. Based on 233 usable questionnaires retrieved from respondents, the study indicates a strong link between physical environment and quality healthcare delivery and the choice of healthcare facility. It is there by recommended that improvement in quality service delivery may be better served and improved by improving the servicescape/physical element in the services mix.

  2. Do Cognitive and Physical Functions Age in Concert from Age 70 to 76? Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-05

    The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses. Support for both concepts was mixed: although levels of physical functions and cognitive functions were correlated with one another, physical functions did not decline together, and there was little evidence for shared declines in physical and mental functions. Early-life intelligence, a potential marker of system integrity, made a significant prediction of the levels, but not the slopes, of later life physical functions. These data suggest that common causes, which are likely present within cognitive functions, are not as far-reaching beyond the cognitive arena as has previously been suggested. They also imply that bodily reserve may be similar to cognitive reserve in that it affects the level, but not the slope, of ageing-related declines.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  4. Does diversity of papers affect their citations? Evidence from American Physical Society Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Enduri, Murali Krishna; Jolad, Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the correlation between interdisciplinarity of papers within physical sciences and their citations by using meta data of articles published in American Physical Society's Physical Review journals between 1985 to 2012. We use the Weitzman diversity index to measure the diversity of papers and authors, exploiting the hierarchical structure of PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) codes. We find that the fraction of authors with high diversity is increasing with time, where as the fraction of least diversity are decreasing, and moderate diversity authors have higher tendency to switch over to other diversity groups. The diversity index of papers is correlated with the citations they received in a given time period from their publication year. Papers with lower and higher end of diversity index receive lesser citations than the moderate diversity papers.

  5. Beautiful is Good: Evidence That the Physically Attractive Are More Socially Skillful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, William; Lewis, Philip

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that the so-called physical attractiveness stereotype may contain a "kernel of truth" was investigated in a study where college students interacted with opposite sex partners whom they could not see. (Editor)

  6. Physical strength and dance attractiveness: Further evidence for an association in men, but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weege, Bettina; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Physical strength provides information about male quality and can be assessed from facial and body morphology. Research on perception of dance movements indicates that body movement also provides information about male physical strength. These relationships have not been investigated for women. We investigated relationships of handgrip strength (HGS) and dance attractiveness perception in 75 men and 84 women. We identified positive relationships between HGS and opposite-sex assessments of dance attractiveness for men but not women. The replication of previous research investigating relationships between dance attractiveness and physical strength in men corroborates the hypothesis that dance movements provide information about male quality. We argue that these relationships are interpretable in contexts of inter- and intra-sexual selection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults.

  8. PHYSICS

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    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  11. Eight-Month-Old Infants Infer Unfulfilled Goals, despite Ambiguous Physical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, J. Kiley; Newman, George E.; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we tested whether 8-month-old infants could infer an actor's unfulfilled goal, despite some physical information present in the displays being inconsistent with the attempted goal. Infants saw a human hand holding a ring repeatedly approach the top of a plastic cone in an apparent failed attempt to place the ring on the cone. The…

  12. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  13. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  14. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  15. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. Method:

  16. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. Method:

  17. Applying Evidence-Centered Design for the Development of Game-Based Assessments in Physics Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeon; Almond, Russell G.; Shute, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    Game-based assessment (GBA) is a specific use of educational games that employs game activities to elicit evidence for educationally valuable skills and knowledge. While this approach can provide individualized and diagnostic information about students, the design and development of assessment mechanics for a GBA is a nontrivial task. In this…

  18. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K; Hettinga, Florentina J; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. METHOD:

  19. Physical therapy rehabilitation of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: Evidence based case report

    OpenAIRE

    Selvam Ramachandran; Manish Goon; Priyanka Singh

    2013-01-01

    The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo results in dizziness and imbalance leading to risk of fall thus, imposing functional limitations. The repositioning-liberatory maneuvers, habituation and balance exercises are widely used as the treatment strategies of the rehabilitation program. This case report discusses the success of such rehabilitation program on two subjects based on the updated clinical evidence.

  20. Physical therapy rehabilitation of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: Evidence based case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo results in dizziness and imbalance leading to risk of fall thus, imposing functional limitations. The repositioning-liberatory maneuvers, habituation and balance exercises are widely used as the treatment strategies of the rehabilitation program. This case report discusses the success of such rehabilitation program on two subjects based on the updated clinical evidence.

  1. The statistical evaluation of duct tape end match as physical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Lok

    Duct tapes are often submitted to crime laboratories as evidence associated with abductions, homicides, or construction of explosive devices. As a result, trace evidence examiners are often asked to analyze and compare commercial duct tapes so that they can establish possible evidentiary links. Duct tape end matches are believed to be the strongest association between exemplar and question samples because they are considered as evidence with unique individual characteristics. While end match analysis and comparison have long been undertaken by trace evidence examiners, there is a significant lack of scientific research for associating two or more segments of duct tapes. This study is designed to obtain statistical inferences on the uniqueness of duct tape tears. Three experiments were devised to compile the basis for a statistical assessment of the probability of duct tape end matches along with a proposed error rate. In one experiment, we conducted the equivalent of 10,000 end match examinations with an error rate of 0%. In the second experiment, we performed 2,704 end match examinations having 0% error rate. In the third experiment, using duct tape by an Elmendorf Tear tester, we conducted 576 end match examinations with an error rate of 0% and having all samples correctly associated. The results of this study indicate that end matches are distinguishable among a single roll of duct tape and between two different rolls of duct tape having very similar surface features and weave pattern.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  3. Isotopic and physical evidence for persistently high eruption temperatures for Yellowstone-Snake River Plain rhyolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Melnik, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Low crystallinity rhyolite lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone-Snake River plain system were long-thought to erupt at high 800-900 °C temperatures with evidence derived from experimental work and geothermometry (e.g., QUILF, Ti-in-quartz). Despite this evidence, newer experimental phase equilibria studies as well as a reformulation of zircon saturation temperatures support lower temperature magma eruption conditions. Here we present two independent lines of evidence for 850 °C and greater temperatures. We present high precision oxygen isotope thermometry for coexisting quartz, glass, pyroxene, and magnetite in order make temperature estimates independent of phase equilibria. For all analyzed Snake River Plain-Yellowstone rhyolites, we determine 800-1100 °C temperatures for clinopyroxene and 850-1100 °C temperatures for magnetite. Extremely slow oxygen diffusion in pyroxene will preserve oxygen isotope crystal composition for millions of years stored at magmatic temperatures. Interestingly, oxygen in magnetite will reequilibrate in ice caps or prexisiting topography did not otherwise restrict flow. Using these results and simple conductive cooling models, we show that flows erupted at >800 °C and probably ~850 °C in order to be emplaced before cooling below the melt-glass transition and forming a more dome-like and lobate morphology.

  4. Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hammonds

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin/BST2 was identified in 2008 as the cellular factor responsible for restricting HIV-1 replication at a very late stage in the lifecycle. Tetherin acts to retain virion particles on the plasma membrane after budding has been completed. Infected cells that express large amounts of tetherin display large strings of HIV virions that remain attached to the plasma membrane. Vpu is an HIV-1 accessory protein that specifically counteracts the restriction to virus release contributed by tetherin. Tetherin is an unusual Type II transmembrane protein that contains a GPI anchor at its C-terminus and is found in lipid rafts. The leading model for the mechanism of action of tetherin is that it functions as a direct physical tether bridging virions and the plasma membrane. However, evidence that tetherin functions as a physical tether has thus far been indirect. Here we demonstrate by biochemical and immunoelectron microscopic methods that endogenous tetherin is present on the viral particle and forms a bridge between virion particles and the plasma membrane. Endogenous tetherin was found on HIV particles that were released by partial proteolytic digestion. Immunoelectron microscopy performed on HIV-infected T cells demonstrated that tetherin forms an apparent physical link between virions and connects patches of virions to the plasma membrane. Linear filamentous strands that were highly enriched in tetherin bridged the space between some virions. We conclude that tetherin is the physical tether linking HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane. The presence of filaments with which multiple molecules of tetherin interact in connecting virion particles is strongly suggested by the morphologic evidence.

  5. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and cancer: an update and emerging new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Anderson, Cheryl; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels. Epidemiological studies show that the inclusion of wholegrain, fibre, fruits, and vegetables within diets are associated with reduced cancer risk, with diet during early life (age cancer incidence. However, randomised controlled trials of diet-related factors have not yet shown any conclusive associations between diet and cancer incidence. Obesity is a key contributory factor associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in dose-response associations in endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and in degree and duration of fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity produces an inflammatory state, characterised by macrophages clustered around enlarged hypertrophied, dead, and dying adipocytes, forming crown-like structures. Increased concentrations of aromatase and interleukin 6 in inflamed breast tissue and an increased number of macrophages, compared with healthy tissue, are also observed in women with normal body mass index, suggesting a metabolic obesity state. Emerging randomised controlled trials of physical activity and dietary factors and mechanistic studies of immunity, inflammation, extracellular matrix mechanics, epigenetic or transcriptional regulation, protein translation, circadian disruption, and interactions of the multibiome with lifestyle factors will be crucial to advance this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  8. Does physical and mental activity prevent cognitive impairment? Evidence from animal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Begega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitive and brain reserve. This paper reviews several studies on aged rodents showing the positive effects of environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise on brain and cognitive function of these animals. The implications of this research for human aging is discussed.

  9. Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, J; Solomon, A; Kåreholt, I; Ngandu, T; Rantanen, T; Laatikainen, T; Soininen, H; Tuomilehto, J; Kivipelto, M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the association between perceived physical fitness at midlife, changes in perceived fitness during the three decades from mid- to late life and dementia risk. Prospective cohort study. Cardiovascular risk factors, ageing and incidence of dementia (CAIDE) study. Subjects were selected from four independent, random samples of population-based cardiovascular surveys and were first examined in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987, when they were on average 50 years old. The CAIDE target population included 3559 individuals. A random sample of 2000 individuals still alive in 1997 was drawn for re-examinations (performed in 1998 and 2005-2008) that consisted of cognitive assessments, with 1511 subjects participating in at least one re-examination. Dementia diagnoses were also confirmed from national registers for the entire target population. All-cause dementia. Poor physical fitness at midlife was associated with increased dementia risk in the entire target population [hazard ratio (HR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0]. In participants, odds ratio (OR) was 2.0 (95% CI, 0.9-4.0). This association was significant in apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOEε4) noncarriers (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-13.3), men (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0) and people with chronic conditions (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.6). A decline in fitness after midlife was also associated with dementia (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), which was significant amongst both men and women and more pronounced in APOEε4 carriers (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.1-9.1). Perceived poor physical fitness reflects a combination of biological and lifestyle-related factors that can increase dementia risk. A simple question about perceived physical fitness may reveal at-risk individuals who could benefit from preventive interventions. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Physical stature of men in eighteenth century Mexico: evidence from Puebla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Porras, Agustín; López-Alonso, Moramay

    2011-07-01

    We present a first glimpse of the mean height of men in eighteenth century Mexico based on evidence from the Revillagigedo Census of 1791-1792. Mexican men were shorter than those of Europe and North America. For example, contemporary French men were about 165 cm and US men were about 174 cm; in contrast, Mexican men were about 162 cm. Men of higher income were taller than those in the middle and lower income strata. Mestizos (a mix of whites and Indians) were shorter than the rest of the recruits belonging to other ethnic categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  12. Occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings: Evidence from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley

    2015-12-01

    Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Activity: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chieffi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we provide a review of current knowledge regarding the role played by physical activity (PA in preventing age-related cognitive decline and reducing risk of dementia. The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline. Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes. These structural changes are often associated with improved cognitive performance. Importantly, the brain regions that benefit from PA are also those regions that are often reported to be severely affected in dementia. Animal model studies provided significant information about biomechanisms that support exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity, such as angiogenesis and upregulation of growth factors. Among the growth factors, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the neuropeptide orexin-A. The beneficial effects of PA may represent an important resource to hinder the cognitive decline associated with aging.

  14. Staff's perceptions of the use of evidence-based physical activity promotion strategies for promoting girls' physical activity at afterschool programs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Huberty, Jennifer; Beets, Michael; Tibbits, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    There is a need to improve girls' physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs as girls' PA levels are consistently lower than boys'. An evidence-based professional development framework, the 5 Ms, has been effective in helping staff to improve PA in both girls and boys but further improvements in girls' PA are needed. Little is known about staff's perceptions of using PA promotion strategies to promote girls' PA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore staff perceptions of the use of evidence-based PA promotion strategies for promoting PA in girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from three community-based afterschool programs located within a school setting (n=18). Data were analyzed using the process of immersion/crystallization. A majority of staff had some knowledge of PA promotion strategies but few staff consistently utilized these strategies and a majority felt several strategies were unnecessary (i.e., having a PA policy). Newer staff reported depending on senior staff to promote PA in girls. Overall, findings suggest that staff's perceptions may impact their use of PA promotions strategies. The results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of an existing staff training framework (the 5 Ms) to improve girls' PA in afterschool programs.

  15. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-07-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55–25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted.

  16. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-07-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55-25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted.

  17. Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino-Martel, Paule; Cottet, Vanessa; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Pierre, Fabrice H F; Touillaud, Marina; Touvier, Mathilde; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Le Merdy, Julie; Barrandon, Emilie; Ancellin, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Prevention is a priority in the fight against cancers, especially nutritional prevention. To update the levels of evidence of relationships between 10 nutritional factors and cancer risk, the scientific literature published from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed by an expert group. Data from 133 meta-analyses, pooled analyses or intervention trials were examined. Nearly 150 relationships between nutritional factors and cancer at various sites were evaluated. According to the evidence graded as convincing or probable, these factors were divided in two groups. Factors which increase the risk of cancer are alcoholic beverages, overweight and obesity, red meat and processed meat, salt and salted foods and beta-carotene supplements. Factors which decrease the risk of cancer are physical activity, fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber, dairy products and breastfeeding. Three main nutritional objectives should be attained to improve cancer prevention: to reduce alcoholic beverages consumption, to have a balanced and diversified diet and to be physically active. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  20. Health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and physical activity for older adults:A systematic review of evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng Guo; Haiyang Shi; Dinghai Yu; Pixiang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese sports and physical activities (PAs) have a long history and are practiced by millions of Chinese. However, relatively few systematic reviews of the scientific evidence for their health benefits, especially for older Chinese adults, have been undertaken. Evidence acquisition: Between January and March 2016, a systematic search was conducted using the CNKI and PubMed databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2015. Studies were selected for review if they were designed specifically to evaluate the health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and PAs in adults aged 50 years and older in the Mainland of China. The studies included observational, uncontrolled, and randomized and controlled designs. Papers published without an English title or abstract were excluded. Evidence synthesis: The initial search identified a total of 229 studies. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 95 studies were selected for review. Special attention was given to studies of the most commonly practiced activities:Tai Ji Quan, Qigong, and Yangko exercises. A positive association between these types of exercise and health benefits was noted for healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases. Evidence on other types of activities was less clear due to the limited number of studies conducted. Conclusion: There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

  1. Examining the use of evidence-based and social media supported tools in freely accessible physical activity intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-08-17

    It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate

  2. Western fault zone of South China Sea and its physical simulation evidences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Longtao; SUN Zhen; ZHAN Wenhuan; SUN Zongxun; ZHAO Minghui; XIA Shaohong

    2006-01-01

    The western fault zone of the South China Sea is a strike-slip fault system and consists of four typical strike-slip faults. It is the western border of the South China Sea. The formation of the system is due to the extrusion of Indo - China Peninsula caused by the collision of India with Tibet and the spreading of the South China Sea in Cenozoic. There are five episodes of tectonic movement along this fault zone, which plays an important role in the Cenozoic evolution of the South China Sea. By the physical modeling experiments, it can be seen the strike-slip fault undergoes the sinistral and dextral movement due to the relative movement velocity change between the South China Sea block and the Indo - China block. The fault zone controls the evolution of the pull basins locating in the west of the South China Sea.

  3. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  4. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2015-10-12

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  6. Infants Actively Construct and Update Their Representations of Physical Events: Evidence from Change Detection by 12-Month-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-hua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the effects of top-down information on 12-month-olds’ representations of physical events, focusing on their ability to detect an object change across different events. Infants this age typically fail to detect height changes in events with tubes even though they successfully do so in events with covers. In Experiment  1, infants who saw a tube event in which objects did not interact successfully detected a change in an object’s height, suggesting that object interaction affects infants’ categorization of physical events. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the fine-grained process of event representation. In Experiment  2, infants detected the change in the tube event if they were led by pretest exposure to believe that the event was conducted with a cover. In Experiment  3, infants who initially believed so updated their representation if shown a tube before object interaction occurred (but not after. Together, these findings provide new evidence that infants, like older children and adults, actively construct physical events. Whether they notice a change depends on their existing knowledge and the current representation of the event.

  7. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  8. Attitudes, knowledge and behavior of Japanese physical therapists with regard to evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines: a cross-sectional mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Takasugi, Jun; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate Japanese physical therapists’ attitudes of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. [Subjects and Methods] In 2014, a cross-sectional postal mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Of 2,982 physical therapists belonging to the Chiba Prefecture Physical Therapist Association, 1,000 were randomly selected. The questionnaire comprised 42 items pertaining to the attitudes of and behavior toward evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. It was investigated to reveal the relationship between clinical practice guidelines/evidence-based practice and therapist characteristics. [Results] The response rate was 39.6%, and 384 questionnaires were available. The main results were as follows: 83.3% participants agreed to the importance of evidence-based practice, 77.1% agree to that evidence-based practice supports clinical decision of physical therapists, and about 11% agreed to have been educated about evidence-based practice. Then, 29.2% used, 54.9% agreed to the importance of, and 13.3% agreed to the utility of clinical practice guidelines. An important factor related mostly to a positive attitude, knowledge and behavior of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines was participating in research activities. [Conclusion] Many of physical therapists do not use and understand the importance of clinical practice guidelines. Participating in research activities may partially contribute to improving these conditions. PMID:28265139

  9. Attitudes, knowledge and behavior of Japanese physical therapists with regard to evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines: a cross-sectional mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Takasugi, Jun; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate Japanese physical therapists' attitudes of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. [Subjects and Methods] In 2014, a cross-sectional postal mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Of 2,982 physical therapists belonging to the Chiba Prefecture Physical Therapist Association, 1,000 were randomly selected. The questionnaire comprised 42 items pertaining to the attitudes of and behavior toward evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. It was investigated to reveal the relationship between clinical practice guidelines/evidence-based practice and therapist characteristics. [Results] The response rate was 39.6%, and 384 questionnaires were available. The main results were as follows: 83.3% participants agreed to the importance of evidence-based practice, 77.1% agree to that evidence-based practice supports clinical decision of physical therapists, and about 11% agreed to have been educated about evidence-based practice. Then, 29.2% used, 54.9% agreed to the importance of, and 13.3% agreed to the utility of clinical practice guidelines. An important factor related mostly to a positive attitude, knowledge and behavior of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines was participating in research activities. [Conclusion] Many of physical therapists do not use and understand the importance of clinical practice guidelines. Participating in research activities may partially contribute to improving these conditions.

  10. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-07

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  11. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  12. Photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  16. The Physical Origins of The Morphology-Density Relation: Evidence for Gas Stripping from the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, Arjen; Holden, Bradford P; Skibba, Ramin A; Hans-Walter-Rix,

    2010-01-01

    We provide a physical interpretation and explanation of the morphology-density relation for galaxies, drawing on stellar masses, star-formation rates, axis ratios and group halo masses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We first re-cast the classical morphology-density relation in more quantitative terms, using low-star formation rate (quiescence) as a proxy for early-type morphology and dark matter halo mass from a group catalog as a proxy for environmental density: for galaxies of a given stellar mass the quiescent fraction is found to increase with increasing dark matter halo mass. Our novel result is that - at a given stellar mass - quiescent galaxies are significantly flatter in dense environments, implying a higher fraction of disk galaxies. Supposing that the denser environments differ simply by a higher incidence of quiescent disk galaxies that are structurally similar to star-forming disk galaxies of similar mass, explains simultaneously and quantitatively these quiescence-environment and shap...

  17. Can leisure-time physical activity improve health checkup results? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-07-22

    We examined the extent to which changes in worker health, as measured by health checkup items, were associated with increased intensity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes. We used panel data from two to four waves of a Japanese occupational cohort survey, focusing on 30,206 observations of 10,106 individuals (7,669 men and 2,437 women) aged 18-76 years. We estimated first-difference and mean-centered fixed effects models to examine how changes in 10 health checkup items were associated with changes in LTPA intensity. We considered four LTPA intensity levels (none, low, moderate, and vigorous), based on self-reported assessments. For men, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and waist circumference improved when LTPA intensity was increased even at a low level, whereas triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels improved when LTPA intensity was increased to moderate or vigorous levels. Blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and total cholesterol levels were only modestly responsive to changes in LTPA intensity. For women, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and waist circumference were negatively associated with LTPA intensity, whereas the other variables showed more modest effects. The results suggest that even low- to moderate-intensity LTPA can improve health checkup results; however, the lowest LTPA intensity associated with improvement in health depends on health-risk factors as well as gender.

