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Sample records for fabricating amorphous silicon

  1. Conformal coating of amorphous silicon and germanium by high pressure chemical vapor deposition for photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Grede, Alex J.; Molina, Alex; Talreja, Disha; Mohney, Suzanne E.; Giebink, Noel C.; Badding, John V.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2018-04-01

    Conformally coating textured, high surface area substrates with high quality semiconductors is challenging. Here, we show that a high pressure chemical vapor deposition process can be employed to conformally coat the individual fibers of several types of flexible fabrics (cotton, carbon, steel) with electronically or optoelectronically active materials. The high pressure (˜30 MPa) significantly increases the deposition rate at low temperatures. As a result, it becomes possible to deposit technologically important hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) from silane by a simple and very practical pyrolysis process without the use of plasma, photochemical, hot-wire, or other forms of activation. By confining gas phase reactions in microscale reactors, we show that the formation of undesired particles is inhibited within the microscale spaces between the individual wires in the fabric structures. Such a conformal coating approach enables the direct fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based Schottky junction devices on a stainless steel fabric functioning as a solar fabric.

  2. Fabrication of amorphous silicon nanoribbons by atomic force microscope tip-induced local oxidation for thin film device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L; Rogel, R; Demami, F

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of induced local oxidation of amorphous silicon by atomic force microscopy. The resulting local oxide is used as a mask for the elaboration of a thin film silicon resistor. A thin amorphous silicon layer deposited on a glass substrate is locally oxidized following narrow continuous lines. The corresponding oxide line is then used as a mask during plasma etching of the amorphous layer leading to the formation of a nanoribbon. Such an amorphous silicon nanoribbon is used for the fabrication of the resistor

  3. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  4. Travelling wave resonators fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Timo; Amthor, Julia; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    Low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon is employed for the fabrication of various planar integrated travelling wave resonators. Microring, racetrack, and disk resonators of different dimensions were fabricated with CMOS-compatible processes and systematically investigated. The key properties of notch filter ring resonators as extinction ratio, Q-factor, free spectral range, and the group refractive index were determined for resonators of varying radius, thereby achieving critically coupled photonic systems with high extinction ratios of about 20 dB for both polarizations. Racetrack resonators that are arranged in add/drop configuration and high quality factor microdisk resonators were optically characterized, with the microdisks exhibiting Q-factors of greater than 100000. Four-channel add/drop wavelength-division multiplexing filters that are based on cascaded racetrack resonators are studied. The design, the fabrication, and the optical characterization are presented.

  5. Fabrication And Determination Of Coefficient Absorption Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon By Direct Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Agus; Darsono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by direct evaporation method have been done. The experiment was carried out at pressure conditions of 2 x 10-5 torr, RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, hydrogen gas flow of 0,8 1/minute, electrode distance of 2.48 cm. voltage electrode of 700 volt and evaporation time 1.45 minute. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, it is found that at wavelength of 359 nm, the absorbance degree of material that was by direct hydrogenated method was 0,886. This means that more hydrogen are absorbed by direct method While, if the hydrogenation is carried out by means of indirect method, the degree of absorbance at the wavelength of 359 nm is 0,103. From this result, it can be concluded that the direct methods is better than indirect method

  6. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  7. Fabrication of amorphous silica nanowires via oxygen plasma treatment of polymers on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuojie; She, Didi; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Yanmei; Wu, Wengang

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile non-catalytic method of fabricating silica nanowires at room temperature. Different polymers including photoresists, parylene C and polystyrene are patterned into pedestals on the silicon substrates. The silica nanowires are obtained via the oxygen plasma treatment on those pedestals. Compared to traditional strategies of silica nanowire fabrication, this method is much simpler and low-cost. Through designing the proper initial patterns and plasma process parameters, the method can be used to fabricate various regiment nano-scale silica structure arrays in any laboratory with a regular oxygen-plasma-based cleaner or reactive-ion-etching equipment.

  8. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  9. Study on the fabrication of silicon nanoparticles in an amorphous silicon light absorbing layer for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyung; Song, Jin Soo; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Jeong Chul

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells have advantages of relatively simple technology, less material consumption, higher absorption ratio compared to crystalline silicon, and low cost due to the use of cheaper substrates rather than silicon wafers. However, together with those advantages, amorphous-silicon thin-film solar cells face several issues such as a relatively lower efficiency, a relatively wider bandgap, and the Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE) compared to other competing materials (i.e., crystalline silicon, CdTe, Cu(In x Ga (1-x) )Se 2 (CIGS), etc.). As a remedy for those drawbacks and a way to enhance the cell conversion efficiency at the same time, the employment of crystalline silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in the a-Si matrix is proposed to organize the quantum-dot (QD) structure as the light-absorbing layer. This structure of the light absorbing layer consists of single-crystal Si-NPs in an a-Si:H thin-film matrix. The single-crystal Si-NPs are synthesized by using SiH 4 gas decomposition with CO 2 laser pyrolysis, and the sizes of Si-NPs are calibrated to control their bandgaps. The synthesized size-controlled Si-NPs are directly transferred to another chamber to form a QD structure by using co-deposition of the Si-NPs and the a-Si:H matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are employed to verify the sizes and the crystalline properties of the Si-NPs alone and of the Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix. The TEM results show successful co-deposition of size-controlled Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix, which is meaningful because it suggests the possibility of further enhancement of the a-Si:H solar-cell structure and of tandem structure applications by using a single element.

  10. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  11. Fabrication of luminescent porous silicon with stain etches and evidence that luminescence originates in amorphous layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Lin, T. L.; Pike, W. T.; Vasquez, R. P.; Wu, Z.-C.

    1992-01-01

    Simple immersion of Si in stain etches of HF:HNO3:H2O or NaNO2 in aqueous HF was used to produce films exhibiting luminescence in the visible similar to that of anodically-etched porous Si. All of the luminescent samples consist of amorphous porous Si in at least the near surface region. No evidence was found for small crystalline regions within these amorphous layers.

  12. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of contact layers in amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolter, M.

    1993-04-01

    The production and characterisation of amorphous and microcrystalline n-doped layers (a-Si:H(n) and c-Si:H(n)) for thin film solar cells is described together contact investigations. The layers were produced in a plasma CVD. The electric conductivity was measured

  14. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  15. Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, T.; Harke, A.; Horn, O.; Amthor, J.; Müller, J.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) photonics has become an attractive research topic within the area of integrated optics. This paper aims to fabricate SOI-structures for optical communication applications with lower costs compared to standard fabrication processes as well as to provide a higher flexibility with respect to waveguide and substrate material choice. Amorphous silicon is deposited on thermal oxidized silicon wafers with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The material is optimized in terms of optical light transmission and refractive index. Different a-Si:H waveguides with low propagation losses are presented. The waveguides were processed with CMOS-compatible fabrication technologies and standard DUV-lithography enabling high volume production. To overcome the large mode-field diameter mismatch between incoupling fiber and sub-μm waveguides three dimensional, amorphous silicon tapers were fabricated with a KOH etched shadow mask for patterning. Using ellipsometric and Raman spectroscopic measurements the material properties as refractive index, layer thickness, crystallinity and material composition were analyzed. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) experiments of amorphous thin films and rib waveguides were performed aiming to tune the refractive index of the deposited a-Si:H waveguide core layer after deposition.

  16. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  17. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Saharoui; Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  18. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  19. Amorphous silicon based radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Fujieda, I.; Street, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin(1 μm) and thick (>30μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. 13 refs., 7 figs

  20. Amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Andrea; Riesen, Yannick; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Dunand, Sylvain; Powolny, François; Jarron, Pierre; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were recently introduced to overcome some of the limitations of crystalline silicon and glass MCP. The typical thickness of a-Si:H based MCPs (AMCP) ranges between 80 and 100 μm and the micromachining of the channels is realized by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Advantages and issues regarding the fabrication process are presented and discussed. Electron amplification is demonstrated and analyzed using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. The gain increases as a function of the bias voltage, limited to −340 V on account of high leakage currents across the structure. EBIC maps on 10° tilted samples confirm that the device active area extend to the entire channel opening. AMCP characterization with the electron beam shows gain saturation and signal quenching which depends on the effectiveness of the charge replenishment in the channel walls.

  1. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  2. The potential for the fabrication of wires embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate using the solid phase segregation of gold in crystallising amorphous volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The refinement of gold in crystallising amorphous silicon volumes was tested as a means of creating a conducting element embedded in the crystalline matrix. Amorphous silicon volumes were created by self-ion-implantation through a mask. Five hundred kiloelectronvolt Au + was then implanted into the volumes. The amorphous volumes were crystallised on a hot stage in air, and the crystallisation was characterised using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the amorphous silicon volumes crystallised via solid phase epitaxy at all the lateral and vertical interfaces. The interplay of the effects of the gold and also the hydrogen that infilitrated from the surface oxide resulted in a plug of amorphous material at the surface. Further annealing at this temperature demonstrated that the gold, once it had reached a certain critical concentration nucleated poly-crystalline growth instead of solid phase epitaxy. Time resolved reflectivity and Rutherford backscattering and channeling measurements were performed on large area samples that had been subject to the same implantation regime to investigate this system further. It was discovered that the crystallisation dynamics and zone refinement of the gold were complicated functions of both gold concentration and temperature. These findings do not encourage the use of this method to obtain conducting elements embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate

  3. Photoconductivity of amorphous silicon-rigorous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brada, P.; Schauer, F.

    1991-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to express our gratitude to Prof. Grigorovici, the pioneer of the exciting field of amorphous state by our modest contribution to this area. In this paper are presented the outline of the rigorous modelling program of the steady-state photoconductivity in amorphous silicon and related materials. (Author)

  4. Characterization of new a-Si:H detectors fabricated from amorphous silicon deposited at high rate by helium enhanced PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.; Ilie, A.; Foulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization of new detectors fabricated from a-Si:H films deposited at high rates through the dilution of SiH 4 in helium. Rates of up to ten times (5.5 micrometer/h) that of the standard technique are obtained, allowing for the feasible fabrication of detectors having thickness up to 100 micrometers. The electrical characteristics (depletion voltage, residual space charge density) of the helium diluted material, have been investigated and compared to that of the standard material. The response of detectors, made from both materials, to 5.5 MeV alpha particles are compared. 6 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells fabricated at low substrate temperature 110°C on flexible PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, M.; Kumari, Juhi; Venkanna, K.; Agarwal, Pratima

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on flexible Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and corning glass. The a-Si:H thin films were prepared at low substrate temperature (110oC) on corning 1737 glass with different rf powers. The influence of rf power on structural and optoelectronic properties of i-a-Si:H were studied. The films deposited at rf power 50W show less broadening of peak. This indicates these films are more ordered. With this optimized parameter for i-layer, solar cells fabricated on flexible PET substrate show best efficiency of 3.3% whereas on corning glass 3.82%.

  6. Ab initio simulation of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.C.; McKenzie, D.R.; Goringe, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of amorphous silicon is presented. Density Functional Theory is used to describe the forces between the atoms in a 64 atom supercell which is periodically repeated throughout space in order to generate an infinite network of atoms (a good approximation to a real solid). A quench from the liquid phase is used to achieve a quenched amorphous structure, which is subjected to an annealing cycle to improve its stability. The final, annealed network is in better agreement with experiment than any previous simulation of amorphous silicon. Significantly, the predicted average first-coordination numbers of 3.56 and 3.84 for the quenched and annealed structures from this simulation agree very closely with the experimental values of 3.55 and 3.90 respectively, whereas all previous simulations yielded first coordination numbers greater than 4. This improved agreement in coordination numbers is important because it supports the experimental finding that dangling bonds (which are associated with under-coordinated atoms) are more prevalent than floating bonds (the strained, longer bond of a five coordinate atom) in pure amorphous silicon. Finally, the effect of adding hydrogen to amorphous silicon was investigated by specifically placing hydrogen atoms at the likely defect sites. After a structural relaxation to optimise the positions of these hydrogen atoms, the localised electronic states associated with these defects are absent. Thus hydrogen is responsible for removing these defect states (which are able to trap carriers) from the edge of the band gap of the amorphous silicon. These results confirm the widely held ideas about the effect of hydrogen in producing remarkable improvements in the electronic properties of amorphous silicon

  7. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  8. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters ε 2 τ's are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs

  9. Formation of iron disilicide on amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlesand, U.; Östling, M.; Bodén, K.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of iron disilicide, β-FeSi 2 were formed on both amorphous silicon and on crystalline silicon. The β-phase is reported to be semiconducting with a direct band-gap of about 0.85-0.89 eV. This phase is known to form via a nucleation-controlled growth process on crystalline silicon and as a consequence a rather rough silicon/silicide interface is usually formed. In order to improve the interface a bilayer structure of amorphous silicon and iron was sequentially deposited on Czochralski silicon in an e-gun evaporation system. Secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling (SIMS) and scanning electron micrographs revealed an improvement of the interface sharpness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray diffractiometry showed β-FeSi 2 formation already at 525°C. It was also observed that the silicide growth was diffusion-controlled, similar to what has been reported for example in the formation of NiSi 2 for the reaction of nickel on amorphous silicon. The kinetics of the FeSi 2 formation in the temperature range 525-625°C was studied by RBS and the activation energy was found to be 1.5 ± 0.1 eV.

  10. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 . Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density (-10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique (-45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation (-45%), and standard Vickers hardness (-24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C

  11. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  12. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241 Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  13. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells. A R M YUSOFF*, M N SYAHRUL and K HENKEL. Malaysia Energy Centre, 8th Floor, North Wing, Sapura @ Mines, 7, Jalan Tasik, The Mines Resort City,. 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan. MS received 11 April 2007. Abstract. A major issue encountered ...

  14. Noise and degradation of amorphous silicon devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical noise measurements are reported on two devices of the disordered semiconductor hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The material is applied in sandwich structures and in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In a sandwich configuration of an intrinsic layer and two thin doped layers, the

  15. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  16. Interaction between rare-earth ions and amorphous silicon nanoclusters produced at low processing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada)]. E-mail: ameldrum@ualberta.ca; Hryciw, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); MacDonald, A.N. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); Blois, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); Clement, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2V4 (Canada); De Corby, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2V4 (Canada); Wang, J. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Li Quan [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-12-15

    Temperatures of 1000 deg. C and higher are a significant problem for the incorporation of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal devices into standard silicon technology, and make the fabrication of contacts and reflectors in light emitting devices difficult. In the present work, we use energy-filtered TEM imaging techniques to show the formation of size-controlled amorphous silicon nanoclusters in SiO films annealed between 400 and 500 deg. C. The PL properties of such films are characteristic of amorphous silicon, and the spectrum can be controlled via a statistical size effect-as opposed to quantum confinement-that has previously been proposed for porous amorphous silicon. Finally, we show that amorphous nanoclusters sensitize the luminescence from the rare-earth ions Er, Nd, Yb, and Tm with excitation cross-sections similar in magnitude to erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal composites, and with a similar nonresonant energy transfer mechanism.

  17. Amorphous silicon passivation for 23.3% laser processed back contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Kai; Dahlinger, Morris; Hoffmann, Erik; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents amorphous silicon deposited at temperatures below 200 °C, leading to an excellent passivation layer for boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field areas in interdigitated back contact solar cells. A higher deposition temperature degrades the passivation of the boron emitter by an increased hydrogen effusion due to lower silicon hydrogen bond energy, proved by hydrogen effusion measurements. The high boron surface doping in crystalline silicon causes a band bending in the amorphous silicon. Under these conditions, at the interface, the intentionally undoped amorphous silicon becomes p-type conducting, with the consequence of an increased dangling bond defect density. For bulk amorphous silicon this effect is described by the defect pool model. We demonstrate, that the defect pool model is also applicable to the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon. Our simulation shows the shift of the Fermi energy towards the valence band edge to be more pronounced for high temperature deposited amorphous silicon having a small bandgap. Application of optimized amorphous silicon as passivation layer for the boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field on the rear side of laser processed back contact solar cells, fabricated using four laser processing steps, yields an efficiency of 23.3%.

  18. Ion bombardment and disorder in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, L.S.; Gaspari, F.; Zukotynski, S.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of ion bombardment during growth on the structural and optical properties of amorphous silicon are presented. Two series of films were deposited under electrically grounded and positively biased substrate conditions. The biased samples displayed lower growth rates and increased hydrogen content relative to grounded counterparts. The film structure was examined using Raman spectroscopy. The transverse optic like phonon band position was used as a parameter to characterize network order. Biased samples displayed an increased order of the amorphous network relative to grounded samples. Furthermore, biased samples exhibited a larger optical gap. These results are correlated and attributed to reduced ion bombardment effects

  19. Mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, R.; Li, Q.; Pan, B.C.; Yoon, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Tight-binding molecular-dynamics calculations reveal a mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen diffuses through the network by successively bonding with nearby silicons and breaking their Si endash Si bonds. The diffusing hydrogen carries with it a newly created dangling bond. These intermediate transporting states are densely populated in the network, have lower energies than H at the center of stretched Si endash Si bonds, and can play a crucial role in hydrogen diffusion. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Amorphization of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jimmy; Li Ming; Thompson, Carl V.

    2004-01-01

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to drill submicron holes in single crystal silicon films in silicon-on-insulator structures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of material adjacent to the ablated holes indicates the formation of a layer of amorphous Si. This demonstrates that even when material is ablated using femtosecond pulses near the single pulse ablation threshold, sufficient heating of the surrounding material occurs to create a molten zone which solidifies so rapidly that crystallization is bypassed

  1. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  2. Nickel-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J A; Arce, R D; Buitrago, R H [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe (Argentina); Budini, N; Rinaldi, P, E-mail: jschmidt@intec.unl.edu.a [FIQ - UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    The nickel-induced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is used to obtain large grained polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates. a-Si:H is deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at 200 deg. C, preparing intrinsic and slightly p-doped samples. Each sample was divided in several pieces, over which increasing Ni concentrations were sputtered. Two crystallization methods are compared, conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The crystallization was followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance measurements in the UV region. The large grain sizes obtained - larger than 100{mu}m for the samples crystallized by CFA - are very encouraging for the preparation of low-cost thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  3. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K.; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans

  4. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuanyong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Ding Chuanxian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter <1 0 0> silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans.

  5. Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.M., E-mail: jmgibson@fsu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, Boston MA 02115 (United States); FAMU/FSU Joint College of Engineering, 225 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Treacy, M.M.J. [Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe AZ 85287 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.

  6. Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.M.; Treacy, M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.

  7. Principles and operation of crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambouleyron, I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the fundamental aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion. Crystalline silicon solar cell physics together with design criteria and conversion losses are discussed. The general properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and the principles of a-Si:H solar cell operation are briefly reviewed. New trends in amorphous materials of photovoltaic interest and novel device structures are finally presented. (Author) [pt

  8. ANTIMONY INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS SILICON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Wang; H.Z. Li; C.N. Yu; G.M. Wu; I. Gordon; P. Schattschneider; O. Van Der Biest

    2007-01-01

    Antimony induced crystallization of PVD (physics vapor deposition) amorphous silicon can be observed on sapphire substrates. Very large crystalline regions up to several tens of micrometers can be formed. The Si diffraction patterns of the area of crystallization can be observed with TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Only a few and much smaller crystals of the order of 1μm were formed when the antimony layer was deposited by MBE(molecular beam epitaxy) compared with a layer formed by thermal evaporation. The use of high vacuum is essential in order to observe any Sb induced crystallization at all. In addition it is necessary to take measures to limit the evaporation of the antimony.

  9. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  10. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  11. Crystallization induced of amorphous silicon by nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A; Rinaldi, P; Budini, N; Arce, R; Buitrago, R.H

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) deposited on glass substrates is a very promising material for the production of different electronic devices, like thin film transistors, active matrices or solar cells. The crystallization of the amorphous silicon to obtain pc-Si can be achieved with different processes, among which nickel-induced crystallization is because it requires low concentrations of the metal and low annealing temperatures. Nucleation and growth of crystalline silicon are measured by the formation of silicide NiSi 2 , which has a lattice constant very similar to that of Si, and acts as a seed upon which crystalline grains can develop. The size of the pc-Si final grain depends on many factors, such as the initial concentration of Ni, the annealing time and temperature, and the presence of other atoms in the Si structure. This work presents a study on the influence of these parameters on the silicon crystallization process induced by Ni. We deposited a series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples (a-Si:H) on glass substrates, using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method (PE-CVD) with silane gas (SiH 4 ). The deposition temperature was 200 o C, and we prepared intrinsic samples (i), lightly doped with boron (p), heavily doped with boron (p + ) and heavily doped with phosphorous (n + ). Each sample was divided into eight portions, depositing different concentrations of Ni into each one using the cathodic sputtering method. The concentration of Ni was determined by atomic adsorption spectroscopy, and included from 1.5 1 0 15 to 1.5 1 0 16 at/cm 2 . Later the samples were submitted to different thermal treatments in a circulating nitrogen atmosphere. In order to avoid violent dehydrogenation of the a-Si:H that damages the samples, the annealing was carried out gradually. In a first stage the samples were heated at a velocity of 0.5 o C /min up to 400 o C, holding them for 24 hrs at this temperature in order to reach hydrogen effusion. Heating

  12. Monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, D.P. (Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc., Ames, IA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing monolithic amorphous silicon modules on a continuous polymer substrate. Module production costs can be reduced by increasing module performance, expanding production, and improving and modifying production processes. Material costs can be reduced by developing processes that use a 1-mil polyimide substrate and multilayers of low-cost material for the front encapsulant. Research to speed up a-Si and ZnO deposition rates is needed to improve throughputs. To keep throughput rates compatible with depositions, multibeam fiber optic delivery systems for laser scribing can be used. However, mechanical scribing systems promise even higher throughputs. Tandem cells and production experience can increase device efficiency and stability. Two alternative manufacturing processes are described: (1) wet etching and sheet handling and (2) wet etching and roll-to-roll fabrication.

  13. An In-depth Study on Semitransparent amorphous Silicon Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Garcia, N.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Semitransparent amorphous silicon sensors have been proposed as the 2D positioning sensors for the link system of the CMS alignment: An in-depth study of the actual performance of these sensors is here reported. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Amorphous silicon films doped with BF3 and PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.; Muhl, S.; Sanchez, A.; Monroy, R.; Pickin, W.

    1984-01-01

    By using gaseous discharge process, thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were produced. This process consists of Silane (SiH 4 ) decomposition at low pressure, in a chamber. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  15. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart

  16. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the characterization of the electrical properties of amorphous silicon films for the three different growth methods, RF sputtering, PECVD, and LPCVD are reported. The performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n-type crystalline silicon is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current and the alpha particle response of 5 mm diameter detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. The results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  17. Passivation mechanism in silicon heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Dimitrios; van Vliet, Jeroen; Vasudevan, Ravi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Zeman, Miro

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers (a-SiOx:H) with varying oxygen content (cO) but similar hydrogen content to passivate the crystalline silicon wafers. Using our deposition conditions, we obtain an effective lifetime (τeff) above 5 ms for cO ≤ 6 at. % for passivation layers with a thickness of 36 ± 2 nm. We subsequently reduce the thickness of the layers using an accurate wet etching method to ˜7 nm and deposit p- and n-type doped layers fabricating a device structure. After the deposition of the doped layers, τeff appears to be predominantly determined by the doped layers themselves and is less dependent on the cO of the a-SiOx:H layers. The results suggest that τeff is determined by the field-effect rather than by chemical passivation.

  18. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface of strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be ∼0.56 eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature-dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV silicon ions at 1 x 10 -3 dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10 -6 dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of ∼340 ± 10K

  19. Atomistic modeling of ion beam induced amorphization in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaz, Lourdes; Marques, Luis A.; Lopez, Pedro; Santos, Ivan; Aboy, Maria; Barbolla, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam induced amorphization in Si has attracted significant interest since the beginning of the use of ion implantation for the fabrication of Si devices. Nowadays, a renewed interest in the modeling of amorphization mechanisms at atomic level has arisen due to the use of preamorphizing implants and high dopant implantation doses for the fabrication of nanometric-scale Si devices. In this work, we briefly describe the existing phenomenological and defect-based amorphization models. We focus on the atomistic model we have developed to describe ion beam induced amorphization in Si. In our model, the building block for the amorphous phase is the bond defect or IV pair, whose stability increases with the number of surrounding IV pairs. This feature explains the regrowth behavior of different damage topologies and the kinetics of the crystalline to amorphous transition. The model provides excellent quantitative agreement with experimental results

  20. Preparation and characterization of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide with silicon-rich stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Iwasaka, Akira [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Takagishi, Hideyuki [Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    Polydihydrosilane with pendant hexyl groups was synthesized to obtain silicon-rich amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) films via the solution route. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage. Therefore, the polymer provides sufficient purity for the fabrication of semiconducting a-SiC. Here, we investigated the correlation of Si/C stoichiometry between the polymer and the resultant a-SiC film. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films with various carbon contents were also explored. Experimental results suggested that the excess carbon that did not participate in Si−C configurations was decomposed and was evaporated during polymer-to-SiC conversion. Consequently, the upper limit of the carbon in resultant a-SiC film was < 50 at.%; namely, the polymer provided silicon-rich a-SiC, whereas the conventionally used polycarbosilane inevitably provides carbon-rich one. These features of this unusual polymer open up a frontier of polymer-derived SiC and solution-processed SiC electronics. - Highlights: • Polymeric precursor solution for silicon carbide (SiC) is synthesized. • Semiconducting amorphous SiC is prepared via solution route. • The excess carbon is decomposed during cross-linking resulting in Si-rich SiC films. • The grown SiC films contain substantial amount of hydrogen atoms as SiH{sub n}/CH{sub n} entities. • Presence of CH{sub n} entities induces dangling bonds, causing poor electrical properties.

  1. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface or strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be ∼0.56eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV Si + at 1 x 10 -3 dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10 -6 dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of ∼340±10K

  2. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart textile, wearable electronics and many other exciting applications. However, low thermal budget processing and fundamentally limited electron mobility hinders its potential to be competitive with well established and highly developed silicon technology. The use of silicon in flexible electronics involve expensive and abrasive materials and processes. In this work, high performance flexible thermoelectric energy harvesters are demonstrated from low cost bulk silicon (100) wafers. The fabrication of the micro- harvesters was done using existing silicon processes on silicon (100) and then peeled them off from the original substrate leaving it for reuse. Peeled off silicon has 3.6% thickness of bulk silicon reducing the thermal loss significantly and generating nearly 30% more output power than unpeeled harvesters. The demonstrated generic batch processing shows a pragmatic way of peeling off a whole silicon circuitry after conventional fabrication on bulk silicon wafers for extremely deformable high performance integrated electronics. In summary, by using a novel, low cost process, this work has successfully integrated existing and highly developed fabrication techniques to introduce a flexible energy harvester for sustainable applications.

  3. Self-consistent modeling of amorphous silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed a computer model to describe the steady-state behaviour of a range of amorphous silicon devices. It is based on the complete set of transport equations and takes into account the important role played by the continuous distribution of localized states in the mobility gap of amorphous silicon. Using one set of parameters they have been able to self-consistently simulate the current-voltage characteristics of p-i-n (or n-i-p) solar cells under illumination, the dark behaviour of field-effect transistors, p-i-n diodes and n-i-n diodes in both the ohmic and space charge limited regimes. This model also describes the steady-state photoconductivity of amorphous silicon, in particular, its dependence on temperature, doping and illumination intensity

  4. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  5. GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)

  6. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface of strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be {approximately}0.56 eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature-dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV silicon ions at 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of {approximately}340 {+-} 10K.

  7. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R., E-mail: zr.chowdhury@utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P., E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666 mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5 mA-cm{sup −2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  8. Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on glass fiber textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@leibniz-ipht.de; Andrä, Gudrun; Pliewischkies, Torsten; Brückner, Uwe; Eisenhawer, Björn; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous silicon solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics are demonstrated. • Open circuit voltages of 883 mV show shunt-free contacting on non-planar fabrics. • Short-circuit current densities of 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses. • Fill factors of 43.1% and pseudo fill factors of 70.2% show high series resistance. • Efficiencies of 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies of 2.1% realized on textile fabrics. - Abstract: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.

  9. Fabrication and application of amorphous semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumurdjian, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the design and manufacture of elecric switching or memorisation components with amorphous semiconductors. As is known some compounds, particularly the chalcogenides, have a resistivity of the semiconductor type in the amorphous solid state. These materials are obtained by the high temperature homogeneisation of several single elements such as tellurium, arsenic, germanium and sulphur, followed by water or air quenching. In particular these compounds have useful switching and memorisation properties. In particular they have the characteristic of not suffering deterioration when placed in an environment subjected to nuclear radiations. In order to know more about the nature and properties of these amorphous semiconductors the French patent No. 71 28048 of 30 June 1971 may be consulted with advantage [fr

  10. Gamma and Neutron Irradiation of Semitransparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabe, J.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Gandia, J.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Garcia, N.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D.

    1999-12-01

    Semitransparent amorphous silicon sensors are key elements for laser light 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in very hard radiation environment. We have irradiated with gammas, up to 10 Mrad, and neutrons, up to 10 ''14 cm''-2, two different type of sensors and measured their change in performance. (Author) 10 refs

  11. Detection of charged particles in amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Morel, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Street, R.A.

    1986-02-01

    The successful development of radiation detectors made from amorphous silicon could offer the possibility for relatively easy construction of large area position-sensitive detectors. We have conducted a series of measurements with prototype detectors, on signals derived from alpha particles. The measurement results are compared with simple model calculations, and projections are made of potential applications in high-energy and nuclear physics

  12. Structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, F. (Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio (USA)); Chiarotti, G.L. (International School for Advanced Studies, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy) Laboratorio Tecnologie Avanzate Superfici e Catalisi del Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)); Car, R. (International School for Advanced Studies, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy) Institut Romard de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)); Parrinello, M. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, CH-8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland))

    1991-09-15

    We have generated a model of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by first-principles molecular dynamics. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and provide new insight into the microscopic structure of this material. The calculation lends support to models in which monohydride complexes are prevalent, and indicates a strong tendency of hydrogen to form small clusters.

  13. Theory of structure and properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarotti, G.L.; Car, R. (International School of Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy) Interuniversitario Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Trieste (Italy). Lab. Tecnologie Avanzate Superfici e Catalisi); Buda, F. (International School of Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy) Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, M. (International School of Advanced Studies, Trieste

    1990-01-01

    We have generated a computer model of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by first-principles molecular dynamics. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data, and provide new insight into the microscopic structure of this material. This should lead to a better understanding of the hydrogenation process. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. A new tevchnique for production of amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.M. de; Pereyra, I.; Sanematsu, M.S.; Corgnier, S.L.L.; Fonseca, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a new technique for the production of amorphous silicon solar cells based on the development of thin films of a-Si in a reactor in which the decomposition of the sylane, induced by capacitively coupled RF, and the film deposition occur in separate chambers. (M.W.O.) [pt

  15. Fabrication of C60/amorphous carbon superlattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2001-01-01

    The nitrogen doping effects in C 60 films by RF plasma source was investigated, and it was found that the nitrogen ion bombardment broke up C 60 molecules and changed them into amorphous carbon. Based on these results, formation of C 60 /amorphous carbon superlattice structure was proposed. The periodic structure of the resulted films was confirmed by XRD measurements, as the preliminary results of fabrication of the superlattice structure

  16. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  17. Leakage current of amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes made by ion shower doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Joon; Cho, Gyuseong; Choi, Joonhoo; Jung, Kwan-Wook

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we report the leakage current of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiodes, of which the p layer is formed by ion shower doping. The ion shower doping technique has an advantage over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in the fabrication of a large-area amorphous silicon flat-panel detector. The leakage current of the ion shower diodes shows a better uniformity within a 30 cmx40 cm substrate than that of the PECVD diodes. However, it shows a higher leakage current of 2-3 pA/mm 2 at -5 V. This high current originates from the high injection current at the p-i junction

  18. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Light-induced metastable structural changes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Light-induced defects (LID) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its alloys limit the ultimate efficiency of solar panels made with these materials. This paper reviews a variety of attempts to find the origin of and to eliminate the processes that give rise to LIDs. These attempts include novel deposition processes and the reduction of impurities. Material improvements achieved over the past decade are associated more with the material`s microstructure than with eliminating LIDs. We conclude that metastable LIDs are a natural by-product of structural changes which are generally associated with non-radiative electron-hole recombination in amorphous semiconductors.

  1. Optical properties of amorphous silicon: Some problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, N.M.; Chelle, F. de; Ance, C.; Ferraton, J.P.; Berger, J.M.; Coulibaly, S.P.

    1983-08-01

    In this presentation we essentially attempt to throw light on some problem areas concerning the various optical properties of amorphous silicon. The problems seem to emerge from the classical methods employed to determine the optical properties like the optical gap, urbach tail parameter and other related characteristics. Additional problems have emerged in recent years by virtue of many attempts to generalize the property-behaviour relationships for amorphous silicon without attributing any importance to the method of preparation of the films. It should be noted here that although many authors believe disorder to be the controlling parameter, we are of the opinion that at least for films containing fairly large concentrations of hydrogen, the hydrogen concentration has an equally important role to play. The present study has been carried out for films prepared by glow-discharge and chemical vapour deposition. (author)

  2. The atomic and electronic structure of amorphous silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Valladares, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Using a novel approach to the ab initio generation of random networks we constructed two nearly stoichiometric samples of amorphous silicon nitride with the same content x= 1.29. The two 64-atom periodically-continued cubic diamond-like cells contain 28 silicons and 36 nitrogens randomly substituted, and were amorphized with a 6 f s time step by heating them to just below their melting temperature with a Harris-functional based, molecular dynamics code in the LDA approximation. The averaged total radial distribution function (RDF) obtained is compared with some existing Tersoff-like potential simulations and with experiment; ours agree with experiment. All the partial radial features are calculated and the composition of the second peak also agrees with experiment. The electronic structure is calculated and the optical gaps obtained using both a HOMO-LUMO approach and the Tauc-like procedure developed recently that gives reasonable gaps. (Author)

  3. Photo stability Assessment in Amorphous-Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.; Fabero, F.; Jimenez, R.; Rivero, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The present status of amorphous-silicon-solar-cell research and development at CIEMAT requires the possibility to characterise the devices prepared from the point of view of their stability against sunlight exposure. Therefore a set of tools providing such a capacity has been developed. Together with an introduction to photovoltaic applications of amorphous silicon and to the photodegradation problem, the present work describes the process of setting up these tools. An indoor controlled photodegradation facility has been designed and built, and a procedure has been developed for the measurement of J-V characterisation in well established conditions. This method is suitable for all kinds of solar cells, even for those for which no model is still available. The photodegradation and characterisation of some cells has allowed to validate both the new testing facility and method. (Author) 14 refs

  4. Detection of charged particles in amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Morel, J.R.; Mulera, T.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schnurmacher, G.; Street, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The successful development of radiation detectors made from amorphous silicon could offer the possibility for relatively easy construction of large area position-sensitive detectors. We have conducted a series of measurements with prototype detectors, on signals derived from alpha particles. The measurement results are compared with simple model calculations, and projections are made of potential applications in high-energy and nuclear physics. 4 refs., 7 figs

  5. Minimum ionizing particle detection using amorphous silicon diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, J.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Buitrago, R.H. (Glasstech Solar, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (USA)); Oakley, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Nauenberg, U. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics); McNeil, J.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (USA). Dept. of Physics); Anderson, D.F. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon pin diodes have been used to detect minimum ionizing electrons with a pulse height signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 3. A distinct signal was seen for shaping times from 100 to 3000 ns. The devices used had a 54 {mu}m thick intrinsic layer and an active area of 0.1 cm{sup 2}. The maximum signal was 3200 electrons with a noise width of 950 electrons for a shaping time of 250 ns. (orig.).

  6. Emission of blue light from hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, W. A.; Yamagishi, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tawada, Y.

    1994-04-01

    THE development of new electroluminescent materials is of current technological interest for use in flat-screen full-colour displays1. For such applications, amorphous inorganic semiconductors appear particularly promising, in view of the ease with which uniform films with good mechanical and electronic properties can be deposited over large areas2. Luminescence has been reported1 in the red-green part of the spectrum from amorphous silicon carbide prepared from gas-phase mixtures of silane and a carbon-containing species (usually methane or ethylene). But it is not possible to achieve blue luminescence by this approach. Here we show that the use of an aromatic species-xylene-as the source of carbon during deposition results in a form of amorphous silicon carbide that exhibits strong blue luminescence. The underlying structure of this material seems to be an unusual combination of an inorganic silicon carbide lattice with a substantial 'organic' π-conjugated carbon system, the latter dominating the emission properties. Moreover, the material can be readily doped with an electron acceptor in a manner similar to organic semiconductors3, and might therefore find applications as a conductivity- or colour-based chemical sensor.

  7. Amorphous silicon carbide ultramicroelectrode arrays for neural stimulation and recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deku, Felix; Cohen, Yarden; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Kanneganti, Aswini; Gardner, Timothy J.; Cogan, Stuart F.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Foreign body response to indwelling cortical microelectrodes limits the reliability of neural stimulation and recording, particularly for extended chronic applications in behaving animals. The extent to which this response compromises the chronic stability of neural devices depends on many factors including the materials used in the electrode construction, the size, and geometry of the indwelling structure. Here, we report on the development of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) based on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC). Approach. This technology utilizes a-SiC for its chronic stability and employs semiconductor manufacturing processes to create MEAs with small shank dimensions. The a-SiC films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and patterned by thin-film photolithographic techniques. To improve stimulation and recording capabilities with small contact areas, we investigated low impedance coatings on the electrode sites. The assembled devices were characterized in phosphate buffered saline for their electrochemical properties. Main results. MEAs utilizing a-SiC as both the primary structural element and encapsulation were fabricated successfully. These a-SiC MEAs had 16 penetrating shanks. Each shank has a cross-sectional area less than 60 µm2 and electrode sites with a geometric surface area varying from 20 to 200 µm2. Electrode coatings of TiN and SIROF reduced 1 kHz electrode impedance to less than 100 kΩ from ~2.8 MΩ for 100 µm2 Au electrode sites and increased the charge injection capacities to values greater than 3 mC cm‑2. Finally, we demonstrated functionality by recording neural activity from basal ganglia nucleus of Zebra Finches and motor cortex of rat. Significance. The a-SiC MEAs provide a significant advancement in the development of microelectrodes that over the years has relied on silicon platforms for device manufacture. These flexible a-SiC MEAs have the potential for decreased tissue damage and reduced

  8. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  9. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Some behaviors of hydrogen and impurities studied by film characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, Takeshi; Kubota, Kazuyoshi; Ushita, Katsumi; Hiraki, Akio

    1980-06-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and infrared absorption measurement were applied to determine composition in hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated either by glow discharge in SiH/sub 4/ plus H/sub 2/ or by reactive sputtering in Ar containing H/sub 2/ in a tetrode or diode sputtering apparatus. The atomic density of Si, the content and depth distribution of H, and the amount of impurities such as Ar were studied for the films deposited under several conditions of substrate temperature and gas pressure and constitution. Some difference was clarified between glow-discharge and sputter deposited films.

  11. AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuring, Martin; Vehse, Martin; Maydell, Karsten von; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Metal-based transparent electrodes can be fabricated at low temperatures, which is crucial for various substrate materials and solar cells. In this work, an oxide-metal-oxide (OMO) transparent electrode based on aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) and silver is compared to AZO layers, fabricated at different temperatures and indium tin oxides. With the OMO structure, a sheet resistance of 7.1/square and a transparency above 80% for almost the entire visible spectrum were achieved. The possible application of such electrodes on a textured solar cell was demonstrated on the example of a rough ZnO substrate. An OMO structure is benchmarked in a n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cell against an AZO front contact fabricated at 200 °C. In the experiment, the OMO electrode shows a superior performance with an efficiency gain of 30%. - Highlights: • Multilayer transparent electrode based on aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) and Ag • Comparison of AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode to AZO and indium tin oxide • Performance of AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrodes on textured surfaces • Comparison of amorphous silicon solar cells with different transparent electrodes

  12. Safety procedures used during the manufacturing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, C R

    1987-01-01

    The Solarex Thin Film Division is a leader in the manufacturing of amorphous-silicon products for sale in domestic and foreign markets. Similarly, Solarex assumes a leadership role in recognizing the importance of safety in a manufacturing environment. Although many of the safety issues are similar to those in the semiconductor industry, this paper presents topics specific to amorphous silicon technology and the manufacturing ,f amorphous-silicon products. These topics are deposition of conducting transparent oxides (CTOs), amorphous silicon deposition, laser scribing, processing chemicals, fire prevention and administrative responsibilities.

  13. Impurity-defect complexes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.H.; Fong, C.Y.; Nichols, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The two most outstanding features observed for dopants in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-a shift in the Fermi level accompanied by an increase in the defect density and an absence of degenerate doping have previously been postulated to stem from the formation of substitutional dopant-dangling bond complexes. Using first-principles self-consistent pseudopotential calculations in conjunction with a supercell model for the amorphous network and the ability of network relaxation from the first-principles results. The authors have studied the electronic and structural properties of substitutional fourfold-coordinated phosphorus and boron at the second neighbor position to a dangling bond defect. This paper demonstrates that such impurity-defect complexes can account for the general features observed experimentally in doped a-Si:H

  14. Amorphous silicon prepared from silane-hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    Amorphous silicon films prepared from a d.c. discharge of 10% SiH 4 - 90% H 2 mixture are found to have properties similar to those made from 100% SiH 4 . These films are found to be quite stable against prolonged light exposure. The effect of nitrogen on the properties of these films was investigated. It was found that instead of behaving as a classical donor, nitrogen introduces deep levels in the material. Field effect experiments on a-Si:H films at the bottom (film-substrate interface) and the top (film-vacuum interface) of the film are also reported. (author)

  15. Enhanced electrochemical etching of ion irradiated silicon by localized amorphization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Z. Y.; Breese, M. B. H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Y.; Tok, E. S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Vittone, E. [Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-05-12

    A tailored distribution of ion induced defects in p-type silicon allows subsequent electrochemical anodization to be modified in various ways. Here we describe how a low level of lattice amorphization induced by ion irradiation influences anodization. First, it superposes a chemical etching effect, which is observable at high fluences as a reduced height of a micromachined component. Second, at lower fluences, it greatly enhances electrochemical anodization by allowing a hole diffusion current to flow to the exposed surface. We present an anodization model, which explains all observed effects produced by light ions such as helium and heavy ions such as cesium over a wide range of fluences and irradiation geometries.

  16. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n + -type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force

  17. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Conde, J. P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-11-14

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n{sup +}-type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force.

  18. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Interface studies of amorphous silicon; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Amorphous silicon kaimen no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagai, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on interface of amorphous silicon for solar cells. In research on amorphous solar cells using ZnO for transparent electrically conductive films, considerations were given on a growth mechanism of a ZnO film using the MOCVD process. It was made clear that the ZnO film grows with Zn(OH)2 working as a film forming species. It was also shown that the larger the ZnO particle size is, the more the solar cell efficiency is improved. Furthermore, theoretical elucidation was made on effects of rear face of an interface on cell characteristics, and experimental discussions were given subsequently. In research on solar cells using hydrogen diluted `i` layers, delta-doped solar cells were fabricated based on basic data obtained in the previous fiscal year, and the hydrogen dilution effect was evaluated from the cell characteristics. When the hydrogen dilution ratio is increased from zero to one, the conversion efficiency has improved from 12.2% to 12.6%. In addition, experiments and discussions were given on solar cells fabricated by using SiH2Cl2. 9 figs.

  19. The configurational energy gap between amorphous and crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kail, F. [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Montilivi Campus, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Univ. Barcelona, Dept. Fisica Aplicada and Optica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Farjas, J.; Roura, P. [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Montilivi Campus, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Secouard, C. [Univ. Barcelona, Dept. Fisica Aplicada and Optica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J. [CEA Grenoble, LTS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex (France); Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-11-15

    The crystallization enthalpy of pure amorphous silicon (a-Si) and hydrogenated a-Si was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for a large set of materials deposited from the vapour phase by different techniques. Although the values cover a wide range (200-480 J/g), the minimum value is common to all the deposition techniques used and close to the predicted minimum strain energy of relaxed a-Si (240 {+-} 25 J/g). This result gives a reliable value for the configurational energy gap between a-Si and crystalline silicon. An excess of enthalpy above this minimum value can be ascribed to coordination defects. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Lithium concentration dependent structure and mechanics of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinamaluwa, H. S.; Wang, M. C.; Will, G.; Senadeera, W.; Yan, C., E-mail: c2.yan@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Zhang, S. [Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Environmental Futures Research Institute and Griffith School of Environment, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222 (Australia)

    2016-06-28

    A better understanding of lithium-silicon alloying mechanisms and associated mechanical behavior is essential for the design of Si-based electrodes for Li-ion batteries. Unfortunately, the relationship between the dynamic mechanical response and microstructure evolution during lithiation and delithiation has not been well understood. We use molecular dynamic simulations to investigate lithiated amorphous silicon with a focus to the evolution of its microstructure, phase composition, and stress generation. The results show that the formation of Li{sub x}Si alloy phase is via different mechanisms, depending on Li concentration. In these alloy phases, the increase in Li concentration results in reduction of modulus of elasticity and fracture strength but increase in ductility in tension. For a Li{sub x}Si system with uniform Li distribution, volume change induced stress is well below the fracture strength in tension.

  1. Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jensen, Søren; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    A silicon mold used for structuring polymer microcavities for optical applications is fabricated, using a combination of DRIE (deep reactive ion etching) and anisotropic chemical wet etching with KOH + IPA. For polymer optical microcavities, low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls are often ...... and KOH + IPA etch have been optimized. To reduce stiction between the silicon mold and the polymers used for molding, the mold is coated with a teflon-like material using the DRIE system. Released polymer microstructures characterized with AFM and SEM are also presented....

  2. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE

  3. Comparison of the nonradiative deep levels in silicon solar cells made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammadeh, H.; Darwich, R.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the defects in solar cells fabricated from crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy technique, (DLTS), we have determined their activation energies, concentrations and their effect on the solar cell efficiency. Our results show a DLTS peak in crystalline silicon which we could attribute to tow peaks originating from iron contamination. In the polycrystalline based solar cells we observed a series of non conventional DLTS peaks while in amorphous silicon we observed a peak using low measurement frequencies (between 8 kHz and 20 kHz). We studied these defects and determined their activation energies as well as the capture cross section for one of them. We suggest a possible configuration of these defects. We cannot able to study the effect of these defects on the solar cell efficiency because we have not the experimental set-up which measure the solar cell efficiency. (Authors)

  4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  5. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34–40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature.

  6. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sonali; Banerjee, Chandan; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-10-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO2: F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm-2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system.

  7. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K; Banerjee, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO 2 : F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm −2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system. (paper)

  8. Geometric photovoltaics applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Timothy

    Geometrically generalized analytical expressions for device transport are derived from first principles for a photovoltaic junction. Subsequently, conventional planar and unconventional coaxial and hemispherical photovoltaic architectures are applied to detail the device physics of the junction based on their respective geometry. For the conventional planar cell, the one-dimensional transport equations governing carrier dynamics are recovered. For the unconventional coaxial and hemispherical junction designs, new multi-dimensional transport equations are revealed. Physical effects such as carrier generation and recombination are compared for each cell architecture, providing insight as to how non-planar junctions may potentially enable greater energy conversion efficiencies. Numerical simulations are performed for arrays of vertically aligned, nanostructured coaxial and hemispherical amorphous silicon solar cells and results are compared to those from simulations performed for the standard planar junction. Results indicate that fundamental physical changes in the spatial dependence of the energy band profile across the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon p-i-n junction manifest as an increase in recombination current for non-planar photovoltaic architectures. Despite an increase in recombination current, however, the coaxial architecture still appears to be able to surpass the efficiency predicted for the planar geometry, due to the geometry of the junction leading to a decoupling of optics and electronics.

  9. FDTD simulation of amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, A.; Lourenço, P.; Pinho, P.; Vieira, M.,

    2017-05-01

    In this work we correlate the dimension of the waveguide with small variations of the refractive index of the material used for the waveguide core. We calculate the effective modal refractive index for different dimensions of the waveguide and with slightly variation of the refractive index of the core material. These results are used as an input for a set of Finite Difference Time Domain simulation, directed to study the characteristics of amorphous silicon waveguides embedded in a SiO2 cladding. The study considers simple linear waveguides with rectangular section for studying the modal attenuation expected at different wavelengths. Transmission efficiency is determined analyzing the decay of the light power along the waveguides. As far as near infrared wavelengths are considered, a-Si:H shows a behavior highly dependent on the light wavelength and its extinction coefficient rapidly increases as operating frequency goes into visible spectrum range. The simulation results show that amorphous silicon can be considered a good candidate for waveguide material core whenever the waveguide length is as short as a few centimeters. The maximum transmission length is highly affected by the a-Si:H defect density, the mid-gap density of states and by the waveguide section area. The simulation results address a minimum requirement of 300nm×400nm waveguide section in order to keep attenuation below 1 dB cm-1.

  10. Fabrication of photonic amorphous diamonds for terahertz-wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Yuichiro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Yasushi; Edagawa, Keiichi, E-mail: edagawa@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    A recently proposed photonic bandgap material, named “photonic amorphous diamond” (PAD), was fabricated in a terahertz regime, and its terahertz-wave propagation properties were investigated. The PAD structure was fabricated from acrylic resin mixed with alumina powder, using laser lithographic, micro-additive manufacturing technique. After fabrication, the resulting structure was dewaxed and sintered. The formation of a photonic bandgap at around 0.45 THz was demonstrated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Reflecting the disordered nature of the random network structure, diffusive terahertz-wave propagation was observed in the passbands; the scattering mean-free path decreased as the frequency approached the band edge. The mean-free paths evaluated at the band edges were close to the Ioffe-Regel threshold value for wave localization.

  11. Dependence of RF power on the content and configuration of hydrogen in amorphous hydrogenated silicon by reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, T; Ushita, K; Mogi, K; Hiraki, A [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1981-06-01

    Infrared absorption spectra at stretching bands of Si-H were investigated in hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by reactive sputtering in the atmosphere of Ar and H/sub 2/ (10 mole%) at various input rf powers in the range from 0.8 to 3.8 W/cm/sup 2/. Hydrogen content mainly due to the configuration of Si=H/sub 2/ in the film increased with the decreasing rf power, as the deposition rate was decreased. On the other hand, the quantity of the monohydride (Si-H) configuration depended less on the power. Attachment of hydrogen molecules onto the fresh and reactive surface of silicon deposited successively was proposed for possible process of hydrogen incusion into amorphous silicon resulting in Si=H/sub 2/ configuration. The photoconductivity increased as the input power became higher, when the deposition rate also increased linearly with the power.

  12. Anharmonicity Rise the Thermal Conductivity in Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    We recently proposed a new method called Direct Green-Kubo Modal Analysis (GKMA) method, which has been shown to calculate the thermal conductivity (TC) of several amorphous materials accurately. A-F method has been widely used for amorphous materials. However, researchers have found out that it failed on several different materials. The missing component of A-F method is the harmonic approximation and considering only the interactions of modes with similar frequencies, which neglect interactions of modes with large frequency difference. On the contrary, GKMA method, which is based on molecular dynamics, intrinsically includes all types of phonon interactions. In GKMA method, each mode's TC comes from both mode self-correlations (autocorrelations) and mode-mode correlations (crosscorrelations). We have demonstrated that the GKMA predicted TC of a-Si from Tersoff potential is in excellent agreement with one of experimental results. In this work, we will present the GKMA applications on a-Si using multiple potentials and gives us more insight of the effect of anharmonicity on the TC of amorphous silicon. This research was supported Intel grant AGMT DTD 1-15-13 and computational resources by NSF supported XSEDE resources under allocations DMR130105 and TG- PHY130049.

  13. Experimental and Computer Modelling Studies of Metastability of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyeme, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    We present a combination of experimental and computer modelling studies of the light induced degradation in the performance of amorphous silicon based single junction solar cells. Of particular interest in this study is the degradation kinetics of different types of amorphous silicon single junction

  14. Doping efficiency analysis of highly phosphorous doped epitaxial/amorphous silicon emitters grown by PECVD for high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, H.G.; Sivoththaman, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The efficient doping of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon thin films is a key factor in the fabrication of silicon solar cells. The most popular method for developing those films is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) because it minimizes defect density and improves doping efficiency. This paper discussed the preparation of different structure phosphorous doped silicon emitters ranging from epitaxial to amorphous films at low temperature. Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was employed as the doping gas source with the same gas concentration for both epitaxial and amorphous silicon emitters. The paper presented an analysis of dopant activation by applying a very short rapid thermal annealing process (RTP). A spreading resistance profile (SRP) and SIMS analysis were used to detect both the active dopant and the dopant concentrations, respectively. The paper also provided the results of a structural analysis for both bulk and cross-section at the interface using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, for epitaxial and amorphous films. It was concluded that a unity doping efficiency could be achieved in epitaxial layers by applying an optimized temperature profile using short time processing rapid thermal processing technique. The high quality, one step epitaxial layers, led to both high conductive and high doping efficiency layers.

  15. A radiation detector fabricated from silicon photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Hatakeyama, S; Norimura, T; Tsuchiya, T

    1984-12-01

    A silicon photodiode is converted to a low energy charged particle radiation detector. The window thickness of the fabricated detector is evaluated to be 50 micrograms/cm2. The area of the depletion region is 13.2 mm2 and the depth of it is estimated to be about 100 microns. The energy resolution (FWHM) is 14.5 ke V for alpha-particles from 241Am and 2.5 ke V for conversion electrons from 109Cd, respectively.

  16. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-01-01

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles

  17. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  18. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon coatings may modulate gingival cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F.; Genova, T.; Laurenti, M.; Munaron, L.; Pirri, C. F.; Rivolo, P.; Carossa, S.; Mandracci, P.