  18. Evidence for a physical linkage between galactic cosmic rays and regional climate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solar variability on regional climate time series were examined using a sequence of physical connections between total solar irradiance (TSI) modulated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), and ocean and atmospheric patterns that affect precipitation and streamflow. The solar energy reaching the Earth's surface and its oceans is thought to be controlled through an interaction between TSI and GCRs, which are theorized to ionize the atmosphere and increase cloud formation and its resultant albedo. High (low) GCR flux may promote cloudiness (clear skies) and higher (lower) albedo at the same time that TSI is lowest (highest) in the solar cycle which in turn creates cooler (warmer) ocean temperature anomalies. These anomalies have been shown to affect atmospheric flow patterns and ultimately affect precipitation over the Midwestern United States. This investigation identified a relation among TSI and geomagnetic index aa (GI-AA), and streamflow in the Mississippi River Basin for the period 1878-2004. The GI-AA was used as a proxy for GCRs. The lag time between the solar signal and streamflow in the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri is approximately 34 years. The current drought (1999-2007) in the Mississippi River Basin appears to be caused by a period of lower solar activity that occurred between 1963 and 1977. There appears to be a solar "fingerprint" that can be detected in climatic time series in other regions of the world, with each series having a unique lag time between the solar signal and the hydroclimatic response. A progression of increasing lag times can be spatially linked to the ocean conveyor belt, which may transport the solar signal over a time span of several decades. The lag times for any one region vary slightly and may be linked to the fluctuations in the velocity of the ocean conveyor belt.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  5. Fabrication and characterization of aluminum heavy liners for the pulse power systems of the high energy density physics program at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.E.; Day, R.D.; Bartos, J.J.; Garcia, F.P.; Hatch, D.J.; Hannah, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    Aluminum heavy liners of three basic types have been fabricated for Los Alamos pulse power experiments. The first fabrications used a conventional hand operated lathe with high speed steel cutting tools. More recent fabrications have used numerically controlled lathes with carbide insert cutting tools. A numerically controlled Pneumo lathe with an air bearing spindle and with air bearing cross slides has been used to fabricate the most recent examples of the 3.2 gm Pegasus Precision Liner that is normally accelerated to 3 mm/{micro}s for experiments at the Pegasus II pulse power facility. The basic dimensions, including wall thickness, of fourteen of these parts have been characterized by an automated inspection machine. Liner surface finishes are measured directly by stylus profilometer and by optical interferometric analysis of cast polymeric replicas. Statistics of these measurements will be presented. Plans for future fabrication of similar and larger liners with increasingly stringent specification of wall thickness and of surface finish are described along with corresponding plans for liner characterization improvements.

  6. Nutrition and physical activity in NAFLD: An overview of the epidemiological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shira Zelber-Sagi; Vlad Ratziu; Ran Oren

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. The high prevalence of NAFLD is probably due to the contemporary epidemics of obesity, unhealthy dietary pattern, and sedentary lifestyle. The efficacy and safety profile of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of NAFLD remains uncertain and obesity is strongly associated with hepatic steatosis; therefore, the first line of treatment is lifestyle modification. The usual management of NAFLD includes gradual weight reduction and increased physical activity (PPA) leading to an improvement in serum liver enzymes, reduced hepatic fatty infiltration, and, in some cases, a reduced degree of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Nutrition has been demonstrated to be associated with NAFLD and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in both animals and humans, and thus serves as a major route of prevention and treatment. However, most human studies are observational and retrospective, allowing limited inference about causal associations. Large prospective studies and clinical trials are now needed to establish a causal relationship. Based on available data, patients should optimally achieve a 5%-10% weight reduction. Setting realistic goals is essential for long-term successful lifestyle modification and more effort must be devoted to informing NAFLD patients of the health benefits of even a modest weight reduction. Furthermore, all NAFLD patients, whether obese or of normal weight, should be informed that a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction. They should be advised to reduce saturated/trans fat and increase polyunsaturated fat, with special emphasize on omega-3 fatty acids. They should reduce added sugar to its minimum, try to avoid soft drinks containing sugar, including fruit juices that contain a lot of fructose, and increase their fiber intake. For the heavy meat eaters, especially those of red and processed meats, less meat and increased fish intake should be recommended

  7. Nutrition and physical activity in NAFLD: An overview of the epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Ratziu, Vlad; Oren, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. The high prevalence of NAFLD is probably due to the contemporary epidemics of obesity, unhealthy dietary pattern, and sedentary lifestyle. The efficacy and safety profile of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of NAFLD remains uncertain and obesity is strongly associated with hepatic steatosis; therefore, the first line of treatment is lifestyle modification. The usual management of NAFLD includes gradual weight reduction and increased physical activity (PA) leading to an improvement in serum liver enzymes, reduced hepatic fatty infiltration, and, in some cases, a reduced degree of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Nutrition has been demonstrated to be associated with NAFLD and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in both animals and humans, and thus serves as a major route of prevention and treatment. However, most human studies are observational and retrospective, allowing limited inference about causal associations. Large prospective studies and clinical trials are now needed to establish a causal relationship. Based on available data, patients should optimally achieve a 5%-10% weight reduction. Setting realistic goals is essential for long-term successful lifestyle modification and more effort must be devoted to informing NAFLD patients of the health benefits of even a modest weight reduction. Furthermore, all NAFLD patients, whether obese or of normal weight, should be informed that a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction. They should be advised to reduce saturated/trans fat and increase polyunsaturated fat, with special emphasize on omega-3 fatty acids. They should reduce added sugar to its minimum, try to avoid soft drinks containing sugar, including fruit juices that contain a lot of fructose, and increase their fiber intake. For the heavy meat eaters, especially those of red and processed meats, less meat and increased fish intake should be recommended

  8. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3 compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The

  9. Nutrition and physical activity in NAFLD: an overview of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Ratziu, Vlad; Oren, Ran

    2011-08-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. The high prevalence of NAFLD is probably due to the contemporary epidemics of obesity, unhealthy dietary pattern, and sedentary lifestyle. The efficacy and safety profile of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of NAFLD remains uncertain and obesity is strongly associated with hepatic steatosis; therefore, the first line of treatment is lifestyle modification. The usual management of NAFLD includes gradual weight reduction and increased physical activity (PA) leading to an improvement in serum liver enzymes, reduced hepatic fatty infiltration, and, in some cases, a reduced degree of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Nutrition has been demonstrated to be associated with NAFLD and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in both animals and humans, and thus serves as a major route of prevention and treatment. However, most human studies are observational and retrospective, allowing limited inference about causal associations. Large prospective studies and clinical trials are now needed to establish a causal relationship. Based on available data, patients should optimally achieve a 5%-10% weight reduction. Setting realistic goals is essential for long-term successful lifestyle modification and more effort must be devoted to informing NAFLD patients of the health benefits of even a modest weight reduction. Furthermore, all NAFLD patients, whether obese or of normal weight, should be informed that a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction. They should be advised to reduce saturated/trans fat and increase polyunsaturated fat, with special emphasize on omega-3 fatty acids. They should reduce added sugar to its minimum, try to avoid soft drinks containing sugar, including fruit juices that contain a lot of fructose, and increase their fiber intake. For the heavy meat eaters, especially those of red and processed meats, less meat and increased fish intake should be recommended

  10. Experimental evidence in support of the biological effects and physical basis of homeopathic potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Sukul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic potencies 12 cH and above cross the Avogadro number and, for this, do not contain any original drug molecules. Two major problems involved in the scientific study of potencies are (1 understanding the physical basis of potencies and (2 demonstrating the biological effects of potencies. The present study aims to address these questions. Methods and Results: In course of our experimental studies spanned over more than 30 years we have demonstrated significant effects of homeopathic potencies on man, animals and plants. We have also showed that potencies could be differentiated through their electronic spectra, and this difference in spectra can be attributed to the electron transfer interaction. In a molecular complex, electron of one molecule absorbs a quantum of visible radiation and is excited, not to a higher energy level of this molecule, but to one of the vacant high energy levels of the neighboring molecules. This process is known as electron or charge transfer interaction. This has been demonstrated in Iodine Ó© in two different solvents of CCl4 and aqueous ethanol (Sukul N C, Environ Ecol 17,866-872, 1999. We have further demonstrated that the effect of a homeopathic potency can be transmitted from one part of a plant to another, and also from one plant to another through water. I am presenting here a few selected cases of our experimental studies. Potentized Nux vomica significantly reduced ethanol consumption in rats by 73.7%and ethanol-induced sleep time in albino mice by 44.4%. Causticum 30 C and Rhus tox 30 C produced anti-inflamatory and anti-nocicptive effect on adjuvant arthritis in albino rats. Potentized homeopathic drugs reduced microfilaraemia by 28 to 100% and filariasis in two villages of West Bengal endemic for Bancroftian filaiasis. Potentized Cina and Thuja ameliorated trichinellosis in mice reducing larval population in muscles by 84% and 68%, respectively. Potencies of Agaricus and Nux

  11. Experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Dickau, Leanne

    2012-11-01

    Most contemporary theories of physical activity include an intention construct as the proximal determinant of behavior. Support of this premise has been found through correlational research. The purpose of this paper was to appraise the experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship through meta-analysis. Studies were eligible if they included: (1) random assignment of participants to intervention/no intervention groups; (2) an intervention that produced a significant difference in intention between groups; and (3) a measure of behavior was taken after the intention measure. Literature searches were concluded in December 2010 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 1,033 potentially relevant records; of these, 11 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis. The sample-weighted average effect size derived from these studies was d+ = .45 (95% CI .30 to .60) for intention, yet d+ = .15 (95% CI .06 to .23) for behavior. These results demonstrate a weak relationship between intention and behavior that may be below meaningful/practical value. We suggest that prior evidence was probably biased by the limits of correlation coefficients in passive designs. It is recommended that contemporary research apply models featuring intention-behavior mediators or action control variables in order to account for this intention-behavior gap.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  16. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Design Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. Data sources 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. Results A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11–18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose–response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. Conclusions There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and

  17. Adapting Evidence-Based Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among African Americans, Hispanics, Hmong, and Native Hawaiians: A Social Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann S. Van Duyn, PhD, MPH, RD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUsing a social marketing approach, we studied how best to adapt proven, evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity for use with underserved racial or ethnic groups.MethodsWe conducted focus groups with low-income Hispanic women in Texas, Hmong parents and their children in California, low-income African American women and men in the Mississippi Delta, and Native Hawaiian college students in Hawaii. We also interviewed key leaders of these communities. Topics of discussion were participants’ perceptions about 1 the benefits of engaging in physical activity, 2 the proposed evidence-based strategies for increasing each community’s level of physical activity, and 3 the benefits and barriers to following the proposed interventions for increasing physical activity. A total of 292 individuals participated in the study.ResultsAll groups considered that being physically active was part of their culture, and participants found culturally relevant suggestions for physical activities appealing. Overwhelmingly, strategies that aimed to create or improve social support and increase access to physical activity venues received the most positive feedback from all groups. Barriers to physical activity were not culturally specific; they are common to all underserved people (lack of time, transportation, access, neighborhood safety, or economic resources.ConclusionResults indicate that evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity need to be adapted for cultural relevance for each racial or ethnic group. Our research shows that members of four underserved populations are likely to respond to strategies that increase social support for physical activity and improve access to venues where they can be physically active. Further research is needed to test how to implement such strategies in ways that are embraced by community members.

  18. Adapting evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity among African Americans, Hispanics, Hmong, and Native Hawaiians: a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, Mary Ann S; McCrae, Tarsha; Wingrove, Barbara K; Henderson, Kimberly M; Boyd, Jamie K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Ramirez, Amelie G; Scarinci-Searles, Isabel; Wolff, Lisa S; Penalosa, Tricia L; Maibach, Edward W

    2007-10-01

    Using a social marketing approach, we studied how best to adapt proven, evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity for use with underserved racial or ethnic groups. We conducted focus groups with low-income Hispanic women in Texas, Hmong parents and their children in California, low-income African American women and men in the Mississippi Delta, and Native Hawaiian college students in Hawaii. We also interviewed key leaders of these communities. Topics of discussion were participants' perceptions about 1) the benefits of engaging in physical activity, 2) the proposed evidence-based strategies for increasing each community's level of physical activity, and 3) the benefits and barriers to following the proposed interventions for increasing physical activity. A total of 292 individuals participated in the study. All groups considered that being physically active was part of their culture, and participants found culturally relevant suggestions for physical activities appealing. Overwhelmingly, strategies that aimed to create or improve social support and increase access to physical activity venues received the most positive feedback from all groups. Barriers to physical activity were not culturally specific; they are common to all underserved people (lack of time, transportation, access, neighborhood safety, or economic resources). Results indicate that evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity need to be adapted for cultural relevance for each racial or ethnic group. Our research shows that members of four underserved populations are likely to respond to strategies that increase social support for physical activity and improve access to venues where they can be physically active. Further research is needed to test how to implement such strategies in ways that are embraced by community members.

  19. Inhomogeneous Shearing Around Major Shear Zone: Evidence From the Magnetic Fabric of Late-Panafrican Plutons in the Tuareg Shield (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B.; Derder, M. E.; Bayou, B.; Guemache, M.; Nouar, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Djellit, H.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.

    2007-05-01

    Teg Orak and Tihaliouine are Late-Panafrican granitic intrusions situated in the Tuareg shield, northwest of Tamanrasset. Both plutons are located close to the 4°50 accident, one of the N-S major shear zone cutting the Hoggar. They are constituted of several granitic facies, indicating differentiation and multiphase intrusion. They show only very locally preferred visible orientation of their minerals. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) was determined on samples collected along cross-sections in the Teg Orak (349 samples for 43 sites) and Tihaliouine (160 samples for 21 sites) plutons. At Tihaliouine, the AMS presents relatively scattered directions, with magnetic foliation having often strike similar to that of the plutons border. At Teg Orak, samples collected in the north-western part of the pluton present also AMS rather in relation with orientation of the pluton border. For all the other samples, including those from an aplitic dyke crossing the granite and whatever the facies of the granite, the fabric is very coherent. Magnetic lineation is subhorizontal, striking NW-SE. Magnetic foliation plunges to the NE on the north-eastern part of the plutons, has a weak dip in the central part and plunges to the SW in the south-western part. This disposition indicates deformation of the eastern part of the granite during late magmatic stages in relation with dextral strike-slip movement along the shear zone. Tihaliouine and western Teg Orak (mainly with fabric related with magma flow) intruded within older granite while eastern part of Teg Orak (with fabric related to deformation) is located within diorites and metamorphic rocks. In the Teg Orak - Tihaliouine area, granitic host-rocks acted therefore as a rigid block, protecting the studied plutons from the effect of regional deformation, while metamorphic and more basic plutonic rocks had a more deformable behavior and allowed intrusion strain.

  20. Physical therapists' use of interventions with high evidence of effectiveness in the management of a hypothetical typical patient with acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Christine; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Rossignol, Michel; Dumas, Jean-Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Evidence-based practice aims to improve patient care and service delivery, particularly in the management of individuals with low back pain (LBP), the largest client group seen by outpatient physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of interventions with evidence of effectiveness in the management of acute nonspecific LBP by physical therapists. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 physical therapists working with patients with LBP. Using a telephone-administered interview, therapists described their current and desired treatment practices for a typical case of LBP. Each intervention reported was coded according to its evidence of effectiveness (strong, moderate, limited, or none). Information on clinician, workplace, and client characteristics also was obtained. The prevalence of use of interventions with strong or moderate evidence of effectiveness was 68%. However, 90% to 96% of therapists also used interventions for which research evidence was limited or absent. Users of interventions with high evidence of effectiveness, as compared with nonusers, had graduated more recently and had taken a higher number of postgraduate clinical courses. Although most therapists use interventions with high evidence of effectiveness, much of their patient time is spent on interventions that are not well reported in the literature. The results indicate the need for improvement in the quality of clinical research as well as its dissemination and implementation in a way that is appealing to therapists, such as through practice-related courses.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  2. Possible seismic reflector in the lower crust: Evidence from fabrics and experiments of seismic velocity on layered gabbro at high temperature and high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPO) of plagioclase and augite are measured on layered gabbro from the Panxi region, Sichuan Province. The LPO concentration [010] of plagioclase and [100] of augite are perpendicular to the foliation, which indicates a kind of growth fabric associated with crystallizing habits of minerals when the magma is solidifying under the compaction. Calculated seismic velocities based on LPO data of minerals give rise to rather strong anisotropy 5.81% and 5.54% for compressional seismic wave (Vp) and shear seismic wave (Vs), respectively. The experiments at high temperature and high pressure show that the P-wave velocity of layered gabbro is 6.44-6.97 km/s with the maximum Vp anisotropy 5.22% and the Poisson's ratio is between 0.28-0.31. According to the comparison of fabrics with seismic velocities of layered gabbro, it is uggested that the large-scale layered intrusive body or the similar layered geological body may exist in the lower crust of this area. Such a layered intrusive body which has strong seismic anisotropy may be the seismic reflector in the lower crust.

  3. Cross-sectional study to examine evidence-based practice skills and behaviors of physical therapy graduates: is there a knowledge-to-practice gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia J; Norton, Amy V; Darrah, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Curricula changes in physical therapist education programs in Canada emphasize evidence-based practice skills, including literature retrieval and evaluation. Do graduates use these skills in practice? The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of research information in the clinical decision making of therapists with different years of experience and evidence-based practice preparation. Perceptions about evidence-based practice were explored qualitatively. A cross-sectional study with 4 graduating cohorts was conducted. Eighty physical therapists representing 4 different graduating cohorts participated in interviews focused on 2 clinical scenarios. Participants had varying years of clinical experience (range=1-15 years) and academic knowledge of evidence-based practice skills. Therapists discussed the effectiveness of interventions related to the scenarios and identified the sources of information used to reach decisions. Participants also answered general questions related to evidence-based practice knowledge. Recent graduates demonstrated better knowledge of evidence-based practice skills compared with therapists with 6 to 15 years of clinical experience. However, all groups used clinical experience most frequently as their source of information for clinical decisions. Research evidence was infrequently included in decision making. This study used a convenience sample of therapists who agreed to volunteer for the study. The results suggest a knowledge-to-practice gap; graduates are not using the new skills to inform their practice. Tailoring academic evidence-based activities more to the time constraints of clinical practice may help students to be more successful in applying evidence in practice. Academic programs need to do more to create and nurture environments in both academic and clinical settings to ensure students practice using evidence-based practice skills across settings. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  5. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  6. Novel 3D scaffold with enhanced physical and cell response properties for bone tissue regeneration, fabricated by patterned electrospinning/electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Fatemeh; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Developing three dimensional scaffolds mimicking the nanoscale structure of native extracellular matrix is a key parameter in tissue regeneration. In this study, we aimed to introduce a novel 3D structures composed of nanofibers (NF) and micro particles (MP) and compare their efficiency with 2D nanofibrous scaffold. The conventional nanofibrous PCL scaffolds are 2D mats fabricated by the electrospinning technique, whereas the NF/MP and patterned NF/MP PCL scaffolds are three dimensional structures fabricated by a modified electrospinning/electrospraying technique. The mentioned method was carried out by varying the electrospinning solution parameters and use of a metal mesh as the collector. Detailed fabrication process and morphological properties of the fabricated structures is discussed and porosity, pore size and PBS solution absorption value of the prepared structures are reported. Compared with the 2D structure, 3D scaffolds possessed enhanced porosity and pore size which led to the significant increase in their water uptake capacity. In vitro cell experiments were carried out on the prepared structures by the use of MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. The fabricated 3D structures offered significantly increased cell attachment, spread and diffusion which were confirmed by SEM analysis. In vitro cytocompatibility assessed by MTT colorimetric assay indicated a continuous cell proliferation over 21 days on the innovative 3D structure, while on 2D mat cell proliferation stopped at early time points. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of the seeded MG-63 cells on 3D scaffold was confirmed by the remarkable ALP activity together with increased and accelerated calcium deposition on this structure compared to 2D mat. Massive and well distributed bone minerals formed on patterned 3D structure were shown by EDX analysis. In comparison between NF/MP quasi-3D and Patterned NF/MP 3D scaffolds, patterned structures proceeded in all of the above properties. As such, the

  7. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  8. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  9. Evidence of bimodal physical properties of intervening, optically-thin CIII absorbers at z ~ 2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Tae-Sun; Ranquist, Drake

    2015-01-01

    We present the Voigt profile analysis of 132 intervening CIV+CIII components associated with optically-thin HI absorbers at 2.1 = 1.0 +- 0.3 with a negligible redshift evolution. For 54 CIV components tied (aligned) with HI at log N(HI) = [12.2, 16.0] and log N(CIV) = [11.8, 13.8], the gas temperature T_b estimated from absorption line widths is well-approximated to a Gaussian peaking at log T_b ~ 4.4 +- 0.3 for log T_b = [3.5, 5.5], with a negligible non-thermal contribution. For 32 of 54 tied HI+CIV pairs, also tied with CIII at log N(CIII) = [11.7, 13.8], we ran both photoionisation equilibrium (PIE) and non-PIE (using a fixed temperature T_b) Cloudy models for the Haardt-Madau QSO+galaxy 2012 UV background. We find evidence of bimodality in observed and derived physical properties. High-metallicity branch absorbers have a carbon abundance [C/H]_temp > -1.0, a line-of-sight length L_temp < 20 kpc, and a total (neutral and ionised) hydrogen volume density log n(H, temp) = [-4.5, -3.3] and and log T_b = ...

  10. The Physics of Decision Making:. Stochastic Differential Equations as Models for Neural Dynamics and Evidence Accumulation in Cortical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Philip; Eckhoff, Philip; Wong-Lin, K. F.; Bogacz, Rafal; Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2010-03-01

    We describe how drift-diffusion (DD) processes - systems familiar in physics - can be used to model evidence accumulation and decision-making in two-alternative, forced choice tasks. We sketch the derivation of these stochastic differential equations from biophysically-detailed models of spiking neurons. DD processes are also continuum limits of the sequential probability ratio test and are therefore optimal in the sense that they deliver decisions of specified accuracy in the shortest possible time. This leaves open the critical balance of accuracy and speed. Using the DD model, we derive a speed-accuracy tradeoff that optimizes reward rate for a simple perceptual decision task, compare human performance with this benchmark, and discuss possible reasons for prevalent sub-optimality, focussing on the question of uncertain estimates of key parameters. We present an alternative theory of robust decisions that allows for uncertainty, and show that its predictions provide better fits to experimental data than a more prevalent account that emphasises a commitment to accuracy. The article illustrates how mathematical models can illuminate the neural basis of cognitive processes.

  11. Physical therapy in the 21st century (Part II): evidence-based practice within the context of evidence-informed practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Part II of this two-part introduction to this Special Issue on physical therapy practice in the 21st century outlines a health-focused strategy for physical therapists to lead in the assault on lifestyle conditions, global health care priorities, described in Part I. Consistent with contemporary definitions of physical therapy, its practice, professional education, and research, physical therapy needs to reflect 21st-century health priorities and be aligned with global and regional public health strategies. A proposed focus on health emphasizes clinical competencies, including assessments of health, lifestyle health behaviors, and lifestyle risk factors; and the prescription of interventions to promote health and well-being in every client or patient. Such an approach is aimed to increase the threshold for chronic conditions over the life cycle and reduce their rate of progression, thereby preventing, delaying, or minimizing the severity of illness and disability. The 21st-century physical therapist needs to be able to practice such competencies within the context of a culturally diverse society to effect positive health behavior change. The physical therapist is uniquely positioned to lead in health promotion and prevention of the lifestyle conditions, address many of their causes, as well as manage these conditions. Physical therapists need to impact health globally through public and social health policy as well as one-on-one care. This role is consistent with contemporary definitions of physical therapy as the quintessential noninvasive health care practitioner, and the established efficacy and often superiority of lifestyle and lifestyle change on health outcomes compared with invasive interventions, namely, drugs and surgery. A concerted commitment by physical therapists to health and well-being and reduced health risk is consistent with minimizing the substantial social and economic burdens of lifestyle conditions globally.

  12. Magnetic fabric and microstructures of Late Paleozoic granitoids from the North Patagonian Massif: Evidence of a collision between Patagonia and Gondwana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Tomezzoli, Renata N.

    2010-10-01

    Widespread Late Paleozoic magmatism in northern Patagonia is a target to test hypotheses on the long standing question over the origin of Patagonia. In recent years, a dispute over whether it is an accreted crustal block that collided with Gondwana in Paleozoic times or an autochthonous part of South America has taken place. As part of a multidisciplinary study, an integrated microstructural and magnetic fabric study was carried out on the Late Carboniferous Yaminué Complex and the Early Permian Navarrete Plutonic Complex, both exposed in the northeastern corner of the North Patagonian Massif (40.5°S, 67.0°W). Other investigated units are the Late Carboniferous Tardugno Granodiorite, the newly defined Cabeza de Vaca Granite and the Late Permian San Martin pluton. Over 300 oriented cores from 60 sites were collected for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. A systematic analysis of around 100 petrographic thin sections was performed to characterize the microstructures of the different magmatic units. Microstructures in the Yaminué Complex are indicative of a transition from magmatic to solid-state deformation. Microstructures of the orthogneiss of tonalitic composition suggest an early stage in the emplacement history of this complex. The Cabeza de Vaca Granite, intrusive in Yaminué Complex, is the most evolved unit and records less intense high-temperature solid-state deformation which suggests that the stress field that controlled the emplacement of the Yaminué Complex outlasted it. According to petrologic and structural considerations, the Navarrete Plutonic Complex has been subdivided into three facies, i.e. Robaina, Guanacos and Aranda, respectively. Microstructures of the Navarrete Plutonic Complex are mostly magmatic to submagmatic, versus the solid-state fabric that characterizes the Robaina facies at the contact with the Yaminué Complex. Combined analyses of AMS and microstructural data lead us to suggest that the Yaminué Complex

  13. Innovative Interdisciplinary Training in and Delivery of Evidence-Based Geriatric Services: Creating a Bridge with Social Work and Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Noell L.; Gillette, Patricia D.; Faul, Anna C.; Yankeelov, Pamela A.; Borders, Kevin W.; Deck, Stacy; Nicholas, Lori D.; Wiegand, Mark

    2009-01-01

    With focus on interdisciplinary education models, social work and physical therapy faculty from two proximate universities partnered to create an evidence-based geriatric assessment and brief intervention research, training, and service project for community-dwelling older adults. Assessment tools and interventions were selected from the…

  14. Mplications Of Establishing Location Physical Evidence And Customer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Ritel Modern In Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Said

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently retailing business in Makassar from time to time increasingly in demand by the whole society. They tend to combine marketing activities and households in the shop with a variety of other recreational activities or simply stroll. This phenomenon is at least encouraging marketers to reach and use the market opportunity to market the product in the achievement of the goals and objectives of the company. This study will examine about Implications Siting Physical Evidence and Consumer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Modern Retail Company In Makassar. Where the author chose a modern retail company minimarkets supermarket hypermarket who offer products such as food and beverage for the daily needs in the area of Makassar as the object which is currently growing so rapidly. The research approach used was survey research methods which is a method of collecting primary data obtained directly from the original source through oral and written questions. While this type of research is Explanatory Research which explains the causal relationship between the study variables with hypothesis testing. Collecting technique uses scale Lkert variables 1 to 5. The technique of collecting data through interviews with managers and employees in each of the modern retail companies to obtain information or documentation in the form of consumer data that is still active in the purchase of existing products through questionnaires containing a list of questions which was distributed to respondents to obtain the data directly Maholtra 20061. The population in this study is a modern retail enterprise customers who have 3 cards of customers minimarket supermarkets hypermarkets in the city of Makassar. Further sampling is done by using random sampling techniques. As for determining the number of samples is done by using Slovin opinion of the Umar Husein 2001 782. In this study the type of data is qualitative and quantitative data obtained in the form of

  15. Physical and stable-isotope evidence for formation of secondary calcite and silica in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, J.F.; Paces, J.B.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2002-01-01

    gradual cooling of nearby plutons. The physical restriction of the deposits (and, therefore, fluid flow) to fracture footwalls and cavity floors and the heterogeneous and limited distribution of the deposits provides compelling evidence that they do not reflect flooding of the thick UZ at Yucca Mountain. The textures and isotopic and chemical compositions of these mineral deposits are consistent with deposition in a UZ setting from meteoric waters percolating downward along fracture flow paths.

  16. Linkages between Children's and Their Friends' Social and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…

  17. Linkages between Children's and Their Friends' Social and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…

  18. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study. LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS. To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group. Results After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p Conclusions All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  19. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203,883 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical Local Areas'; approx. 32,000 residents). A median rate ratio of 2.26 indicated substantive geographic variation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Adjusting for confounders, multilevel negative binomial regression reported lower MVPA with more crime consistently in small, but not in larger areas. Reducing small pockets of local crime may encourage more physically active lifestyles.

  20. Fabrication and Investigation of Two-Component Film of 2,5-Diphenyloxazole and Octafluoronaphthalene Exhibiting Tunable Blue/Bluish Violet Fluorescence Based on Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic luminescent materials play an important role in the fields of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent imaging. Moreover, new synthetic approaches towards π-conjugated molecular systems with high fluorescence quantum efficiency are highly desired. Herein, different 2,5-diphenyloxazole-octafluoronaphthalene (DPO-OFN films with tunable fluorescence have been prepared by Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition (LVPVD method. DPO-OFN films showed some changed properties, such as molecular vibration and fluorescence. All films exhibited blue/bluish violet fluorescence and showed blue shift, in comparison with pristine DPO. This work introduced a new method to fabricate two-component molecular materials with tunable blue/bluish violet luminescence properties and provided a new perspective to prepare organic luminescent film materials, layer film materials, cocrystal materials, and cocrystal film materials. Importantly, these materials have potential applications in the fields of next generation of photofunctional materials.

  1. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  2. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  3. Benefits of achieving vigorous as well as moderate physical activity recommendations: evidence from heart rate complexity and cardiac vagal modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Sandercock, Gavin; Vale, Susana; Silva, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in traditional heart rate variability measurements and heart rate complexity (sample entropy) in young adults grouped by objectively measured achievement of either moderate or both moderate and vigorous physical activity recommendations. Of 168 young adults tested (86 females, 82 males; age 20.5 ± 1.2 years), 119 achieved only recommendations for moderate physical activity (moderate group) and 49 achieved recommendations for both moderate and vigorous physical activity (vigorous group). Analysis of covariance controlling for sex, weekly minutes of moderate physical activity, and percentage of body fat was used to assess between-group differences in heart rate variability and heart rate complexity. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the group characteristics that best predicted high heart rate complexity and vagal indices of heart rate variability. The majority of the autonomic measures were higher (P heart rate complexity and higher heart rate variability. Young adults engaged in regular vigorous physical activity were more than twice as likely to have high heart rate complexity than those involved in predominantly moderate exercise. These findings suggest that vigorous physical activity is more closely associated with high heart rate complexity than moderate physical activity in young adults.

  4. Role of Physical Therapists in the Management of Individuals at Risk for or Diagnosed With Venous Thromboembolism: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegass, Ellen; Puthoff, Michael; Frese, Ethel M; Thigpen, Mary; Sobush, Dennis C; Auten, Beth

    2016-02-01

    The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), in conjunction with the Cardiovascular & Pulmonary and Acute Care sections of APTA, have developed this clinical practice guideline to assist physical therapists in their decision-making process when treating patients at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) or diagnosed with a lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LE DVT). No matter the practice setting, physical therapists work with patients who are at risk for or have a history of VTE. This document will guide physical therapist practice in the prevention of, screening for, and treatment of patients at risk for or diagnosed with LE DVT. Through a systematic review of published studies and a structured appraisal process, key action statements were written to guide the physical therapist. The evidence supporting each action was rated, and the strength of statement was determined. Clinical practice algorithms, based on the key action statements, were developed that can assist with clinical decision making. Physical therapists, along with other members of the health care team, should work to implement these key action statements to decrease the incidence of VTE, improve the diagnosis and acute management of LE DVT, and reduce the long-term complications of LE DVT.

  5. A rapid, economical, and accurate method to determining the physical risk of storm marine inundations using sedimentary evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nott, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    The majority of physical risk assessments from storm surge inundations are derived from synthetic time series generated from short climate records, which can often result in inaccuracies and are time...

  6. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Evidence for oblique convergence and non-rotational reactivation of a Mesozoic intra-continental rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Díaz, G.; Speranza, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bayona, G.; Mora, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia (EC) is a double-verging mountain system inverting a Mesozoic rift, and bounded by major reverse faults that locally involve crystalline and metamorphic Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic basement rocks, as well as Upper Paleozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic sequences. In map view the EC is a curved mountain belt with a regional structural strike that ranges from NNE in the southern part to NNW in the northern part. The origin of its curvature has not been studied or discussed so far. We report on an extensive paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) investigation of the EC, in order to address to test its non-rotational vs. oroclinal nature. Fifty-eight sites were gathered from Cretaceous to Miocene marine and continental strata, both from the southern and northern parts of the EC; additionally, we examined the southern Maracaibo plate, at the junction between the Santander Massif and the Merida Andes of Colombia (Cucuta zone). Twenty-three sites reveal no rotation of the EC range with respect to stable South America. In contrast, a 35°±9° clockwise rotation is documented in four post-Miocene magnetically overprinted sites from the Cucuta zone. Magnetic lineations from AMS analysis do not trend parallel to the chain, but are oblique to the main strike of the orogenic belt. By also considering GPS evidence of a ~1 cm/yr ENE displacement of central-western Colombia accommodated by the EC, we suggest that the late Miocene-recent deformation occurred by a ENE oblique convergence reactivating a NNE rift zone. Our data show that the EC is a non-rotational chain, and that the locations of the Mesozoic rift and the mountain chain roughly correspond. One possible solution is that the oblique shortening is partitioned in pure dip-slip shear characterizing thick-skinned frontal thrust sheets (well-known along both chain fronts), and by range-parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault(s), which have not been identified

  7. Boys' Cognitive Skill Formation and Physical Growth: Long-term Experimental Evidence on Critical Ages for Early Childhood Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Barham, Tania; Macours, Karen; John A Maluccio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of early life circumstances on cognitive skill formation are important for later human capital development, labor market outcomes and well-being. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the first 1,000 days are the critical window for both cognitive skill formation and physical development by exploiting a randomized conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Nicaragua. We find that boys exposed in utero and during the first 2 years of life, have better cognitive, but not physic...

  8. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    .... The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods...

  9. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  10. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  11. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  12. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; De Rango, Francesco; Crocco, Paolina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1) was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking) and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination) status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64-107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p < 0.022). In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505) in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  13. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1 was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64–107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979 associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p<0.022. In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505 in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  14. Evaluation of an evidence-based guidance on the reduction of physical restraints in nursing homes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN34974819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haastert Burkhard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraints are regularly applied in German nursing homes. Their frequency varies substantially between centres. Beneficial effects of physical restraints have not been proven, however, observational studies and case reports suggest various adverse effects. We developed an evidence-based guidance on this topic. The present study evaluates the clinical efficacy and safety of an intervention programme based on this guidance aimed to reduce physical restraints and minimise centre variations. Methods/Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial with nursing homes randomised either to the intervention group or to the control group with standard information. The intervention comprises a structured information programme for nursing staff, information materials for legal guardians and residents' relatives and a one-day training workshop for nominated nurses. A total of 36 nursing home clusters including approximately 3000 residents will be recruited. Each cluster has to fulfil the inclusion criteria of at least 20% prevalence of physical restraints at baseline. The primary endpoint is the number of residents with at least one physical restraint at six months. Secondary outcome measures are the number of falls and fall-related fractures. Discussion If successful, the intervention should be implemented throughout Germany. In case the intervention does not succeed, a three-month pre-post-study with an optimised intervention programme within the control group will follow the randomised trial. Trial registration ISRCTN34974819

  15. Evidence-Based Practice: a survey regarding behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from São Paulo state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiane M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely used by health professionals. However, no study in Brazil has investigated the data regarding the knowledge and difficulties related to EBP from a representative sample of physical therapists. OBJECTIVE: To identify behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from the state of São Paulo regarding EBP. METHOD: A customized questionnaire about behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers regarding EBP was sent by email to a sample of 490 physical therapists registered by the Registration Board of São Paulo, Brazil. Physical therapists who did not respond to the questionnaire were contacted by telephone and/or letter. The data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The final response rate was 64.4% (316/490). Because 60 physical therapists were no longer practicing, 256 answers were analyzed. The physical therapists reported that they routinely read scientific papers (89.5%) as a resource for professional development, followed by continuing education courses (88.3%) and books (86.3%). Approximately 35% of the respondents reported a clear understanding of the implementation of research findings in their practice; approximately 37% reported no difficulties in critically appraising scientific papers; and 67.2% strongly agreed that EBP is important for their practice. The most commonly reported barriers were related to difficulties in obtaining full-text papers (80.1%), using EBP may represent higher cost (80.1%) and the language of publication of the papers (70.3%). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists from São Paulo state believe that they have knowledge and skills to use EBP. Although they have favorable opinions regarding its implementation, they still encounter difficulties in implementing EBP successfully. PMID:26443977

  16. High quality MgB{sub 2} thick films and large-area films fabricated by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition with a pocket heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S F; Chen, Ke; Li, Qi; Xi, X X [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, C-H; Soukiassian, A; DeFrain, R; Redwing, J M; Schlom, D G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lamborn, D R [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: suw16@psu.edu

    2008-08-15

    A hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process using a pocket heater was developed for the growth of high quality epitaxial large-area MgB{sub 2} thin films and c-axis textured MgB{sub 2} thick films. This technique is able to independently control the substrate and Mg source temperatures and maintain sufficient Mg overpressure to ensure phase stability. The two-inch large-area MgB{sub 2} thin films showed uniform superconducting properties with the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} of about 40 K, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of about 10, and critical current density J{sub c} of about 10{sup 7} A cm{sup -2} (0 T, 5 K). The thick films ({approx}10 {mu}m) on sapphire substrates showed a maximum T{sub c} of 40 K and RRR of 15, and a J{sub c} of 1.6 x 10{sup 6} A cm{sup -2} at low applied magnetic fields even at 20 K. High quality thick films also have been obtained on metal substrates.

  17. Fabrication of Ag:TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films by Sol-Gel Followed by Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag:TiO2 nanocomposite films have been synthesized by sol-gel method followed by electron beam physical vapour deposition. Targets for this deposition were prepared by a hydraulic press using a powder containing Ag and TiO2 prepared by sol-gel technique. Microstructure, surface, and plasmonic properties of nanocomposite films were studied using glancing angle X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy, field emission secondary electron microscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Microstructural study reveals that Ag nanoparticles are embedded in TiO2 matrix consisting of mixed phases of anatase and rutile. Size estimation using Scherrer formula reveals that average crystallite size of Ag nanoparticles is 23 nm. Surface morphological studies indicate that deposited films are uniform and intact to the substrate and have very low value of root mean square roughness. Optical studies exhibit a surface plasmon resonance induced absorption band in visible region, which is the characteristic feature of Ag nanoparticles. The intensity of this absorption band is found to increase with the increase in deposition time. Multiple peaks observed in absorption band were explained using the concepts of extended Mie scattering. Preliminary experiments also suggested that these nanocomposite films exhibit promising photocatalytic properties, which can be used for water treatment.

  18. Comparative physical, chemical and biological assessment of simple and titanium-doped ovine dentine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, L.; Mihailescu, N.; Popescu, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Çetin, G.; Gunduz, O.; Oktar, F. N.; Popa, A. C.; Kuncser, A.; Besleaga, C.; Stan, G. E.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the synthesis by Pulsed Laser Deposition of simple and Ti doped hydroxyapatite thin films of biological (ovine dentine) origin. Detailed physical, chemical, mechanical and biological investigations were performed. Morphological examination of films showed a surface composed of spheroidal particulates, of micronic size. Compositional analyses pointed to the presence of typical natural doping elements of bone, along with a slight non-stoichiometry of the deposited films. Structural investigations proved the monophasic hydroxyapatite nature of both simple and Ti doped films. Ti doping of biological hydroxyapatite induced an overall downgrade of the films crystallinity together with an increase of the films roughness. It is to be emphasized that bonding strength values measured at film/Ti substrate interface were superior to the minimum value imposed by International Standards regulating the load-bearing implant coatings. In vitro tests on Ti doped structures, compared to simple ones, revealed excellent biocompatibility in human mesenchymal stem cell cultures, a higher proliferation rate and a good cytocompatibility. The obtained results aim to elucidate the overall positive role of Ti doping on the hydroxyapatite films performance, and demonstrate the possibility to use this novel type of coatings as feasible materials for future implantology applications.

  19. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event.

  20. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  1. The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Price, Thomas S.; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Research on child effects has demonstrated that children's difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the normative (corporal punishment) to the nonnormative (physical maltreatment). The sample was a…

  2. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance: Empirical Evidence from the National Administrative Senior High School Student Data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the changes of physical fitness across the 3-year spectrum of senior high school study and academic performance measured by standardized tests in Taiwan. A unique dataset of 149 240 university-bound senior high school students from 2009 to 2011 was constructed by merging two nationwide administrative…

  3. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  4. Physical Activity Promotion on Campus: Using Empirical Evidence to Recommend Strategic Approaches to Target Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Sidman, Cara Lynn; Venezia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Problem: A large number of American adults do not meet national physical activity (PA) guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthening. Similarly, many American college students, specifically females do not engage in regular PA. Self Determination Theory can provide a basis for investigating motivational processes of PA. The purpose of this…

  5. Understanding Caregivers' Attitudes towards Physical Punishment of Children: Evidence from 34 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual…

  6. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance: Empirical Evidence from the National Administrative Senior High School Student Data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the changes of physical fitness across the 3-year spectrum of senior high school study and academic performance measured by standardized tests in Taiwan. A unique dataset of 149 240 university-bound senior high school students from 2009 to 2011 was constructed by merging two nationwide administrative…

  7. Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997

  8. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew; Scholes, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Background Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty. Objective We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous) performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood’s Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25). Methods Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50–54; 55–59; 60–64; 65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80+) on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above) and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults. Conclusion Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories. PMID:28152084

  9. Can physical activity be used as a tool to reduce depression in patients after a cardiac event? What is the evidence? A systematic literature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzon, Ellis; Abidi, Taha; Bahtsevani, Christel

    2015-04-01

    A reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been reported in the Western world, but post-infarction depression often occurs and is related to poor medical outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the scientific literature by a systematic review, in order to find evidence for whether physical activity can be a tool to reduce depression in patients who have suffered a cardiac event. Three databases were systematically searched (PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane), and the GRADE protocol was used in combination with a revised Amstar-protocol for the systematic review. Scientific reports fitting the area were scarce. Finally, ten studies were included in this study: one meta-analysis, five randomized controlled trials, and four clinical trials. The results showed low to moderate evidence for the use of low to moderate levels of exercise as a tool to reduce depression in post-coronary artery event patients. This study concluded positive effects of physical activity as a tool to reduce depression in post-coronary artery event patients. Physiotherapists could be further involved in increasing physical activity after cardiac events. More studies are needed in the area.