    2018-04-01

    Silicon-based materials present a high potential for dental implant applications, since silicon has been proven necessary for the correct bone formation in animals and humans. Notably, the addition of silicon is effective to enhance the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite and other biomaterials. The present work aims to expand the knowledge of the role exerted by hydrogen in the biological interaction of silicon-based materials, comparing two hydrogenated amorphous silicon coatings, with different hydrogen content, as means to enhance soft tissue cell adhesion. To accomplish this task, the films were produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on titanium substrates and their surface composition and hydrogen content were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) respectively. The surface energy and roughness were measured through optical contact angle analysis (OCA) and high-resolution mechanical profilometry respectively. Coated surfaces showed a slightly lower roughness, compared to bare titanium samples, regardless of the hydrogen content. The early cell responses of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were tested on the above mentioned surface modifications, in terms of cell adhesion, viability and morphometrical assessment. Films with lower hydrogen content were endowed with a surface energy comparable to the titanium surfaces. Films with higher hydrogen incorporation displayed a lower surface oxidation and a considerably lower surface energy, compared to the less hydrogenated samples. As regards mean cell area and focal adhesion density, both a-Si coatings influenced fibroblasts, but had no significant effects on keratinocytes. On the contrary, hydrogen-rich films increased manifolds the adhesion and viability of keratinocytes, but not of fibroblasts, suggesting a selective biological effect on these cells.

  19. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  20. Interface properties of the amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliop, Basia

    Amorphous-crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunctions have the potential of being a very high efficiency silicon photovoltaic platform technology with accompanying cost and energy budget reductions. In this research a heterojunction cell structure based on a-Si:H deposited using a DC saddle field plasma enhanced vapour deposition (DCSF PECVD) technique is studied, and the a-Si:H/c-Si and indium tin oxide/a-Si:H interfaces are examined using several characterization methods. Photocarrier radiometry (PCR) is used for the first time to probe the a-Si:H/c-Si junction. PCR is demonstrated as a carrier lifetime measurement technique -- specifically, confirming carrier lifetimes above 1 ms for 1-5 Ocm phosphorous-doped c-Si wafers passivated on both sides with 30 nm of i-a-Si:H. PCR is also used to determine surface recombination velocity and mobility, and to probe recombination at the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, distinguishing interface recombination from recombination within the a-Si:H layer or at the a-Si:H surface. A complementary technique, lateral conductivity is applied over a temperature range of 140 K to 430 K to construct energy band diagrams of a-Si:H/c-Si junctions. Boron doped a-Si:H films on glass are shown to have activation energies of 0.3 to 0.35 eV, tuneable by adjusting the diborane to silane gas ratio during deposition. Heterojunction samples show evidence of a strong hole inversion layer and a valence band offset of approximately 0.4 eV; carrier concentration in the inversion layer is reduced in p-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/ c-Si structures as intrinsic layer thickness increases, while carrier lifetime is increased. The indium tin oxide/amorphous silicon interface is also examined. Optimal ITO films were prepared with a sheet resistance of 17.3 O/[special character omitted] and AM1.5 averaged transmittance of 92.1%., for a film thickness of approximately 85 nm, using temperatures below 200°C. Two different heat treatments are found to cause crystallization of

  1. Modelling structure and properties of amorphous silicon boron nitride ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Christian Schön

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon boron nitride is the parent compound of a new class of high-temperature stable amorphous ceramics constituted of silicon, boron, nitrogen, and carbon, featuring a set of properties that is without precedent, and represents a prototypical random network based on chemical bonds of predominantly covalent character. In contrast to many other amorphous materials of technological interest, a-Si3B3N7 is not produced via glass formation, i.e. by quenching from a melt, the reason being that the binary components, BN and Si3N4, melt incongruently under standard conditions. Neither has it been possible to employ sintering of μm-size powders consisting of binary nitrides BN and Si3N4. Instead, one employs the so-called sol-gel route starting from single component precursors such as TADB ((SiCl3NH(BCl2. In order to determine the atomic structure of this material, it has proven necessary to simulate the actual synthesis route.Many of the exciting properties of these ceramics are closely connected to the details of their amorphous structure. To clarify this structure, it is necessary to employ not only experimental probes on many length scales (X-ray, neutron- and electron scattering; complex NMR experiments; IR- and Raman scattering, but also theoretical approaches. These address the actual synthesis route to a-Si3B3N7, the structural properties, the elastic and vibrational properties, aging and coarsening behaviour, thermal conductivity and the metastable phase diagram both for a-Si3B3N7 and possible silicon boron nitride phases with compositions different from Si3N4: BN = 1 : 3. Here, we present a short comprehensive overview over the insights gained using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to explore the energy landscape of a-Si3B3N7, model the actual synthesis route and compute static and transport properties of a-Si3BN7.

  2. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  3. Si-H bond dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, R. Jason; McGrane, Shawn D.

    2007-08-01

    The ultrafast structural dynamics of the Si-H bond in the rigid solvent environment of an amorphous silicon thin film is investigated using two-dimensional infrared four-wave mixing techniques. The two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) vibrational correlation spectrum resolves the homogeneous line shapes ( 4ps waiting times. The Si-H stretching mode anharmonic shift is determined to be 84cm-1 and decreases slightly with vibrational frequency. The 1→2 linewidth increases with vibrational frequency. Frequency dependent vibrational population times measured by transient grating spectroscopy are also reported. The narrow homogeneous line shape, large inhomogeneous broadening, and lack of spectral diffusion reported here present the ideal backdrop for using a 2DIR probe following electronic pumping to measure the transient structural dynamics implicated in the Staebler-Wronski degradation [Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977)] in a-Si:H based solar cells.

  4. NO2 sensing properties of amorphous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Donkov, N; Stefanov, P; Sendova-Vassileva, M; Grechnikov, A

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity to NO 2 was studied of amorphous silicon thin films obtained by e-beam evaporation. The process was carried out at an operational-mode vacuum of 1.5x10 -5 Torr at a deposition rate of 170 nm/min. The layer's structure was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, while its composition was determined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). To estimate their sensitivity to NO 2 , the Si films were deposited on a 16-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the correlation was used between the QCM frequency variation and the mass-loading after exposure to NO 2 in concentrations from 10 ppm to 5000 ppm. A considerable sensitivity of the films was found in the interval 1000 ppm-2500 ppm NO 2 , leading to frequency shifts from 131 Hz to 208 Hz. The results obtained on the films' sorption properties can be applied to the development sensor elements.

  5. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenack, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 1200 0 C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author) [pt

  6. Preliminary modulation transfer function study on amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ab Razak Hamzah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Modulation Transfer Function, (MTF) is the scientific means of evaluating the fundamental spatial resolution performance of an imaging system. In the study, the modulation transfer function of an amorphous silicon (aSi) sensor array is measured by using Edge Spread Function (ESF) Technique which is extracting a profile from the linearised image of the sharp edge. The Platinum foil is used to determine the ESF. The detector under study was a 2,304 (h) x 3,200 (v) total pixel matrix, 127 μm2 pixel pitch, 57% fill factor and using Gd2O2S:Tb Kodak Lanex Regular as the conversion screen. The ESF measurement is done by using 75 - 100 kV range of x-ray with constant mA. (Author)

  7. Optically induced paramagnetism in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Kanicki, J.; Buchwald, W.R.; Rong, F.C.; Harmatz, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation mechanisms of Si and N dangling bond defect centers in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films by ultra-violet (UV) illumination are investigated. The creation efficiency and density of Si centers in the N-rich films are independent of illumination temperature, strongly suggesting that the creation mechanism of the spins in electronic in nature, i.e., a charge transfer mechanism. However, our results suggest that the creation of the Si dangling bond in the Si-rich films are different. Last, we find that the creation of the N dangling-bond in N-rich films can be fit to a stretched exponential time dependence, which is characteristic of dispersive charge transport

  8. Optical characterisation of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Chouiyakh, A.; Rjeb, A.; Barhdadi, A.

    2000-09-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of some optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films prepared by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering technique. It is essentially focused on investigating separately the effects of increasing partial hydrogen pressure during the deposition stage, and the effects of post deposition thermal annealing on the main optical parameters of the deposited layers (refraction index, optical gap Urbach energy, etc.). We show that low hydrogen pressures allow a saturation of the dangling bonds in the material, while high pressures lead to the creation of new defects. We also show that thermal annealing under moderate temperatures allows a good improvement of the structural quality of deposited films. (author)

  9. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  10. Novel fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These materials include refractory alloys based on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as SiC--SiCf; carbon--carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor components is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the fuel can lower the center-line temperature and, thereby, enhance power production capabilities and reduce the risk of premature fuel pellet failure. Crystalline silicon carbide has superior characteristics as a structural material from the viewpoint of its thermal and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance, chemical stability, and low radioactivation. Therefore, there have been many efforts to develop SiC based composites in various forms for use in advanced energy systems. In recent years, with the development of high yield preceramic precursors, the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method has aroused interest for the fabrication of ceramic based materials, for various applications ranging from disc brakes to nuclear reactor fuels. The pyrolysis of preceramic polymers allow new types of ceramic materials to be processed at relatively low temperatures. The raw materials are element-organic polymers whose composition and architecture can be tailored and varied. The primary focus of this study is to use a pyrolysis based process to fabricate a host of novel silicon carbide-metal carbide or oxide composites, and to synthesize new materials based on mixed-metal silicocarbides that cannot be processed using conventional techniques. Allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), which is an organometal polymer, was used as the precursor for silicon carbide. Inert gas pyrolysis of AHPCS produces near-stoichiometric amorphous

  11. Solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon carbide: Ion fluence dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, I.-T.; Ishimaru, Manabu; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of radiation damage and impurity concentration on solid phase epitaxial growth of amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) as well as microstructures of recrystallized layer using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystals of 6H-SiC with (0001) orientation were irradiated with 150 keV Xe ions to fluences of 10 15 and 10 16 /cm 2 , followed by annealing at 890 deg. C. Full epitaxial recrystallization took place in a specimen implanted with 10 15 Xe ions, while retardation of recrystallization was observed in a specimen implanted with 10 16 /cm 2 Xe ions. Atomic pair-distribution function analyses and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results suggested that the retardation of recrystallization of the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample is attributed to the difference in amorphous structures between the 10 15 and 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted samples, i.e., more chemically disordered atomistic structure and higher Xe impurity concentration in the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample

  12. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu

    2017-12-13

    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  13. Electronic properties of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, M.; Voz, C.; Ferre, R.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Puigdollers, J.; Andreu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x : H) films have shown excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon. With the aim of large area deposition of these films the influence of the rf plasma power was investigated. It is found that homogenous deposition with effective surface recombination velocity lower than 100 cms -1 is possible up to 6'' diameter in a simple parallel plate reactor by optimizing deposition parameters. For application in solar cell processes the conductivity of these a-SiC x : H films might become of importance since good surface passivation results from field-effect passivation which needs an insulating dielectric layer. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the dark dc conductivity of these films was investigated in the temperature range from - 20 to 260 deg. C. Two transition temperatures, T s ∼80 deg. C and T s ∼170 deg. C, were found where conductivity increases, resp. decreases over-exponential. From Arrhenius plots activation energy (E a ) and conductivity pre-factor (σ 0 ) were calculated for a large number of samples with different composition. A correlation between E a and σ 0 was found giving a Meyer-Neldel relation with a slope of 59 mV, corresponding to a material characteristic temperature T m = 400 deg. C, and an intercept at σ 00 = 0.1 Ω -1 cm -1

  14. Determination of hydrogen concentration in amorphous silicon films by nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV 3He2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, M.; Imura, T.; Hiraki, A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV 3 He 2+ ions was used to determine the amount of hydrogen atoms in hydrogenated amorphous silicon film fabricated by reactive sputtering. The total amount of hydrogen in this film was determined to be (1.12 +- 0.1) x 10 22 cm -3 within the accuracy of approximately 10%. (author)

  15. Nano structures of amorphous silicon: localization and energy gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nourbakhsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy research has created a push for new materials; one of the most attractive material in this field is quantum confined hybrid silicon nano-structures (nc-Si:H embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H. The essential step for this investigation is studying a-Si and its ability to produce quantum confinement (QC in nc-Si: H. Increasing the gap of a-Si system causes solar cell efficiency to increase. By computational calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT, we calculated a special localization factor, [G Allan et al., Phys. Rev. B 57 (1997 6933.], for the states close to HOMO and LUMO in a-Si, and found most weak-bond Si atoms. By removing these silicon atoms and passivating the system with hydrogen, we were able to increase the gap in the a-Si system. As more than 8% hydrogenate was not experimentally available, we removed about 2% of the most localized Si atoms in the almost tetrahedral a-Si system. After removing localized Si atoms in the system with 1000 Si atoms, and adding 8% H, the gap increased about 0.24 eV. Variation of the gap as a function of hydrogen percentage was in good agreement with the Tight –Binding results, but about 2 times more than its experimental value. This might come from the fact that in the experimental conditions, it does not have the chance to remove the most localized states. However, by improving the experimental conditions and technology, this value can be improved.

  16. Nano-ridge fabrication by local oxidation of silicon edges with silicon nitride as a mask

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneveld, J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Maury, P.A.; Jansen, Henricus V.

    2005-01-01

    A method to fabricate nano-ridges over a full wafer is presented. The fabrication method uses local oxidation of silicon, with silicon nitride as a mask, and wet anisotropic etching of silicon. The realized structures are 7-20 nm wide, 40-100 nm high and centimeters long. All dimensions are easily

  17. Analysis of IV characteristics of solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadeh, H.

    2009-03-01

    The IV characteristics of pin solar cells made of amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon were investigated. The temperature dependence was measured in the temperature range between 150 K and 395 K. This range covers the most terrestrial applications condition. Using simplex procedure, the IV parameter of the cells were deduce using line fitting. It has been shown that polymorphous silicon shows electrical properties that are close to properties of microcrystalline silicon but as it is well known, polymorphous silicon shows higher absorption similar to amorphous silicon. The polymorphous silicon solar cells showed higher efficiencies, lower shunting and higher filling factors. In the above mentioned temperature range, polymorphous silicon is the better material for the manufacturing of thin film hydrogenated silicon pin solar cells. More investigations concerning the structural properties are necessary to make stronger conclusions in regards to the stability of the material, what we hope to do in the future. (author)

  18. Studies of pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification using amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Wood, R.F.

    1984-06-01

    Pulsed-laser melting of ion implantation-amorphized silicon layers, and subsequent solidification were studied. Measurements of the onset of melting of amorphous silicon layers and of the duration of melting, and modified melting model calculations demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, K/sub a/, of amorphous silicon is very low (K/sub a/ approx. = 0.02 W/cm-K). K/sub a/ is also the dominant parameter determining the dynamical response of amorphous silicon to pulsed laser radiation. TEM indicates that bulk (volume) nucleation occurs directly from the highly undercooled liquid silicon that can be prepared by pulsed laser melting of amorphous silicon layers at low laser energy densities. A modified thermal melting model is presented. The model calculations demonstrate that the release of latent heat by bulk nucleation occurring during the melt-in process is essential to obtaining agreement with observed depths of melting. These calculations also show that this release of latent heat accompanying bulk nucleation can result in the existence of buried molten layers of silicon in the interior of the sample after the surface has solidified. The bulk nucleation implies that the liquid-to-amorphous phase transition (produced using picosecond or uv nanosecond laser pulses) cannot be explained using purely thermodynamic considerations

  19. Structure-Property Relationships in Polymer Derived Amorphous/Nano-Crystalline Silicon Carbide for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunjarrao, Suraj C.; Singh, Abhishek K.; Singh, Raman P.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising candidate for several applications in nuclear reactors owing to its high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, good chemical stability, and resistance to swelling under heavy ion bombardment. However, fabricating SiC by traditional powder processing route generally requires very high temperatures for pressureless sintering. Polymer derived ceramic materials offer unique advantages such as ability to fabricate net shaped components, incorporate reinforcements and relatively low processing temperatures. Furthermore, for SiC based ceramics fabricated using polymer infiltration process (PIP), the microstructure can be tailored by controlling the processing parameters, to get an amorphous, nanocrystalline or crystalline SiC. In this work, fabrication of polymer derived amorphous and nano-grained SiC is presented and its application as an in-core material is explored. Monolithic SiC samples are fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of allyl-hydrido-poly-carbo-silane (AHPCS) under inert atmosphere. Chemical changes, phase transformations and microstructural changes occurring during the pyrolysis process are studied as a function of the processing temperature. Polymer cross-linking and polymer to ceramic conversion is studied using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) are performed to monitor the mass loss and phase change as a function of temperature. X-ray diffraction studies are done to study the intermediate phases and microstructural changes. Variation in density is carefully monitored as a function of processing temperature. Owing to shrinkage and gas evolution during pyrolysis, precursor derived ceramics are inherently porous and composite fabrication typically involves repeated cycles of polymer re-infiltration and pyrolysis. However, there is a limit to the densification that can be achieved by this method and porosity in the final materials presents

  20. Serially Connected Micro Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells for Compact High-Voltage Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Nam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact amorphous silicon (a-Si solar module to be used as high-voltage power supply. In comparison with the organic solar module, the main advantages of the a-Si solar module are its compatibility with photolithography techniques and relatively high power conversion efficiency. The open circuit voltage of a-Si solar cells can be easily controlled by serially interconnecting a-Si solar cells. Moreover, the a-Si solar module can be easily patterned by photolithography in any desired shapes with high areal densities. Using the photolithographic technique, we fabricate a compact a-Si solar module with noticeable photovoltaic characteristics as compared with the reported values for high-voltage power supplies.

  1. Periodic molybdenum disc array for light trapping in amorphous silicon layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiwei; Deng, Changkai [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Yang, Kang; Chen, Haiyan, E-mail: chenhy@sari.ac.cn; Li, Dongdong; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei@shu.edu.cn [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate the light trapping effect in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer by inserting a layer of periodic molybdenum disc array (MDA) between the a-Si:H layer and the quartz substrate, which forms a three-layer structure of Si/MDA/SiO{sub 2}. The MDA layer was fabricated by a new cost-effective method based on nano-imprint technology. Further light absorption enhancement was realized through altering the topography of MDA by annealing it at 700°C. The mechanism of light absorption enhancement in a-Si:H interfaced with MDA was analyzed, and the electric field distribution and light absorption curve of the different layers in the Si/MDA structure under light illumination of different wavelengths were simulated by employing numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) solutions.

  2. Solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on amorphous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimburger, Robert

    2010-07-05

    This work deals with low-temperature solution growth of micro-crystalline silicon on glass. The task is motivated by the application in low-cost solar cells. As glass is an amorphous material, conventional epitaxy is not applicable. Therefore, growth is conducted in a two-step process. The first step aims at the spatial arrangement of silicon seed crystals on conductive coated glass substrates, which is realized by means of vapor-liquid-solid processing using indium as the solvent. Seed crystals are afterwards enlarged by applying a specially developed steady-state solution growth apparatus. This laboratory prototype mainly consists of a vertical stack of a silicon feeding source and the solvent (indium). The growth substrate can be dipped into the solution from the top. The system can be heated to a temperature below the softening point of the utilized glass substrate. A temperature gradient between feeding source and growth substrate promotes both, supersaturation and material transport by solvent convection. This setup offers advantages over conventional liquid phase epitaxy at low temperatures in terms of achievable layer thickness and required growth times. The need for convective solute transport to gain the desired thickness of at least 50 {mu}m is emphasized by equilibrium calculations in the binary system indium-silicon. Material transport and supersaturation conditions inside the utilized solution growth crucible are analyzed. It results that the solute can be transported from the lower feeding source to the growth substrate by applying an appropriate heating regime. These findings are interpreted by means of a hydrodynamic analysis of fluid flow and supporting FEM simulation. To ensure thermodynamic stability of all materials involved during steady-state solution growth, the ternary phase equilibrium between molybdenum, indium and silicon at 600 C was considered. Based on the obtained results, the use of molybdenum disilicide as conductive coating

  3. Infrared analysis of thin films: amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Keudell, Achim von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, an experimentally measured spectrum has to be simulated using the full formalism including the Kramers-Kronig relation. Infrared absorption spectra and the resulting k spectra in the range of the CH vibrational bands around 3000 cm -1 are presented for a variety of a-C:H layers. The shape and the total intensity of the peak are quite sensitive to the film structure. Soft, polymerlike hydrocarbon layers are characterized by a well structured, intense IR absorption band, while hard, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers exhibit a structureless, broad IR absorption band with relative low intensity. The k spectra of the CH vibrational bands can be considered as fingerprint for the type of a-C:H film. (author)

  4. A fax-machine amorphous silicon sensor for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Chvatchkine, V. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ioudine, I. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J.J. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Amorphous silicon detectors have been used, basically, as solar cells for energetics applications. As light detectors, linear sensors are used in fax and photocopier machines because they can be built with a large size, low price and have a high radiation hardness. Due to these performances, amorphous silicon detectors have been used as radiation detectors, and, presently, some groups are developing matrix amorphous silicon detectors with built-in electronics for medical X-ray applications. Our group has been working on the design and development of an X-ray image system based on a commercial fax linear amorphous silicon detector. The sensor scans the selected area and detects light produced by the X-ray in a scintillator placed on the sensor. Image-processing software produces a final image with better resolution and definition. (orig.).

  5. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported

  6. Thin film silicon by a microwave plasma deposition technique: Growth and devices, and, interface effects in amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Basanth

    Thin film silicon (Si) was deposited by a microwave plasma CVD technique, employing double dilution of silane, for the growth of low hydrogen content Si films with a controllable microstructure on amorphous substrates at low temperatures (prepared by this technique. Such films showed a dark conductivity ˜10sp{-6} S/cm, with a conduction activation energy of 0.49 eV. Film growth and properties have been compared for deposition in Ar and He carrier systems and growth models have been proposed. Low temperature junction formation by undoped thin film silicon was examined through a thin film silicon/p-type crystalline silicon heterojunctions. The thin film silicon layers were deposited by rf glow discharge, dc magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma CVD. The hetero-interface was identified by current transport analysis and high frequency capacitance methods as the key parameter controlling the photovoltaic (PV) response. The effect of the interface on the device properties (PV, junction, and carrier transport) was examined with respect to modifications created by chemical treatment, type of plasma species, their energy and film microstructure interacting with the substrate. Thermally stimulated capacitance was used to determine the interfacial trap parameters. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon on chemically clean c-Si created electron trapping sites while hole traps were seen when a thin oxide was present at the interface. Under optimized conditions, a 10.6% efficient cell (11.5% with SiOsb2 A/R) with an open circuit voltage of 0.55 volts and a short circuit current density of 30 mA/cmsp2 was fabricated.

  7. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  8. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  9. Fabrication of functional structures on thin silicon nitride membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkels, P.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Brugger, J.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A process to fabricate functional polysilicon structures above large (4×4 mm2) thin (200 nm), very flat LPCVD silicon rich nitride membranes was developed. Key features of this fabrication process are the use of low-stress LPCVD silicon nitride, sacrificial layer etching, and minimization of

  10. Piezoresistive effect in top-down fabricated silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated silicon test chips to investigate the piezoresistive properties of both crystalline and polycrystalline nanowires using a top-down approach, in order to comply with conventional fabrication techniques. The test chip consists of 5 silicon nanowires and a reference...

  11. Size modulation of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in amorphous silicon oxide by Cat-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Godavarthi, S.; Ortega, M.; Sanchez, V.; Velumani, S.; Mallick, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Different issues related to controlling size of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO x :H) deposited by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) have been reported. Films were deposited using tantalum (Ta) and tungsten (W) filaments and it is observed that films deposited using tantalum filament resulted in good control on the properties. The parameters which can affect the size of nc-Si domains have been studied which include hydrogen flow rate, catalyst and substrate temperatures. The deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, HRTEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy, for determining the size of the deposited nc-Si. The crystallite formation starts for Ta-catalyst around the temperature of 1700 o C.

  12. Broadband wavelength conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with silicon nitride layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing; Huang, Nan; Liu, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    Broadband wavelength conversion based on degenerate four-wave mixing is theoretically investigated in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide with silicon nitride inter-cladding layer (a-Si:HN). We have found that enhancement of the non-linear effect of a-Si:H waveguide nitride intermediate layer facilitates broadband wavelength conversion. Conversion bandwidth of 490 nm and conversion efficiency of 11.4 dB were achieved in a numerical simulation of a 4 mm-long a-Si:HN waveguide under 1.55 μm continuous wave pumping. This broadband continuous-wave wavelength converter has potential applications in photonic networks, a type of readily manufactured low-cost highly integrated optical circuits.

  13. Fiber Optic Excitation of Silicon Microspheres in Amorphous and Crystalline Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, H.; Murib, M.S.; Serpenguzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the optical resonance spectra of free-standing monolithic single crystal silicon microspheres immersed in various amorphous fluids, such as air, water, ethylene glycol, and 4-Cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal. For the various amorphous fluids,

  14. Fabricating Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Microcomponent by Suction Casting Using Silicon Micromold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A suction casting process for fabricating Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass microcomponent using silicon micromold has been studied. A complicated BMG microgear with 50 μm in module has been cast successfully. Observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that the cast microgear duplicates the silicon micromold including the microstructure on the surface. The amorphous state of the microgear is confirmed by transmission election microscopy. The nanoindentation hardness and elasticity modulus of the microgear reach 6.5 GPa and 94.5 GPa. The simulation and experimental results prove that the suction casting process with the silicon micromold is a promising one-step method to fabricate bulk metallic glass microcomponents with high performance for applications in microelectromechanical system.

  15. Fabrication of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1988-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors is described. The utilization of backside gettering in the fabrication process results in the actual physical removal of detrimental impurities from critical device regions. This reduces the sensitivity of detector properties to processing variables while yielding low diode reverse-leakage currents. In addition, gettering permits the use of processing temperatures compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. P-channel MOSFETs and silicon p-i-n diodes have been fabricated simultaneously on 10 kΩ/centerreverse arrowdot/cm silicon using conventional integrated-circuit processing techniques. 25 refs., 5 figs

  16. Detection of minimum-ionizing particles in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Fujieda, I.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Ward, W.; Street, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    Based on previously-reported results of the successful detection of alpha particles and 1- and 2-MeV protons with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) diodes, detection of a single minimum-ionizing particle will require a total sensitive thickness of approximately 100 to 150 μm, either in the form of a single thick diode, or as a stack of several thinner diodes. Signal saturation at high dE/dx makes it necessary to simulate minimum ionization in order to evaluate present detectors. Two techniques, using pulsed infrared light, and pulsed x-rays, give single-pulse signals large enough for direct measurements. A third, using beta rays, requires multiple-transit signal averaging to produce signals measurable above noise. Signal amplitudes from the a-Si : H limit at 60% of the signal size from Si crystals extrapolated to the same thickness. This is consistent with an a-Si : H radiation ionization energy, W = 6 eV/electron-hole pair. Beta-ray signals are observed at the expected amplitude

  17. Fracture properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; King, S.W.; Bielefeld, J.; Xu, J.; Dauskardt, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The cohesive fracture properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) thin films in moist environments are reported. Films with stoichiometric compositions (C/Si ≈ 1) exhibited a decreasing cohesive fracture energy with decreasing film density similar to other silica-based hybrid organic–inorganic films. However, lower density a-SiC:H films with non-stoichiometric compositions (C/Si ≈ 5) exhibited much higher cohesive fracture energy than the films with higher density stoichiometric compositions. One of the non-stoichiometric films exhibited fracture energy (∼9.5 J m −2 ) greater than that of dense silica glasses. The increased fracture energy was due to crack-tip plasticity, as demonstrated by significant pileup formation during nanoindentation and a fracture energy dependence on film thickness. The a-SiC:H films also exhibited a very low sensitivity to moisture-assisted cracking compared with other silica-based hybrid films. A new atomistic fracture model is presented to describe the observed moisture-assisted cracking in terms of the limited Si-O-Si suboxide bond formation that occurs in the films.

  18. Carrier transport in amorphous silicon utilizing picosecond photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a high-speed electronic measurement capability permitted the direct observation of the transient photoresponse of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with a time resolution of approximately 10ps. This technique was used to measure the initial mobility of photogenerated (2.1eV) free carriers in three types of a-Si having widely different densities of structural defects (i.e., as prepared by: (1) RF glow discharge (a-Si:H); (2) chemical vapor deposition; and (3) evaporation in ultra-high vacuum). In all three types of a-Si, the same initial mobility of approximately 1 cu cm/Vs at room temperature was found. This result tends to confirm the often-made suggestion that the free carrier mobility is determined by the influence of shallow states associated with the disorder in the random atomic network, and is an intrinsic property of a-Si which is unaffected by the method of preparation. The rate of decay of the photocurrent correlates with the density of structural defects and varies from 4ps to 200ps for the three types of a-Si investigated. The initial mobility of a-Si:H was found to be thermally activated. The possible application of extended state transport controlled by multiple trapping and small polaron formation is discussed.

  19. Experiment and Simulation Study on the Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on comparative study on two amorphous silicon photovoltaic walls (a-Si PV walls, the temperature distribution and the instant power were tested; and with EnergyPlus software, similar models of the walls were built to simulate annual power generation and air conditioning load. On typical sunshine day, the corresponding position temperature of nonventilated PV wall was generally 0.5~1.5°C higher than that of ventilated one, while the power generation was 0.2%~0.4% lower, which was consistent with the simulation results with a difference of 0.41% in annual energy output. As simulation results, in summer, comparing the PV walls with normal wall, the heat per unit area of these two photovoltaic walls was 5.25 kWh/m2 (nonventilated and 0.67 kWh/m2 (ventilated higher, respectively. But in winter the heat loss of nonventilated one was smaller, while ventilated PV wall was similar to normal wall. To annual energy consumption of heating and cooling, the building with ventilated PV wall and normal wall was also similar but slightly better than nonventilated one. Therefore, it is inferred that, at low latitudes, such as Zhuhai, China, air gap ventilation is suitable, while the length to thickness ratio of the air gap needs to be taken into account.

  20. Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Neil F; He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Keshavarzi, Banafsheh; Krishnamurthi, Mahesh; Borhan, Ali; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Peacock, Anna C; Healy, Noel; Sazio, Pier J A; Badding, John V

    2012-01-11

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is one of the most technologically important semiconductors. The challenge in producing it from SiH(4) precursor is to overcome a significant kinetic barrier to decomposition at a low enough temperature to allow for hydrogen incorporation into a deposited film. The use of high precursor concentrations is one possible means to increase reaction rates at low enough temperatures, but in conventional reactors such an approach produces large numbers of homogeneously nucleated particles in the gas phase, rather than the desired heterogeneous deposition on a surface. We report that deposition in confined micro-/nanoreactors overcomes this difficulty, allowing for the use of silane concentrations many orders of magnitude higher than conventionally employed while still realizing well-developed films. a-Si:H micro-/nanowires can be deposited in this way in extreme aspect ratio, small-diameter optical fiber capillary templates. The semiconductor materials deposited have ~0.5 atom% hydrogen with passivated dangling bonds and good electronic properties. They should be suitable for a wide range of photonic and electronic applications such as nonlinear optical fibers and solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Laminated Amorphous Silicon Neutron Detector (pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harry; Branz, Howard; Stradins, Paul; Xu, Yueqin

    2009-01-01

    An internal R and D project was conducted at the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) of National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), to determine the feasibility of developing a multi-layer boron-10 based thermal neutron detector using the amorphous silicon (AS) technology currently employed in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays. The boron-10 neutron reaction produces an alpha that can be readily detected. A single layer detector, limited to an approximately 2-micron-thick layer of boron, has a theoretical sensitivity of about 3%; hence a thin multi-layer device with high sensitivity can theoretically be manufactured from single layer detectors. Working with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), an AS PiN diode alpha detector was developed and tested. The PiN diode was deposited on a boron-10 coated substrate. Testing confirmed that the neutron sensitivity was nearly equal to the theoretical value of 3%. However, adhesion problems with the boron-10 coating prevented successful development of a prototype detector. Future efforts will include boron deposition work and development of integrated AS signal processing circuitry.

  2. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film anode for proton conducting batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tiejun; Young, Kwo; Beglau, David; Yan, Shuli; Zeng, Peng; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition were used as anode in a non-conventional nickel metal hydride battery using a proton-conducting ionic liquid based non-aqueous electrolyte instead of alkaline solution for the first time, which showed a high specific discharge capacity of 1418 mAh g-1 for the 38th cycle and retained 707 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles. A maximum discharge capacity of 3635 mAh g-1 was obtained at a lower discharge rate, 510 mA g-1. This electrochemical discharge capacity is equivalent to about 3.8 hydrogen atoms stored in each silicon atom. Cyclic voltammogram showed an improved stability 300 mV below the hydrogen evolution potential. Both Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed no difference to the pre-existing covalent Si-H bond after electrochemical cycling and charging, indicating a non-covalent nature of the Si-H bonding contributing to the reversible hydrogen storage of the current material. Another a-Si:H thin film was prepared by an rf-sputtering deposition followed by an ex-situ hydrogenation, which showed a discharge capacity of 2377 mAh g-1.

  3. Nanoindentation-induced pile-up in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantchev, B; Danesh, P; Wiezorek, J; Schmidt, B

    2010-01-01

    Nanoindentation-induced material extrusion around the nanoindent (pile-up) leads to an overestimation of elastic modulus, E, and nanohardness, H, when the test results are evaluated using the Oliver and Pharr method. Factors affecting the pile-up during testing are residual stresses in film and ratio of film and substrate mechanical properties. Nanoindentation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films has been carried out with the aim to study the effect of residual compressive stress on the pile-up in this material. To distinguish the contribution of compressive stress to the appearance of pile-up ion implantation has been used as a tool, which reduces the compressive stress in a-Si:H. Scanning probe microscope has been used for the imaging of the indent and evaluation of the pile-up. The values of E and H have been obtained from the experimental load-displacement curves using depth profiling with Berkovich tip, which has created negligible pile-up. A sharper cube corner tip has been used to study the pile-up. It has been established that pile-up is determined by the material plasticity, when the compressive stress is below 200 MPa. The contribution of mechanical stress to the pile-up is essential for the stress as high, as about 500 MPa.

  4. Diffusion of Gold and Platinum in Amorphous Silicon

    CERN Multimedia

    Voss, T L

    2002-01-01

    By means of radiotracer experiments the diffusion of Au and Pt in radio-frequency-sputtered amorphous silicon (a-Si) was investigated. Specimens of a-Si with homogeneous doping concentrations of Au or Pt in the range 0$\\, - \\,$1,7~at.\\% were produced by co-sputtering of Si and Au or Pt, respectively. An additional tiny concentration of radioactive $^{195}$Au or $^{188}$Pt, about 10~at.ppm, was implanted at ISOLDE. The resulting Gaussian distribution of the implanted atoms served as a probe for measuring diffusion coefficients at various doping concentrations. It was found that for a given doping concentration the diffusion coefficients show Arrhenius-type temperature dependences, where the diffusion enthalpy and the pre-exponential factor depend on the doping concentration. From these results it was concluded that in a-Si Au and Pt undergo direct, interstitial-like diffusion that is retarded by temporary trapping of the radiotracer atoms at vacancy-type defects with different binding enthalpies. In the case o...

  5. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  6. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.; Baily, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The amorphous(a)-to-crystalline (c) phase transition has been studied in electron(e - ) and/or ion irradiated silicon (Si). The irradiations were performed in situ in the Argonne High Voltage Microscope-Tandem Facility. The irradiation of Si, at 0 K, with 1-MeV e - to a fluence of 14 dpa failed to induce the c-to-a transition. Whereas an irradiation, at 0 K, with 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ ions induced the c-to-a transition by a fluence of approx.0.37 dpa. Alternatively a dual irradiation, at 10 0 K, with 1.0-MeV e - and 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ to a Kr+ fluence of 1.5 dpa - where the ratio of the displacement rates for e - to ions was approx.0.5 - resulted in the Si specimen retaining a degree of crystallinity. These results are discussed in terms of the degree of dispersion of point defects in the primary state of damage and the mobilities of point defects

  7. Amorphous silicon-based PINIP structure for color sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Raniero, L.; Fortunato, E.; Ferreira, I.; Aguas, H.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    A series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) films was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology. The microstructure and photoelectronic properties of the film are investigated by absorption spectra (in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The results show that good band gap controllability (1.83-3.64 eV) was achieved by adjusting the plasma parameters. In the energy range around 2.1 eV, the a-Si 1-x C x :H films exhibit good photosensitivity, opening the possibility to use this wide band gap material for device application, especially when blue color detectors are concerned. A multilayer device with a stack of glass/TCO(ZnO:Ga)/P(a-SiC:H)/I(a-SiC:H)/N(a-Si:H)/I(a-Si:H)/P(a-Si:H)/Al has been prepared. The devices can detect blue and red colors under different bias voltages. The optimization of the device, especially the film thickness and the band gap offset used to achieve better detectivity, is also done in this work

  8. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photoresists for HgCdTe patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.E.; DeHart, C.; Wang, L.; Dinan, J.H.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    A process to use a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film as a dry photoresist mask for plasma etching of HgCdTe has been demonstrated. The a-Si:H films were deposited using standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with pure silane as the source gas. X-ray photoelectron spectra show that virtually no oxide grows on the surface of an a-Si:H film after 3 hours in air, indicating that it is hydrogen passivated. Ultraviolet light frees hydrogen from the surface and enhances the oxide growth rate. A pattern of 60 micron square pixels was transferred from a contact mask to the surface of an a-Si:H film by ultraviolet enhanced oxidation in air. For the conditions used, the oxide thickness was 0.5--1.0 nm. Hydrogen plasmas were used to develop this pattern by removing the unexposed regions of the film. A hydrogen plasma etch selectivity between oxide and a-Si:H of greater than 500:1 allows patterns as thick as 700 nm to be generated with this very thin oxide. These patterns were transferred into HgCdTe by etching in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An etch selectivity between a-Si:H and HgCdTe of greater than 4:1 was observed after etching 2,500 nm into the HgCdTe. All of the steps are compatible with processing in vacuum.

  9. Method of fabricating porous silicon carbide (SiC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  10. Nonlinear Optical Functions in Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baets, R.; Kuyken, B.; Liu, X.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon-on-Insulator nanowires provide an excellent platform for nonlinear optical functions in spite of the two-photon absorption at telecom wavelengths. Work on both crystalline and amorphous silicon nanowires is reviewed, in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 2.5 µm....

  11. Amorphous-polycrystal transition induced by laser pulse in self-ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, G.; Rimini, E.; Vitali, G.; Bertolotti, M.

    1977-01-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction has been used to investigate the amorphous to polycrystalline structure transition in silicon induced by laser pulse. The power density of the ruby laser pulse, in the free generation mode, has been maintained below the threshold to induce surface damage. Depth analysis has been carried out in silicon crystal using the channeling effect technique. (orig.) [de

  12. Enhancement of photovoltaic effects and photoconductivity observed in Co-doped amorphous carbon/silicon heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Gao, J., E-mail: jugao@hku.hk [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-22

    Co-doped amorphous carbon (Co-C)/silicon heterostructures were fabricated by growing Co-C films on n-type Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition. A photovoltaic effect (PVE) has been observed at room temperature. Open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 320 mV and short-circuit current density J{sub sc }= 5.62 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured under illumination of 532-nm light with the power of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. In contrast, undoped amorphous carbon/Si heterostructures revealed no significant PVE. Based on the PVE and photoconductivity (PC) investigated at different temperatures, it was found that the energy conversion efficiency increased with increasing the temperature and reached the maximum at room temperature, while the photoconductivity showed a reverse temperature dependence. The observed competition between PVE and PC was correlated with the way to distribute absorbed photons. The possible mechanism, explaining the enhanced PVE and PC in the Co-C/Si heterostructures, might be attributed to light absorption enhanced by localized surface plasmons in Co nanoparticles embedded in the carbon matrix.

  13. Ultrafast all-optical arithmetic logic based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostimirovic, Dusan; Ye, Winnie N.

    2016-03-01

    For decades, the semiconductor industry has been steadily shrinking transistor sizes to fit more performance into a single silicon-based integrated chip. This technology has become the driving force for advances in education, transportation, and health, among others. However, transistor sizes are quickly approaching their physical limits (channel lengths are now only a few silicon atoms in length), and Moore's law will likely soon be brought to a stand-still despite many unique attempts to keep it going (FinFETs, high-k dielectrics, etc.). This technology must then be pushed further by exploring (almost) entirely new methodologies. Given the explosive growth of optical-based long-haul telecommunications, we look to apply the use of high-speed optics as a substitute to the digital model; where slow, lossy, and noisy metal interconnections act as a major bottleneck to performance. We combine the (nonlinear) optical Kerr effect with a single add-drop microring resonator to perform the fundamental AND-XOR logical operations of a half adder, by all-optical means. This process is also applied to subtraction, higher-order addition, and the realization of an all-optical arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The rings use hydrogenated amorphous silicon as a material with superior nonlinear properties to crystalline silicon, while still maintaining CMOS-compatibility and the many benefits that come with it (low cost, ease of fabrication, etc.). Our method allows for multi-gigabit-per-second data rates while maintaining simplicity and spatial minimalism in design for high-capacity manufacturing potential.

  14. Characterisation of amorphous silicon alloys by RBS/ERD with self consistent data analysis using simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradas, N.P.; Wendler, E.; Jeynes, C.; Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Summers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films are deposited by CVD onto insulating (silica) substrates for the fabrication of solar cells. 1.5MeV 4 He ERD/RBS is applied to the films, and a self consistent depth profile of Si and H using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was obtained for each sample. The analytical procedure is described in detail, and the confidence limits of the profiles are obtained using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which is a natural extension of the SA algorithm. We show how the results are of great benefit to the growers

  15. Development of an SU-8 MEMS process with two metal electrodes using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2013-02-08

    This work presents an SU-8 surface micromachining process using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material, which also incorporates two metal layers for electrical excitation. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic applications due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and low cost. Amorphous silicon is used as a sacrificial layer in MEMS applications because it can be deposited in large thicknesses, and can be released in a dry method using XeF2, which alleviates release-based stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this work, an SU-8 MEMS process was developed using ;-Si as a sacrificial layer. Two conductive metal electrodes were integrated in this process to allow out-of-plane electrostatic actuation for applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. In order to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers, the process can fabricate dimples that can be conductive or nonconductive. Additionally, this SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were optimized for two sets of thicknesses: thin (5-10 m) and thick (130 m). The process was tested fabricating MEMS switches, capacitors and thermal actuators. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Fabrication of a silicon oxide stamp by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, M.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a stamp reinforced with silicon nitride is presented for its use in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication process is based on edge lithography using conventional optical lithography and wet anisotropic etching of 110 silicon wafers. SiO2 nano-ridges of 20 nm in width were

  17. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod Mulbagal; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Yagafarov, Timur; Alekseeva, Alena; Anisimov, Anton; Sergeev, Oleg; Neumueller, Alex; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert

    2018-01-09

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and a thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high quality SWCNTs with an enhanced conductivity by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with different SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit Jsc, open-circuit Voc, and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5G direct illumination. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod M.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia P.; Yagafarov, Timur; Aleekseeva, Alena K.; Anisimov, Anton S.; Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high-quality SWCNTs with conductivity enhanced by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with varying SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit J sc , open-circuit V oc , and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and an efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 G direct illumination.

  19. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, K. M. S., E-mail: kmgarcez@ufma.br [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65700-000 Bacabal, Maranhão (Brazil); Antonelli, A., E-mail: aantone@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  20. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  1. Amorphous NEA Silicon Photocathodes - A Robust RF Gun Electron Source. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been shown to have great promise as a negative electron affinity visible wavelength photocathode suitable for radio frequency (RF) gun systems. The specific operating wavelength can be shifted by growing it as a germanium alloy (a-Si(1-x)Ge(x)) rather than as pure silicon. This class of photoemitters has been shown to possess a high degree of immunity to charged particle flux. Such particle flux can be a significant problem in the operation of other photocathodes in RF gun systems. Its emission characteristics in the form of current per unit area, or current density, and emission angle, or beam spread are well matched for use in RF guns. Photocathodes made of a-Si can be fabricated on a variety of substrates including those most commonly employed in RF gun systems. Such photocathodes can be made for operation in either transmission or reflection mode. By growing them utilizing radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the unit cost is quite low, the quality is high and it is straightforward to grow custom size substrates and full or limited regions to confine the electron emission to the desired area. Quality emitters have been fabricated on tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, copper, stainless steel, float glass, borosilicate glass and gallium arsenide. In addition to performing well in dedicated test chambers, a-Si photocathodes have been shown to function well in self-contained vacuum tubes. In this employment, they are subjected to a strenuous environment. Successful operation in this configuration provides additional confidence in their application to high energy linac photoinjectors and potentially as part of reliable, low cost photocathode driven RF gun systems that could become ready replacements for the diode and triode guns used on medical accelerators. Their applications in stand-alone vacuum tubes is just beginning to be explored.

  2. Thermal performances of ETFE cushion roof integrated amorphous silicon photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianhui; Chen, Wujun; Qiu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Bing; Zhou, Jinyu; Qu, Yegao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of a three layer ETFE cushion integrated a-Si PV is evaluated. • Temperature of a-Si PV obviously affects temperature field and temperature boundary. • The maximum temperature difference of 3.4 K between measured and numerical results. • Main transport mechanisms in upper and lower chambers are convection and conduction. • Heat transfer coefficients of this roof are less than those of other ETFE cushion roofs. - Abstract: Thermal performances of the ETFE cushion roof integrated amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) are essential to estimate building performances, such as temperature distribution and heat transfer coefficient. To investigate these thermal performances, an experimental mock-up composed of a-Si PV and a three-layer ETFE cushion roof was built and the experiment was carried out under summer sunny condition. Meanwhile, numerical model with real boundary conditions was performed in this paper. The experimental results show that the temperature sequence of the three layers was the middle, top and bottom layer and that the PV temperature caused by solar irradiance was 353.8 K. This gives evidence that the PV has a significant effect on the temperature distribution. The experimental temperature was in good agreement with the corresponding location of the numerical temperature since the maximum temperature difference was only 3.4 K. Therefore, the numerical results were justified and then used to analyze the airflow characteristics and calculate the thermal performances. For the airflow characteristics, it is found that the temperature distribution was not uniform and the main transport mechanisms in the upper and lower chambers formed by the three layers were the convection and conduction, respectively. For the thermal performances, the surface convective heat transfer coefficients were obtained, which have validated that thermal performances of the three-layer ETFE cushion integrated a-Si PV are better than

  3. Ideality and Tunneling Level Systems (TLS) in amorphous silicon films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Frances

    Heat capacity, sound velocity, and internal friction of covalently bonded amorphous silicon (a-Si) films with and without hydrogen show that low energy excitations commonly called tunneling or two level systems (TLS) can be tuned over nearly 3 decades, from below detectable limits to the range commonly seen in glassy systems. This tuning is accomplished by growth temperature, thickness, growth rate, light soaking or annealing. We see a strong correlation with atomic density in a-Si and in literature analysis of other glasses, as well as with dangling bond density, sound velocity, and bond angle distribution as measured by Raman spectroscopy, but TLS density varies by orders of magnitude while these other measures of disorder vary by less than a factor of two. The lowest TLS films are grown at temperatures near 0.8 of the theoretical glass transition temperature of Si, similar to work on polymer films and suggestive that the high surface mobility at relatively low temperature of vapor deposition can produce materials close to an ideal glass, with higher density, lower energy, and low TLS due to fewer nearby configurations with similarly low energy. The TLS measured by heat capacity and internal friction are strongly correlated for pure a-Si, but not for hydrogenated a-Si, suggesting that the standard TLS model works for a-Si, but that a-Si:H possess TLS that are decoupled from the acoustic waves measured by internal friction. Internal friction measures those TLS that introduce mechanical damping; we are in the process of measuring low T dielectric loss which yield TLS with dipole moments in order to explore the correlation between different types of TLS. Additionally, a strong correlation is found between an excess T3 term (well above the sound velocity-derived Debye contribution) and the linear term in heat capacity, suggesting a common origin. I thank members of my research group and my collaborators for contributions to this work and NSF-DMR-1508828 for support.

  4. Dose-response characteristics of an amorphous silicon EPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Peter; Hefner, Alfred; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were originally developed for the purpose of patient setup verification. Nowadays, they are increasingly used as dosimeters (e.g., for IMRT verification and linac-specific QA). A prerequisite for any clinical dosimetric application is a detailed understanding of the detector's dose-response behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon EPID (Elekta IVIEWGT) with respect to three photon beam qualities: 6, 10, and 25 MV. The EPID showed an excellent temporal stability on short term as well as on long term scales. The stability throughout the day was strongly influenced by warming up, which took several hours and affected EPID response by 2.5%. Ghosting effects increased the sensitivity of the EPID. They became more pronounced with decreasing time intervals between two exposures as well as with increasing dose. Due to ghosting, changes in pixel sensitivity amounted up to 16% (locally) for the 25 MV photon beam. It was observed that the response characteristics of our EPID depended on dose as well as on dose rate. Doubling the dose rate increased the EPID sensitivity by 1.5%. This behavior was successfully attributed to a dose per frame effect, i.e., a nonlinear relationship between the EPID signal and the dose which was delivered to the panel between two successive readouts. The sensitivity was found to vary up to 10% in the range of 1 to 1000 monitor units. This variation was governed by two independent effects. For low doses, the EPID signal was reduced due to the linac's changing dose rate during startup. Furthermore, the detector reading was influenced by intrabeam variations of EPID sensitivity, namely, an increase of detector response during uniform exposure. For the beam qualities which were used, the response characteristics of the EPID did not depend on energy. Differences in relative dose-response curves resulted from energy dependent temporal output

  5. Effect of light trapping in an amorphous silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftiquar, S.M.; Jung, Juyeon; Park, Hyeongsik; Cho, Jaehyun; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Bong, Sungjae; Kim, Sunbo; Yi, Junsin

    2015-01-01

    Light trapping in amorphous silicon based solar cell has been investigated theoretically. The substrate for these cells can be textured, including pyramidally textured c-Si wafer, to improve capture of incident light. A thin silver layer, deposited on the substrate of an n–i–p cell, ultimately goes at the back of the cell structure and can act a back reflector to improve light trapping. The two physical solar cells we investigated had open circuit voltages (V oc ) of 0.87, 0.90 V, short circuit current densities (J sc ) of 14.2, 15.36 mA/cm 2 respectively. The first cell was investigated for the effect on its performance while having and not having light trapping scheme (LT), when thickness of the active layer (d i ) was changed in the range of 100 nm to 800 nm. In both the approaches, for having or not having LT, the short circuit current density increases with d i while the V oc and fill factor, decreases steadily. However, maximum cell efficiency can be obtained when d i = 400 nm, and hence it was considered optimized thickness of the active layer, that was used for further investigation. With the introduction of light trapping to the second cell, it shows a further enhancement in J sc and red response of the external quantum efficiency to 16.6 mA/cm 2 and by 11.1% respectively. Considering multiple passages of light inside the cell, we obtained an improvement in cell efficiency from 9.7% to 10.6%. - Highlights: • A theoretical analysis of light trapping in p–i–n and n–i–p type solar cells • J sc increases and V oc decreases with the increase in i-layer thickness. • Observed optimized thickness of i-layer as 400 nm • J sc improved from 15.4 mA/cm 2 to 16.6 mA/cm 2 due to the light trapping. • Efficiency (η) improved from 9.7% to 10.6% due to better red response of the EQE

  6. Device physics of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianjun

    This dissertation reports measurements on and modeling of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nip solar cells. Cells with thicknesses from 200-900 nm were prepared at United Solar Ovonic LLC. The current density-voltage (J-V) relations were measured under laser illumination (685 nm wavelength, up to 200 mW/cm2) over the temperature range 240 K--350 K. The changes in the cells' open-circuit voltage during extended laser illumination (light-soaking) were measured, as were the cell properties in several light-soaked states. The J-V properties of cells in their as-deposited and light-soaked states converge at low-temperatures. Electromodulation spectra for the cells were also measured over the range 240 K--350 K to determine the temperature-dependent bandgap. These experimental results were compared to computer calculations of J-V relations using the AMPS ((c)Pennsylvania State University) computer code. Bandtail parameters (for electron and hole mobility and recombination) were consistent with published drift-mobility and transient photocurrent measurements on a-Si:H. The open-circuit voltage and power density measurements on as-deposited cells, as a function of temperature and thickness, were predicted well. The calculations support a general "hole mobility limited" approach to analyzing a-Si:H solar cells, and indicate that the doped electrode layers, the as-deposited density of dangling bonds, and the electron mobility are of secondary importance to as-deposited cells. For light-soaked a-Si:H solar cells, incorporation of a density of dangling bonds in the computer calculations accounted satisfactorily for the power and open-circuit voltage measurements, including the low-temperature convergence effect. The calculations indicate that, in the light-soaked state at room-temperature, electron recombination is split nearly evenly between holes trapped in the valence bandtail and holes trapped on dangling bonds. The result supports Stutzmann, Jackson, and Tsai

  7. Irradiation of electron with high energy induced micro-crystallization of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yule; Huang Junkai; Liu Weiping; Li Jingna

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous silicon is amorphous alloy of Si-H. It is random network of silicon with some hydrogen. And its structure has many unstable bonds as weak bonds of Si-Si and distortion bonds of all kinds. The bonds was broken or was out of shape by light and electrical ageing. It induced increase of defective state that causes character of material going to bad. This drawback will be overcome after micro-crystallization of amorphous silicon. It was discovered that a-Si:H was micro-crystallized by irradiated of electrons with energy of 0.3-0.5 MeV, density of electronic beam of 1.3 x 10 19 cm -1 s -1 and irradiated time of 10-600 s. Size of grain is 10-20 nm. Thick of microcrystalline lager is 25-250 nm

  8. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Michael A; Raupp, Gregory B

    2016-07-26

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm² and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate.

  9. Origins of hole traps in hydrogenated nanocrystalline and amorphous silicon revealed through machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Tim; Johlin, Eric; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-03-01

    Genetic programming is used to identify the structural features most strongly associated with hole traps in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon with very low crystalline volume fraction. The genetic programming algorithm reveals that hole traps are most strongly associated with local structures within the amorphous region in which a single hydrogen atom is bound to two silicon atoms (bridge bonds), near fivefold coordinated silicon (floating bonds), or where there is a particularly dense cluster of many silicon atoms. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism by which deep hole traps associated with bridge bonds may contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  10. Photoemission studies of amorphous silicon induced by P + ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petö, G.; Kanski, J.