  10. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie; Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS.

  11. Health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and physical activity for older adults: A systematic review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

  12. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  13. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  14. Stirling Microregenerators Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale Stirling refrigerator patented by the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently under development. This refrigerator has a predicted efficiency of 30 percent of Carnot and potential uses in electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and microsystems. The mesoscale Stirling refrigerator is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines and a microregenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. Diaphragms are used to eliminate frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were fabricated under NASA grants for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, which were fabricated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist, which was fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies. The candidate regenerators are being tested by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics in a custom piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, Johns Hopkins is using deep reactive ion etching to fabricate electrostatically driven, comb-drive diaphragm actuators. These actuators will drive the Stirling cycle in the prototype device. The top photograph shows the porous ceramic microregenerators. Two microregenerators were fabricated with coarse pores and two with fine pores. The bottom photograph shows the test apparatus parts for evaluating the microregenerators, including the layered nickel-and-photoresist regenerator fabricated using LIGA techniques.

  15. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy: A literature review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina V N; Domingues, Marlos R; Gonçalves, Helen; Bertoldi, Andréa D

    2017-01-01

    Identify perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy to inform future interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in pregnancy. PubMed/Medline and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using a reference period between 1986 and January/2016. A comprehensive search strategy was developed combining the following keywords: (barriers OR constraints OR perceptions OR attitudes) AND (physical activity OR exercise OR motor activity) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant women OR antenatal OR prenatal). Thematic synthesis was conducted to analyze the data. A socioecological model was used to categorize the reported barriers. Twelve quantitative studies and 14 qualitative studies were included. Barriers belonging to the intrapersonal level of the socioecological model were the most reported in the studies and were categorized in five themes as follows: (1) Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations; (2) Time constraints; (3) Perceptions of already being active, (4) Lack of motivation and (5) Mother-child safety concerns. At the interpersonal level, barriers were coded into two descriptive themes: (1) Lack of advice and information and (2) Lack of social support. Two other themes were used to summarize Environmental, Organizational and Policy barriers: (1) Adverse weather and (2) Lack of resources. A range of relevant barriers to leisure-time physical-activity engagement during pregnancy were identified in this literature review. Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations barriers were the most reported in studies, regardless of study design. Mother-child safety concerns, lack of advice/information and lack of social support were also important emphasized pregnancy-related barriers to be targeted in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between leisure time physical activity preference and behavior: evidence from the China Health & Nutrition Survey, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junmin; Britigan, Denise H; Rajaram, Shireen S; Wang, Hongmei; Su, Dejun

    2017-05-16

    Previous studies have suggested that food preference is a good indicator of actual food intake and that sedentary activity preference is a significant predictor of lower physical activity level. But no studies have examined the direct relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) preferences and actual LTPA behavior, especially studies using longitudinal data. This study seeks to determine the association between these two variables, and to assess whether the association differs between urban and rural areas in China. A total of 2427 Chinese adults were included in the analysis. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test the association between leisure time physical activity preference and behavior, followed by multiple logistic regressions to further examine the association after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Urban-rural differences in the association were investigated through stratified analysis. In the sample, 63.0% were from urban areas, 47.4% were men, and the mean age was 40. Adjusted estimates based on logistic regression show that LTPA preference was a significant predictor of actual LTPA behavior (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09). The correlation was found to be significant among urban residents (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10), but not in rural residents. The study illustrates the predictive value of LTPA preference for actual LTPA behavior. Changing LTPA preference to promote LTPA may be helpful in preventing and controlling chronic disease in China.

  17. A statistical physics view of pitch fluctuations in the classical music from Bach to Chopin: evidence for scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wei, Jianrong; Zhang, Huishu; Xin, Jianhong; Huang, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property), but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer). The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.

  18. A statistical physics view of pitch fluctuations in the classical music from Bach to Chopin: evidence for scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property, but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer. The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.

  19. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Benzeval

    Full Text Available There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students. The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  20. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  1. Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: a review of the evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Latino-Martel, Paule; Cottet, Vanessa; Druesne Pecollo, Nathalie; Pierre, Fabrice; Touillaud, Marina,; Touvier, Mathilde; VASSON, Marie-Paule; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Le Merdy, Julie; Barrandon, Emilie; Ancellin, Raphaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : Prevention is a priority in the fight against cancers, especially nutritional prevention. To update the levels of evidence of relationships between 10 nutritional factors and cancer risk, the scientific literature published from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed by an expert group.[br/] Methods : Data from 133 meta-analyses, pooled analyses or intervention trials were examined. Nearly 150 relationships between nutritional factors and cancer at various sites were evaluated.[br/] Result...

  2. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for related publications using “ginger” and “anti-oxidative” and “ginger” and “anti-inflammatory” as keywords. This search had considered Papers that had been published between 2000 and 201...

  3. Evidence-based policies on school nutrition and physical education: Associations with state-level collaboration, obesity, and socio-economic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-13

    Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012. We examined cross-sectional associations between evidence-based competitive food/beverage and physical education policies from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students and state characteristics from the School Health Policies and Practices Study and other national data sources using prevalence ratios and generalized linear models. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Cross-sector collaboration (i.e., state staff reports of working together on school nutrition or physical education activities) between state-level nutrition and physical education staff and ten types of organizations was not significantly associated with having state policies. Childhood obesity (RR=1.78, 95% CI[1.11,2.85]), high-school non-completion (RR=2.35, 95% CI[1.36,4.06]), poverty (RR=1.89, 95% CI[1.16,3.09]) and proportion non-white or Hispanic residents (RR=1.75, 95% CI[1.07, 2.85]) were positively associated with the presence of elementary school competitive food/beverage policies. Fewer indicators were associated with policies for middle and high schools. The large investment of time and resources required for cross-sector collaboration demands greater research evidence on how to structure and manage collaborative partnerships for the greatest impact.

  4. The use of evidence-based practices for the management of shoulder impingement syndrome among Indian physical therapists: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Phadke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The understanding of the pathomechanics of shoulder impingement has evolved over the years. Likewise, assessment techniques and effective treatment strategies have also been developed. Physical therapists should keep up-to-date on the current evidence. Objective: This study explored the practices currently used by Indian physical therapists for the assessment and management of shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS. Method: Using an online questionnaire, therapists were asked to declare the causes, methods of assessment and their choices of physical therapy techniques for the management of SIS. The proportions of therapists using different techniques were analyzed descriptively, and comparisons across gender, experience level, and training were made. Data were analyzed to see if the choices of respondents compared with their responses for etiology. Results: A total of 211 responses were analyzed. Most respondents (>75% believed that overuse and abnormal motion/posture are the most significant causes of SIS. However, fewer respondents reported assessing posture (60.2% and dyskinesis, especially in women (24.2%. Ninety-four percent of the respondents reported using exercises, but exercise prescription was rather generic. Therapists additionally trained in the techniques of joint mobilization or taping declared using these techniques more frequently. The use of interferential therapy and ultrasound was reported by 89.5% and 98.4% of respondents, respectively Conclusion: Most therapists declared awareness of current recommended practices, but patient assessment, exercise prescription, and use of electrotherapy modalities were only partially based on current evidence. The study helps to identify gaps in current physical therapy approaches to SIS in India.

  5. Osteoarthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, E M; Oral, A; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder and the major cause of musculoskeletal pain and limited mobility in the elderly in the world. Therefore, proper management of persons with OA is of substantial importance. The goal of OA management is to reduce the impact of OA on the individual by reducing pain and improving function, activities and participation. The aim of this paper is to descibe the explicit role of PRM physicians in providing management for persons with OA. The optimal management of OA requires the combination of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches, an issue most of the main guidelines on the evidence-based management of OA share in common. There is good level of evidence about the effectiveness of PRM interventions in the management of OA: high level of evidence about the effect of education, weight reduction and exercise and growing evidence about the effectiveness of physical agent modalities. PRM specialists are involved not only in diagnosis and medical and physical treatments of OA, but, as a rehabilitation strategy, they also deal with the problems of the person focusing on the improvement of all components of human functioning as defined in the ICF including personal and environmental factors with a holistic approach. ICF core sets for OA serve as excellent models for directing proper assessments as well as targeting interventions. PRM specialists well meet the needs of people with OA from the early stages

  6. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  7. Physical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  8. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  9. Sensory Evaluation in Characterization of Fabric Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludovic Koehl; Zhou Bin(周斌); Zeng Xian-yi; Ding Yong-sheng(丁永生)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is divided in two parts. The first part presents optimized methods for formalizing and analyzing sensory data provided by different panels on fabric hand evaluation. For achieving this challenge, we first transform each evaluation into fuzzy sets and we submit criteria for assessing the fabric hand evaluation given by experts as well as criteria for computing the distances between different panels and the employed linguistic terms in different evaluation spaces. This sensory data analysis allows us to check expert's and customer's behaviors on fabric hand.Based on this first procedure about formalization and sensory data analysis, we can study the relationships between sensory evaluation given by different experts for a fabric set and the objective data set provided by appropriate measurements. From a set of fabric samples, a database with nearly 10 parameters characterizing the touch handle is built. This way of evaluation is performed by measuring a set of physical parameters on fabrics. Those parameters constitute the input variables of our model. For the textile industry, the major difficulty lies in the fact that the performed measurements on fabrics lead to precise numerical data describing indirectly fabric hand but their relationships with the evaluation given by experts should be exploited. We implement a fuzzy model which predicts the marks reached for a set of linguistic terms.The effectiveness of these methods and criteria is shown through a number of knitted cotton fabrics.

  10. Physical Non-Contact Communication between Microscopic Aquatic Species: Novel Experimental Evidences for an Interspecies Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments on physical non-contact communication within same species gave rise to test for this type of communication also across the species border, which was the aim of the present study. It was found that autotrophic unicellular organisms (Euglena viridis, separated by cuvettes, affected the proliferation rate of heterotrophic unicellular organisms (Paramecium caudatum. Further, the heterotrophic unicellular organism affected also the proliferation rate of a multicellular heterotrophic organism (Rotatoria sp. and vice versa. In the case when populations (of Euglena viridis and Paramecium caudatum were shielded against electromagnetic fields in the optical spectrum from each other, no effects were measured. The results may support the notion that the organisation of ecosystems relies also on the exchange of electromagnetic fields from their constituting biosystems.

  11. Evidence for the involvement of the CXCL12 system in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth.

  12. Artificial Quantum Solids: Physics, Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    example, J. M. Hvam in Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Solids; Ad- vances and Applications, edited by B. Di Bartolo and B. Bowlby (Plenum, New York, 1994), pp...vances and Applications, edited by B. Di Bartolo and B. Bowlby (Plenum, New York, 1994), pp. 91-149. ’This lack of symmetry is due to the transfer of a

  13. Colloid Thrusters, Physics, Fabrication and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-17

    response, including the time for reviewing in. tata needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this...a discussion with colleagues during the 2nd Colloid Thruster/ Nano Electrojet Workshop (MIT, April 14- 15, 2005, Ref. [11]) an agreement was reached...23 Jul 2003. 11. Second Colloid Thruster/ Nano Electrojet Workshop, CD with a collection of presentations by attendees to this Workshop. MIT, April 14

  14. Beauty premium: Event-related potentials evidence of how physical attractiveness matters in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Fan, Bonai; Dai, Shenyi; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-02-15

    Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors. In the current study, we investigated how potential borrowers' facial attractiveness influenced lenders' attitudes toward borrowers' repayment behavior at the brain level by using event-related potentials. At the priming stage, photos of attractive borrowers induced smaller N200 amplitude than photos of unattractive borrowers. Meanwhile, at the feedback stage, compared with the condition of repaying on time, breach of repayment from unattractive borrowers induced larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, which was a frontal-central negative deflection and would be enhanced by the unexpected outcome. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitude was also elicited by the condition of not repaying on time. These differences in the FRN and P300 amplitudes were not observed between negative and positive feedback from attractive borrowers. Therefore, our findings suggest that the beauty premium phenomenon is present in online peer-to-peer lending and that lenders were more tolerant toward attractive borrowers' dishonest behavior.

  15. The Physical Density of the City—Deconstruction of the Delusive Density Measure with Evidence from Two European Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Taubenböck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Density is among the most important descriptive as well as normative measures in urban research. While its basic concept is generally understandable, approaches towards the density measure are manifold, diverse and of multidimensional complexity. This evolves from differing thematic, spatial and calculative specifications. Consequently, applied density measures are often used in a subjective, non-transparent, unspecific and thus non-comparable manner. In this paper, we aim at a systematic deconstruction of the measure density. Varying thematic, spatial and calculative dimensions show significant influence on the measure. With both quantitative and qualitative techniques of evaluation, we assess the particular influences on the measure density. To do so, we reduce our experiment setting to a mere physical perspective; that is, the quantitative measures building density, degree of soil sealing, floor space density and, more specifically, the density of generic structural classes such as open spaces and highest built-up density areas. Using up-to-date geodata derived from remote sensing and volunteered geographic information, we build upon high-quality spatial information products such as 3-D city models. Exemplified for the comparison of two European megacities, namely Paris and London, we reveal and systemize necessary variables to be clearly defined for meaningful conclusions using the density measure.

  16. Evidence for Low Black Hole Spin and Physically Motivated Accretion Models from Millimeter VLBI Observations of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter very-long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. (2009) have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9-sigma level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provid...

  17. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  18. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; da Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles

    2016-01-01

    To organize the main findings and list the most frequent recommendations from systematic reviews of interventions developed at the school environment aimed at reducing overweight in children and adolescents. Searches for systematic reviews available until December 31, 2014 were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Manual search for cross-references were also performed. Of the initial 2139 references, 33 systematic reviews adequately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the descriptive summary. In this set, interventions with periods of time greater than six months in duration (nine reviews), and parental involvement in the content and/or planned actions (six reviews) were identified as the most frequent and effective recommendations. Additionally, it was observed that boys respond more effectively to structural interventions, whereas girls respond to behavioral interventions. None of the included reviews was able to make inferences about the theoretical basis used in interventions as, apparently, those in charge of the interventions disregarded this component in their preparation. Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon nanotube collimator fabrication and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lee; Chai, Guangyu; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    Apparatus, methods, systems and devices for fabricating individual CNT collimators. Micron size fiber coated CNT samples are synthesized with chemical vapor deposition method and then the individual CNT collimators are fabricated with focused ion beam technique. Unfocused electron beams are successfully propagated through the CNT collimators. The CNT nano-collimators are used for applications including single ion implantation and in high-energy physics, and allow rapid, reliable testing of the transmission of CNT arrays for transport of molecules.

  20. No Evidence That Short-Term Cognitive or Physical Training Programs or Lifestyles Are Related to Changes in White Matter Integrity in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C.; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A. F.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    related to FA scores at baseline (cognitive training skills and FA composite score, rs = 0.68, p = 0.05; functional physical fitness and fornix FA, r = 0.35, p = 0.03). Overall, we found no evidence of a link between short-term physical or cognitive activities and WMI changes, despite activity-related cognitive changes in older adults at risk of dementia. However, we found positive associations between the two targeted training outcomes and WMI, hinting at a potential of long-term activities to affect WMI. PMID:28373835

  1. No Evidence That Short-Term Cognitive or Physical Training Programs or Lifestyles Are Related to Changes in White Matter Integrity in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    to FA scores at baseline (cognitive training skills and FA composite score, rs = 0.68, p = 0.05; functional physical fitness and fornix FA, r = 0.35, p = 0.03). Overall, we found no evidence of a link between short-term physical or cognitive activities and WMI changes, despite activity-related cognitive changes in older adults at risk of dementia. However, we found positive associations between the two targeted training outcomes and WMI, hinting at a potential of long-term activities to affect WMI.

  2. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, p<0.0001) with no apparent substitution effect to the other platforms observed. To be cost-effective, the cost of gaining a healthy life year (ICER) should not exceed three times the per capita GDP (US$74,700). The PSD installation would only be cost-effective if the loss of fare revenue and passengers' waiting time, in addition to DALY, were included (ICER: US$65,400), while the ICER based on DALY only would be US$77,900. The challenges of complexity for economic evaluation appear in many community-based health interventions. A more extensive perspective for exploring other outcome measurements and evaluation methods to reflect a fair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  3. A Proposal to the Department of Energy for The Fabrication of a Very High Energy Polarized Gama Ray Beam Facility and A Program of Medium Energy Physics Research at The National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1982-09-01

    This proposal requests support for the fabrication and operation of a modest facility that would provide relatively intense beams of monochromatic and polarized photons with energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV. These {gamma} rays would be produced by Compton backscattering laser light from the electrons circulating in the 2.5-3.0 GeV 'X-RAY' storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The excellent emittance, phase space, and high current of this state-of-the-art storage ring will allow the production of 2 x 10{sup 7} {gamma} rays per second. These photons would be tagged by detecting the scattered electrons, thereby determining the energy to 2.7 MeV for all {gamma}-ray energies. The efficiency of this tagging procedure is 100% and the {gamma}-ray beam would be essentially background free. Tagging will also allow the flexibility of operating with a dynamic range as large as 200 MeV in photon energy while still preserving high resolution and polarization. These beams will permit a fruitful study of important questions in medium-energy nuclear physics. The initial goals of this program are to reach reliable operation with photon energies up to 300 MeV and to develop {gamma}-ray beams with energies up to about 500 MeV. To demonstrate reliable operation, a modest physics program is planned that, for the most part, utilizes existing magnets and detector systems but nonetheless addresses several important outstanding problems. Gamma ray beams of the versatility, intensity, energy, and resolution that can be achieved at this facility are not currently available at any other world facility either existing or under construction. Furthermore, the proposed program would produce the first intense source of medium-energy {gamma} rays that are polarized. Because of the difficulties in producing such polarized beams, it is very unlikely that viable alternate sources can be developed in the near future; at

  4. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-02-07

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs.

  5. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  6. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  7. Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring Misconceptions about Insoluble and Soluble Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, Johnson W; McKeown, Nicola M

    2017-02-01

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published. In the small bowel, clinically meaningful health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control) are highly correlated with the viscosity of soluble fibers: high viscosity fibers (eg, gel-forming fibers such as b-glucan, psyllium, and raw guar gum) exhibit a significant effect on cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control, whereas nonviscous soluble fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and wheat dextrin) and insoluble fibers (eg, wheat bran) do not provide these viscosity-dependent health benefits. In the large bowel, there are only two mechanisms that drive a laxative effect: large/coarse insoluble fiber particles (eg, wheat bran) mechanically irritate the gut mucosa stimulating water and mucous secretion, and the high water-holding capacity of gel-forming soluble fiber (eg, psyllium) resists dehydration. Both mechanisms require that the fiber resist fermentation and remain relatively intact throughout the large bowel (ie, the fiber must be present in stool), and both mechanisms lead to increased stool water content, resulting in bulky/soft/easy-to-pass stools. Soluble fermentable fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharide, and wheat dextrin) do not provide a laxative effect, and some fibers can be constipating (eg, wheat dextrin and fine/smooth insoluble wheat bran particles). When making recommendations for a fiber supplement, it is essential to recognize which

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP. PMID:26786079

  9. Methodology of "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine practice, Evidence Based Position Papers: the European position" produced by the UEMS-PRM Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Kiekens, Carlotte; Zampolini, Mauro; Wever, Daniel; Varela Donoso, Enrique; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Since 2009 the Professional Practice Committee of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the European Union (EU) of Medical Specialists (UEMS) is producing Position Papers (PPs) on the role of PRM physicians for patients with different health conditions or related topics of PRM Interest. These PPs represent the Official Position of the EU in the specific field. Until now, sixteen papers have been produced, recently collected in an e-book. To proceed with the future PPs, the UEMS PRM Section defines with this paper the methodological approach to a PP, so to have a common and validated scientific structure. The final aim is to increase the quality, representativeness and visibility of this production for the benefit of all PRM specialists in (and out) of Europe. The Position Papers must be Evidence Based (EBPP). Therefore it comprises a systematic review as well as a Consensus procedure among the EU Countries delegates. All the sections of an EBPP are presented in details (title, authors, abstract, introduction, material and methods, results, discussion, conclusion). The systematic review must focus on Cochrane reviews, randomised controlled trials and guidelines of PRM professional practice interest. The Consensus on the recommendations must be reached through a Delphi procedure, usually in four major rounds (each round can have repeated voting). The EBPP must produce Final Recommendations for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Professional Practice in Europe. The following overall structure for recommendations is suggested: one overall general recommendation on PRM professional practice; PRM physicians' role in Medical Diagnosis - ICD; PRM diagnosis and assessment according to ICF; PRM process (Project definition, Team, PRM interventions, Outcome criteria, Length and continuity of treatment); future research on PRM professional practice.

  10. Evidence for physical and functional interactions among two Saccharomyces cerevisiae SH3 domain proteins, an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, T; Drubin, D G

    1997-02-01

    In a variety of organisms, a number of proteins associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton contain SH3 domains, suggesting that these domains may provide the physical basis for functional interactions among structural and regulatory proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. We present evidence that SH3 domains mediate at least two independent functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp1p in vivo. Abp1p contains a single SH3 domain that has recently been shown to bind in vitro to the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Srv2p. Immunofluorescence analysis of Srv2p subcellular localization in strains carrying mutations in either ABP1 or SRV2 reveals that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the normal association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. We also show that a site in Abp1p itself is specifically bound by the SH3 domain of the actin-associated protein Rvs167p. Genetic analysis provides evidence that Abp1p and Rvs167p have functions that are closely interrelated. Abp1 null mutations, like rvs167 mutations, result in defects in sporulation and reduced viability under certain suboptimal growth conditions. In addition, mutations in ABP1 and RVS167 yield similar profiles of genetic "synthetic lethal" interactions when combined with mutations in genes encoding other cytoskeletal components. Mutations which specifically disrupt the SH3 domain-mediated interaction between Abp1p and Srv2p, however, show none of the shared phenotypes of abp1 and rvs167 mutations. We conclude that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that Abp1p performs a distinct function that is likely to involve binding by the Rvs167p SH3 domain. Overall, work presented here illustrates how SH3 domains can integrate the activities of multiple actin cytoskeleton proteins in response to varying environmental conditions.

  11. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  12. The experience of physical activity and the transition to retirement: a systematic review and integrative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Inka; Guell, Cornelia; Ogilvie, David

    2012-08-16

    The transition to retirement has been recognised as a critical turning point for physical activity (PA). In an earlier systematic review of quantitative studies, retirement was found to be associated with an increase in recreational PA but with a decrease in PA among retirees from lower occupational groups. To gain a deeper understanding of the quantitative review findings, qualitative evidence on experiences of and views on PA around the transition to retirement was systematically reviewed and integrated with the quantitative review findings. 19 electronic databases were searched and reference lists were checked, citations tracked and journals hand-searched to identify qualitative studies on PA around the transition to retirement, published between January 1980 and August 2010 in any country or language. Independent quality appraisal, data extraction and evidence synthesis were carried out by two reviewers using a stepwise thematic approach. The qualitative findings were integrated with those of the existing quantitative systematic review using a parallel synthesis approach. Five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Three overarching themes emerged from the synthesis of these studies: these related to retirees' broad concepts of PA, the motives for and the challenges to PA in retirement. Integrative synthesis of the qualitative findings with the quantitative evidence offered several potential explanations for why adults might engage in more recreational PA after the transition to retirement. These included expected health benefits, lifelong PA patterns, opportunities for socialising and personal challenges, and the desire for a new routine. A decrease in PA among retirees from lower occupational groups might be explained by a lack of time and a perceived low personal value of recreational PA. To encourage adoption and maintenance of PA after retirement, interventions should promote health-related and broader benefits of PA. Interventions for retirees

  13. Osteoporosis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Ilieva, E M; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. A wide range of health conditions treated by PRM specialists carries the risk of osteoporosis (OP). The consequences of OP may be associated with significant disability. The aim of this paper is: to define the role of PRM physicians in the prevention and management of OP, to describe the needs of people with OP in relation to rehabilitation strategy, and to highlight why and how PRM physicians should be involved in the diagnosis and management of OP. PRM physicians may intervene in the prevention of and risk factor assessment for OP, falls and fractures along with other assessments of functioning and of quality of life. In addition, they are involved in diagnosis and in both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment of OP. From a specific PRM perspective based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), there is an important role in optimizing functioning and promoting "activities and participation", including interventions associated with environmental factors for people with OP or osteoporotic fractures. Evidence suggests that a large number of interventions within the scope of PRM that range from preventive strategies (including education and self management and most importantly exercise) to pain management strategies and spinal orthoses or hip protectors may be effective in the prevention and/or management of OP and its sequelae. Competencies and aptitudes of PRM specialists, focusing especially on functioning while

  14. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are a result of differences in their distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marlene; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of antioxidants (AOs) and their distributions and efficiencies in emulsions are not fully understood. Recent reports indicate that, for series of homologous antioxidants of different hydrophobicity, the variation of their efficiency with the HLB of the AO increases with the alkyl chain length up to a maximum (C3 -C8 ester) followed by a decrease (cut-off effect). We determined the distributions of a series of caffeic acid derivatives in intact soybean emulsions by employing a specifically designed chemical probe located in the interfacial region of the emulsion. We also determined the AO efficiencies in the very same emulsions. We demonstrate that the variation of the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of soybean oil-in-water emulsions with the AO HLB parallels that of their antioxidant efficiency. The results provide physical evidence that the variations in the efficiency of homologous series of antioxidants in emulsions are the result of differences in their distribution. The results confirm that, with other things being equal, there is a direct relationship between the percentage of AO in the interfacial region of the emulsions and their efficiency, providing a natural explanation, based on molecular properties, of the cut-off effect. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fabrication of Superconducting Detectors for Studying the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting detectors offer unparalleled means of making astronomical/cosmological observations. Fabrication of these detectors is somewhat unconventional; however, a lot of novel condensed matter physics/materials scientific discoveries and semiconductor fabrication processes can be generated in making these devices.

  17. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinski, C. (Christophe); Gokhale, M. (Maya); McCabe, K. P. (Kevin P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  18. Dependence of Softness on Fabric Surface Quality and Compressibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ji-yong; DING Xin; WANG Ru-bin

    2006-01-01

    The term "softness" is loosely used to describe the physical as well as sensory attributes of fabric and other textiles, and several psychophysical evaluation methods as well as its predicting equations exist. However, the information for physiological mechanism of fabric softness is lack. To explain the biomechanical and the potential neurophysiological phenomenon for exploring fabric softness,accompanying to the procedures in manual exploration for softness and the anatomical multilayer structures of human finger, a contact finite element (FE) model between finger and fabric is made to conduct an active contact analysis. In present FE model, the effect of surface friction index,compression modulus, Poisson's ratio of fabric on softness discrimination is investigated. The interests are in the contributions of these fabric property variables to contact area, interfacial friction shear stress and contact pressure distributions, which are significant cognitive variables or stimulus parameters in peripheral neural levels. The mechanistic data for fabric specimens indicates that the basis for the perception of softness of flexible and bulk fabric is likely on the spatial variation of pressure on the skin (or,equivalently the skin displacement and its derivatives)resulting from surface friction phenomenon and compression property of fabric. In present model, however, the effect of Poisson's ratio on the total force exerted by fingertip is not significant statistically. Therefore, compression modulus of fabric is, not the only underlying physical variable accounting for peripheral neural response, and also the surface friction phenomenon plays an important role in feeltouch softness of fabric, i.e. the compressibility and surface properties of fabric are the necessary physical variables involved for the haptic rendering of its softness.

  19. Objective Evaluation of Fabric Drape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; YAO Mu

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of our previous research work, an expressing index was proposed for the lively degree of dynamic fabric drape. Meanwhile, the main factoranalysis for parameters of fabric drape was applied and the 5 main factors, comprehensive indexes of expressing aesthetics of fabric drape, were obtained. Through the scored diagrams of main factors of fabric drape aesthetics, 100 kinds of fabric samples could be identified and catalogued. A new method was found out for the objective evaluation of aesthetics of fabric drape.

  20. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  1. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  2. The Possible Physical Barrier and Coastal Dispersal Strategy for Japanese Grenadier Anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: Evidence from AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA and pairwise fixation index (FST revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  3. The possible physical barrier and coastal dispersal strategy for Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: evidence from AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-03

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  4. Fabric Structures Team Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 6th Bi-Annual DOD JOCOTAS Meeting with Rigid & Soft Wall Shelter Industry & Indoor & Outdoor Exhibition, 2-4 Nov 2009, Panama City...Maintenance Shelter Demonstrated in July 09 • Designed and fabricated by Hunter Defense Technologies/Vertigo Shelters (prime), Johnson Outdoors ...Congressionally directed program with Nemo , Inc., Nashua, NH f• Designs include novel in latable airbeam technology and tensioned fabric/pole

  5. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  6. Fabrics with tunable oleophobicity

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Gareth H.; Choi, Wonjae; Cohen, Robert E.; Tuteja, Anish; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Mabry, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    A simple “dip-coating” process that imbues oleophobicity to various surfaces that inherently possess re-entrant texture, such as commercially available fabrics, is reported. These dip-coated fabric surfaces exhibit reversible, deformation-dependent, tunable wettability, including the capacity to switch their surface wetting properties (between super-repellent and super-wetting) against a wide range of polar and nonpolar liquids.

  7. Effects of Surfactant Adsorption on Surficial Wettability of Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bing; TANG Bing; LI Rui-xia; WU Da-cheng

    2002-01-01

    All types of surfactants (cationic, anionic and nonionic)reported in this paper could enhance the surficiai wettability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabrics. However, the effects of cationic and nonionic surfactants were better.The longer the treatment time of surfactants on the nonwoven fabrics, the better the surficial wettability.The surficial rewetting time would no longer change above a certain treatment time. The rewettability of nonwoven fabrics could be evidently improved just when the concentration of surfactants was just above the CMC,except for sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The finer the fibers and the looser the structures, the better the surficial rewettability of nonwoven fabrics.

  8. Geometrical Modeling of Woven Fabrics Weavability-Limit New Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The weavability limit and tightness for 2D and 3D woven fabrics is an important factor and depends on many geometric parameters. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on textile fabric construction and property, and related research on fabric geometry, a study of the weavability limit and tightness relationships of 2D and 3D woven fabrics was undertaken. Experiments were conducted on a representative number of polyester and cotton woven fabrics which have been woven in our workshop, using three machines endowed with different insertion systems (rapier, projectiles and air jet. Afterwards, these woven fabrics have been analyzed in the laboratory to determine their physical and mechanical characteristics using air permeability-meter and KES-F KAWABATA Evaluation System for Fabrics. In this study, the current Booten’s weavability limit and tightness relationships based on Ashenhurst’s, Peirce’s, Love’s, Russell’s, Galuszynskl’s theory and maximum-weavability is reviewed and modified as new relationships to expand their use to general cases (2D and 3D woven fabrics, all fiber materiel, all yarns etc…. The theoretical relationships were examined and found to agree with experimental results. It was concluded that the weavability limit and tightness relationships are useful tools for weavers in predicting whether a proposed fabric construction was weavable and also in predicting and explaining their physical and mechanical properties.

  9. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  10. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  11. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  12. Fabrication of PDMS architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    The study report novel, yet simple and flexible fabrication method for micro channel patterning PDMS thin mold on glass surfaces, the method allows microstructures with critical dimensions to be formed using PDMS. Micro channel production is a two-step process. First, soft photolithography methods are implemented to fabricate a reusable mold. The mold is then used to create the micro channel, which consists of SU8, PDMS and glass. The micro channel design was performed using AutoCAD and the fabrication begins by creating a replicable mold. The mold is created on a glass slide. by spin-coating speed between 500 to 1250rpm with an acceleration of 100 rpm/s for 100 and 15 second ramp up and down speed respectively. Channel flow rate based on concentration were measured by analyzing the recorded flow profiles which was collected from the high powered microscope at. 80µ, 70µm, 50µm for inlet channel 1, 2, 3 respectively the channel flow were compared for flow efficiency at different concentrations and Re. Thus, the simplicity of device structure and fabrication makes it feasible to miniaturize it for the development of point-of-care kits, facilitating its use in both clinical and non-clinical environments. With its simple geometric structure and potential for mass commercial fabrication, the device can be developed to become a portable photo detection sensor that can be use for both environmental and diagnostic application.

  13. Cryostat mechanism design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tony T.; Douglass, Jeffrey W.; Hodapp, Klaus-Werner; Yamada, Hubert; Irvin, Ev; Robertson, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The harsh operating environment of high vacuum and extremely low temperature poses several challenges to cryogenic mechanisms. These challenges include out-gassing, physical property change of metal and nonmetal materials, differential thermal shrinkage of different materials. Many motorized cryogenic mechanisms have been designed and fabricated for various IR instruments at the Institute for Astronomy. These mechanisms include detector focus stages, filter wheels, 2 and 3-position bema selectors, lens switchers, grating tilt stages and gimbal mirror mounts. Cryogenic motors are used for all these mechanisms. The following topics will be discussed in this paper: motor selection, material selection, stress relieve and surface treatment, ball bearing and ball screw selection and treatment, bushing materials, lubrication methods, flex pivots, and Hall effect sensors.

  14. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  15. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  16. Total Wear Comfort Index as an Objective Parameter for Characterization of Overall Wearability of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of physical comfort experienced by awearer under a given environmental condition isgreatly influenced by the tactile, thermal andmoisture transport properties of the fabric. An indepthstudy carried out to understand fabric handleand wear comfort in relation to fiber, yarn and fabricstructural parameter is presented in this paper. Theresults obtained from this study provide an invaluableinsight into engineering of required quality featuresinto the cotton fabrics so as to provide optimum wearcomfort. A comprehensive grading indexincorporating the transport attributes (air permeabilityand moisture and thermal transport of the fabric hasbeen derived to grade end use efficiency of the fabricjuxtaposing with fabric hand, which would finallydecide the overall quality of the apparel fabric.

  17. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  18. Crimp-Imbalanced Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    tows (non-twisted yarns) of alternative cross-sections. Many ballistic fabrics employ non-circular cross-section yarns such as rectangular...coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene 27 and acrylic monomers), plastic (poly vinyl chloride

  19. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  20. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  1. Should physical activity recommendations be ethnicity-specific? Evidence from a cross-sectional study of South Asian and European men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Ghouri, Nazim; Bailey, Mark E S; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R

    2013-01-01

    ...). Seventy-five South Asian and 83 European men, aged 40-70, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes had fasted blood taken, blood pressure measured, physical activity assessed objectively (using accelerometry...

  2. Making ideas at scientific fabrication laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Carlo; Canessa, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Creativity, together with the making of ideas into fruition, is essential for progress. Today the evolution from an idea to its application can be facilitated by the implementation of Fabrication Laboratories, or FabLabs, having affordable digital tools for prototyping. FabLabs aiming at scientific research and invention are now starting to be established inside Universities, Research Centers and Schools. We review the setting up of the ICTP Scientific FabLab in Trieste, Italy, give concrete examples on the use in physics, and propose to replicate world-wide this class of multi-purpose workplaces within academia as a support for physics and math education and for community development.

  3. Empowering academia through modern fabrication practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Nicolas; Haldrup, Michael; Hobye, Mads

    We posit that modern fabrication and rapid prototyping practices can empower non-technical academic environments. For this to resonate with academic learning and research environments in a university context we must view FabLabs not only as machine parks but as creative environments, producing...... knowledge contributions in the form of processes, designs, artifacts and products. We must embrace thinking through the material, and embrace physical products as valid, accessible and assessable on an equal footing with traditional textual media. We describe two cases: workshops focused on exploration...... through the physical and digital media itself, without a traditional textual component....

  4. Within-person associations of young adolescents’ physical activity across five primary locations: is there evidence of cross-location compensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Mitchell, Tarrah B.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity in that loca...... in that location, youth had less activity in other locations (i.e., within-person associations/compensation)....

  5. The evidence-based rationale for physical therapy treatment of children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with joint hypermobility syndrome/hypermobile Ehlers Danlos syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbert, Raoul H; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Pacey, Verity

    2017-01-01

    New insights into the phenotype of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-hypermobile type (hEDS) have raised many issues in relation to classification, diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Within the multidisciplinary team, physical therapy plays a central role...... in management of individuals with hypermobility related disorders. However, many physical therapists are not familiar with the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, common clinical presentation, and management. This guideline aims to provide practitioners with the state of the art regarding the assessment...

  6. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes constitute a major problem leading to loss of function and disability, resulting in enormous societal burden. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique role of PRM physicians in the management of these disabling conditions that require not only pharmacological interventions but also a holistic approach including the consideration of body functions, activities and participation as well as contextual factors as described in the ICF. Evidence-based effective PRM interventions include exercise and multicomponent treatment including a psychotherapeutic intervention such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to exercise, the latter based on strong evidence for reducing pain and improving quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Balneotherapy, meditative movement therapies, and acupuncture have also been shown as efficacious in improving symptoms in FMS. Emerging evidence suggests the use of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (rTMS or tDCS) in FMS patients with intractable pain not alleviated by other interventions. Graded exercise therapy and CBT are evidence-based options for chronic fatigue syndrome. The use of some physical modalities and manipulation for myofascial pain syndrome is also supported by evidence. As for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), strong evidence exists for rTMS and graded motor imagery as well as moderate evidence for mirror therapy

  7. Fabrication of (111)-oriented Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}IrO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices—A designed playground for honeycomb physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Daigorou [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuno, Jobu [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takagi, Hidenori [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Max-Plank-Institute for solid state research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of (111)-oriented superlattice structures with alternating 2m-layers (m = 1, 2, and 3) of Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}IrO{sub 3} perovskite and two layers of SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite on SrTiO{sub 3}(111) substrates. In the case of m = 1 bilayer films, the Ir sub-lattice is a buckled honeycomb, where a topological state may be anticipated. The successful growth of superlattice structures on an atomic level along the [111] direction was clearly demonstrated by superlattice reflections in x-ray diffraction patterns and by atomically resolved transmission electron microscope images. The ground states of the superlattice films were found to be magnetic insulators, which may suggest the importance of electron correlations in Ir perovskites in addition to the much discussed topological effects.

  8. Fabrication of (111-oriented Ca0.5Sr0.5IrO3/SrTiO3 superlattices—A designed playground for honeycomb physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigorou Hirai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of (111-oriented superlattice structures with alternating 2m-layers (m = 1, 2, and 3 of Ca0.5Sr0.5IrO3 perovskite and two layers of SrTiO3 perovskite on SrTiO3(111 substrates. In the case of m = 1 bilayer films, the Ir sub-lattice is a buckled honeycomb, where a topological state may be anticipated. The successful growth of superlattice structures on an atomic level along the [111] direction was clearly demonstrated by superlattice reflections in x-ray diffraction patterns and by atomically resolved transmission electron microscope images. The ground states of the superlattice films were found to be magnetic insulators, which may suggest the importance of electron correlations in Ir perovskites in addition to the much discussed topological effects.

  9. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  10. A study of trait anhedonia in non-clinical Chinese samples: evidence from the Chapman Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C K Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that anhedonia, an inability to experience pleasure, can be measured as an enduring trait in non-clinical samples. In order to examine trait anhedonia in a non-clinical sample, we examined the properties of a range of widely used questionnaires capturing anhedonia. METHODS: 887 young adults were recruited from colleges. All of them were administered a set of checklists, including Chapman Scale for Social Anhedonia (CRSAS and the Chapman Scale for Physical Anhedonia Scale (CPAS, The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale(TEPS, and The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. RESULTS: Males showed significantly higher level of physical (F = 5.09, p<0.001 and social (F = 4.38, p<0.005 anhedonia than females. As expected, individuals with schizotypal personality features also demonstrated significantly higher scores of physical (t = 3.81, p<0.001 and social (t = 7.33, p<0.001 trait anhedonia than individuals without SPD features, but no difference on self-report anticipatory and consummatory pleasure experience. CONCLUSIONS: Concerning the comparison on each item of physical and social anhedonia, the results indicated that individuals with SPD feature exhibited higher than individuals without SPD features on more items of social anhedonia than physical anhedonia scale. These preliminary findings suggested that trait anhedonia can be identified a non-clinical sample. Exploring the demographic and clinical correlates of trait anhedonia in the general population may provide clues to the pathogenesis of psychotic disorder.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N. Q.; Horne, C. R.; Liu, F. S.; Moffatt, D. M.; Staszak, P. R.

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is an all-ceramic structure in which cell components are configured in a compact corrugated array. The MSOFC shows promise for use in a wide range of sizes (kilowatt to megawatt) and a broad spectrum of applications (electric utility, cogeneration, on-site, and aerospace power). A process based on the tape calendering technique is being developed for the fabrication of the MSOFC. MSOFC single cells have been fabricated by this process without cracking or delamination. Stacks of various sizes have been formed and processed to demonstrate fabricability of the monolithic structure. Extensive physical, chemical, electrical, and electrochemical characterization of fabricated samples has been carried out to confirm the required properties of each cell component. The characterization results reported have been used to support material and fabrication improvements.

  12. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  13. INCREMENTAL MICRO-MECHANICAL MODEL OF PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYitong; HaoYongjiang; LiCuiyu

    2004-01-01

    Warp yarns and weft yarns of plain woven fabric are the principal axes of material of fabric. They are orthogonal in their original configuration, but are obliquely crisscross in deformed configuration in general. In this paper the expressions of incremental components of strain tensor are derived, the non-linear model of woven fabric is linearized physically and its geometric non-linearity survives. The convenience of determining the total deformation is shown by the choice of the coordinate system of the principal axes of the material, with the convergence of the incremental methods illustrated by examples. This incremental model furnishes a basis for numerical simulations of fabric draping and wrinkling based oll the micro-mechanical model of fabric.