    1995-12-01

    An amorphous Si layer was formed on a Si (1 0 0) surface by P + implantation at 80 keV. This layer was investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The resulting spectra are different from earlier spectra on amorphous Si prepared by e-gun evaporation or cathode sputtering. The differences consist of a decreased intensity in the spectral region corresponding to p-states, and appearace of new states at higher binding energy. Qualitativity similar results have been reported for Sb implanted amorphous Ge and the modification seems to be due to the changed short range order.

  11. In situ observation of shear-driven amorphization in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Chongmin; Zhu, Ting; Mao, Scott X.

    2016-09-19

    Amorphous materials have attracted great interest in the scientific and technological fields. An amorphous solid usually forms under the externally driven conditions of melt-quenching, irradiation and severe mechanical deformation. However, its dynamic formation process remains elusive. Here we report the in situ atomic-scale observation of dynamic amorphization processes during mechanical straining of nanoscale silicon crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We observe the shear-driven amorphization (SDA) occurring in a dominant shear band. The SDA involves a sequence of processes starting with the shear-induced diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal phase transition that is followed by dislocation nucleation and accumulation in the newly formed phase, leading to the formation of amorphous silicon. The SDA formation through diamond-hexagonal phase is rationalized by its structural conformity with the order in the paracrystalline amorphous silicon, which maybe widely applied to diamond-cubic materials. Besides, the activation of SDA is orientation-dependent through the competition between full dislocation nucleation and partial gliding.

  12. Silicon nitride-fabrication, forming and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehezkel, O.

    1983-01-01

    This article, which is a literature survey of the recent years, includes description of several methods for the formation of silicone nitride, and five methods of forming: Reaction-bonded silicon nitride, sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and chemical vapour deposition. Herein are also included data about mechanical and physical properties of silicon nitride and the relationship between the forming method and the properties. (author)

  13. Effect of hydrogen on the diode properties of reactively sputtered amorphous silicon Schottky barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, D.L.; Moustakas, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The diode properties of reactively sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon Schottky barrier structures (a-SiH/sub x/ /Pt) have been investigated. We find a systematic relation between the changes in the open circuit voltage, the barrier height, and the diode quality factor. These results are accounted for by assuming that hydrogen incorporation into the amorphous silicon network removes states from the top of the valence band and sharpens the valence-band tail. Interfacial oxide layers play a significant role in the low hydrogen content, and low band-gap regime

  14. On electronic structure of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kewei; Li, Xuqin; Ma, Baisheng; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Ligong; An, Linan

    2014-06-01

    The electronic structure of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide ceramics was studied by combining measurements of temperature-dependent conductivity and optical absorption. By comparing the experimental results to theoretical models, electronic structure was constructed for a carbon-rich amorphous silicon carbide, which revealed several unique features, such as deep defect energy level, wide band-tail band, and overlap between the band-tail band and defect level. These unique features were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the material and used to explain the electric behavior.

  15. Wetting and crystallization at grain boundaries: Origin of aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; He, D.; Zhao, Y.H.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that the grain boundaries in aluminium in contact with amorphous silicon are the necessary agents for initiation of the crystallization of silicon upon annealing temperatures as low as 438 K. Thermodynamic analysis has shown (i) that Si can 'wet' the Al grain boundaries due to the favorable Si/Al interface energy as compared to the Al grain-boundary energy and (ii) that Si at the Al grain boundaries can maintain its amorphous state up to a thickness of about 1.0 nm. Beyond that thickness crystalline Si develops at the Al grain boundaries

  16. Piezoresistive pressure sensor using low-temperature aluminium induced crystallization of sputter-deposited amorphous silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Chandra, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the piezoresistive properties of silicon films prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique, followed by the aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) process. Orientation and grain size of the polysilicon films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and found to be in the range 30–50 nm. Annealing of the Al–Si stack on an oxidized silicon substrate was performed in air ambient at 300–550 °C, resulting in layer exchange and transformation from amorphous to polysilicon phase. Van der Pauw and Hall measurement techniques were used to investigate the sheet resistance and carrier mobility of the resulting polycrystalline silicon film. The effect of Al thickness on the sheet resistance and mobility was also studied in the present work. A piezoresistive pressure sensor was fabricated on an oxidized silicon substrate in a Wheatstone bridge configuration, comprising of four piezoresistors made of polysilicon film obtained by the AIC process. The diaphragm was formed by the bulk-micromachining of silicon substrate. The response of the pressure sensor with applied negative pressure in 10–95 kPa range was studied. The gauge factor was estimated to be 5 and 18 for differently located piezoresistors on the diaphragm. The sensitivity of the pressure sensor was measured to be ∼ 30 mV MPa −1 , when the Wheatstone bridge was biased at 1 V input voltage. (paper)

  17. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-10-01

    Results on characterization of electrical properties of amorphous Si films for the 3 different growth methods (RF sputtering, PECVD [plasma enhanced], LPCVD [low pressure]) are reported. Performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n- type crystalline Si is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current, and the alpha particle response of 5mm dia detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. Results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  18. Fabrication of silicon based glass fibres for optical communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon based glass fibres are fabricated by conventional fibre drawing process. First, preform fabrication is carried out by means of conventional MCVD technique by using various dopants such as SiCl4, GeCl4, POCl3, and FeCl3. The chemicals are used in such a way that step index single mode fibre can be drawn.

  19. Graphene as a transparent electrode for amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaianella, F.; Rosolen, G.; Maes, B.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of graphene in terms of transparency and conductivity make it an ideal candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in a transparent conducting electrode. However, graphene is not always as good as ITO for some applications, due to a non-negligible absorption. For amorphous silicon photovoltaics, we have identified a useful case with a graphene-silica front electrode that improves upon ITO. For both electrode technologies, we simulate the weighted absorption in the active layer of planar amorphous silicon-based solar cells with a silver back-reflector. The graphene device shows a significantly increased absorbance compared to ITO-based cells for a large range of silicon thicknesses (34.4% versus 30.9% for a 300 nm thick silicon layer), and this result persists over a wide range of incidence angles

  20. Electrodeposition at room temperature of amorphous silicon and germanium nanowires in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, F; Namur, K; Mallet, J; Delavoie, F; Troyon, M; Molinari, M [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etude de Nanostructures (LMEN EA3799), Universite de Reims Champagne Ardennes (URCA), Reims Cedex 2 (France); Endres, F, E-mail: michael.molinari@univ-reims.fr [Institute of Particle Technology, Chair of Interface Processes, Clausthal University of Technology, D-36678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The electrodeposition at room temperature of silicon and germanium nanowires from the air- and water-stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P{sub 1,4}) containing SiCl{sub 4} as Si source or GeCl{sub 4} as Ge source is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. By using nanoporous polycarbonate membranes as templates, it is possible to reproducibly grow pure silicon and germanium nanowires of different diameters. The nanowires are composed of pure amorphous silicon or germanium. The nanowires have homogeneous cylindrical shape with a roughness of a few nanometres on the wire surfaces. The nanowires' diameters and lengths well match with the initial membrane characteristics. Preliminary photoluminescence experiments exhibit strong emission in the near infrared for the amorphous silicon nanowires.

  1. Graphene as a transparent electrode for amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaianella, F.; Rosolen, G.; Maes, B.

    2015-06-01

    The properties of graphene in terms of transparency and conductivity make it an ideal candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in a transparent conducting electrode. However, graphene is not always as good as ITO for some applications, due to a non-negligible absorption. For amorphous silicon photovoltaics, we have identified a useful case with a graphene-silica front electrode that improves upon ITO. For both electrode technologies, we simulate the weighted absorption in the active layer of planar amorphous silicon-based solar cells with a silver back-reflector. The graphene device shows a significantly increased absorbance compared to ITO-based cells for a large range of silicon thicknesses (34.4% versus 30.9% for a 300 nm thick silicon layer), and this result persists over a wide range of incidence angles.

  2. Graphene as a transparent electrode for amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaianella, F., E-mail: Fabio.Vaianella@umons.ac.be; Rosolen, G.; Maes, B. [Micro- and Nanophotonic Materials Group, Faculty of Science, University of Mons, 20 place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-06-28

    The properties of graphene in terms of transparency and conductivity make it an ideal candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in a transparent conducting electrode. However, graphene is not always as good as ITO for some applications, due to a non-negligible absorption. For amorphous silicon photovoltaics, we have identified a useful case with a graphene-silica front electrode that improves upon ITO. For both electrode technologies, we simulate the weighted absorption in the active layer of planar amorphous silicon-based solar cells with a silver back-reflector. The graphene device shows a significantly increased absorbance compared to ITO-based cells for a large range of silicon thicknesses (34.4% versus 30.9% for a 300 nm thick silicon layer), and this result persists over a wide range of incidence angles.

  3. Determination of hydrogen concentration in amorphous silicon films by nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwami, M; Imura, T; Hiraki, A [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Itahashi, T [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Fukuda, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tanaka, M [Kobe Tokiwa Junior Coll., Nagata (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    Nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions was used to determine the amount of hydrogen atoms in hydrogenated amorphous silicon film fabricated by reactive sputtering. The total amount of hydrogen in this film was determined to be (1.12 +- 0.1) x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/ within the accuracy of approximately 10%.

  4. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  5. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  6. Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon applied in very thin tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicho, Sandra

    2011-07-28

    Thin-film solar cells are fabricated by low-cost production processes, and are therefore an alternative to conventionally used wafer solar cells based on crystalline silicon. Due to the different band gaps, tandem cells that consist of amorphous (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline ({mu}c-Si:H) single junction solar cells deposited on top of each other use the solar spectrum much more efficient than single junction solar cells. The silicon layers are usually deposited on TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide)-coated glass and metal- or plastic foils. Compared to the CdTe and CIGS based thin-film technologies, silicon thin-film solar cells have the advantage that no limitation of raw material supply is expected and no toxic elements are used. Nevertheless, the production cost per Wattpeak is the decisive factor concerning competitiveness and can be reduced by, e.g., shorter deposition times or reduced material consumption. Both cost-reducing conceptions are simultaneously achieved by reducing the a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H absorber layer thicknesses in a tandem device. In the work on hand, the influence of an absorber layer thickness reduction up to 77% on the photovoltaic parameters of a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H tandem solar cells was investigated. An industry-oriented Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF-PECVD) system was used to deposit the solar cells on glass substrates coated with randomly structured TCO layers. The thicknesses of top and bottom cell absorber layers were varied by adjusting the deposition time. Reduced layer thicknesses lead to lower absorption and, hence, to reduced short-circuit current densities which, however, are partially balanced by higher open-circuit voltages and fill factors. Furthermore, by using very thin amorphous top cells, the light-induced degradation decreases tremendously. Accordingly, a thickness reduction of 75% led to an efficiency loss of only 21 %. By adjusting the parameters for the deposition of a-Si:H top cells, a

  7. A Mechanochemical Approach to Porous Silicon Nanoparticles Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca De Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon samples have been reduced in nanometric particles by a well known industrial mechanical process, the ball grinding in a planetary mill; the process has been extended to crystalline silicon for comparison purposes. The silicon nanoparticles have been studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, gas porosimetry and transmission electron microscopy. We have estimated crystallites size from about 50 nm for silicon to 12 nm for porous silicon. The specific surface area of the powders analyzed ranges between 100 m2/g to 29 m2/g depending on the milling time, ranging from 1 to 20 h. Electron microscopy confirms the nanometric size of the particles and reveals a porous structure in the powders obtained by porous silicon samples which has been preserved by the fabrication conditions. Chemical functionalization during the milling process by a siloxane compound has also been demonstrated.

  8. Preparation and Characterisation of Amorphous-silicon Photovoltaic Devices Having Microcrystalline Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M. T.; Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.

    1999-01-01

    The present work summarises the essential aspects of the research carried out so far at CIEMAT on amorphous-silicon solar cells. The experience accumulated on the preparation and characterisation of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon has allowed to start from intrinsic (absorbent) and p- and n-type (emitters) materials not only having excellent optoelectronic properties, but enjoying certain technological advantages with respect to those developed by other groups. Among these are absorbent-layer growth rates between 5 and 10 times as fast as conventional ones and microcrystalline emitters prepared without using hydrogen. The preparation of amorphous-silicon cells has required the solution of a number of problems, such as those related to pinholes, edge leak currents and diffusion of metals into the semiconductor. Once such constraints have been overcome, it has been demonstrated not only that the amorphous-silicon technology developed at CIEMAT is valid for making solar cells, but also that the quality of the semiconductor material is good for the application according to the partial results obtained. The development of thin-film laser-scribing technology is considered essential. Additionally it has been concluded that cross contamination, originated by the fact of using a single-chamber reactor, is the basic factor limiting the quality of the cells developed at CIEMAT. The present research activity is highly focused on the solution of this problem. (Author)23 refs

  9. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. A comparison of degradation in three amorphous silicon PV module technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C.; van Dyk, E.E. [Physics Department, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2010-03-15

    Three commercial amorphous silicon modules manufactured by monolithic integration and consisting of three technology types were analysed in this study. These modules were deployed outdoors for 14 months and underwent degradation. All three modules experienced the typical light-induced degradation (LID) described by the Staebler-Wronski effect, and this was followed by further degradation. A 14 W single junction amorphous silicon module degraded by about 45% of the initial measured maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) at the end of the study. A maximum of 30% of this has been attributed to LID and the further 15% to cell mismatch and cell degradation. The other two modules, a 64 W triple junction amorphous silicon module, and a 68 W flexible triple junction amorphous silicon module, exhibited LID followed by seasonal variation in the degraded P{sub MAX}. The 64 W module showed a maximum degradation in P{sub MAX} of about 22%. This is approximately 4% more than the manufacturer allowed for the initial LID. However, the seasonal variation in P{sub MAX} seems to be centred around the manufacturer's rating ({+-}4%). The 68 W flexible module has shown a maximum decrease in P{sub MAX} of about 27%. This decrease is about 17% greater than the manufacturer allowed for the initial LID. (author)

  11. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs

  12. Construction process and read-out electronics of amorphous silicon position detectors for multipoint alignment monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.; Schubert, M.B.; Lutz, B.; Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M.G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria IFCA/CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2009-09-01

    We describe the construction process of large-area high-performance transparent amorphous silicon position detecting sensors. Details about the characteristics of the associated local electronic board (LEB), specially designed for these sensors, are given. In addition we report on the performance of a multipoint alignment monitoring application of 12 sensors in a 13 m long light path.

  13. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-University of Cantabria Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2008-08-11

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm{sup 2}) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path.

  14. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A., E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90{sup o} using a pentaprism.

  15. The effects of thermal annealing in structural and optical properties of RF sputtered amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Fatah Awang Mat

    1988-01-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of amorphous silicon are studied on samples prepared by radio-frequency sputtering. The fundamental absorption edge of these films are investigated at room temperature and their respective parameters estimated. Annealing effect on optical properties is interpreted in terms of the removal of voids and a decrease of disorder. (author)

  16. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90 o using a pentaprism.

  17. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm 2 ) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path

  18. Towards neuromorphic electronics: Memristors on foldable silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-11-01

    The advantages associated with neuromorphic computation are rich areas of complex research. We address the fabrication challenge of building neuromorphic devices on structurally foldable platform with high integration density. We present a CMOS compatible fabrication process to demonstrate for the first time memristive devices fabricated on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is next transformed into a flexible thin sheet of silicon fabric with all the pre-fabricated devices. This process preserves the ultra-high integration density advantage unachievable on other flexible substrates. In addition, the memristive devices are of the size of a motor neuron and the flexible/folded architectural form factor is critical to match brain cortex\\'s folded pattern for ultra-compact design.

  19. Properties of amorphous silicon thin films synthesized by reactive particle beam assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Jang, Jin-Nyoung; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous silicon thin films were formed by chemical vapor deposition of reactive particle beam assisted inductively coupled plasma type with various reflector bias voltages. During the deposition, the substrate was heated at 150 o C. The effects of reflector bias voltage on the physical and chemical properties of the films were systematically studied. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results showed that the deposited films were amorphous and the films under higher reflector voltage had higher internal energy to be easily crystallized. The chemical state of amorphous silicon films was revealed as metallic bonding of Si atoms by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increase in reflector voltage induced an increase of surface morphology of films and optical bandgap and a decrease of photoconductivity.

  20. Modelling the structure factors and pair distribution functions of amorphous germanium, silicon and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgic, Seyfettin; Gonzalez, Luis Enrique; Baer, Shalom; Silbert, Moises

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of the static structure factor S(k) and the pair distribution function g(r) of the tetrahedral amorphous semiconductors germanium, silicon and carbon using the structural diffusion model (SDM). The results obtained with the SDM for S(k) and g(r) are of comparable quality with those obtained by the unconstrained Reverse Monte Carlo simulations and existing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for these systems. We have found that g(r) exhibits a small peak, or shoulder, a weak remnant of the prominent third neighbour peak present in the crystalline phase of these systems. This feature has been experimentally found to be present in recently reported high energy X-ray experiments of amorphous silicon (Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13520), as well as in the previous X-ray diffraction of as-evaporated amorphous germanium (Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 539)

  1. Modelling the structure factors and pair distribution functions of amorphous germanium, silicon and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgic, Seyfettin; Gonzalez, Luis Enrique; Baer, Shalom; Silbert, Moises

    2002-12-01

    We present the results of calculations of the static structure factor S(k) and the pair distribution function g(r) of the tetrahedral amorphous semiconductors germanium, silicon and carbon using the structural diffusion model (SDM). The results obtained with the SDM for S(k) and g(r) are of comparable quality with those obtained by the unconstrained Reverse Monte Carlo simulations and existing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for these systems. We have found that g(r) exhibits a small peak, or shoulder, a weak remnant of the prominent third neighbour peak present in the crystalline phase of these systems. This feature has been experimentally found to be present in recently reported high energy X-ray experiments of amorphous silicon (Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13520), as well as in the previous X-ray diffraction of as-evaporated amorphous germanium (Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 539)

  2. Defects study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples and their relation with the substrate and deposition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwich, R.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this work is to study the properties of the defects aiming to explore the types of defects and the effect of various deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, the kind of the substrate, gas pressure and deposition rate. Two kinds of samples have been used; The first one was a series of Schottky diodes, and the second one a series of solar cells (p-i-n junction) deposited on crystalline silicon or on corning glass substrates with different deposition parameters. The deposition parameters were chosen to obtain materials whose their structures varying from amorphous to microcrystalline silicon including polymorphous silicon. Our results show that the polymorphous silicon samples deposited at high deposition rates present the best photovoltaic properties in comparison with those deposited at low rates. Also we found that the defects concentration in high deposition rate samples is less at least by two orders than that obtained in low deposition rate polymorphous, microcrystalline and amorphous samples. This study shows also that there is no effect of the substrate, or the thin films of highly doped amorphous silicon deposited on the substrate, on the creation and properties of these defects. Finally, different experimental methods have been used; a comparison between their results has been presented. (author)

  3. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of porous silicon for photonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin I. Mabilangan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi thin films from p-type silicon (100 substrates were fabricated using a simple table top electrochemical etching setup with a 1:1 HF:EtOh electrolyte solution. Porous silicon f ilms with different morphologies and optical properties were achieved by varying the etching parameters, such as HF concentration, etching time andanodization current. It was observed that the f ilm thickness of the fabricated PSi increased with etch time and HF concentration. The etch rate increased with the applied anodization current. Reflection spectroscopy at normal incidence was used to determine the refractive indices of the fabricated f ilms. Using the Sellmeier equation, the chromatic dispersion of the f ilms was obtained for different HF concentrations and anodization currents.

  5. Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, D; Martin, F; Ross, G G

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) and amorphous silicon (α-Si) produced by silicon implantation in fused silica have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information regarding the Raman signature of the α-Si phonon excitation was extracted from Raman depth-probing measurements using the phenomenological phonon confinement model. The spectral deconvolution of the Raman measurements recorded at different laser focusing depths takes into account both the Si-nc size variation and the Si-nc spatial distribution within the sample. The phonon peak associated with α-Si around 470 cm -1 is greatest for in-sample laser focusing, indicating that the formation of amorphous silicon is more important in the region containing a high concentration of silicon excess, where large Si-nc are located. As also observed for Si-nc systems prepared by SiO x layer deposition, this result demonstrates the presence of α-Si in high excess Si implanted Si-nc systems

  6. Suppression of photo-leakage current in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors by n-doped nanocrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hung-Chien; Ho, King-Yuan; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Yan, Jing-Yi; Ho, Jia-Chong

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of photo-leakage current of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si TFTs) is investigated and is found to be successfully suppressed by the use of an n-doped nanocrystalline silicon layer (n+ nc-Si) as an ohmic contact layer. The shallow-level defects of n+ nc-Si can become trapping centres of photo-induced electrons as the a-Si TFT is operated under light illumination. A lower oxygen concentration during n+ nc-Si deposition can increase the creation of shallow-level defects and improve the contrast ratio of active matrix organic light-emitting diode panels.

  7. Low-temperature crystallization of amorphous silicon and amorphous germanium by soft X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Akira, E-mail: heya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru; Sadoh, Taizoh [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Amano, Sho [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Matsuo, Naoto [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Miyao, Masanobu [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Mochizuki, Takayasu [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    The low-temperature-crystallization effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the structural properties of amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films were investigated. From the differences in crystallization between Si and Ge, it was found that the effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the crystallization strongly depended on the energy band gap and energy level. The crystallization temperatures of the amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films decreased from 953 K to 853 K and 773 K to 663 K, respectively. The decrease in crystallization temperature was also related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase in the films. The ratio of electron excitation and migration effects to thermal effects was controlled using the storage-ring current (photon flux density). Therefore, we believe that low-temperature crystallization can be realized by controlling atomic migration through electron excitation. - Highlights: • This work investigates the crystallization mechanism for soft X-ray irradiation. • The soft X-ray crystallization depended on the energy band gap and energy level. • The decrease in the crystallization temperature for Si and Ge films was 100 K. • This decrement was related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase.

  8. Silicon Web Process Development. [for solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, ribbon form of silicon and capable of fabrication into solar cells with greater than 15% AMl conversion efficiency, was produced from the melt without die shaping. Improvements were made both in the width of the web ribbons grown and in the techniques to replenish the liquid silicon as it is transformed to web. Through means of improved thermal shielding stress was reduced sufficiently so that web crystals nearly 4.5 cm wide were grown. The development of two subsystems, a silicon feeder and a melt level sensor, necessary to achieve an operational melt replenishment system, is described. A gas flow management technique is discussed and a laser reflection method to sense and control the melt level as silicon is replenished is examined.

  9. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanopillars for Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Sökmen, Ü.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2010-09-01

    Si-based nanopillars of various sizes were fabricated by lateral structuring using anisotropic etching and thermal oxidation. We obtained pillars of diameter <500 nm, about 25 μm in height, with an aspect ratio of more than 50. The distance between pillars was varied from 500 nm to 10 μm. Besides the fabrication and structural characterization of silicon nanopillars, implementation of adequate metrology for measuring single pillars is described. Commercial tungsten probes, self-made gold probes, and piezoresistive silicon cantilever probes were used for measurements of nanopillars in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators.

  11. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  12. Optimization of Recombination Layer in the Tunnel Junction of Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Shin Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon (a-Si/a-Si tandem solar cells have attracted much attention in recent years, due to the high efficiency and low manufacturing cost compared to the single-junction a-Si solar cells. In this paper, the tandem cells are fabricated by high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD at 27.1 MHz. The effects of the recombination layer and the i-layer thickness matching on the cell performance have been investigated. The results show that the tandem cell with a p+ recombination layer and i2/i1 thickness ratio of 6 exhibits a maximum efficiency of 9.0% with the open-circuit voltage (Voc of 1.59 V, short-circuit current density (Jsc of 7.96 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.70. After light-soaking test, our a-Si/a-Si tandem cell with p+ recombination layer shows the excellent stability and the stabilized efficiency of 8.7%.

  13. Kinetics and formation mechanism of amorphous Fe52Nb48 alloy powder fabricated by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Eskandarany, S.

    1999-01-01

    A single phase amorphous Fe 52 Nb 48 alloy has been synthesized through a solid state interdiffusion of pure polycrystalline Fe and Nb powders at room temperature, using a high-energy ball-milling technique. The mechanisms of metallic glass formation and competing crystallization processes in the mechanically deformed composite powders have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The numerous intimate layered composite particles of the diffusion couples that formed during the first and intermediate stages of milling time (0-56 ks), are intermixed to form amorphous phase(s) upon heating to about 625 K by so-called thermally assisted solid state amorphization, TASSA. The amorphization heat of formation for binary system via the TASSA, ΔH a , was measured directly as a function of the milling time. Comparable with the TASSA, homogeneous amorphous alloys were fabricated directly without heating the composite multilayered particles upon milling these particles for longer milling time (86 ks-144 ks). The amorphization reaction here is attributed to the mechanical driven solid state amorphization. This single amorphous phase transforms into an order phase (μ phase) upon heating at 1088 K (crystallization temperature, T x ) with enthalpy change of crystallization, ΔH x , of -8.3 kJmol -1 . (orig.)

  14. A Comparison of Photo-Induced Hysteresis Between Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Cho, Won-Ju; Chung, Hong-Bay; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    We investigate photo-induced instability in thin-film transistors (TFTs) consisting of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) as active semiconducting layers by comparing with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). An a-IGZO TFT exhibits a large hysteresis window in the illuminated measuring condition but no hysteresis window in the dark condition. On the contrary, a large hysteresis window measured in the dark condition in a-Si:H was not observed in the illuminated condition. Even though such materials possess the structure of amorphous phase, optical responses or photo instability in TFTs looks different from each other. Photo-induced hysteresis results from initially trapped charges at the interface between semiconductor and dielectric films or in the gate dielectric which possess absorption energy to interact with deep trap-states and affect the movement of Fermi energy level. In order to support our claim, we also perform CV characteristics in photo-induced hysteresis and demonstrate thermal-activated hysteresis. We believe that this work can provide important information to understand different material systems for optical engineering which includes charge transport and band transition.

  15. Relationship between defect density and charge carrier transport in amorphous and microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, Oleksandr; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm; Petrusenko, Yuri; Borysenko, Valery; Barankov, Dmytro

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dangling-bond defects and the position of the Fermi level on the charge carrier transport properties in undoped and phosphorous doped thin-film silicon with structure compositions all the way from highly crystalline to amorphous is investigated. The dangling-bond density is varied reproducibly over several orders of magnitude by electron bombardment and subsequent annealing. The defects are investigated by electron-spin-resonance and photoconductivity spectroscopies. Comparing intrinsic amorphous and microcrystalline silicon, it is found that the relationship between defect density and photoconductivity is different in both undoped materials, while a similar strong influence of the position of the Fermi level on photoconductivity via the charge carrier lifetime is found in the doped materials. The latter allows a quantitative determination of the value of the transport gap energy in microcrystalline silicon. The photoconductivity in intrinsic microcrystalline silicon is, on one hand, considerably less affected by the bombardment but, on the other hand, does not generally recover with annealing of the defects and is independent from the spin density which itself can be annealed back to the as-deposited level. For amorphous silicon and material prepared close to the crystalline growth regime, the results for nonequilibrium transport fit perfectly to a recombination model based on direct capture into neutral dangling bonds over a wide range of defect densities. For the heterogeneous microcrystalline silicon, this model fails completely. The application of photoconductivity spectroscopy in the constant photocurrent mode (CPM) is explored for the entire structure composition range over a wide variation in defect densities. For amorphous silicon previously reported linear correlation between the spin density and the subgap absorption is confirmed for defect densities below 10 18 cm -3 . Beyond this defect level, a sublinear relation is found i.e., not

  16. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-05-30

    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  17. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-01-01

    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Zheng, Cheng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; In, Jung Bin; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures. (paper)

  19. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; In, Jung Bin; Zheng, Cheng; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2015-04-24

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures.