  14. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  15. Shoulder pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, E; Valero, R; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. According to the PCC of the UEMS-PRM Section, the role of PRM physician in the management of shoulder pain (SP) has to be situated inside the general pain management field. SP is a common condition that can place limitations on the activity and restriction in social life participation of sufferers. A variety of shoulder problems, commonly including subacromial impingement, calcifying tendinitis, frozen shoulder, acromio-clavicular disturbances, gleno-humeral instability and gleno-humeral arthritis, can cause pain, and patients should be assessed and treated in order to relieve symptoms and reduce disability. This position paper describes the role of the PRM specialist in the management of such patients. Many assessment methods and treatment interventions are usually used in the management of patients with SP. Depending on the process, disability and patient characteristics, some intervention modalities have reported evidence in pain relief, movement and daily life activity (DLA) restoration, thus permiting a patient early recovery and social participation. Oral medications, local injections, physical therapy modalities and exercises are normally used for the management of SP. The PRM specialist should, always use this best medical evidence to decide how to efficiently and effectively reduce SP-related disability. An adequate therapeutic algorithm is also proposed in order to channelize the above mentioned evidence and reach

  16. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí cohort study of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira Ramalho; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa; Josélia O. A. Firmo; Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (< 450 MET....

  17. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  18. Inflammatory arthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilıeva, E M; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Chrıstodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. Inflammatory arthritis is a major cause of disability with an important economic burden in society. The goals in the management of inflammatory arthritis are to control pain and disease activity, prevent joint damage, protect and enhance function and improve quality of life. This paper aims to define the role of PRM physicians in people with inflammatory arthritis. PRM interventions imply non-pharmacological treatments which include patient education for joint protection, energy conservation and self-management techniques, exercise therapy, physical modalities, orthoses/assistive devices and balneotherapy. Therapeutic patient education and exercises are the cornerstones of therapy with strong evidence of their effectiveness to improve function. Physical modalities are primarily used to decrease pain and stiffness whereas orthoses/assistive devices are usually prescribed to enhance activities and participation. PRM physicians have distinct roles in the management of people with inflammatory arthritis such that they effectively organise and supervise the PRM program in the context of interdisciplinary team work. Their role starts with a comprehensive assessment of patient's functioning based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) as the framework. In the light of this assessment, appropriate PRM interventions individualised for the patient are administered. Future research and actions

  19. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. Methods: A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs…

  20. Evidence from a homosexual sample for a sex-specific rival-oriented mechanism : Jealousy as a function of a rival's physical attractiveness and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2001-01-01

    Among heterosexual women in particular. a rival's physical attractiveness evokes jealousy, whereas among heterosexual men in particular. a rival's dominance evokes feelings of jealousy. The present study conducted with gay men and lesbian women examined whether these sex-differentiated responses

  1. Evidence from a homosexual sample for a sex-specific rival-oriented mechanism : Jealousy as a function of a rival's physical attractiveness and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2001-01-01

    Among heterosexual women in particular. a rival's physical attractiveness evokes jealousy, whereas among heterosexual men in particular. a rival's dominance evokes feelings of jealousy. The present study conducted with gay men and lesbian women examined whether these sex-differentiated responses ref

  2. Understanding the physics of functional fibers in the gastrointestinal tract: an evidence-based approach to resolving enduring misconceptions about insoluble and soluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readil...

  3. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Liu

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression.A meta-analysis and meta-regression.Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1 intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2 reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3 participants' ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4 a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3 and Stata (version 12.0 were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators.Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges' g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001, self-concept (Hedges' g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014 and self-worth (Hedges' g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005. There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013.Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings.

  4. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. Design A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Method Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Results Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges’ g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges’ g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges’ g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Conclusion Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium

  5. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants' ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges' g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges' g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges' g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings.

  6. Fabrication of High T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperley, Miles Hyam

    1992-01-01

    Metal-clad high-T_{rm c} superconductor wires have been fabricated by conventional hot extrusion and wire drawing techniques. The fabrication processes which were used influenced the microstructure which, in turn, governed the superconducting properties of metal-clad Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) and Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) superconductors. The ability to form these materials into long thin wires and the electrical properties of the wires were assessed. Extruded metal-clad wire was fabricated by coextruding a Cu billet containing a Ag-clad superconductor core at 920^circC and 800 ^circC for YBCO and BPSCCO materials, respectively. The deformation behaviour of the composite billets was investigated by extruding through dies with semicone angle alpha = 30 ^circ and using a range of core diameters and reduction ratios. For combinations of initial core diameter and reduction ratio, domains of deformation behaviour were established including sound flow, nonuniform flow, core fracture and sleeve fracture. Hot extruded YBCO and BPSCCO superconductor had densities estimated to be between 95% and 98% of the theoretical values. The material contained transverse cracks except for a sample of YBCO which had an addition of 10 wt% Ag. The microstructure of the YBCO material consisted of YBa _2Cu_3O{_{7-x}}, while the BPSCCO material contained an intimate mixture of the high-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_2Cu _3O{_ {10-x}} (110 K) and low-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_1Cu _2O{_ {8-x}} (80 K) phases with Ca _2CuO_3 and Sr-Ca -Cu-O impurity particles. X-ray polefigure goniometry of extruded BPSCCO superconductor revealed that the material was relatively untextured. As-extruded YBCO and BPSCCO were semiconducting. Oxygen treated YBCO had a lower normal-state resistivity than the as-extruded material, and a superconducting transition above 77 K was not achieved. Heat treatment of extruded BPSCCO regenerated superconductivity above 77 K, with the transition behaviour dependent on the proportion of high

  7. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  8. Development of the fabrication technology of the simulated DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Yang, M. S.; Bae, K. K. and others

    2000-06-01

    It is important to get basic data to analysis physical properties, behavior in reactor and performance of the DUPIC fuel because physical properties of the DUPIC fuel is different from the commercial UO{sub 2} fuel. But what directly measures physical properties et al. of DUPIC fuel being resinterred simulated spent fuel through OREOX process is very difficult in laboratory owing to its high level radiation. Then fabrication of simulated DUPIC fuel is needed to measure its properties. In this study, processes on powder treatment, OREOX, compaction and sintering to fabricate simulated DUPIC fuel using simulated spent fuel are discribed. To fabricate simulated DUPIC fuel, the powder from 3 times OREOX and 5 times attrition milling simulated spent fuel is compacted with 1.3 ton/cm{sup 2}. Pellets are sintered in 100% H{sub 2} atmosphere over 10 h at 1800 deg C. Sintered densities of pellets are 10.2-10.5 g/cm{sup 3}.

  9. The effect of fabric and stabbing variables on severance appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, E J; Carr, D J; Horsfall, I; Fergusson, S M

    2015-04-01

    During a stabbing, apparel fabrics are usually damaged and may be penetrated. Despite numerous studies considering forces required to penetrate skin and human stabbing performance, none have systematically evaluated which variables affect severance appearance from a textile science perspective using a human stabbing participant assessment. Although the human performance aspects of stabbing attacks have been previously studied, there has been a bias towards male assailants. The effects of fabric elasticity and tension applied have been identified as major factors influencing the severance profile in the fabric resulting from a stab attack. However, previous studies have considered limited fabric types with little emphasis on the physical and mechanical textile properties. The purpose of the current research was to use a human participant study (male n=5; female n=5) to determine the effect of fabric extension (0%, 10%) on the severance profile. Fabric type (single jersey; 100% cotton; 93% cotton/7% elastane), age (not laundered; laundered 60 times) and knife type (carving, bread) were also considered. Severance length was affected by participant sex, fabric type, laundering and knife type. The severances formed in this study were not significantly affected by the amount a fabric was extended when stabbed. Variability was observed in the severance appearance among participants where prior training influenced the angle of impact and knife withdrawal technique.

  10. Engineering fabrics in transportation construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, S. C.

    1983-11-01

    The following areas are discussed: treatments for reduction of reflective cracking of asphalt overlays on jointed-concrete pavements in Georgia; laboratory testing of fabric interlayers for asphalt concrete paving: interim report; reflection cracking models: review and laboratory evaluation of engineering fabrics; optimum-depth method for design of fabric-reinforced unsurfaced roads; dynamic test to predict field behavior of filter fabrics used in pavement subdrains; mechanism of geotextile performance in soil-fabric systems for drainage and erosion control; permeability tests of selected filter fabrics for use with a loess-derived alluvium; geotextile filter criteria; use of fabrics for improving the placement of till on peat foundation; geotextile earth-reinforced retaining wall tests: Glenwood Canyon, Colorado; New York State Department of Transportation's experience and guidelines for use of geotextiles; evaluation of two geotextile installations in excess of a decade old; and, long-term in situ properties of geotextiles.

  11. Physical Exercise and Antidepressants Enhance BDNF Targeting in Hippocampal CA3 Dendrites: Further Evidence of a Spatial Code for BDNF Splice Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons...

  12. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Firmo, Josélia O A; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (MET.min/week) was 31.2%. Unhurried walking accounted for about 1/3 of total energy expenditure. Multivariate analysis based on ordinal logistic regression showed inverse associations between energy expenditure and age and hospitalizations in both sexes. Among men, inverse associations were observed with smoking, number of chronic diseases and number of medical appointments. These results emphasize the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity in older elderly, and underscore the high prevalence of walking in this group.

  13. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  14. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  15. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  16. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the challenges for the textile industry has changed because of technological development and outsourcing. The consequence is an increased focus on innovation in the textile trade. This paper describes the objectives in a three year research project. In order to contribute...... to the establishment of an initial framework for the project it has a focus on how to explore costumers and users emotional experiences with fabrics. The three year research project is based on experimental design research and the textile designer's competences and knowledge. During the research project exploring...

  17. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients’ overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient’s risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

  19. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  20. Multiscale Modeling of the Impact of Textile Fabrics Based on Hybrid Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Leighton RB, Sands M. The Feynman lectures on physics , definitive edition, vol. 1. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company; 2006. ISBN 0- 8053-9046-4. [21...model with distance away from the impact zone based on the multiscale nature of the fabric architecture and the physics of the impact event. Solid...nature of the fabric architecture and the physics of the impact event. Solid elements are used to discretize the yarns around the impact region

  1. Les fabricants de superlourds

    CERN Multimedia

    Thivent, Viviane

    2006-01-01

    Who said that russian science was not competitive any more? Today, the nuclear physics laboratory in Dubna asserts the record of the heaviest chimical element ever manufactured: 118 protons. (4 pages)

  2. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  3. Controllable fabrication of carbon aerogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya'ning; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae; TANEMURA Masaki; SUZUKI Kenzi

    2006-01-01

    Nano-pore carbon aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene)(C6H4(OH)2) with formaldehyde (HCHO) in a slightly basic aqueous solution, followed by super-critical drying under liquid carbon dioxide as super-critical media and carbonization at 700 ℃ under N2 gas atmosphere. The key of the work is to fabricate carbon aerogels with controllable nano-pore structure, which means extremely high surface area and sharp pore size distribution. Aiming to investigate the effects of preparation conditions on the gelation process, the bulk density, and the physical and chemical structure of the resultant carbon aerogels, the molar ratio of R/C (resorcinol to catalyst) and the amount of distilled water were varied, consequently two different sets of samples, with series of R/C ratio and RF/W (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde to water, or the content of reactant) ratio, were prepared. The result of N2 adsorption/desorption experiment at 77 K shows that the pore sizes decreasing from 11.4 down tO2.2 nm with the increasing of the molar ratio of R/C from 100 to 400, and/or, the pore sizes decreasing from 3.8 down to 1.6 nm with the increasing of reactant content from 0.4 to 0.6.

  4. Physical and dynamical characteristics of a 300 m-deep anticyclonic eddy in the Ligurian Sea (Northwest Mediterranean Sea): Evidence from a multi-platform sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Alvarez, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    We describe the physical and dynamical characteristics of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy observed in August 2013 over the shelf-break region of the northeastern sector of the Ligurian Sea, between the northeastern edge of the Northern Current (NC) and the coast. Results derive from a dense dataset of temperature, salinity and current measurements obtained from a multi-platform sampling strategy as well as from a diagnostic simulation with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at a horizontal resolution of 1.8 km. Model results are obtained from a strong nudging to observations and, as they are physically balanced, they allow a three-dimensional diagnosis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the eddy. The eddy is centered around 9.5°E, 43.94°N, about 20 km from the coast, and has a radius of 16 km. It is characterized by low-density waters and penetrates the thermocline down to at least 300 m reflecting the main features of the NC. Horizontal velocities near the surface are around 0.4 m s-1, while at 150 m are still significantly high and close to 0.2 m s-1. Vertical velocities were estimated from model results; absolute values are below 4 m day-1 until depths shallower than 150 m and increase with depth to 15 m day-1. The eddy's presence inverts the northwestwards flow traditionally portrayed in the region determining a southeastwards coastal circulation that replenishes coastal waters with those originating from the NC. We discuss several possible eddy formation mechanisms and suggest that its formation depends on the directionality of the NC when it enters the Ligurian Sea, as a result of the adjustment of the shear and orbital components of the current's relative vorticity.

  5. Should physical activity recommendations be ethnicity-specific? Evidence from a cross-sectional study of South Asian and European men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expert bodies and health organisations recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week(-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA. However, the underpinning data largely emanate from studies of populations of European descent. It is unclear whether this level of activity is appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have increased cardio-metabolic disease risk compared to Europeans. The aim of this study was to explore the level of MPA required in South Asians to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans undertaking the currently recommended MPA level of 150 min.week(-1. METHODS: Seventy-five South Asian and 83 European men, aged 40-70, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes had fasted blood taken, blood pressure measured, physical activity assessed objectively (using accelerometry, and anthropometric measures made. Factor analysis was used to summarise measured risk biomarkers into underlying latent 'factors' for glycaemia, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, and overall cardio-metabolic risk. Age-adjusted regression models were used to determine the equivalent level of MPA (in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes in South Asians needed to elicit the same value in each factor as Europeans undertaking 150 min.week(-1 MPA. FINDINGS: For all factors, except blood pressure, equivalent MPA values in South Asians were significantly higher than 150 min.week(-1; the equivalent MPA value for the overall cardio-metabolic risk factor was 266 (95% CI 185-347 min.week(-1. CONCLUSIONS: South Asian men may need to undertake greater levels of MPA than Europeans to exhibit a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile, suggesting that a conceptual case can be made for ethnicity-specific physical activity guidance. Further study is needed to extend these findings to women and to replicate them prospectively in a larger cohort.

  6. Physical exercise and antidepressants enhance BDNF targeting in hippocampal CA3 dendrites: further evidence of a spatial code for BDNF splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. While these DG processes are required for the antidepressant effect, a role for CA1 in antidepressant action has been excluded, and the effect on CA3 neurons remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that physical exercise and antidepressants induce local increase of BDNF in CA3. Voluntary physical exercise for 28 consecutive days, or 2-week treatment with 10 mg/kg per day fluoxetine or reboxetine, produced a global increase of BDNF mRNA and protein in the neuronal somata of the whole hippocampus and a specific increase of BDNF in dendrites of CA3 neurons. This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10-50 μM) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants.

  7. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  8. AFIP-4 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore

    2010-02-01

    The AFIP-4 (ATR Full –size-plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Twelve qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-4 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts; including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  9. AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  10. AFIP-2 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn Moore

    2010-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full-size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position (AFIP)-2 experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP 2 experiment to be irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory ATR. This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  11. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  12. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  13. An astronomical search for evidence of new physics: Limits on gravity-induced birefringence from the magnetic white dwarf RE J0317-853

    CERN Document Server

    Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami K; Jordan, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field directly with gravitational gauge fields leads to new physical effects that can be tested using astronomical data. Here we consider a particular case for closer scrutiny, a specific nonminimal coupling of torsion to electromagnetism, which enters into a metric-affine geometry of space-time. We show that under the assumption of this nonminimal coupling, spacetime is birefringent in the presence of such a gravitational field. This leads to the depolarization of light emitted from extended astrophysical sources. We use polarimetric data of the magnetic white dwarf ${RE J0317-853}$ to set strong constraints on the essential coupling constant for this effect, giving $k^2 \\lsim (19 {m})^2 $.

  14. Microsystem Cooler Concept Developed and Being Fabricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2005-01-01

    A patented microsystem cooler concept has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center. It incorporates diaphragm actuators to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle within a planar configuration compatible with the thermal management of electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and other microsystems. The microsystem cooler is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is conducting development testing and fabrication of a prototype under a grant from Glenn.

  15. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  16. Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Yadav; Virendra Prasad; A A Kathe; Sheela Raj; Deepti Yadav; C Sundaramoorthy; N Vigneshwaran

    2006-11-01

    Nanotechnology, according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), is defined as utilization of structure with at least one dimension of nanometer size for the construction of materials, devices or systems with novel or significantly improved properties due to their nano-size. The nanostructures are capable of enhancing the physical properties of conventional textiles, in areas such as anti-microbial properties, water repellence, soil-resistance, anti-static, anti-infrared and flame-retardant properties, dyeability, colour fastness and strength of textile materials. In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent. These nanoparticles, which have an average size of 40 nm, were coated on the bleached cotton fabrics (plain weave, 30 s count) using acrylic binder and functional properties of coated fabrics were studied. On an average of 75%, UV blocking was recorded for the cotton fabrics treated with 2% ZnO nanoparticles. Air permeability of the nano-ZnO coated fabrics was significantly higher than the control, hence the increased breathability. In case of nano-ZnO coated fabric, due to its nano-size and uniform distribution, friction was significantly lower than the bulk-ZnO coated fabric as studied by Instron® Automated Materials Testing System. Further studies are under way to evaluate wash fastness, antimicrobial properties, abrasion properties and fabric handle properties.

  17. Plasma Induced Physicochemical Changes and Reactive Dyeing of Wool Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Udakhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma treatment on physical and chemical properties of wool fabric and its relation to exhaustion of Drimalan Navy Blue FBI reactive dye. AFM analysis of plasma treated wool fabric has shown partial removal of epicuticle and thus reduced scale height. FD spectroscopy has shown improvement in hydrophilicity by many folds after plasma treatment. ATR graphs depict the removal of hydrophobic layer of 18-MEA and introduction of hydrophilic groups like cysteic acid after plasma treatment. Alkali solubility of wool fabric increases with increasing plasma treatment time. Wetting time for plasma treated fabric reduces drastically when compared to untreated wool fabric. It is found that plasma treated fabric takes much lesser time to reach maximum dye exhaustion than untreated fabric. Substantivity of the dye increases significantly after plasma treatment. Colour fastness properties improve with increase in plasma treatment time. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of spent dyebath liquor is found to reduce with increase in plasma treatment time. Biological oxygen demand (BOD is found to be higher for plasma treated samples, while ratio of COD/BOD has reduced with increase in the plasma treatment time.

  18. STRETCH FABRICS IN LEATHER MANUFACTURING: PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF STRECH LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Product variability of manufactured leather goods such as garment leathers could be closely related to the wear comfort because each material forming the garments are affected the comfort properties of the products. Considering the significant demand to elastic woven stretch fabrics and the advantages provided to leather goods like allowing easy body movements, well-fitting and keeping the shape make the use of stretch fabrics focus in interest. In this study, the performance properties of stretch leathers, leathers and spandex fabrics were presented and the differences between the characteristic properties of the leathers were described. For this purpose, physical characteristics of leathers were investigated in terms of thickness, weight, drape ability, stiffness, bending stiffness, air and water vapor permeability. The drape ability, stiffness and bending stiffness properties were significantly affected by the stretch fabrics laminated on the suede side of the leathers. The drape ability, stiffness and bending values were increased due to the implementation of stretch fabrics. There was no significant difference between the air permeability values of the leathers prior and after the implementation of stretch fabrics in contrast to water vapor permeability. The results of this study showed that the aesthetic behavior of clothing materials such as drape and stiffness properties as well as water vapor permeability was mainly affected from the implementation of the stretch fabrics.

  19. High sensitivity measurements of thermal properties of textile fabrics

    CERN Document Server

    Romeli, D; Esposito, S; Rosace, G; Salesi, G

    2013-01-01

    A new testing apparatus is proposed to measure the thermal properties of fabrics made from polymeric materials. The calibration of the apparatus and the data acquisition procedure are considered in detail in order to measure thermal conductivity, resistance, absorption and diffusivity constants of the tested fabric samples. Differences between dry and wet fabrics have been carefully detected and analyzed. We have developed a new measurement protocol, the "ThermoTex" protocol, which agrees with the UNI EN 31092 standard and entails an accurate quantification of the experimental errors according to a standard statistical analysis, thus allowing a rigorous investigation of the physical behavior of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, our machinery exhibits great potentialities for optimizing the thermal comfort of fabrics, according to the market demand, thanks to the possible development of a predictive phenomenological theory of the effects involved.

  20. Proceedings of the twelfth target fabrication specialists` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Research in fabrication for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) comprises at least three broad categories: targets for high energy density physics on existing drivers, ignition capsule fabrication, and cryogenic fuel layer formation. The latter two are being pursued primarily for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Scientists from over 14 laboratories, universities, and businesses contributed over 100 papers on all aspects of ICF target fabrication. The NIF is well along in construction and photos of poured concrete and exposed steel added to the technical excitement. It was clear from the meeting that there has been significant progress toward the fabrication of an ignition target for NIF and that new techniques are resulting in higher quality targets for high energy density research.

  1. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-10-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

  2. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  3. B physics: evidence for the exclusive decay b^+/-_c -> j/psi pi^+ and measurement of the mass of the b^+/-_c meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, D.; The CDF Collaboration

    2005-05-25

    We report the first evidence of a fully reconstructed decay mode of the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson in the channel B{sub c}{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{sup {+-}}, with J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 360 pb{sup -1} in p{bar p} collisions collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We observe 18.9 {+-} 5.7 signal events on a background of 10.0 {+-} 1.4 events and the fit to the J/{psi}{pi}{sup {+-}} mass spectrum yields a B{sub c}{sup {+-}} mass of 6287.0 {+-} 4.8(stat) {+-} 1.1(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  4. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  5. After physics

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, David Z

    2015-01-01

    After Physics presents ambitious new essays about some of the deepest questions at the foundations of physics, by the physicist and philosopher David Albert. The book’s title alludes to the close connections between physics and metaphysics, much in evidence throughout these essays. It also alludes to the work of imagining what it would be like for the project of physical science—considered as an investigation into the fundamental laws of nature—to be complete. Albert argues that the difference between the past and the future—traditionally regarded as a matter for metaphysical or conceptual or linguistic or phenomenological analysis—can be understood as a mechanical phenomenon of nature. In another essay he contends that all versions of quantum mechanics that are compatible with the special theory of relativity make it impossible, even in principle, to present the entirety of what can be said about the world as a narrative sequence of “befores” and “afters.” Any sensible and realistic way of...

  6. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  7. The Antimicrobial Activity of Wool Fabrics Treated with Crosslinking Agents and Polyhexamethylene Biguanide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; HE JINxin; ZHAN Yizhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In this study, we used citric acid (CA) as a crosslinking agent, mixed with polyhexamethylene biguanide, to perform a pad-dry-cure treatment on wool fabrics to study its antimicrobial effects and physical properties. The surface characteristic and the structure of wool fabric were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to study the crosslinking mechanism of the treated fabric.

  8. Use of coated fabric membranes for facade and roof systems of steel constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrič, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is divided into three parts. In the first part (chapters 2 to 7), types of architectural membrane structures from coated fabrics are presented, different types of coated fabrics and their composition is described, welding procedures for membranes from coated fabrics are shown, and physical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes are given, including laboratory tests descriptions of individual characteristics. In the second part of the thesis (chapter 8), we are discussing...

  9. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  10. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect.

  11. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  12. GLAST/EAAT1-induced glutamine release via SNAT3 in Bergmann glial cells: evidence of a functional and physical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lozada, Zila; Guillem, Alain M; Flores-Méndez, Marco; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; Vela, Carmelita; Meza, Enrique; Zepeda, Rossana C; Caba, Mario; Rodríguez, Angelina; Ortega, Arturo

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain, is removed from the synaptic cleft by a family of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters profusely expressed in glial cells. Once internalized, it is metabolized by glutamine synthetase to glutamine and released to the synaptic space through sodium-dependent neutral amino acid carriers of the N System (SNAT3/slc38a3/SN1, SNAT5/slc38a5/SN2). Glutamine is then taken up by neurons completing the so-called glutamate/glutamine shuttle. Despite of the fact that this coupling was described decades ago, it is only recently that the biochemical framework of this shuttle has begun to be elucidated. Using the established model of cultured cerebellar Bergmann glia cells, we sought to characterize the functional and physical coupling of glutamate uptake and glutamine release. A time-dependent Na⁺-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter/EAAT1-induced System N-mediated glutamine release could be demonstrated. Furthermore, D-aspartate, a specific glutamate transporter ligand, was capable of enhancing the co-immunoprecipitation of Na⁺-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter and Na⁺-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 3, whereas glutamine tended to reduce this association. Our results suggest that glial cells surrounding glutamatergic synapses may act as sensors of neuron-derived glutamate through their contribution to the neurotransmitter turnover. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  14. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication r

  15. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency property

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Jahagirdar; L B Tiwari

    2007-04-01

    Polyester fabric is treated with DCDMS solution by two methods: dipping the fabric directly in DCDMS solution for different intervals and dipping the fabric in DCDMS solution after its exposure into RF plasma chamber for different durations at optimized exposure power conditions. The physical properties of polyester fabric treated with DCDMS in the presence or absence of air plasma have been compared with control fabric. Different characterization techniques like scanning electron microscope, attenuated total reflectance-IR and Dataflash 100 colour measurement spectrophotometer are used to assess the surface morphology, composition and change in colour parameters. Water repellency property of both untreated and modified polyester fabric is studied using AATCC test method 39 (1971). The effectiveness of the water repellency property of modified polyester fabric is checked by repeated washing up to ten cycles.

  16. Imitation of Fabric Flagging in the Wind with 1/Fβ Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Beibei; ZHAO Zhihong; GENG Zhaofeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model, based on noise, to simulate fabric flagging in the wind. The wind noise is generated by two sine functions defined in advance. The frequencies and amplitudes of these sine functions are changeable to presenting the basic model of the fabric. In order to obtain more fabric fluctuant effect, we adopt a cosine function to achieve the fabric dynamic display effect. In the actual process, the traditional Phong illumination model is improved. Therefore, the model of simulating fabric flagging in the wind can be built successfully. Comparison with the physical model shows that it is a fast arithmetic because of adopting a new model in stead of the time consuming iteration arithmetic. It can achieve a friendly design interface and an ideal simulation effect. Designers can select wind force and fabric material by controlling different parameters. The basic characteristics of fabric swaying in the wind are simulated efficiently and displayed vividly.

  17. Dissertation Award in Nuclear Physics Prize Talk: Model-Independent Measurement of the ^8B Solar Neutrino Flux and Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Change at SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2003-04-01

    With heavy water as a target medium the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to study solar neutrinos by measuring both the total flux of ^8B neutrinos through the neutral-current interaction as well as the electron-type neutrino flux via charged-current dissociation of deuterium. Using data from the pure D_2O phase of SNO we have determined the interaction rates of solar neutrinos with deuterium and characterized the backgrounds throughout the SNO detector volume. Without assumptions about the shape of the underlying ^8B spectrum a model-independent measurement of the total flux of active solar ^8B neutrinos is made. The measurement of the neutral-current and charged-current interaction rates provides direct evidence for the flavor transformation of solar neutrinos and indicates that neutrinos have mass. A combined analysis of solar neutrino data from SNO and Super-Kamiokande can be used to constrain the leading weak axial two-body current, the dominant uncertainty of the low-energy weak interaction deuteron breakup process. It is shown that the theoretical inputs to SNO's determination of the CC and NC interaction rates are not a significant theoretical uncertainty and can be self-calibrated.

  18. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  19. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiyari, M. İ.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  20. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  1. Interpreting inverse magnetic fabric in dikes from Eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Urbani, Stefano; Porreca, Massimiliano; Acocella, Valerio; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    minimum axes of the AMS ellipsoids, suggesting that the preferential orientation of these minerals represent the main source of inverse and intermediate magnetic fabrics. The results of this study demonstrate that the interpretation of the magnetic fabric is not always straightforward and the origin of anomalous fabrics may be related to a variety of physical and chemical processes during magma emplacement.

  2. Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.

  3. Evidence for a trade-off strategy in stone oak (Lithocarpus seeds between physical and chemical defense highlights fiber as an important antifeedant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Trees in the beech or oak family (Fagaceae have a mutualistic relationship with scatter-hoarding rodents. Rodents obtain nutrients and energy by consuming seeds, while providing seed dispersal for the tree by allowing some cached seeds to germinate. Seed predation and caching behavior of rodents is primarily affected by seed size, mechanical protection, macronutrient content, and chemical antifeedants. To enhance seed dispersal, trees must optimize trade-offs in investment between macronutrients and antifeedants. Here, we examine this important chemical balance in the seeds of tropical stone oak species with two substantially different fruit morphologies. These two distinct fruit morphologies in Lithocarpus differ in the degree of mechanical protection of the seed. For 'acorn' fruit, a thin exocarp forms a shell around the seed while for 'enclosed receptacle' (ER fruit, the seed is embedded in a woody receptacle. We compared the chemical composition of numerous macronutrient and antifeedant in seeds from several Lithocarpus species, focusing on two pairs of sympatric species with different fruit morphologies. We found that macronutrients, particularly total non-structural carbohydrate, was more concentrated in seeds of ER fruits while antifeedants, primarily fibers, were more concentrated in seeds of acorn fruits. The trade-off in these two major chemical components was more evident between the two sympatric lowland species than between two highland species. Surprisingly, no significant difference in overall tannin concentrations in the seeds was observed between the two fruit morphologies. Instead, the major trade-off between macronutrients and antifeedants involved indigestible fibers. Future studies of this complex mutualism should carefully consider the role of indigestible fibers in the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents.

  4. Can an evidence-based book club intervention delivered via a tablet computer improve physical activity in middle-aged women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L; de Vreede, Gert-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Fewer than 50% of middle-aged women participate in regular physical activity (PA). Innovative approaches that engage women who may not otherwise participate in PA programs are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 12-week tablet-based book club for improving middle-aged women's PA. Thirty women (35-64 years of age) were randomized to the Fit Minded Tablet (n=15) and the Standard Fit Minded (i.e., face-to-face intervention) (n=15) groups. The Fit Minded Tablet was adapted from the Standard Fit Minded, a previously tested, theory-based book club intervention using books as a platform for discussion and group support to help women adopt regular PA. Both interventions met weekly for 3 months, for a total of 12 sessions. Tablet group participants accessed materials (e.g., e-books, workbook, live/recorded videoconferencing) via a tablet computer; Standard group participants received materials (e.g., printed books, workbook, live face-to-face meetings) in person. Feasibility (i.e., implementation and expansion) was assessed using process evaluation, qualitative interviews, satisfaction surveys, and quantitative outcome assessments. Women in the Tablet group attended fewer meetings (mean, 8.25) than women in the Standard group (mean, 9.9). Videoconferencing, digital literacy, and participant engagement limitations were observed in the Tablet group. Tablet participants enjoyed the e-books but thought technology barriers hindered their engagement during meetings. Women in both groups valued the support they received from other group members. Standard participants cited this support as a key contributor to their PA changes, whereas Tablet participants reported needing in-person contact to feel more connected. Given the popularity of tablet computers and the value that middle-aged women place on group interaction to support their PA behaviors, additional research is warranted to determine best strategies for optimizing

  5. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  6. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  7. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-09-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication results of a non-conventional process, which uses a combination of focused gallium ion-beam milling and hydrofluoric acid vapor etching. This process makes it possible to fabricate nanoscale electrostatic lenses down to 140 nm in aperture diameter and 4.2 µm in column length, with a superior control of the geometry as compared to conventional lithography-based techniques.

  8. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  9. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  10. Development of Fabrication Technology for Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, Y. G.; Jung, C. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Son, D. S

    2006-04-15

    Purpose and Necessity Research purposes for the 3rd stage were to reaffirm the MOX fabrication processes and to establish the process database, based on the fabrication technology developed during the previous stage. This project was also proceeded to improve the fuel performance and to accomplish the inherent MOX technology for PWR. The fabrication processes should be proceeded in the glove boxes because the raw powders of MOX fuel is very toxic. Therefore, some special technology were needed to develop besides the fuel fabrication technology. Both core technology and steadiness of fabrication process are important to obtain homogeneity and thermo-physical properties of MOX fuel pellet. By developing these technology in fashion unique to ourselves, we can take the initiative in the nuclear fuel for next generation. The uranium price has been increasing along with the oil price recently. We have to secure the MOX fabrication technology which serves the effective use of uranium resource. Improvement of pellet characteristics along with the MOX irradiation analysis: Collection and monitoring of the MOX irradiation data, Establishment of the improvement methods of pellet characteristics Establishment of the MOX pellet fabrication process by the unique technology, Establishment of database with the MOX fabrication parameters and characteristics, Analysis of co-relation and re-appearance of the pellet characteristics affected by each process parameter, Construction of feedback system between database and process, Application of the unique fabrication technology to the industrial spot. Applicability of the unique fabrication processes to the glove box technology, Installment of process equipment in the glove box and development of operation skill, Methods for modifying, handling, maintaining and fixing of glove box and subsidiary, Construction of transport channel for the connection between glove boxes - MOX fabrication by the unique technology in the glove box. Research

  11. Spinal pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, R; Varela, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the role of PRM physicians in the management of spinal pain focusing particularly on low back pain and neck pain. These disorders are associated with significant disability that results in activity limitations and participation restrictions. A wide variety of PRM interventions including patient education, behavioural therapies, exercise, a number of physical modalities, manual techniques, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation may help patients with low back pain and cervical pain in improving their functioning. PRM physicians may address many of the problems encountered by these patients in many life areas taking the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference guide and may have an important role in improving the quality of their lives.

  12. Musculoskeletal perioperative problems. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, E; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. According to the UEMS-PRM section, the role of PRM physician in musculoskeletal perioperative settings has to be situated inside general pain management. Musculoskeletal surgery (MSS) represents a frequent medical situation among patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), in which PRM physicians need to be involved. A wide number of MSDs have to be operated in order to diminish disability and relieve symptoms, thus improving the patient´s functioning and social participation: Joint replacements, spine decompressions, vertebroplasties, internal fixation of unstable fractures, arthroscopies for tendon and joint repairs, and others. This paper describes the role of the PRM physician during the perioperative period. A well-coordinated rehabilitation programme followed by a good home rehabilitation programme results in pain reduction, faster recovery with better patient participation and increased cost effectiveness. PRM physicians have to identify patients at risk of continuing activity limitation and participation restriction who will benefit from an early rehabilitation process and formulate a PRM programme of care taking into account each patient's environmental factors.

  13. Digital fabrication of multi-material biomedical objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H H; Choi, S H

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system for modelling and digital fabrication of discrete and functionally graded multi-material objects for biomedical applications. The MMVP system consists of a DMMVP module, an FGMVP module and a virtual reality (VR) simulation module. The DMMVP module is used to model discrete multi-material (DMM) objects, while the FGMVP module is for functionally graded multi-material (FGM) objects. The VR simulation module integrates these two modules to perform digital fabrication of multi-material objects, which can be subsequently visualized and analysed in a virtual environment to optimize MMLM processes for fabrication of product prototypes. Using the MMVP system, two biomedical objects, including a DMM human spine and an FGM intervertebral disc spacer are modelled and digitally fabricated for visualization and analysis in a VR environment. These studies show that the MMVP system is a practical tool for modelling, visualization, and subsequent fabrication of biomedical objects of discrete and functionally graded multi-materials for biomedical applications. The system may be adapted to control MMLM machines with appropriate hardware for physical fabrication of biomedical objects.

  14. Automatic measurement for dimensional changes of woven fabrics based on texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Jiang, Hongxia; Liu, X.; Chai, Zhilei

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional change or shrinkage is an important functional attribute of woven fabrics that affects their basic function and price in the market. This paper presents a machine vision system that evaluates the shrinkage of woven fabrics by analyzing the change of fabric construction. The proposed measurement method has three features. (i) There will be no stain of shrinkage markers on the fabric specimen compared to the existing measurement method. (ii) The system can be used on fabric with reduced area. (iii) The system can be installed and used as a laboratory or industrial application system. The method processed can process the image of the fabric and is divided into four steps: acquiring a relative image from the sample of the woven fabric, obtaining a gray image and then the segmentation of the warp and weft from the fabric based on fast Fourier transform and inverse fast Fourier transform, calculation of the distance of the warp or weft sets by gray projection method and character shrinkage of the woven fabric by the average distance, coefficient of variation of distance and so on. Experimental results on virtual and physical woven fabrics indicated that the method provided could obtain the shrinkage information of woven fabric in detail. The method was programmed by Matlab software, and a graphical user interface was built by Delphi. The program has potential for practical use in the textile industry.

  15. Trends in physical activity and inactivity amongst US 14–18 year olds by gender, school grade and race, 1993–2003: evidence from the youth risk behavior survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jean

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent increases in the prevalence of adolescent obesity have been widely documented. Whilst there is a common lay perception that the current generation of adolescents is less active than ever before, there is little published data to support this notion. In addition, there is little published data on trends in physical activity in adolescents according to factors such as gender, age and race. Methods Data from the US Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to explore time trends in physical activity (vigorous activity on three or more days in the last week and inactivity (no vigorous activity in the last week overall and according to gender, school grade and race amongst US adolescents between 1991 and 2003. Logistic regression was used to assess: the overall change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive per year, the change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive in each survey year compared to the first year for which data was included (1993, and the change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive in each survey year compared to the previous survey year. After analysing data for all individuals combined, separate analyses were performed by gender, school grade and race. Results There was evidence of small, but statistically significant, overall trends towards decreased physical activity and increased inactivity over time amongst boys and those in school grades 9 and 10. Whilst few consistent survey to survey trends were seen, there was a significant decrease in the odds of all adolescents, boys and those in school grades 9 and 10 being active between 1993 and 2003 and a significant increase in the odds of the same groups being inactive between 1993 and 2003. Conclusion Overall changes in both activity and inactivity were generally small and are unlikely to play a significant role in reported secular trends in overweight and obesity in adolescents.

  16. Trends in physical activity and inactivity amongst US 14–18 year olds by gender, school grade and race, 1993–2003: evidence from the youth risk behavior survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent increases in the prevalence of adolescent obesity have been widely documented. Whilst there is a common lay perception that the current generation of adolescents is less active than ever before, there is little published data to support this notion. In addition, there is little published data on trends in physical activity in adolescents according to factors such as gender, age and race. Methods Data from the US Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to explore time trends in physical activity (vigorous activity on three or more days in the last week) and inactivity (no vigorous activity in the last week) overall and according to gender, school grade and race amongst US adolescents between 1991 and 2003. Logistic regression was used to assess: the overall change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive per year, the change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive in each survey year compared to the first year for which data was included (1993), and the change in odds of adolescents being active or inactive in each survey year compared to the previous survey year. After analysing data for all individuals combined, separate analyses were performed by gender, school grade and race. Results There was evidence of small, but statistically significant, overall trends towards decreased physical activity and increased inactivity over time amongst boys and those in school grades 9 and 10. Whilst few consistent survey to survey trends were seen, there was a significant decrease in the odds of all adolescents, boys and those in school grades 9 and 10 being active between 1993 and 2003 and a significant increase in the odds of the same groups being inactive between 1993 and 2003. Conclusion Overall changes in both activity and inactivity were generally small and are unlikely to play a significant role in reported secular trends in overweight and obesity in adolescents. PMID:16522203

  17. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices. © 2009 Springer-Verlag....

  18. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technolo...

  19. PLA/PHA-Biodegradable Blends for Pneumothermic Fabrication of Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuman Krzysztofa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of research concerning fabrication of nonwovens from biodegradable polymer blends using the melt-blown method. The experiments performed within the framework of the research confirmed the possibility of obtaining polymer composites based on polylactide (PLA with poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHA and another aliphatic-aromatic copolyester. The obtained products were subjected to the analyses of chemical structure using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR Attenuated Total Reflectance(ATR method. The physical and mechanical properties of the fabricated nonwoven layers were also tested, which confirmed a wide spectrum of their applicability, depending on the polymer composition used in production.

  20. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  1. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  2. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  3. Solid state physics: advanced spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, nanostructure fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, Stefano

    Thin films of hybrid solar cells and metal oxide semiconductors -IGZO in particular– and homogeneous PMMA polymers have been studied at the Positron Laboratory (L-NESS centre, Politecnico di Milano, Polo Territoriale di Como). A slow energy positron beam and a positron lifetime spectrometer have been employed for these studies. The positron spectroscopy information have been correlated with electrical and optical properties of the materials. The chemical composition and the morphology of voids and porosities in hybrid solar cells and thin film metal oxide semiconductors have been studied, and a strong correlation between positronium fraction, S-parameter and the electrical properties of these materials has been found. In PMMA polymers, free volume measurements have shown that the optical properties of the material depend on the presence of monomer residual fraction and even slight changes in the dimensions and concentration of free volumes. Positrons have been also applied to the study of positron to positr...

  4. Evidence based practice guidelines for management of low back pain: physical therapy implications Diretrizes de prática clínica baseada em evidências para avaliação e tratamento de lombalgia: implicações para fisioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Ladeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is the most common disorder seen in physical therapy practice. There are several hundred clinical trials on the management of LBP. To summarize these trials, researchers wrote Evidence Based Practice (EBP guidelines. This article reviewed the implications of EBP guidelines recommendations for physical therapy practice. OBJECTIVES: To review the recommendations for conservative management of LBP published in EBP guidelines since 2002. METHODS: Searches were performed on the following databases: Google web searching engine, Medline, Cochrane Library, and the Guideline Clearing House. Guidelines published in English and addressing conservative management of LBP were included. RESULTS: Thirteen multidisciplinary and three mono-disciplinary guidelines met the inclusion criteria. LBP was triaged into three groups: with red flags, with radiculopathy, or non-specific. Patients without red flags could be safely managed without specialist referral. Patient education was recommended for all patients with LBP. There was an agreement to advise spine manipulation for patients with acute and sub-acute non-specific LBP. There was a consensus to recommend exercises for acute, sub-acute, and chronic LBP. Few guidelines addressed conservative management of LBP with radiculopathy. Overall, the guidelines did not offer specific advice for manipulation (hypomobility or instability and exercise (stabilization or directional preference. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary guidelines focused on primary care and lacked details significant for physical therapy practice. There is a need for mono-disciplinary physical therapy guidelines to improve the balance between evidence and professional relevance.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Lombalgia é o sintoma mais comum tratado por Fisioterapeutas. Existem centenas de estudos controlados aleatorizados que lidam com o tratamento de lombalgias. Para resumir tais centenas de artigos, pesquisadores escreveram guias de

  5. Fabrication of Nanostructured PLGA Scaffolds Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Hsueh, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2008-01-01

    PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) is one of the most used biodegradable and biocompatible materials. Nanostructured PLGA even has great application potentials in tissue engineering. In this research, a fabrication technique for nanostructured PLGA membrane was investigated and developed. In this novel fabrication approach, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film was use as the template ; the PLGA solution was then cast on it ; the vacuum air-extraction process was applied to transfer the nano porous pattern from the AAO membrane to the PLGA membrane and form nanostures on it. The cell culture experiments of the bovine endothelial cells demonstrated that the nanostructured PLGA membrane can double the cell growing rate. Compared to the conventional chemical-etching process, the physical fabrication method proposed in this research not only is simpler but also does not alter the characteristics of the PLGA. The nanostructure of the PLGA membrane can be well controlled by the AAO temperate.