  20. An amorphous silicon photodiode with 2 THz gain-bandwidth product based on cycling excitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lujiang; Yu, Yugang; Zhang, Alex Ce; Hall, David; Niaz, Iftikhar Ahmad; Raihan Miah, Mohammad Abu; Liu, Yu-Hsin; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2017-09-01

    Since impact ionization was observed in semiconductors over half a century ago, avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using impact ionization in a fashion of chain reaction have been the most sensitive semiconductor photodetectors. However, APDs have relatively high excess noise, a limited gain-bandwidth product, and high operation voltage, presenting a need for alternative signal amplification mechanisms of superior properties. As an amplification mechanism, the cycling excitation process (CEP) was recently reported in a silicon p-n junction with subtle control and balance of the impurity levels and profiles. Realizing that CEP effect depends on Auger excitation involving localized states, we made the counter intuitive hypothesis that disordered materials, such as amorphous silicon, with their abundant localized states, can produce strong CEP effects with high gain and speed at low noise, despite their extremely low mobility and large number of defects. Here, we demonstrate an amorphous silicon low noise photodiode with gain-bandwidth product of over 2 THz, based on a very simple structure. This work will impact a wide range of applications involving optical detection because amorphous silicon, as the primary gain medium, is a low-cost, easy-to-process material that can be formed on many kinds of rigid or flexible substrates.

  1. Building integration photovoltaic module with reference to Ghana: using triple junction amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Essah, Emmanuel Adu

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for using building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) \\ud roof shingles made from triple-junction amorphous silicon (3a-Si) for electrification \\ud and as a roofing material in tropical countries, such as Accra, Ghana. A model roof \\ud was constructed using triple-junction amorphous (3a-Si) PV on one section and \\ud conventional roofing tiles on the other. The performance of the PV module and tiles \\ud were measured, over a range of ambient temperatures and solar...

  2. Silicon nitride and intrinsic amorphous silicon double antireflection coatings for thin-film solar cells on foreign substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Da; Kunz, Thomas; Wolf, Nadine; Liebig, Jan Philipp; Wittmann, Stephan; Ahmad, Taimoor; Hessmann, Maik T.; Auer, Richard; Göken, Mathias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was investigated as a surface passivation method for crystalline silicon thin film solar cells on graphite substrates. The results of the experiments, including quantum efficiency and current density-voltage measurements, show improvements in cell performance. This improvement is due to surface passivation by an a-Si:H(i) layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 0.6% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 μm thick 4 cm 2 aperture area on the graphite substrate. The optical properties of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. Scanning transmission electron microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope was applied to characterize the cross section of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack using focus ion beam preparation. - Highlights: • We report a 10.8% efficiency for thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite. • Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon was applied for surface passivation. • SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stacks were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. • Cross-section micrograph was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Quantum efficiency and J-V measurements show improvements in the cell performance

  3. Silicon Nanowire Fabrication Using Edge and Corner Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a wafer scale fabrication method of single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) bound by <111> planes using a combination of edge and corner lithography. These are methods of unconventional nanolithography for wafer scale nano-patterning which determine the size of nano-features

  4. Fabrication of silicon condenser microphones using single wafer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeper, P.R.; van der Donk, A.G.H.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1992-01-01

    A condenser microphone design that can be fabricated using the sacrificial layer technique is proposed and tested. The microphone backplate is a 1-¿m plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride film with a high density of acoustic holes (120-525 holes/mm2), covered with a thin

  5. A fabrication guide for planar silicon quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Amitonov, Sergey V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe important considerations to create top-down fabricated planar quantum dots in silicon, often not discussed in detail in literature. The subtle interplay between intrinsic material properties, interfaces and fabrication processes plays a crucial role in the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. Processes such as oxidation, physical vapor deposition and atomic-layer deposition must be tailored in order to prevent unwanted side effects such as defects, disorder and dewetting. In two directly related manuscripts written in parallel we use techniques described in this work to create depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon, and low-disorder silicon quantum dots defined with palladium gates. While we discuss three different planar gate structures, the general principles also apply to 0D and 1D systems, such as self-assembled islands and nanowires.

  6. Simulation of the growth dynamics of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Bailat, Julien; Vallat-Sauvain, Evelyne; Vallat, A.; Shah, Arvind

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative description of the major microstructure characteristics of microcrystalline silicon is achieved through a three-dimensional discrete dynamical growth model. The model is based on three fundamental processes that determine surface morphology: (1) random deposition of particles, (2) local relaxation and (3) desorption. In this model, the incoming particle reaching the growing surface takes on a state variable representing a particular way of being incorporated into the material....

  7. Damage-free laser patterning of silicon nitride on textured crystalline silicon using an amorphous silicon etch mask for Ni/Cu plated silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, Mark S., E-mail: mbailly@asu.edu; Karas, Joseph; Jain, Harsh; Dauksher, William J.; Bowden, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the optimization of laser ablation with a femtosecond laser for direct and indirect removal of SiN{sub x} on alkaline textured c-Si. Our proposed resist-free indirect removal process uses an a-Si:H etch mask and is demonstrated to have a drastically improved surface quality of the laser processed areas when compared to our direct removal process. Scanning electron microscope images of ablated sites show the existence of substantial surface defects for the standard direct removal process, and the reduction of those defects with our proposed process. Opening of SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x} passivating layers with laser ablation is a promising alternative to the standard screen print and fire process for making contact to Si solar cells. The potential for small contacts from laser openings of dielectrics coupled with the selective deposition of metal from light induced plating allows for high-aspect-ratio metal contacts for front grid metallization. The minimization of defects generated in this process would serve to enhance the performance of the device and provides the motivation for our work. - Highlights: • Direct laser removal of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) damages textured silicon. • Direct laser removal of amorphous silicon (a-Si) does not damage textured silicon. • a-Si can be used as a laser patterned etch mask for SiN{sub x}. • Chemically patterned SiN{sub x} sites allow for Ni/Cu plating.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1991 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous silicon solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon interface); 1991 nendo amorphous silicon taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous silicon no kaimen no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The amorphous solar cell interface has been under study for the enhancement of efficiency and reliability in amorphous solar cells, and this is the compilation of the results achieved in fiscal 1991. In the effort to enhance delta-doped amorphous silicon solar cell efficiency, an amorphous Si solar cell is built using a ZnO film as the transparent conductive film. As the result, an a-Si solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 11.5% is obtained. In the research on the suppression of photodegradation in a-Si, from the viewpoint that a reduction in the amount of hydrogen contained excessively in the film will be effective in decelerating photodegradation, a photoexcited hydrogen radical treatment method is newly proposed, and basic studies are conducted on it. As the result, it is found that an a-Si film processed by a 20-second hydrogen treatment at a substrate temperature of 460 degrees C exhibits a lower photodegradation rate than an ordinary a-Si film. In the research on the deposition of amorphous Si film, a VHF frequency is used instead of 13.56MHz for plasma, and an amorphous Si film is deposited efficiently at a lower voltage at which ions cause less damage. (NEDO)

  9. A hybrid tandem solar cell based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Sancun [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Institute of Photo-Electronics of Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Jiangsu Shuangdeng Group Co. Ltd, Thaizhou, Jiangsu, 225526 (China); Wu Jihuai, E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Sun Zhonglin [Institute of Photo-Electronics of Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H) as top cell is introduced to dye-sensitized titanium dioxide nanocrystalline solar cell (DSSC) as bottom cell to assemble a hybrid tandem solar cell. The hybrid tandem solar cell fabricated with the thicknesses a-Si:H layer of 235 nm, ZnO/Pt interlayer of 100 nm and DSSC layer of 8.5 {mu}m achieves a photo-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 8.31%, a short circuit current density of 10.61 mA{center_dot}cm{sup -2} and an open-circuit voltage of 1.45 V under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}.

  10. Optoelectrical Properties of a Heterojunction with Amorphous InGaZnO Film on n-Silicon Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D. L.; Ma, X. Z.; Li, L.; Xu, Z. K.

    2017-10-01

    An a-IGZO/ n-Si heterojunction device has been fabricated at room temperature by depositing amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) film on n-type silicon substrate by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition and its optoelectrical properties studied in detail. The heterojunction showed distinct rectifying characteristic with rectification ratio of 1.93 × 103 at ±2 V bias and reverse leakage current density of 1.6 × 10-6 A cm-2 at -2 V bias. More interestingly, the heterojunction not only showed the characteristic of unbiased photoresponse, but could also detect either ultraviolet or ultraviolet-visible light by simply changing the polarity of the bias applied to the heterojunction. The variable photoresponse phenomenon and the charge transport mechanisms in the heterojunction are explained based on the energy band diagram of the heterojunction.

  11. Induced nano-scale self-formed metal-oxide interlayer in amorphous silicon tin oxide thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianzhe; Xu, Hua; Ning, Honglong; Lu, Kuankuan; Zhang, Hongke; Zhang, Xiaochen; Yao, Rihui; Fang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-03-07

    Amorphous Silicon-Tin-Oxide thin film transistors (a-STO TFTs) with Mo source/drain electrodes were fabricated. The introduction of a ~8 nm MoO x interlayer between Mo electrodes and a-STO improved the electron injection in a-STO TFT. Mo adjacent to the a-STO semiconductor mainly gets oxygen atoms from the oxygen-rich surface of a-STO film to form MoO x interlayer. The self-formed MoO x interlayer acting as an efficient interface modification layer could conduce to the stepwise internal transport barrier formation while blocking Mo atoms diffuse into a-STO layer, which would contribute to the formation of ohmic contact between Mo and a-STO film. It can effectively improve device performance, reduce cost and save energy for the realization of large-area display with high resolution in future.

  12. Monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrate. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, D.P. [Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc., Ames, IA (US)

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing monolithic amorphous silicon modules on a continuous polymer substrate. Module production costs can be reduced by increasing module performance, expanding production, and improving and modifying production processes. Material costs can be reduced by developing processes that use a 1-mil polyimide substrate and multilayers of low-cost material for the front encapsulant. Research to speed up a-Si and ZnO deposition rates is needed to improve throughputs. To keep throughput rates compatible with depositions, multibeam fiber optic delivery systems for laser scribing can be used. However, mechanical scribing systems promise even higher throughputs. Tandem cells and production experience can increase device efficiency and stability. Two alternative manufacturing processes are described: (1) wet etching and sheet handling and (2) wet etching and roll-to-roll fabrication.

  13. Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Chiles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic routing architecture that can efficiently utilize the space of multi-plane (3D photonic integration. A wafer with three planes of amorphous silicon waveguides was fabricated and characterized, demonstrating < 3 × 1 0 − 4 dB loss per out-of-plane waveguide crossing, 0.05 ± 0.02 dB per interplane coupler, and microring resonators on three planes with a quality factors up to 8.2 × 1 0 4 . We also explore a phase velocity mapping strategy to mitigate the cross talk between co-propagating waveguides on different planes. These results expand the utility of 3D photonic integration for applications such as optical interconnects, neuromorphic computing and optical phased arrays.

  14. Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Back surface field (BSF) processing and other process modifications were included to give preliminary indications of possible improved performance. The parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AM0 illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light spot scanning. the results were compared to the properties of cells made from conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify growth defects which will influence solar cell performance.

  15. Solar cell fabricated on welded thin flexible silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessmann Maik Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell with an AM1.5 efficiency of 11.5% fabricated on welded 50 μm thin silicon foils. The aperture area of the cell is 1.00 cm2. The cell has an open-circuit voltage of 570 mV, a short-circuit current density of 29.9 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 67.6%. These are the first results ever presented for solar cells on welded silicon foils. The foils were welded together in order to create the first thin flexible monocrystalline band substrate. A flexible band substrate offers the possibility to overcome the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafers and the feasibility of a roll-to-roll manufacturing. In combination with an epitaxial and layer transfer process a decrease in production costs can be achieved.

  16. Role of Laser Power, Wavelength, and Pulse Duration in Laser Assisted Tin-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Neimash

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes tin-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon studied with Raman spectroscopy in thin-film structures Si-Sn-Si irradiated with pulsed laser light. We have found and analyzed dependencies of the nanocrystals’ size and concentration on the laser pulse intensity for 10 ns and 150 μm duration laser pulses at the wavelengths of 535 nm and 1070 nm. Efficient transformation of the amorphous silicon into a crystalline phase during the 10 ns time interval of the acting laser pulse in the 200 nm thickness films of the amorphous silicon was demonstrated. The results were analyzed theoretically by modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature in the amorphous silicon sample within the laser spot location. Simulations confirmed importance of light absorption depth (irradiation wavelength in formation and evolution of the temperature profile that affects the crystallization processes in irradiated structures.

  17. Innovative Characterization of Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon for Improved Module Performance: 1 February 2005 - 31 July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. C.; Williams, G. A.

    2009-09-01

    Electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance was done on amorphous silicon samples (modules with a-Si:H and a-SixGe1-x:H intrinsic layer) to study defects that contribute to Staebler-Wronski effect.

  18. Fabrication of poly-crystalline Si-based Mie resonators via amorphous Si on SiO2 dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Bidault, Sebastien; Bonod, Nicolas; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-02-07

    We report the fabrication of Si-based dielectric Mie resonators via a low cost process based on solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin amorphous Si on SiO2. We investigate the dewetting dynamics of a few nanometer sized layers annealed at high temperature to form submicrometric Si-particles. Morphological and structural characterization reveal the polycrystalline nature of the semiconductor matrix as well as rather irregular morphologies of the dewetted islands. Optical dark field imaging and spectroscopy measurements of the single islands reveal pronounced resonant scattering at visible frequencies. The linewidth of the low-order modes can be ∼20 nm in full width at half maximum, leading to a quality factor Q exceeding 25. These values reach the state-of-the-art ones obtained for monocrystalline Mie resonators. The simplicity of the dewetting process and its cost-effectiveness opens the route to exploiting it over large scales for applications in silicon-based photonics.

  19. Boron profiles in doped amorphous-silicon solar cells formed by plasma ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, C.T.H.; Hunt, C.P.; Coleman, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous silicon p-n junction solar cells of large area (100 cm 2 ) and having a quantum efficiency approaching 100% in the blue region have been prepared by plasma ion-plating, the p layer being formed from diborane and silane gases in a cathode glow-discharge. Surface secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with ion beam etching was found to be a very sensitive method with high in-depth resolution for obtaining the initial boron-silicon profile of the solar cell p-n junction. (author)

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence from ring resonators in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ryan J; Wood, Michael G; Reano, Ronald M

    2017-11-01

    We report enhanced photoluminescence in the telecommunications wavelength range in ring resonators patterned in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited via low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The thin films exhibit broadband photoluminescence that is enhanced by up to 5 dB by the resonant modes of the ring resonators due to the Purcell effect. Ellipsometry measurements of the thin films show a refractive index comparable to crystalline silicon and an extinction coefficient on the order of 0.001 from 1300 nm to 1600 nm wavelengths. The results are promising for chip-scale integrated optical light sources.

  1. Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of -13 dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n(2)=7.43×10(-13) cm(2)/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  2. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Wildermuth, D.; Goodman, C.; Fujieda, I.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (> 30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-ray, γ rays and thermal neutrons. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For thermal neutron detection we use thin (2∼5 μm) gadolinium converters on 30 μm thick a-Si:H diodes. For direct detection of minimum ionizing particles and others with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Diode and amorphous silicon readouts as well as polysilicon pixel amplifiers are described

  3. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nanocrystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Calleja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR, which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (microbolometers. Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9% K−1. Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals can be used as thermosensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs used in commercial thermal cameras.

  4. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of biodegradable surgical magnesium alloy coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunchang; Jiang, Jiang; Huo, Kaifu; Tang, Guoyi; Tian, Xiubo; Chu, Paul K

    2009-06-01

    The fast degradation rates in the physiological environment constitute the main limitation for the applications of surgical magnesium alloys as biodegradable hard-tissue implants. In this work, a stable and dense hydrogenated amorphous silicon coating (a-Si:H) with desirable bioactivity is deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy using magnetron sputtering deposition. Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coating is mainly composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The hardness of the coated alloy is enhanced significantly and the coating is quite hydrophilic as well. Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy is enhanced dramatically. In addition, the deterioration process of the coating in simulated body fluids is systematically investigated by open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cytocompatibility of the coated Mg is evaluated for the first time using hFOB1.19 cells and favorable biocompatibility is observed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nano crystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, C.; Torres, A.; Rosales-Quintero, P.; Moreno, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR), which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (micro bolometers). Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9%K -1 ). Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals can be used as thermo sensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) used in commercial thermal cameras.

  6. PECVD deposition of device-quality intrinsic amorphous silicon at high growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carabe, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-11-01

    The combined influence of RF-power density (RFP) and silane flow-rate ([Phi]) on the deposition rate of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) intrinsic amorphous silicon has been investigated. The correlation of the results obtained from the characterisation of the material with the silane deposition efficiency, as deduced from mass spectrometry, has led to an interpretation allowing to deposit intrinsic amorphous-silicon films having an optical gap of 1.87 eV and a photoconductive ratio (ratio of ambient-temperature conductivities under 1 sun AM1 and in dark) of 6 orders of magnitude at growth rates up to 10 A/s, without any structural modification of the PECVD system used. Such results are considered of high relevance regarding industrial competitiveness. (orig.)

  7. Glow discharge-deposited amorphous silicon films for low-cost solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabmaier, J G; Plaettner, R D; Stetter, W [Siemens A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Forschungslaboratorien

    1980-01-01

    Due to their high absorption constant, glow discharge-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films are of great interest for low-cost solar cells. Using SiH/sub 4/ and SiX/sub 4//H/sub 2/ (X = Cl or F) gas mixtures in an inductively or capacitively excited reactor, a-Si films with thicknesses up to several micrometers were deposited on substrates of glass, silica and silicon. The optical and electrical properties of the films were determined by measuring the IR absorption spectra, dark conductivity, photoconductivity, and photoluminescence. Hydrogen, chlorine, or fluorine were incorporated in the films in order to passivate dangling bonds in the amorphous network.

  8. Development of laser-fired contacts for amorphous silicon layers obtained by Hot-Wire CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, D.; Voz, C.; Blanque, S.; Ibarz, D.; Bertomeu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study aluminium laser-fired contacts for intrinsic amorphous silicon layers deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. This structure could be used as an alternative low temperature back contact for rear passivated heterojunction solar cells. An infrared Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) has been used to locally fire the aluminium through the thin amorphous silicon layers. Under optimized laser firing parameters, very low specific contact resistances (ρ c ∼ 10 mΩ cm 2 ) have been obtained on 2.8 Ω cm p-type c-Si wafers. This investigation focuses on maintaining the passivation quality of the interface without an excessive increase in the series resistance of the device.

  9. Photodecomposition of Hg - Photo - CVD monosilane. Application to hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aka, B.

    1989-04-01

    The construction of a Hg-photo-CVD device is discussed. The system enables the manufacturing of hydrogenous thin films of amorphous silicon from monosilane compound. The reaction mechanisms taking place in the gaseous phase and at the surface, and the optimal conditions for the amorphous silicon film growth are studied. The analysis technique is based on the measurement of the difference between the condensation points of the gaseous components of the mixture obtained from the monosilane photolysis. A kinetic simplified model is proposed. Conductivity measurements are performed and the heat treatment effects are analyzed. Trace amounts of oxygen and carbon are found in the material. No Hg traces are detected by SIMS analysis [fr

  10. Ion-beam doping of amorphous silicon with germanium isovalent impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, A.I.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, N.I.; Ignat'eva, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on ion-beam doping of amorphous silicon containing minor germanium additions by donor and acceptor impurity are presented. Doping of a-Si:Ge films as well as of a-Si layers was performed by implantation of 40 keV energy B + ions or 120 keV energy phosphorus by doses from 3.2x10 13 up to 1.3x10 17 cm -2 . Ion current density did not exceed 1 μA/cm 2 . Radiation defect annealing was performed at 400 deg C temperature during 30 min. Temperature dependences of conductivity in the region of 160-500 K were studied. It is shown that a-Si:Ge is like hydrogenized amorphous silicon in relation to doping

  11. Wet chemical treatment of boron doped emitters on n-type (100) c-Si prior to amorphous silicon passivation

    OpenAIRE

    Meddeb, H.; Bearda, Twan; Payo, M. Recaman; Abdelwahab, I.; Abdulraheem, Yaser; Ezzaouia, H.; Gordon, I.; Szlufcik, J.; POORTMANS, Jef

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the cleaning process on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction emitters is investigated. A significant variation in the passivation quality following different cleaning sequences is not observed, even though differences in cleaning performance are evident. These results point out the effectiveness of our cleaning treatment and provide a hydrogen termination for intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation. A post-deposition treatment improves the passivation level yield...

  12. Adopting a customer-focused team approach to amorphous silicon multijunction module R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.M.; Luft, W.

    1993-01-01

    Informed observers of energy markets now generally believe that photovoltaics (PV) will not significantly penetrate the utility bulk-power sector before price and performance approach $50/m 2 for 15% efficient modules in flat-plate systems. Recent progress toward such ''utility grade'' modules using amorphous thin films has been slow. The important amorphous thin-film research issues have been well known for some years. These have not been promptly and conclusively addressed, at least in part, because of inadequate PV industry involvement in academic research. In view of this situation, the authors recently modified their research programs seeking to improve the efficiency of amorphous silicon PV research, conclusively address the key issues, and accelerate commercial introduction of utility-grade products. They began this by seeking ''customer'' (PV industry) specification of research priorities and forming mission-oriented teams to pursue the high-priority issues (customer requirements). This paper describes the process and results to date

  13. High spatial resolution radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, T.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as a large-area thin film semiconductor with ease of doping and low-cost fabrication capability has given a new impetus to the field of imaging sensors; its high radiation resistance also makes it a good material for radiation detectors. In addition, large-area microelectronics based on a-Si:H or polysilicon can be made with full integration of peripheral circuits, including readout switches and shift registers on the same substrate. Thin a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes coupled to suitable scintillators are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. The response speed of CsI/a-Si:H diode combinations to individual particulate radiation is limited by the scintillation light decay since the charge collection time of the diode is very short (< 10ns). The reverse current of the detector is analyzed in term of contact injection, thermal generation, field enhanced emission (Poole-Frenkel effect), and edge leakage. A good collection efficiency for a diode is obtained by optimizing the p layer of the diode thickness and composition. The CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an a-Si:H photodiode detector shows a capability for detecting minimum ionizing particles with S/N ∼20. In such an arrangement a p-i-n diode is operated in a photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). In addition, a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3--8 for shaping times of 1 micros. The mechanism of the formation of structured CsI scintillator layers is analyzed. Initial nucleation in the deposited layer is sensitive to the type of substrate medium, with imperfections generally catalyzing nucleation. Therefore, the microgeometry of a patterned substrate has a significant effect on the structure of the CsI growth

  14. High spatial resolution radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Tao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering-Nuclear Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as a large-area thin film semiconductor with ease of doping and low-cost fabrication capability has given a new impetus to the field of imaging sensors; its high radiation resistance also makes it a good material for radiation detectors. In addition, large-area microelectronics based on a-Si:H or polysilicon can be made with full integration of peripheral circuits, including readout switches and shift registers on the same substrate. Thin a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes coupled to suitable scintillators are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. The response speed of CsI/a-Si:H diode combinations to individual particulate radiation is limited by the scintillation light decay since the charge collection time of the diode is very short (< 10ns). The reverse current of the detector is analyzed in term of contact injection, thermal generation, field enhanced emission (Poole-Frenkel effect), and edge leakage. A good collection efficiency for a diode is obtained by optimizing the p layer of the diode thickness and composition. The CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an a-Si:H photodiode detector shows a capability for detecting minimum ionizing particles with S/N ~20. In such an arrangement a p-i-n diode is operated in a photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). In addition, a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3--8 for shaping times of 1 {micro}s. The mechanism of the formation of structured CsI scintillator layers is analyzed. Initial nucleation in the deposited layer is sensitive to the type of substrate medium, with imperfections generally catalyzing nucleation. Therefore, the microgeometry of a patterned substrate has a significant effect on the structure of the CsI growth.

  15. Efficient nanorod-based amorphous silicon solar cells with advanced light trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Y.; Lare, M. C. van; Polman, A.; Veldhuizen, L. W.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple, low-cost, and scalable approach for the fabrication of efficient nanorod-based solar cells. Templates with arrays of self-assembled ZnO nanorods with tunable morphology are synthesized by chemical bath deposition using a low process temperature at 80 °C. The nanorod templates are conformally coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon light absorber layers of 100 nm and 200 nm thickness. An initial efficiency of up to 9.0% is achieved for the optimized design. External quantum efficiency measurements on the nanorod cells show a substantial photocurrent enhancement both in the red and the blue parts of the solar spectrum. Key insights in the light trapping mechanisms in these arrays are obtained via a combination of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, optical absorption, and external quantum efficiency measurements. Front surface patterns enhance the light incoupling in the blue, while rear side patterns lead to enhanced light trapping in the red. The red response in the nanorod cells is limited by absorption in the patterned Ag back contact. With these findings, we develop and experimentally realize a further advanced design with patterned front and back sides while keeping the Ag reflector flat, showing significantly enhanced scattering from the back reflector with reduced parasitic absorption in the Ag and thus higher photocurrent generation. Many of the findings in this work can serve to provide insights for further optimization of nanostructures for thin-film solar cells in a broad range of materials

  16. Efficient nanorod-based amorphous silicon solar cells with advanced light trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Y. [Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, High Tech Campus, Building 21, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Plasma & Materials Processing, Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE), P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lare, M. C. van; Polman, A. [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, L. W.; Schropp, R. E. I., E-mail: r.e.i.schropp@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Plasma & Materials Processing, Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE), P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rath, J. K. [Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, High Tech Campus, Building 21, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-11-14

    We present a simple, low-cost, and scalable approach for the fabrication of efficient nanorod-based solar cells. Templates with arrays of self-assembled ZnO nanorods with tunable morphology are synthesized by chemical bath deposition using a low process temperature at 80 °C. The nanorod templates are conformally coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon light absorber layers of 100 nm and 200 nm thickness. An initial efficiency of up to 9.0% is achieved for the optimized design. External quantum efficiency measurements on the nanorod cells show a substantial photocurrent enhancement both in the red and the blue parts of the solar spectrum. Key insights in the light trapping mechanisms in these arrays are obtained via a combination of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, optical absorption, and external quantum efficiency measurements. Front surface patterns enhance the light incoupling in the blue, while rear side patterns lead to enhanced light trapping in the red. The red response in the nanorod cells is limited by absorption in the patterned Ag back contact. With these findings, we develop and experimentally realize a further advanced design with patterned front and back sides while keeping the Ag reflector flat, showing significantly enhanced scattering from the back reflector with reduced parasitic absorption in the Ag and thus higher photocurrent generation. Many of the findings in this work can serve to provide insights for further optimization of nanostructures for thin-film solar cells in a broad range of materials.