  6. Agentes físicos superficiales y dolor: Análisis de su eficacia a la luz de la evidencia científica Superficial physical modalities and pain: Analysis of their efficacy in light of the scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Pavez Ulloa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los agentes físicos son todos los elementos físicos con que cuenta el fisioterapeuta que se emplean para intervenir en el cuerpo con fines curativos; sin embargo, el aumento de las publicaciones científicas ha llevado a un incremento en el conocimiento de la efectividad de ciertos agentes fisioterapéuticos en relación con el dolor. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda amplia en las bases de datos Pubmed (Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro y Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (DARE, donde la búsqueda se realizó entre el 1 de agosto y el 1 de noviembre del año 2008, con los siguientes límites: estudios publicados desde el año 2003 en adelante, escritos en idioma inglés y español, hechos en humanos; se aceptaron sólo estudios metaanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, estudios controlados y aleatorios y guías de práctica clínica. Resultados: De los 2.477 estudios que potencialmente podrían entrar a este trabajo, al pasar por los criterios de inclusión y exclusión sólo se incluyeron para su análisis 30 investigaciones. Conclusiones: Falta investigación en el estudio de los agentes físicos superficiales para el tratamiento del dolor y que son tan utilizadas actualmente; pese a esto se dispone de evidencia de buen nivel que sustenta la aplicación de ciertos agentes fisioterapéuticos en ciertas enfermedades dolorosas.Introduction: Physical agents are all of the physical elements that physiotherapists use to intervene in the body with curative intent. However, the increase in scientific publications has allowed greater knowledge to be gained on the effectiveness of certain therapeutic agents in relation to pain. Material and methods: We performed a broad, systematic search of Pubmed (Medline, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (D.A.R.E between August 1 and November 1, 2008 with the following criteria: studies published since 2003

  7. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  8. Evidence for new physics from clusters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Alain; Douspis, Marian

    2005-01-01

    New version including changes and typos corrected, accepted for publication in A&A; The abundance of local clusters is a traditional way to derive the amplitude of matter fluctuations. In the present work, by assuming that the observed baryon content of clusters is representative of the universe, we show that the mass temperature relation (M-T) can be specified for any cosmological model. This approach allows one to remove most of the uncertainty coming from M-T relation, and to provide an es...

  9. 14 CFR 29.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 29.605 Section 29.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication...

  10. 14 CFR 27.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 27.605 Section 27.605... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such...

  11. 14 CFR 23.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 23.605 Section 23.605... Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a... fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program....

  12. 14 CFR 25.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 25.605 Section 25.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce a consistently sound structure. If a fabrication...

  13. Biomolecule immobilization techniques for bioactive paper fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanzhi; Hu, Yim Fun

    2012-04-01

    Research into paper-based sensors or functional materials that can perform analytical functions with active recognition capabilities is rapidly expanding, and significant research effort has been made into the design and fabrication of bioactive paper at the biosensor level to detect potential health hazards. A key step in the fabrication of bioactive paper is the design of the experimental and operational procedures for the immobilization of biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, phages, cells, proteins, synthetic polymers and DNA aptamers on a suitably prepared paper membrane. The immobilization methods are concisely categorized into physical absorption, bioactive ink entrapment, bioaffinity attachment and covalent chemical bonding immobilization. Each method has individual immobilization characteristics. Although every biomolecule-paper combination has to be optimized before use, the bioactive ink entrapment method is the most commonly used approach owing to its general applicability and biocompatibility. Currently, there are four common applications of bioactive paper: (1) paper-based bioassay or paper-based analytical devices for sample conditioning; (2) counterfeiting and countertempering in the packaging and construction industries; (3) pathogen detection for food and water quality monitoring; and (4) deactivation of pathogenic bacteria using antimicrobial paper. This article reviews and compares the different biomolecule immobilization techniques and discusses current trends. Current, emerging and future applications of bioactive paper are also discussed.

  14. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  15. Macro fluid analysis of laminated fabric permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A porous jump model is put forward to predict the breathability of laminated fabrics by utilizing fluent software. To simplify the parameter setting process, the methods of determining the parameters of jump porous model by means of fabric layers are studied. Also, effects of single/multi-layer fabrics and thickness on breathability are analyzed, indicating that fabric breathability reduces with the increase of layers. Multi-layer fabric is simplified into a single layer, and the fabric permeability is calculated by proportion. Moreover, the change curve of fabric layer and face permeability, as well as the equation between the fabric layer and the face permeability are obtained. Then, face permeability and pressure-jump coefficient parameters setting of porous jump model could be integrated into single parameter (i. e. fabric layers, which simplifies the fluent operation process and realizes the prediction of laminated fabric permeability.

  16. Local soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and injuries are associated with significant pain and loss of function that may lead to significant disability. The aim of this paper is to define the role of PRM physician in the management of local soft tissue MSDs and injuries with their specific focus on assessing and improving function as well as participation in the community. The training of PRM specialists make them well equipped to successfully treat MSDs including soft tissue MSDs and injuries. PRM specialists may well meet the needs of patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries using PRM approaches including 1) assessment based on the comprehensive model of functioning, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), that enable them to identify the areas of impaired functioning in order to apply necessary measures; 2) accurate diagnosis using instrumental diagnostic procedures in addition to clinical examination; 3) outcome measurements available to them; 4) evidence-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments; and finally 5) maintenance of social involvement including "return to work" based on restoration of function, all of which will eventually result in improved quality of life for patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries.

  17. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2006-09-21

    A review is provided covering metal plasma production, theenergetic condensation of metal plasmas, and the formation ofnanostructures using such plasmas. Plasma production techniques includepulsed laser ablation, filtered cathodic arcs, and various forms ofionized physical vapor deposition, namely magnetron sputtering withionization of sputtered atoms in radio frequency discharges,self-sputtering, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Thediscussion of energetic condensation focuses on the control of kineticenergy by biasing and also includes considerations of the potentialenergy and the processes occurring at subplantation and implantation. Inthe final section on nanostructures, two different approaches arediscussed. In the top-down approach, the primary nanostructures arelithographically produced and metal plasma is used to coat or filltrenches and vias. Additionally, multilayers with nanosize periods(nanolaminates) can be produced. In the bottom-up approach, thermodynamicforces are used to fabricate nanocomposites and nanoporous materials bydecomposition and dealloying.

  18. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  19. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  20. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  1. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since ...

  2. Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Dessislava; Rumley, Sébastien; Calhoun, David; Li, Qi; Hendry, Robert; Samadi, Payman; Bergman, Keren

    2015-01-26

    With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and the potential for nanosecond scale dynamic connectivity. In this paper we analyze the feasibility of building silicon photonic microring based switch fabrics for data center scale optical interconnection networks. We evaluate the scalability of a microring based switch fabric for WDM signals. Critical parameters including crosstalk, insertion loss and switching speed are analyzed, and their sensitivity with respect to device parameters is examined. We show that optimization of physical layer parameters can reduce crosstalk and increase switch fabric scalability. Our analysis indicates that with current state-of-the-art devices, a high radix 128 × 128 silicon photonic single chip switch fabric with tolerable power penalty is feasible. The applicability of silicon photonic microrings for data center switching is further supported via review of microring operations and control demonstrations. The challenges and opportunities for this technology platform are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of Biomimetic Water Strider Legs Covered with Setae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Zhou; Zhi-wen Liu

    2009-01-01

    Water striders have remarkable water-repellent legs that enable them to stand effortlessly and move quickly on water. Fluid physics indicates this feature is due to a surface-tension effect caused by the special hierarchical structure of the legs, which are covered with a large number of inclined setae with fine nanogrooves inducing water resistance. This inspires us to fabricate special water-repellent structure on functional surfaces through the cooperation between the surface treatment and the surface micro- and nanostructures, which may bring great advantages in a wide variety of applications. In this paper we present a procedure for fabricating biomimetic water strider legs covered with setae using Polycarbonate Track-Etched (PCTE) membranes as templates. By choosing appropriate membrane lengths, diameters, pitches and densities of the setae, the biomimetic legs can be fabricated conveniently and at a low cost. Furthermore we investigated the relationship between stiffness of the molding materials, high aspect ratio and density, which affect the fidelity of fabrication and self adhesion, to optimize the stability of setae. The knowledge we gained from this study will offer important insights into the biomimetic design and fabrication of water strider setae.

  4. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G.; et al.

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  5. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  6. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., R M; Gilmer, J; Rubenchik, A; Shirk, M

    2004-12-08

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-D features and with 100-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels, as well as materials such as diamond and vanadium. The motivation for this project was to investigate the physics and chemistry that control the interactions of solid surfaces with laser beams and ion beams, with a view towards their applicability to the desired deterministic fabrication processes. As part of this LDRD project, one of our goals was to advance the state of the art for experimental work, but, in order to create ultimately a deterministic capability for such precision micromachining, another goal was to form a new modeling/simulation capability that could also extend the state of the art in this field. We have achieved both goals. In this project, we have, for the first time, combined a 1-D hydrocode (''HYADES'') with a 3-D molecular dynamics simulator (''MDCASK'') in our modeling studies. In FY02 and FY03, we investigated the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur on copper, gold, and nickel substrates with the use of sub-ps laser pulses. In FY04, we investigated laser ablation of carbon, including laser-enhanced chemical reaction on the carbon surface for both vitreous carbon and carbon aerogels. Both experimental and modeling results will be presented in the report that follows. The immediate impact of our investigation was a much better understanding of the chemical and physical processes that ensure when solid materials are exposed to femtosecond laser pulses. More broadly, we have better positioned LLNL to design a cluster tool for fabricating mesoscale objects utilizing laser pulses and ion-beams as well as more traditional machining/manufacturing techniques for applications such as components in NIF

  7. Wearable carbon nanotube-based fabric sensors for monitoring human physiological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.

    2017-05-01

    A target application of wearable sensors is to detect human motion and to monitor physical activity for improving athletic performance and for delivering better physical therapy. In addition, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provides rich information that can be used to assess a subject’s physiological or psychological condition. This study aims to design a multifunctional, wearable, fabric-based sensing system. First, carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin films were fabricated by spraying. Second, the thin films were integrated with stretchable fabrics to form the fabric sensors. Third, the strain and temperature sensing properties of sensors fabricated using different CNT concentrations were characterized. Furthermore, the sensors were demonstrated to detect human finger bending motions, so as to validate their practical strain sensing performance. Finally, to monitor human respiration, the fabric sensors were integrated with a chest band, which was directly worn by a human subject. Quantification of respiration rates were successfully achieved. Overall, the fabric sensors were characterized by advantages such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, lightweight, low-cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  8. Physics and applications of microfluidics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J; Mensing, Glennys A; Walker, Glenn M

    2002-01-01

    Fluid flow at the microscale exhibits unique phenomena that can be leveraged to fabricate devices and components capable of performing functions useful for biological studies. The physics of importance to microfluidics are reviewed. Common methods of fabricating microfluidic devices and systems are described. Components, including valves, mixers, and pumps, capable of controlling fluid flow by utilizing the physics of the microscale are presented. Techniques for sensing flow characteristics are described and examples of devices and systems that perform bioanalysis are presented. The focus of this review is microscale phenomena and the use of the physics of the scale to create devices and systems that provide functionality useful to the life sciences.

  9. Probabilities in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Many results of modern physics--those of quantum mechanics, for instance--come in a probabilistic guise. But what do probabilistic statements in physics mean? Are probabilities matters of objective fact and part of the furniture of the world, as objectivists think? Or do they only express ignorance or belief, as Bayesians suggest? And how are probabilistic hypotheses justified and supported by empirical evidence? Finally, what does the probabilistic nature of physics imply for our understanding of the world? This volume is the first to provide a philosophical appraisal of probabilities in all of physics. Its main aim is to make sense of probabilistic statements as they occur in the various physical theories and models and to provide a plausible epistemology and metaphysics of probabilities. The essays collected here consider statistical physics, probabilistic modelling, and quantum mechanics, and critically assess the merits and disadvantages of objectivist and subjectivist views of probabilities in these fie...

  10. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  11. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    . This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...

  12. Fabricated Helicopter Transmission Housing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This program was conducted for the Military Operations Technology Division under the technical management of Hr. L. Thomas Mazza, Technology Applications...Data Xritred) Uncl ssified .UIJRITY -’.ASSIFICA ’.Wi OF THIS PAGE(Wen Date Entered) materials, analytical methods, and fabrication tecniques . The

  13. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags. However, the advent of today’s high performance fibers...were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low pressures because of fabric...environmental exposure to ultraviolet rays, moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating such as urethane , PVC (polyvinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene

  14. Crimp-Imbalanced Protective Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    line 12). [0009] The parameters of FIG. 3 are applicable for defining the geometric dependencies of crimp in fabrics constructed with tows (non...yarns with a suitably thickened temporary coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene and acrylic

  15. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jin, M.L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den A.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized su

  16. Fabrication of green polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-06-16

    Provided herein are methods of fabricating membranes using polymers with functionalized groups such as sulfone (e.g., PSf and PES), ether (e.g., PES), acrylonitrile (e.g., PAN), fluoride(e.g., pvdf and other fluoropolymers), and imide (e.g., extem) and ionic liquids. Also provided are membranes made by the provided methods.

  17. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appears Safe in Study Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  18. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  19. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  20. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

    Sensorial comfort, usually described as "fabric hand or feel", is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters' working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters' protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

  1. Introduction to Charm Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072911

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of charm physics. It is a lecture write-up aimed at students with a minimum of prior knowledge in particle physics, but at the same time provides a state-of-the art review of the field. The main focus is on mixing and CP violation, which is a field with ever growing attention since first evidence for charm mixing was observed in 2007. Other areas covered are charm spectroscopy, production, as well as rare decays.

  2. Physics of quantum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  3. Femtosecond fabricated photomasks for fabrication of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2006-10-30

    This paper describes the direct write laser fabrication of a photolithography mask for prototyping of microfluidic devices in polydimethylsiloxane. An amplified femtosecond pulse laser is used to selectively remove the aluminium metal layer from the poly(methyl methacrylate) photomask substrate. The use of a femtosecond pulse laser to selectively etch a metal layer has several advantages over other conventional methods for binary photomask fabrication, namely rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using soft lightography. Control of the energy density and defocus position of the focusing objective lens results in the etching of features with widths ranging from 2 microm to 35 microm when using an objective lens with numerical aperture of 0.25.

  4. Solar Cell Fabrication Studies Pertinent to Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Joseph Henry

    That there is a need in the world today, and in the Third World in particular, for developing renewable energy sources is a proposition without question. Toward that end, the harnessing of solar energy has attracted much attention recently. In this thesis, we have addressed the question of Photovoltaics among the many approaches to the problem as being of poignant relevance in the Third World. Based on our studies, which involved the physics of solar cells, various solar cell configurations, the materials for their fabrication and their fabrication sequences, we arrived at the conclusion that silicon homojunction solar cells are best suited to the present needs and environment of, and suitable for development in the Third World, though Cadmium Sulphide-Cuprous Sulphide solar cell could be considered as a viable future candidate. Attendant with the adoption of photovoltaics as electric energy supply, is the problem of technology transfer and development. Towards that goal, we carried out in the laboratory, the fabrication of solar cells using very simple fabrication sequences and materials to demonstrate that tolerable efficiencies are achievable by their use. The view is also presented that for a thriving and viable solar cell industry in the Third World, the sine qua non is an integrated national policies involving all facets of solar cell manufacture and application, namely, material processing and fabrication, basic research, and development and socio -economic acceptance of solar cell appliances. To demonstrate how basic research could benefit solar cell fabrication, we undertook a number of experiments, such as varying our fabrication sequences and materials, finding their radiation tolerance, and carrying out Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) studies, in an attempt to understand some of the fabrication and environmental factors which limit solar cell performance. We thus found that subjecting wafers to preheat treatments does not improve solar cell

  5. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  6. Principles and applications of nanomems physics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Hector

    2005-01-01

    ""Principles and Applications of NanoMEMS Physics"" presents the first unified exposition of the physical principles at the heart of NanoMEMS-based devices and applications. In particular, after beginning with a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals and limitations of nanotechnology and MEMS fabrication techniques, the book addresses the physics germane to this dimensional regime, namely, quantum wave-particle phenomena, including, the manifestation of charge discreteness, quantized electrostatic actuation, and the Casimir effect, and quantum wave phenomena, including, quantized elect

  7. Application of UV laser fabrication to organ models interpolated from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, T; Marutani, Y

    1992-09-01

    We have developed a unique laser fabrication system that uses an ultraviolet laser beam and liquid photopolymer. The system can easily be used to fabricate physical models without milling tools in only one process by using digital data obtained from medical computed tomography (CT) scanners or computer-aided design systems. We describe the fabrication of a smooth physical model such as a cerebrum, using the laser fabrication system, with the help of CT and magnetic resonance images that are made with coarse slices. Each sandwiched area between adjoining images is interpolated by using third-order spline curves in the cylindrical coordinate system. This modeling technique can play a major role in personal prosthesis, surgical planning, and implant design.

  8. Three-dimensional plotter technology for fabricating polymeric scaffolds with micro-grooved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, JoonGon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2009-01-01

    Various mechanical techniques have been used to fabricate biomedical scaffolds, including rapid prototyping (RP) devices that operate from CAD files of the target feature information. The three-dimensional (3-D) bio-plotter is one RP system that can produce design-based scaffolds with good mechanical properties for mimicking cartilage and bones. However, the scaffolds fabricated by RP have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a new 3-D plotting method supplemented with a piezoelectric system for fabricating surface-modified scaffolds. The effects of the physically-modified surface on the mechanical and hydrophilic properties were investigated, and the results of cell culturing of chondrocytes indicate that this technique is a feasible new method for fabricating high-quality 3-D polymeric scaffolds.

  9. Rapid Fabrication of Hydrogel Microstructures Using UV-Induced Projection Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of hydrogel microstructures has attracted considerable attention. A large number of applications, such as fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds, delivering drugs to diseased tissue, and constructing extracellular matrix for studying cell behaviors, have been introduced. In this article, an ultraviolet (UV-curing method based on a digital micromirror device (DMD for fabricating poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogel microstructures was presented. By controlling UV projection in real-time using a DMD as digital dynamic mask instead of a physical mask, polymerization of the pre-polymer solution could be controlled to create custom-designed hydrogel microstructures. Arbitrary microstructures could also be fabricated within several seconds (<5 s using a single-exposure, providing a much higher efficiency than existing methods, while also offering a high degree of flexibility and repeatability. Moreover, different cell chains, which can be used for straightforwardly and effectively studying the cell interaction, were formed by fabricated PEGDA microstructures.

  10. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  11. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  12. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad E. Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which is expected to exhibit hyperbolic properties in the visible range. As the second approach we apply the atomic layer deposition technique to arrange vertical alignment of layers or pillars of heavily doped ZnO or TiN, which enables us to produce hyperbolic metamaterials for the near- and mid-infrared ranges.

  13. Fabrics China Trends Released in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ During April 8th-14th, China Textiles Development center, along with China Textile Information Center, released their newly developed "Fabrics China Trends 10 S/S" in China Fabrics & Accessories Center in the city of Guangzhou, aiming to improve the fashion style of China Fabrics & Accessories Center, upgrade the integration of fabrics and fashion trend development, attract more buyers and talent designers, and enhance the quality competitiveness of the trade center significantly.

  14. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  15. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clean technology that effectively eliminates the use of hazardous solvents and prevents the generation of volatile organic emissions and hazardous solid waste. publish information

  16. Virtual Manufacturing (la Fabrication virtuelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    L’imbrication sera realisee en temps reel par un algorithme genetique en fonction des priorites de production. 4.3 gestion de revolution des...distribuee dynamiquement entre divers sites specialistes contrairement ä la fabrication reelle qui est geographique, - l’aptitude ä manipuler un...visually gen- erate assembly sequences. Because of the speed in which a FlyThru® model can be manipulated on screen, it is a great tool for Integrated

  17. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Jin, M. L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized surface plasmon resonance effect is obtained. These plasmonic microcapsules can be engineered and modified by nanoparticle size and the metal film thickness. Repeatable Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scatte...

  18. Fabric Structures Team Technology Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    catalyst layer CBWAs destroyed through reaction with generated H2O2 in presence of oxidative catalyst • Rapidly disinfects surfaces exposed...Demonstrated reactive textile in developmental airlock Crosslink, Inc: •A reactive, electrochemical polymer coating system capable •of generating H2O2 to...singlet oxygen (1O2 ), a mild oxidant Counter electrode V or i Fabric shelter Working electrode: Quinone-modified H2O2 generating electrode Oxidative

  19. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer...

  20. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.