  17. First Measurements of the Performance of New Semitransparent Amorphous Silicon Sensor Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2004-07-01

    We present first results on the performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors having good properties such as an intrinsic position resolution better than 5{mu}m, an spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 {mu}m, deflection angles smaller than 10{mu}rad and transmission in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition the sensitive area is very large: 30x30 cm''3. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. Three-dimensional amorphous silicon solar cells on periodically ordered ZnO nanocolumns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neykova, Neda; Moulin, E.; Campa, A.; Hruška, Karel; Poruba, Aleš; Stückelberger, M.; Haug, F.J.; Topič, M.; Ballif, C.; Vaněček, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 8 (2015), s. 1823-1829 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - FAST TRACK Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amorphous materials * hydrothermal growth * nanostructures * silicon * solar cells * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  19. Results on photon and neutron irradiation of semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Carabe, J; Ferrando, A; Fuentes, J; Gandia, J J; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Molinero, A; Oller, J C; Arce, P; Calvo, E; Figueroa, C F; García, N; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Vila, I; Virto, A L; Fenyvesi, A; Molnár, J; Sohler, D

    2000-01-01

    Semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors are basic elements for laser 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in a very hard radiation environment. Two different sensor types have been irradiated with /sup 60/Co photons (up to 100 kGy) and fast neutrons (up to 10/sup 15 / cm/sup -2/), and the subsequent change in their performance has been measured. (13 refs).

  20. Observation of correlation effects in the hopping transport in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, V.; Kalbitzer, S.; Boehringer, K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous silicon films have been modified by the implantation of Au or Si ions. The d.c. conductivity, measured between 300 and 15 K, was found to exhibit hopping exponents m which increase with decreasing temperature. Depending on the varied defect densities, m ranges between the limits of 1/4 and 1. These results can be explained by variable-range-hopping theory, if a Coulomb correlation term is included. (author)

  1. Room-temperature electroluminescence of Er-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, Oleg; Bresler, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Alexey; Kudoyarova, Vera; Pak, Petr; Terukov, Evgenii; Tsendin, Konstantin; Yassievich, Irina [A F Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fuhs, Walther [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Abteilung Photovoltaik, Rudower Chaussee 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Weiser, Gerhard [Phillips-Universitat Marburg, Fachbereich Physik, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)

    1998-05-11

    We have observed room-temperature erbium-ion electroluminescence in erbium-doped amorphous silicon. Electrical conduction through the structure is controlled by thermally activated ionization of deep D{sup -} defects in an electric field and the reverse process of capture of mobile electrons by D{sup 0} states. Defect-related Auger excitation (DRAE) is responsible for excitation of erbium ions located close to dangling-bond defects. Our experimental data are consistent with the mechanisms proposed

  2. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  3. Megavoltage imaging with a large-area, flat-panel, amorphous silicon imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Yorkston, John; Huang Weidong; Sandler, Howard; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; El-Mohri, Youcef

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The creation of the first large-area, amorphous silicon megavoltage imager is reported. The imager is an engineering prototype built to serve as a stepping stone toward the creation of a future clinical prototype. The engineering prototype is described and various images demonstrating its properties are shown including the first reported patient image acquired with such an amorphous silicon imaging device. Specific limitations in the engineering prototype are reviewed and potential advantages of future, more optimized imagers of this type are presented. Methods and Materials: The imager is based on a two-dimensional, pixelated array containing amorphous silicon field-effect transistors and photodiode sensors which are deposited on a thin glass substrate. The array has a 512 x 560-pixel format and a pixel pitch of 450 μm giving an imaging area of ∼23 x 25 cm 2 . The array is used in conjunction with an overlying metal plate/phosphor screen converter as well as an electronic acquisition system. Images were acquired fluoroscopically using a megavoltage treatment machine. Results: Array and digitized film images of a variety of anthropomorphic phantoms and of a human subject are presented and compared. The information content of the array images generally appears to be at least as great as that of the digitized film images. Conclusion: Despite a variety of severe limitations in the engineering prototype, including many array defects, a relatively slow and noisy acquisition system, and the lack of a means to generate images in a radiographic manner, the prototype nevertheless generated clinically useful information. The general properties of these amorphous silicon arrays, along with the quality of the images provided by the engineering prototype, strongly suggest that such arrays could eventually form the basis of a new imaging technology for radiotherapy localization and verification. The development of a clinically useful prototype offering high

  4. First Measurements of the Performance of New Semitransparent Amorphous Silicon Sensor Prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present first results on the performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors having good properties such as an intrinsic position resolution better than 5μm, an spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 μm, deflection angles smaller than 10μrad and transmission in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition the sensitive area is very large: 30x30 cm 3 . (Author) 10 refs

  5. High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Ching-Mei; Cui, Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Durand Building, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4034 (United States); Battaglia, Corsin; Pahud, Celine; Haug, Franz-Josef; Ballif, Christophe [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University (United States)

    2012-06-15

    An amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector with a high 9.7% initial conversion efficiency is presented. The optimized back-reflector morphology provides powerful light trapping and enables excellent electrical cell performance. Up-scaling to industrial production of large-area modules should be possible using nanoimprint lithography. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Koehler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M.B.; Werner, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm 2 ) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3μm, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10μm, deflection angles smaller than 10μrad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%

  7. Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, A.I.; Ershov, A.V.; Khokhlov, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient in the range 0.6-2.0 eV for amorphous silicon films prepared by electron-beam evaporation with variation of the substrate temperature, deposition rate, and annealing temperature in air are presented. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the changes in the Penn gap energy as a function of the indicated preparation and treatment conditions

  8. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  9. Control of single-electron charging of metallic nanoparticles onto amorphous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Martin; Gmucová, Katarína; Nádazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignác; Satka, Alexander; Kopáni, Martin; Cirák, Július; Majková, Eva

    2008-11-01

    Sequential single-electron charging of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in oleic acid/oleyl amine envelope and deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto Pt electrode covered with undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon film is reported. Single-electron charging (so-called quantized double-layer charging) of nanoparticles is detected by cyclic voltammetry as current peaks and the charging effect can be switched on/off by the electric field in the surface region induced by the excess of negative/positive charged defect states in the amorphous silicon layer. The particular charge states in amorphous silicon are created by the simultaneous application of a suitable bias voltage and illumination before the measurement. The influence of charged states on the electric field in the surface region is evaluated by the finite element method. The single-electron charging is analyzed by the standard quantized double layer model as well as two weak-link junctions model. Both approaches are in accordance with experiment and confirm single-electron charging by tunnelling process at room temperature. This experiment illustrates the possibility of the creation of a voltage-controlled capacitor for nanotechnology.

  10. Role of the bond defect for structural transformations between crystalline and amorphous silicon: A molecular-dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D. M.; Weber, B.; Gaertner, K.

    2000-01-01

    The relation between the bond defect, which is a topological defect, and structural transformations between crystalline and amorphous silicon, is studied by molecular-dynamics simulations. The investigation of 1-keV boron implantation into crystalline silicon proves that the bond defect can also be generated directly by collisional-induced bond switching in addition to its formation by incomplete recombination of primary defects. This supports the assumption that the bond defect may play an important role in the amorphization process of silicon by light ions. The analysis of the interface between (001) silicon and amorphous silicon shows that there are two typical defect configurations at the interface which result from two different orientations of the bond defect with respect to the interface. Thus the bond defect appears to be a characteristic structural feature of the interface. Moreover, annealing results indicate that the bond defect acts as a growth site for interface-mediated crystallization

  11. The fabrication of nitrogen detector porous silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Othman, N.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the porous silicon nanostructure used as a the nitrogen detector was fabricated by using anodization method because of simple and easy to handle. This method using 20 mA/ cm2 of current density and the etching time is from 10 - 40 minutes. The properties of the porous silicon nanostructure analyzed using I-V testing (electrical properties) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. From the I-V testing, sample PsiE40 where the sensitivity is 25.4% is a sensitivity of PSiE40 at 10 seconds exposure time.

  12. On magnetic ordering in silicon made amorphous by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, A.N.; Polyakov, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Temperature dependences of the EPR intensity for silicon irradiated with the neon and argon ions at (2-4)x10 17 cm -2 doses have been studied. Paramagnetic defects with 2.0055 g-factor were recorded. Intensity jump associated with the transformation of the irradiated layer part to ferromagnetic state is observed at approximately 140 K. Paramagnetic centre distributions at temperatures above and lower the magnetic ordering temperature have heen investigated. It has been found, that ferromagnetic ordering is observed in a layer with the defect concentrations (3-7)x10 20 cm -3 , located at a depth > 100 A. Magnetic-ordered layer thickness is proportional to the incident ion energy

  13. Fabrication of amorphous curcumin nanosuspensions using β-lactoglobulin to enhance solubility, stability, and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, N P; Yang, Hanjoo; Kim, Saehoon; Ko, Sanghoon

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin has low aqueous stability and solubility in its native form. It also has a low bioavailability which presents a major barrier to its use in fortifying food products. The aim of this work was to reduce the size of curcumin crystals to the nanoscale and subsequently stabilize them in an amorphous form. To this end, amorphous curcumin nanosuspensions were fabricated using the antisolvent precipitation method with β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) as a stabilizer. The resulting amorphous curcumin nanosuspensions were in the size range of 150-175 nm with unimodal size distribution. The curcumin particles were amorphous and were molecularly dispersed within the β-lg as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The solubility of the amorphous curcumin nanosuspension was enhanced ∼35-fold due to the reduced size and lower crystallinity. Among the formulations, the amorphous curcumin nanosuspensions stabilized with β-lg and prepared at pH 3.4 (β-lg-cur 3.4), showed maximum aqueous stability which was >90% after 30 days. An in vitro study using Caco-2 cell lines showed a significant increase in curcumin bioavailability after stabilization with β-lg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  15. Raman study of localized recrystallization of amorphous silicon induced by laser beam

    KAUST Repository

    Tabet, Nouar A.

    2012-06-01

    The adoption of amorphous silicon based solar cells has been drastically hindered by the low efficiency of these devices, which is mainly due to a low hole mobility. It has been shown that using both crystallized and amorphous silicon layers in solar cells leads to an enhancement of the device performance. In this study the crystallization of a-Si prepared by PECVD under various growth conditions has been investigated. The growth stresses in the films are determined by measuring the curvature change of the silicon substrate before and after film deposition. Localized crystallization is induced by exposing a-Si films to focused 532 nm laser beam of power ranging from 0.08 to 8 mW. The crystallization process is monitored by recording the Raman spectra after various exposures. The results suggest that growth stresses in the films affect the minimum laser power (threshold power). In addition, a detailed analysis of the width and position of the Raman signal indicates that the silicon grains in the crystallized regions are of few nm diameter. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Raman study of localized recrystallization of amorphous silicon induced by laser beam

    KAUST Repository

    Tabet, Nouar A.; Al-Sayoud, Abduljabar; Said, Seyed; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Yang; Syed, Ahad A.; Diallo, Elhadj; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Xianbin; Johlin, Eric; Simmons, Christine; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of amorphous silicon based solar cells has been drastically hindered by the low efficiency of these devices, which is mainly due to a low hole mobility. It has been shown that using both crystallized and amorphous silicon layers in solar cells leads to an enhancement of the device performance. In this study the crystallization of a-Si prepared by PECVD under various growth conditions has been investigated. The growth stresses in the films are determined by measuring the curvature change of the silicon substrate before and after film deposition. Localized crystallization is induced by exposing a-Si films to focused 532 nm laser beam of power ranging from 0.08 to 8 mW. The crystallization process is monitored by recording the Raman spectra after various exposures. The results suggest that growth stresses in the films affect the minimum laser power (threshold power). In addition, a detailed analysis of the width and position of the Raman signal indicates that the silicon grains in the crystallized regions are of few nm diameter. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Synchrotron applications of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Can Aydiner, C.; Almer, J.; Bernier, J.; Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Haeffner, D.; Kump, K.; Lee, P. L.; Lienert, U.; Miceli, A.; Vera, G.; LANL; GE Healthcare

    2008-01-01

    A GE Revolution 41RT flat-panel detector (GE 41RT) from GE Healthcare (GE) has been in operation at the Advanced Photon Source for over two years. The detector has an active area of 41 cm x 41 cm with 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m pixel size. The nominal working photon energy is around 80 keV. The physical set-up and utility software of the detector system are discussed in this article. The linearity of the detector response was measured at 80.7 keV. The memory effect of the detector element, called lag, was also measured at different exposure times and gain settings. The modulation transfer function was measured in terms of the line-spread function using a 25 (micro)m x 1 cm tungsten slit. The background (dark) signal, the signal that the detector will carry without exposure to X-rays, was measured at three different gain settings and with exposure times of 1 ms to 15 s. The radial geometric flatness of the sensor panel was measured using the diffraction pattern from a CeO 2 powder standard. The large active area and fast data-capturing rate, i.e. 8 frames s -1 in radiography mode, 30 frames s -1 in fluoroscopy mode, make the GE 41RT one of a kind and very versatile in synchrotron diffraction. The loading behavior of a Cu/Nb multilayer material is used to demonstrate the use of the detector in a strain-stress experiment. Data from the measurement of various samples, amorphous SiO 2 in particular, are presented to show the detector effectiveness in pair distribution function measurements

  18. Near infrared photoluminescence of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with in-situ embedded silicon nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Stuchlík, Jiří; Purkrt, Adam; Ledinský, Martin; Kupčík, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2017), s. 136-140 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC16-10429J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KONNECT-007 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : amorphous silicon * chemical vapor deposition * photothermal deflection spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  19. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited using a microwave Ecr plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia H, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been widely applied to semiconductor devices, such as thin film transistors, solar cells and photosensitive devices. In this work, the first Si-H-Cl alloys (obtained at the National Institute for Nuclear Research of Mexico) were formed by a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (Ecr) plasma CVD method. Gaseous mixtures of silicon tetrachloride (Si Cl 4 ), hydrogen and argon were used. The Ecr plasma was generated by microwaves at 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field of 670 G was applied to maintain the discharge after resonance condition (occurring at 875 G). Si and Cl contents were analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It was found that, increasing proportion of Si Cl 4 in the mixture or decreasing pressure, the silicon and chlorine percentages decrease. Optical gaps were obtained by spectrophotometry. Decreasing temperature, optical gap values increase from 1.4 to 1.5 eV. (Author)

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of electronic structure of amorphous silicon and silicyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, A.I.; Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, N.I.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Terekhov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    SiK β and SiL 23 emission spectra of crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (α-Si:H) and silicyne have been studied by X-ray and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy. It is observed that SiL 23 emission spectra of silicyne displays not two maximums, as it usually observed for the c-Si and α-Si:H, but three ones. The third one is seen at high energies near 95.7 eV, and has an intensity about 75%. An additional maximum in the short- wave part of SiK β emission spectrum is observed. This difference of shapes of X-ray spectra between α-Si:H and silicyne is explained by the presence in silicyne a strong π-component of chemical bonds of a silicon atoms in silicyne [ru

  1. X-ray spectroscopy of electronic structure of amorphous silicon and silicyne

    CERN Document Server

    Mashin, A I; Mashin, N I; Domashevskaya, E P; Terekhov, V A

    2001-01-01

    SiK subbeta and SiL sub 2 sub 3 emission spectra of crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (alpha-Si:H) and silicyne have been studied by X-ray and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy. It is observed that SiL sub 2 sub 3 emission spectra of silicyne displays not two maximums, as it usually observed for the c-Si and alpha-Si:H, but three ones. The third one is seen at high energies near 95.7 eV, and has an intensity about 75%. An additional maximum in the short- wave part of SiK subbeta emission spectrum is observed. This difference of shapes of X-ray spectra between alpha-Si:H and silicyne is explained by the presence in silicyne a strong pi-component of chemical bonds of a silicon atoms in silicyne

  2. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (improvement of conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells after degradation); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi no shoki rekkago koritsu kojo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development for qualitative improvement of a-Si solar cells after initial degradation in fiscal 1994. On the fabrication technology of light-stable a-Si films, the film formation method possible to control combined hydrogen by repetitive formation/treatment was developed. The obtained high-quality light-stable a-Si film was featured by low defect density in a wide optical band gap range, and defect density of nearly 3 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup -3} after light irradiation. The light degradation rate of the cell where the a-Si film was applied to i layer was relatively stable by 10% or less. The a-Si/a-Si double-layer tandem cell fabricated by this technology produced a high conversion efficiency of 10.5%. By applying {mu}c-Si material to photoactive layer as narrow band gap material, the cell with optical sensitivity even in long wavelength ranges more than 1000nm was obtained. The a-Si/{mu}c-Si double-layer tandem cell produced an initial efficiency of 8.0% and an efficiency after degradation of 7.5%. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Phosphorus-doped Amorphous Silicon Nitride Films Applied to Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinäugle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The Photovoltaics Group at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya is investigating silicon carbide (SiC) for the electronic passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells. The doping of SiC passivation layers with phosphorus resulted in a clear improvement of the minority carrier

  4. Characterization of amorphous silicon films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. [1. 5-MeV Ho/sup +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, K; Imura, T; Iwami, M; Hiraki, A [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Satou, M [Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka, Ikeda (Japan); Fujimoto, F [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Hamakawa, Y [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science; Minomura, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics; Tanaka, K [Electrotechnical Lab., Tanashi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was applied to the characterization of amorphous silicon films prepared by glow discharge in silane, tetrode- and diode-sputterings of silicon target in ambient argon or hydrogen diluted by argon. This method was able to detect at least 5 at.% hydrogen atoms in amorphous silicon through the change of stopping power. Hydrogen content in films made by glow discharge at the substrate temperature 25/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C and at 2 torr of silane gas varied from 50% to 20%. A strong trend was found for oxygen to dissolve into films: Films produced by diode sputtering in argon gas with higher pressure than 3 x 10/sup -2/ torr absorbed oxygen. The potential and fitness of the RBS method for the characterization of amorphous silicon films are emphasized and demonstrated.

  5. Food applications and the toxicological and nutritional implications of amorphous silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, R; Hawkes, J G

    1986-01-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of the different types of amorphous silicon dioxide contribute to the versatility of these compounds in a variety of commercial applications. Traditionally, silicas have had a broad spectra of product usage including such areas as viscosity control agents in inks, paints, corrosion-resistant coatings, etc. and as excipients in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In the food industry, the most important application has been as an anticaking agent in powdered mixes, seasonings, and coffee whiteners. However, amorphous silica has multifunctional properties that would allow it to act as a viscosity control agent, emulsion stabilizer, suspension and dispersion agent, desiccant, etc. The utilization of silicas in these potential applications, however, has not been undertaken, partially because of the limited knowledge of their physiochemical interactions with other food components and partially due to their controversial status from a toxicological point of view. The main goal of this review is to compile current information on the incorporation of amorphous silicon dioxide as a highly functional and viable additive in the food processing industry as well as to discuss the most recent toxicological investigations of silica in an attempt to present some of the potential food applications and their concomitant toxicological implications. Some of the more significant differences between various silicas and their surface chemistries are presented to elucidate some of their mechanisms of interaction with food components and other biological systems and to aid in the prediction of their rheological or toxicological behavior.

  6. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: lxq_suse@sina.com [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Yuntao [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of nanostructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were firstly studied. • Si doping enhanced polymerization of the hydrocarbon chains and Al doping resulted in increase in the ordered carbon clusters of polymeric amorphous carbon films. • Soft polymeric amorphous carbon films exhibited an unconventional frictional behaviors with a superior wear resistance. • The mechanical and vacuum tribological properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were significantly improved by Si and Al co-doping. - Abstract: Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  7. Controllable Fabrication of Amorphous Co-Ni Pyrophosphates for Tuning Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ning; He, Yulu; Liang, Bo; Ma, Renzhi; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-09-07

    Incorporation of two transition metals offers an effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance in supercapacitors for transition metal compound based electrodes. However, such a configuration is seldom concerned in pyrophosphates. Here, amorphous phase Co-Ni pyrophosphates are fabricated as electrodes in supercapacitors. Through controllably adjusting the ratios of Co and Ni as well as the calcination temperature, the electrochemical performance can be tuned. An optimized amorphous Ni-Co pyrophosphate exhibits much higher specific capacitance than monometallic Ni and Co pyrophosphates and shows excellent cycling ability. When employing Ni-Co pyrophosphates as positive electrode and activated carbon as a negative electrode, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor cell exhibits favorable capacitance and cycling ability. This study provides facile methods to improve the transition metal pyrophosphate electrodes for efficient electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  8. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  9. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by using microcrystalline hydrogenated silicon oxide film as an emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Chandan; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Konagai, Makoto; Yamada, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Wide gap, highly conducting n-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiO : H) films were prepared by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at a very low substrate temperature (170 deg. C) as an alternative to amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) for use as an emitter layer of heterojunction solar cells. The optoelectronic properties of n-μc-SiO : H films prepared for the emitter layer are dark conductivity = 0.51 S cm -1 at 20 nm thin film, activation energy = 23 meV and E 04 = 2.3 eV. Czochralski-grown 380 μm thick p-type (1 0 0) oriented polished silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1-10 Ω cm were used for the fabrication of heterojunction solar cells. Photovoltaic parameters of the device were found to be V oc = 620 mV, J sc = 32.1 mA cm -2 , FF = 0.77, η = 15.32% (active area efficiency)

  10. Structural simplicity as a restraint on the structure of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Matthew J.; Bartók, Albert P.; Kerber, Rachel N.; Grey, Clare P.; Csányi, Gábor; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the structural origins of the properties of amorphous materials remains one of the most important challenges in structural science. In this study, we demonstrate that local "structural simplicity", embodied by the degree to which atomic environments within a material are similar to each other, is a powerful concept for rationalizing the structure of amorphous silicon (a -Si) a canonical amorphous material. We show, by restraining a reverse Monte Carlo refinement against pair distribution function (PDF) data to be simpler, that the simplest model consistent with the PDF is a continuous random network (CRN). A further effect of producing a simple model of a -Si is the generation of a (pseudo)gap in the electronic density of states, suggesting that structural homogeneity drives electronic homogeneity. That this method produces models of a -Si that approach the state-of-the-art without the need for chemically specific restraints (beyond the assumption of homogeneity) suggests that simplicity-based refinement approaches may allow experiment-driven structural modeling techniques to be developed for the wide variety of amorphous semiconductors with strong local order.

  11. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongwoon; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Seungchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV). As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28347087

  12. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Photoluminescence at 1.54 {mu}m of Er-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Mikhail; Gusev, Oleg; Kuznetsov, Alexey; Kudoyarova, Vera; Terukov, Evgenii; Yassievich, Irina [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fuhs, Walther [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Abteilung Photovoltaik, Rudower Chaussee 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Ulber, Isabell; Weiser, Gerhard [Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Fachbereich Physik, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)

    1998-05-11

    Photoluminescence (PL) and light absorption of Er-doped amorphous hydrogenated silicon samples are measured at 77-300K. The temperature dependence of luminescence of erbium ions in a-Si:H(Er) is compared with that of intrinsic PL of a-Si:H. The lifetime of excited erbium ions in this amorphous matrix changes from 20 to 8 {mu}s in this temperature range. We propose a defect-related Auger excitation (DRAE) mechanism of erbium luminescence and demonstrate that it is consistent with the whole set of our experimental results. The temperature quenching of the erbium luminescence observed above 200K, with the activation energy of 250 meV, results from the competition of the DRAE and multiphonon nonradiative defect processes for D{sup 0}+e>D{sup -} transition

  14. Redistribution of erbium during the crystallization of buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, O.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Sobolev, N.A.; Sakharov, V.I.; Serenkov, I.T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The redistribution of Er during its implantation in silicon at doses close to the amorphization threshold and its subsequent solid-phase epitaxial (SPE) crystallization is investigated. The formation of a buried amorphous (a) layer is discovered at Er doses equal to 5x10 13 and 1x10 14 cm -2 using Rutherford backscattering. The segregation of Er in this case takes place inwardly from the two directions corresponding to the upper and lower boundaries of the buried αlayer and leads to the formation of a concentration peak at the meeting place of the two crystallization fronts. A method for calculating the coordinate dependence of the segregation coefficient k from the distribution profiles of the erbium impurity before and after annealing is proposed. The k(x) curve exhibits a drop, whose width increases with decreasing Er implantation dose. Its appearance is attributed to the nonequilibrium nature of the segregation process at the beginning of SPE crystallization

  15. Fabrication of amorphous Si and C anode films via co-sputtering for an all-solid-state battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University Shinchondong, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemoongu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnamdaero 1342, 461-710 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H. [Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnamdaero 1342, 461-710 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University Shinchondong, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemoongu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnamdaero 1342, 461-710 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnamdaero 1342, 461-710 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S., E-mail: benedicto@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnamdaero 1342, 461-710 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a combination of silicon and carbon as the anode material for an all-solid-state battery has been investigated to overcome their individual deficiencies. The capacity of silicon thin films with an input power of 60 W shows dramatic failure after 38 cycles due to serious volume expansion. In contrast, C thin films at 60 W show high stability of cyclic performance and capacity retention. The amorphous silicon and carbon composite reduced the volume expansion of silicon during long term cycles and enhanced the low specific capacity of the carbon. This resistance of the volume expansion might be expected from the cushion effect caused by the carbon, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope images after a 100 cycle test. These results indicate that amorphous silicon and carbon composite thin films have a high possibility as the stable anode material for an all-solid-state battery. - Highlights: • Amorphous Si/C nanocomposite thin films have been prepared by co-sputtering. • Carbon can act as a cushion effect to prevent volume expansion of Si. • Amorphous Si/C nanocomposite thin films show structure stability at 100 cycles. • Capacity of the amorphous Si/C nanocomposite thin films was enhanced considerably.

  16. Study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon devices under intense electric field: application to nuclear detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work was the study, development and optimization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) devices for use in detection of ionizing radiation in applications connected to the nuclear industry. Thick p-i-n devices, capable of withstanding large electric fields (up to 10 6 V/cm) with small currents (nA/cm 2 ), were proposed and developed. In order to decrease fabrication time, films were made using the 'He diluted' PECVD process and compared to standard a-Si:H films. Aspects connected to specific detector applications as well as to the fundamental physics of a-Si:H were considered: the internal electric field technique, in which the depletion charge was measured as a function of the applied bias voltage; study of the leakage current of p-i-n devices permitted us to demonstrate different regimes: depletion, field-enhanced thermal generation and electronic injection across the p layer. The effect of the electric field on the thermal generation of the carriers was studied considering the Poole-Frenkel and tunneling mechanisms. A model was developed taking under consideration the statistics of the correlated states and electron-phonon coupling. The results suggest that mechanisms not included in the 'standard model' of a Si:h need to be considered, such as defect relaxation, a filed-dependent mobility edge etc...; a new metastable phenomenon, called 'forming', induced by prolonged exposure to a strong electric field, was observed and studied. It is characterized by marked decrease of the leakage current and the detector noise, and increase in the breakdown voltage, as well as an improvement of carrier collection efficiency. This forming process appears to be principally due to an activation of the dopants in the p layer; finally, the capacity of thick p-i-n a Si:H devices to detect ionizing radiation has been evaluated. We show that it is possible, with 20-50 micron thick p-i-n devices, to detect the full spectrum of alpha and beta particles. With an

  17. The application of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers to charged particle and x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Fujieda, I.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    We outline the characteristics of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers which are optimized for the detection of charged particles, x-rays and γ-rays. Signal amplitude as a function of the linear energy transfer of various particles are given. Noise sources generated by the detector material and by the thin film electronics - a-Si:H or polysilicon proposed for pixel position sensitive detectors readout are described, and their relative amplitudes are calculated. Temperature and neutron radiation effects on leakage currents and the corresponding noise changes are presented. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Material parameters in a thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon detector and their effect on signal collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.; Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Street, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    Transient photoconductivity and ESR measurements were done to relate the ionized dangling bond density of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) detectors. We found that only a fraction (/approximately/30--35%) of the total defect density as measured by ESR is ionized when the detector is biased into deep depletion. The measurements on annealed samples also show that this fraction is about 0.3. An explanation based on the shift of the Fermi energy is given. The measurements show that the time dependence of relaxation is a stretched exponential. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  20. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-selenium alloys - a short journey through parameter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dallal, S.; Al-Alawi, S.M.; Aljishi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-selenium alloy thin films were grown by capacity coupled radio frequency glow discharge decomposition of (SiH/sub 4/ + He) and (H/sub 2/S + He) gas mixtures. In this work we report on a study to correlate the deposition parameters of a-Si, Se:H thin films with its optical, electronic and spectroscopic properties. The alloy composition was varied by changing the gas volume ratio R/sub v/ = [H/sub 2/Se]/[SiH/sub 4/]. The films are characterized via infrared spectroscopy, photoconductivity, photoluminescence, constant current method and conductivity measurements. (author)

  1. Structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of amorphous silicon: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Car, R.; Parrinello, M.

    1988-01-18

    An amorphous silicon structure is obtained with a computer simulation based on a new molecular-dynamics technique in which the interatomic potential is derived from a parameter-free quantum mechanical method. Our results for the atomic structure, the phonon spectrum, and the electronic properties are in excellent agreement with experiment. In addition we study details of the microscopic dynamics which are not directly accessible to experiment. We find in particular that structural defects are associated with weak bonds. These may give rise to low-frequency vibrational modes.

  2. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Koehler, C. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Lutz, B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Schubert, M.B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm{sup 2}) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3{mu}m, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10{mu}m, deflection angles smaller than 10{mu}rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%.

  3. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  4. Effect of low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.T.; Epstein, K.A.; Grimmer, D.P.; Vernstrom, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of the low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) were studied. Doping level of both boron and phosphorus was in the range of 10/sup 17/ atoms/cm/sup 3/. Apparent improvement in the stability of dark and photoconductivity of a-Si: films upon low level doping does not result from the elimination of light-induced defects. The stability of the dark and photoconductivity upon doping is an indication of pinning of the Fermi level

  5. Study of some structural properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by radiofrequency cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Barhdadi, A.

    2001-08-01

    In this work, we have used the grazing X-rays reflectometry technique to characterise hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering. Relfectometry measurements are taken immediately after films deposition as well as after having naturally oxidised their surfaces during a more or less prolonged stay in the ambient. For the films examined just after deposition, the role of hydrogen appears in the increase of their density. For those analysed after a short stay in the ambient, hydrogen plays a protective role against the oxidation of their surfaces. This role disappears when the stay in the ambient is so long. (author)

  6. Dependence of the saturated light-induced defect density on macroscopic properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Park, H. R.; Liu, J. Z.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Maruyama, A.; Isomura, M.; Wagner, S.; Abelson, J. R.; Finger, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report a study of the saturated light-induced defect density Ns,sat in 37 hydrogenated (and in part fluorinated) amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(F)] films grown in six different reactors under widely different conditions. Ns,sat was attained by exposing the films to light from a krypton ion laser (λ=647.1 nm). Ns,sat is determined by the constant photocurrent method and lies between 5×1016 and 2×1017 cm−3. Ns,sat drops with decreasing optical gap Eopt and hydrogen content cH, but is not correlat...

  7. γ-irradiation effect on electronic properties in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirafuji, J.; Nagata, S.; Shirakawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    γ-irradiation effect on electron transport and photoelectric properties in glow-discharge hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated mainly by means of time-of-flight measurement. Although the electron transport changes from non-dispersive to dispersive when the total dose on γ-rays is increased, the electron mobility at room temperature is affected only slightly by γ-irradiation. The γ-irradiation introduces dominantly Si dangling bonds, allowing to study the recombination characteristic as a function of dangling bond density under controllable conditions. It is found that the electron recombination lifetime is inversely proportional to the dangling bond density. (author)

  8. Intrinsic Resistance Switching in Amorphous Silicon Suboxides: The Role of Columnar Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, M S; Mehonic, A; Ng, W H; Buckwell, M; Montesi, L; Bosman, M; Shluger, A L; Kenyon, A J

    2017-08-24

    We studied intrinsic resistance switching behaviour in sputter-deposited amorphous silicon suboxide (a-SiO x ) films with varying degrees of roughness at the oxide-electrode interface. By combining electrical probing measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we observe that devices with rougher oxide-electrode interfaces exhibit lower electroforming voltages and more reliable switching behaviour. We show that rougher interfaces are consistent with enhanced columnar microstructure in the oxide layer. Our results suggest that columnar microstructure in the oxide will be a key factor to consider for the optimization of future SiOx-based resistance random access memory.

  9. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High performance silicone coatings are desired for flexible fabrics used in several space and consumer applications. For instance, the total weight of silicone...

  10. Spin transport, magnetoresistance, and electrically detected magnetic resonance in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, Michael J. [Intercollege Program of Materials, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lenahan, Patrick M. [Intercollege Program of Materials, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    We report on a study of spin transport via electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and near-zero field magnetoresistance (MR) in silicon nitride films. Silicon nitrides have long been important materials in solid state electronics. Although electronic transport in these materials is not well understood, electron paramagnetic resonance studies have identified a single dominating paramagnetic defect and have also provided physical and chemical descriptions of the defects, called K centers. Our EDMR and MR measurements clearly link the near-zero field MR response to the K centers and also indicate that K center energy levels are approximately 3.1 eV above the a-SiN:H valence band edge. In addition, our results suggest an approach for the study of defect mediated spin-transport in inorganic amorphous insulators via variable electric field and variable frequency EDMR and MR which may be widely applicable.

  11. Characterization of defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on different substrates by capacitance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwich, R.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited on crystalline silicon and Corning glass substrate were analyzed using different capacitance techniques. The distribution of localized states and some electronic properties were studied using the temperature, frequency and bias dependence of the Schottky barrier capacitance and deep level transient spectroscopy. Our results show that the distribution of the gap states depends on the type of substrate. We have found that the films deposited on c-Si substrate represent only one positively charged or prerelaxed neutral deep state and one interface state, while the films deposited on glass substrate have one interface state and three types of deep defect states, positively or prerelaxed neutral, neutral and negatively charged.

  12. High-stability transparent amorphous oxide TFT with a silicon-doped back-channel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung-Rae; Park, Jea-Gun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We significantly reduced various electrical instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using the co-deposition of silicon on an a-IGZO back channel. This process showed improved stability of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) under high temperature and humidity and negative gate-bias illumination stress (NBIS) without any reduction of IDS. The enhanced stability was achieved with silicon, which has higher metal-oxide bonding strengths than gallium does. Additionally, SiO{sub x} distributed on the a-IGZO surface reduced the adsorption and the desorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. This process is applicable to the TFT manufacturing process with a variable sputtering target.

  13. Effect of starting point formation on the crystallization of amorphous silicon films by flash lamp annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    We succeed in the crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by flash lamp annealing (FLA) at a low fluence by intentionally creating starting points for the trigger of explosive crystallization (EC). We confirm that a partly thick a-Si part can induce the crystallization of a-Si films. A periodic wavy structure is observed on the surface of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) on and near the thick parts, which is a clear indication of the emergence of EC. Creating partly thick a-Si parts can thus be effective for the control of the starting point of crystallization by FLA and can realize the crystallization of a-Si with high reproducibility. We also compare the effects of creating thick parts at the center and along the edge of the substrates, and a thick part along the edge of the substrates leads to the initiation of crystallization at a lower fluence.

  14. Contribution to the analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannerot, Luc.

    1981-01-01

    The physico chemical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films (0,5 to 2 μm thick) makes use of nuclear microanalysis for quantitative determination and depth profiling of the elements hydrogen, oxygen, argon and carbon. Concerning the methods, performances of the hydrogen analysis using the 1 H( 15 N, αγ) nuclear reaction are presented emphasizing the precision and the analytical consequences of the interaction ion-material. For charged particles data processing (mainly Rutherford backscattering) computer treatments have been developed either for concentration profile obtention as for spectra prediction of given material configurations. The essential results concerning hydrogenated silicon prepared by RF sputtering are on one hand the correlation between the oxygen incorporation and the beam-induced hydrogen effusion and in the other hand the role of the substrate in the impurities incorporation. From the study of the elaboration conditions of the material a tentative interpretation is made for the incorporation and the role of oxygen [fr

  15. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  16. Selective Growth and SERS Property of Gold Nanoparticles on Amorphized Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, T; Nishi, M; Sakakura, M; Shimotsuma, Y; Miura, K; Hirao, K

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated gold patterns on a silicon substrate by a simple three-step method using a focused ion beam (FIB). The obtained gold patterns consisted of a large number of gold nanoparticles which grew selectively on the preprocessed silicon surface from an Au ion-containing solution dropped on the substrate. The solution was prepared by reacting HAuCl 4 aqueous solution with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). It was found that the size and shape of the precipitating gold nanoparticles is controllable by changing the mixing ratio between HAuCl 4 aqueous solution and MPTMS. Additionally, we confirmed that the fabricated gold structures were surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active; the enhanced Raman peaks of rhodamin 6G (R6G) were detected on the fabricated gold structures, whereas no peak was detected on the alternative silicon surface. We also demonstrated the gold patterning using a femtosecond laser instead of an FIB. We believe that our method is a favorable candidate for fabricating SERS-active substrates, since the substrates can be prepared very simply and flexibly.

  17. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  18. Multichannel silicon WDM ring filters fabricated with DUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Moo; Park, Sahnggi; Kim, Gyungock

    2008-09-01

    We have fabricated 9-channel silicon wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) ring filters using 193 nm deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lithography and investigated the spectral properties of the ring filters by comparing the transmission spectra with and without an upper cladding. The average channel-spacing of the 9-channel WDM ring filter with a polymeric upper cladding is measured about 1.86 nm with the standard deviation of the channel-spacing about 0.34 nm. The channel crosstalk is about -30 dB, and the minimal drop loss is about 2 dB.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Theoretical research on amorphous silicon electronic states by computer-aided simulation); 1984 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Keisanki simulation ni yoru amorphous silicon no denshi jotai no rironteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-04-01

    Research on the basic physical properties of amorphous silicon materials and for the development of materials for thermally stable amorphous silicon is conducted through theoretical reasoning and computer-aided simulation. In the effort at achieving a high conversion efficiency using an amorphous silicon alloy, a process of realizing desired photoabsorption becomes possible when the correlation between the atomic structure and the photoabsorption coefficient is clearly established and the atomic structure is manipulated. In this connection, analytical studies are conducted to determine how microscopic structures are reflected on macroscopic absorption coefficients. In the computer-aided simulation, various liquid structures and amorphous structures are worked out, which is for the atom-level characterization of structures with topological disturbances, such as amorphous structures. Glass transition is simulated using a molecular kinetic method, in particular, and the melting of crystals, crystallization of liquids, and vitrification (conversion into the amorphous state) are successfully realized, though in a computer-aided simulation, for the first time in the world. (NEDO)

  20. Fabrication and characterization of nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Qin, F.X. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Xing, D.W.; Cao, F.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Peng, H.X. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Bristol Centre for NanoScience and Quantum Information (NSQI), University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Sun, J.F., E-mail: jfsun@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • Nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwire was fabricated and characterized. • The unique dual-phase structure is correlated to its different cooling experience. • The extracted microwires possess high tensile strength over 1800 MPa. • Excellent EMI property was elucidated by the multiple magnetic loss mechanisms. -- Abstract: A nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwire was fabricated directly from molten alloy without any interstage annealing by a home-built melt extraction technique (MET). The microstructure, mechanical and pronounced electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI) effectiveness of this dual-phase microwire has been systematically evaluated. The structural analysis reveals that the as-cast FINEMET microwire consists of two distinct structures, i.e., amorphous and nanocrystalline phase due to their different cooling characteristics. Compared with other reported FINEMET alloys, the extracted microwire exhibits a superior high tensile strength of 1800 MPa. These nanocrystals enabled dual-phase microwires also exhibit large EMI SE values in the frequency range of 8–12 GHz (X-band) due to the multiple magnetic loss mechanisms associated with their intrinsic structural characteristics. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and electromagnetic properties make this kind of melt-extracted dual-phase FINEMET microwire promising for a range of structure and multifunctional applications.

  1. A study of luminescence from silicon-rich silica fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trwoga, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon is the most studied electronic material known to man and dominates the electronics industry in its use as a semiconductors for nearly all integrated electronics. However, optoelectronics is almost entirely based on III-V materials. This technology is used because silicon is a very inefficient light source, whereas the III-V band structure can lend itself to efficient light emission by electron injection. However, due to the overwhelming dominance of silicon based electronics it is still a highly desirable goal to generate light efficiently from silicon based materials. Recently, studies have demonstrated that efficient visible luminescence can be obtained from certain novel forms of silicon. These materials include porous silicon, hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and silicon-rich silica (SiO x x x is studied in detail; in addition, electroluminescence and rare-earth doping of silicon-rich silica is also addressed. (author)

  2. Charge transfer processes in hybrid solar cells composed of amorphous silicon and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Sebastian; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam, Inst. Physik u. Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Schulze, Tim; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Inst. fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of hybrid solar cells composed of organic materials and amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) strongly depends upon the efficiency of charge transfer processes at the inorganic-organic interface. We investigated the performance of devices comprising an ITO/a-Si:H(n-type)/a-Si:H(intrinsic)/organic/metal multilayer structure and using two different organic components: zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The results show higher power conversion- and quantum efficiencies for the P3HT based cells, compared to ZnPc. This can be explained by larger energy-level offset at the interface between the organic layer and a-Si:H, which facilitates hole transfer from occupied states in the valence band tail to the HOMO of the organic material and additionally promotes exciton splitting. The performance of the a-Si:H/P3HT cells can be further improved by treatment of the amorphous silicon surface with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and p-type doping of P3HT with F4TCNQ. The improved cells reached maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1%.

  3. Solid state photochemistry. Subpanel A-2(b): Metastability in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D. [Solarex Corporation, Newton, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    All device quality amorphous silicon based materials exhibit degradation in electronic properties when exposed to sunlight. The photo-induced defects are associated with Si dangling bonds that are created by the recombination and/or trapping of photogenerated carriers. The defects are metastable and can be annealed out at temperatures of about 150 to 200 degrees Centigrade. The density of metastable defects is larger in films that are contaminated with > 10{sup 19} per cubic cm of impurities such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. However, recent experimental results indicate that some metastable defects are still present in films with very low impurity concentrations. The photo-induced defects typically saturate after 100 to 1000 hours of exposure to one sun illumination depending on the deposition conditions. There is also experimental evidence that photo-induced structural changes are occurring in the amorphous silicon based materials and that hydrogen may be playing an important role in both the photo-induced structural changes and in the creation of metastable defects.

  4. Optical properties of metal nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon analysed using discrete dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Alessandro; Fernandes, Miguel; Vygranenko, Yuri; Vieira, Manuela; Oliveira-Silva, Rui P.; Prazeres, D. M. F.; Ribeiro, Ana P. C.; Alegria, Elisabete C. B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) can be excited in metal nanoparticles (NP) by UV, visible or NIR light and are described as coherent oscillation of conduction electrons. Taking advantage of the tunable optical properties of NPs, we propose the realization of a plasmonic structure, based on the LSP interaction of NP with an embedding matrix of amorphous silicon. This study is directed to define the characteristics of NP and substrate necessary to the development of a LSP proteomics sensor that, once provided immobilized antibodies on its surface, will screen the concentration of selected antigens through the determination of LSPR spectra and peaks of light absorption. Metals of interest for NP composition are: Aluminium and Gold. Recent advances in nanoparticle production techniques allow almost full control over shapes and size, permitting full control over their optical and plasmonic properties and, above all, over their responsive spectra. Analytical solution is only possible for simple NP geometries, therefore our analysis, is realized recurring to computer simulation using the Discrete Dipole Approximation method (DDA). In this work we use the free software DDSCAT to study the optical properties of metal nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix, as a function of size, shape, aspect-ratio and metal type. Experimental measurements realized with arrays of metal nanoparticles are compared with the simulations.

  5. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Goodman, C.A.

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220μm. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately lμm thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50μm. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level

  6. Three hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiodes stacked for an above integrated circuit colour sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidon, Pierre; Giffard, Benoit; Moussy, Norbert; Parrein, Pascale; Poupinet, Ludovic [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-03-15

    We present theoretical simulation and experimental results of a new colour pixel structure. This pixel catches the light in three stacked amorphous silicon photodiodes encompassed between transparent electrodes. The optical structure has been simulated for signal optimisation. The thickness of each stacked layer is chosen in order to absorb the maximum of light and the three signals allow to linearly calculate the CIE colour coordinates 1 with minimum error and noise. The whole process is compatible with an above integrated circuit (IC) approach. Each photodiode is an n-i-p structure. For optical reason, the upper diode must be controlled down to 25 nm thickness. The first test pixel structure allows a good recovering of colour coordinates. The measured absorption spectrum of each photodiode is in good agreement with our simulations. This specific stack with three photodiodes per pixel totalises two times more signal than an above IC pixel under a standard Bayer pattern 2,3. In each square of this GretagMacbeth chart is the reference colour on the right and the experimentally measured colour on the left with three amorphous silicon photodiodes per pixel. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Properties of p-type amorphous silicon carbide window layers prepared using boron trifluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Carabe, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-03-01

    One set (A) of undoped and three sets (B, C and D) of doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide samples have been made in the framework of a research plan for obtaining high quality p-type window layers by radiofrequency glow discharge of silane-based gas mixtures. The samples of sets A and B were made using different RF-power-density to mass-flow ratios for various methane percentages in the gas mixture. The best carbon incorporation in the amorphous silicon lattice was obtained at the highest RF-power density. The properties of sets C and D, prepared using different RF-power densities and silane and methane proportions have been analysed as functions of the concentration of boron trifluoride with respect to silane. In both cases, the optical gap E[sub G], after a slight initial decrease, remains at a value of approximately 2.1 eV without quenching in the doping ranges covered. The best conductivity obtained is 2x10[sup -7] ([Omega] cm)[sup -1]. IR spectra allow to associate these features with the structural quality of the films. (orig.)

  8. Band Offsets at the Interface between Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolimek, K.; Hazrati, E.; de Groot, R. A.; de Wijs, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    The band offsets between crystalline and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si ∶H ) are key parameters governing the charge transport in modern silicon heterojunction solar cells. They are an important input for macroscopic simulators that are used to further optimize the solar cell. Past experimental studies, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and capacitance-voltage measurements, have yielded conflicting results on the band offset. Here, we present a computational study on the band offsets. It is based on atomistic models and density-functional theory (DFT). The amorphous part of the interface is obtained by relatively long DFT first-principles molecular-dynamics runs at an elevated temperature on 30 statistically independent samples. In order to obtain a realistic conduction-band position the electronic structure of the interface is calculated with a hybrid functional. We find a slight asymmetry in the band offsets, where the offset in the valence band (0.29 eV) is larger than in the conduction band (0.17 eV). Our results are in agreement with the latest XPS measurements that report a valence-band offset of 0.3 eV [M. Liebhaber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031601 (2015), 10.1063/1.4906195].

  9. Implantation of xenon in amorphous carbon and silicon for brachytherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.C.; Barbieri, P.F.; Viana, G.A.; Silva, D.S. da

    2013-01-01

    We report a procedure to implant high dose of xenon atoms (Xe) in amorphous carbon, a-C, and amorphous silicon, a-Si, for application in brachytherapy seeds. An ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) system was used for the deposition of the films, where one ion gun was used for sputtering a carbon (or silicon) target, while the other ion gun was used to simultaneously bombard the growing film with a beam of xenon ion Xe + in the 0–300 eV range. Xe atoms were implanted into the film with concentration up to 5.5 at.%, obtained with Xe bombardment energy in the 50–150 eV range. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the local arrangement of the implanted Xe atoms through the Xe L III absorption edge (4.75 keV). It was observed that Xe atoms tend to agglomerate in nanoclusters in a-C and are dispersed in a-Si.

  10. Model of the recrystallization mechanism of amorphous silicon layers created by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosd, R.M.

    1979-11-01

    The recrystallization behavior during annealing of thin films of amorphous (α) silicon, in contact with a single crystal silicon substrate (referred to as C), has been studied in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The amorphous film is created during high dose phosphorus ion implantation at 100 keV. It was found that the crystal substrate orientation and the implantation temperature have dramatic effects on the recrystallizaton rate, and the defect microstructure produced during annealing. Specifically, (100) wafers implanted at 77 0 K contain only a low density of dislocation loops, but when the same wafer is implanted at room temperature the dislocation density is increased drastically. (111) wafers, when implanted at 77 0 K show a high density of microtwins, but as the implantation temperature is increased a gradual increase in the density of dislocation loops is observed along with a reduction of the microtwins. At an implantation temperature of about 100 0 C both orientations give an identical defect microstructure when annealed, which is a dense tangle of dislocations

  11. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicone coatings are the system of choice for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts,...

  12. Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in amorphous silicon and silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarc'h, A.; Le Contellec, M.; Richard, J.; Ligeon, E.; Fontenille, J.; Danielou, R.

    1980-01-01

    The 1 H( 11 B, α)αα nuclear reaction is used to determine the H content and the density of amorphous semiconductor Si 1 -sub(x)Csub(x)H 2 and SiHsub(z) thin films. Rutherford backscattering is used to determine the x values and infrared transmission to study the hydrogen bonds. We have observed a transfer or/and a release of hydrogen under bombardment by various ions and we show that this last effect must be taken into account for a correct determination of the hydrogen content. An attempt is made to correlate the hydrogen release with electronic and nuclear energy losses. (orig.)

  13. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili Sani, V.; Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  14. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili Sani, V., E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-21

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  15. Modeling chemical and topological disorder in irradiation-amorphized silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglong; Hobbs, Linn W.

    2002-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship of chemical disorder to topological disorder during irradiation-induced amorphization of silicon carbide, a topological analysis of homonuclear bond distribution, atom coordination number and network ring size distribution has been carried out for imposed simulated disorder, equilibrated with molecular dynamics (MD) procedures utilizing a Tersoff potential. Starting configurations included random atom positions, β-SiC coordinates chemically disordered over a range of chemical disorder parameters and atom coordinates generated from earlier MD simulations of embedded collision cascades. For random starting positions in embedded simulations, the MD refinement converged to an average Si coordination of 4.3 and an average of 1.4 Si-Si and 1.0 C-C bonds per Si and C site respectively. A chemical disorder threshold was observed (χ≡N C-C /N Si-C >0.3-0.4), below which range MD equilibration resulted in crystalline behavior at all temperatures and above which a glass transition was observed. It was thus concluded that amorphization is driven by a critical concentration of homonuclear bonds. About 80% of the density change at amorphization was attributable to threshold chemical disorder, while significant topological changes occurred only for larger values of the chemical disorder parameter

  16. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  17. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  18. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-10-13

    Stretchable electronic systems can play instrumental role for reconfigurable macro-electronics such as distributed sensor networks for wearable and bio-integrated electronics. Typically, polymer composite based materials and its deterministic design as interconnects are used to achieve such systems. Nonetheless, non-polymeric inorganic silicon is the predominant material for 90% of electronics. Therefore, we report the design and fabrication of an all silicon based network of hexagonal islands connected through spiral springs to form an ultra-stretchable arrangement for complete compliance to highly asymmetric shapes. Several design parameters are considered and their validation is carried out through finite element analysis. The fabrication process is based on conventional microfabrication techniques and the measured stretchability is more than 1000% for single spirals and area expansions as high as 30 folds in arrays. The reported method can provide ultra-stretchable and adaptable electronic systems for distributed network of high-performance macro-electronics especially useful for wearable electronics and bio-integrated devices.

  19. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Foulds, I. G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable electronic systems can play instrumental role for reconfigurable macro-electronics such as distributed sensor networks for wearable and bio-integrated electronics. Typically, polymer composite based materials and its deterministic design as interconnects are used to achieve such systems. Nonetheless, non-polymeric inorganic silicon is the predominant material for 90% of electronics. Therefore, we report the design and fabrication of an all silicon based network of hexagonal islands connected through spiral springs to form an ultra-stretchable arrangement for complete compliance to highly asymmetric shapes. Several design parameters are considered and their validation is carried out through finite element analysis. The fabrication process is based on conventional microfabrication techniques and the measured stretchability is more than 1000% for single spirals and area expansions as high as 30 folds in arrays. The reported method can provide ultra-stretchable and adaptable electronic systems for distributed network of high-performance macro-electronics especially useful for wearable electronics and bio-integrated devices.

  20. Amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of photosynthetically active radiation; Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif (400-700 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Thiverval-Grignon (France); Bonchretien, P.; Allirand, J. M.; Gosse, G.

    1989-07-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental measurements from amorphous silicon cells in comparison with these now used in ecophysiology illustrate the interest of amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of PAR incident, reflected, and transmitted below the canopy [French] La simulation et la confrontation expérimentale ces réponses des cellules au silicium amorphe par rapport à celles des capteurs existants montrent l’intérêt des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement PAR (exprimé en densité de flux de photons) incident, réfléchi et transmis sous un couvert végétal.

  1. Optical properties of p–i–n structures based on amorphous hydrogenated silicon with silicon nanocrystals formed via nanosecond laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivyakin, G. K.; Volodin, V. A., E-mail: volodin@isp.nsc.ru; Kochubei, S. A.; Kamaev, G. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Purkrt, A.; Remes, Z. [Institute of Physics ASCR (Czech Republic); Fajgar, R. [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR (Czech Republic); Stuchliková, T. H.; Stuchlik, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon nanocrystals are formed in the i layers of p–i–n structures based on a-Si:H using pulsed laser annealing. An excimer XeCl laser with a wavelength of 308 nm and a pulse duration of 15 ns is used. The laser fluence is varied from 100 (below the melting threshold) to 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} (above the threshold). The nanocrystal sizes are estimated by analyzing Raman spectra using the phonon confinement model. The average is from 2.5 to 3.5 nm, depending on the laser-annealing parameters. Current–voltage measurements show that the fabricated p–i–n structures possess diode characteristics. An electroluminescence signal in the infrared (IR) range is detected for the p–i–n structures with Si nanocrystals; the peak position (0.9–1 eV) varies with the laser-annealing parameters. Radiative transitions are presumably related to the nanocrystal–amorphous-matrix interface states. The proposed approach can be used to produce light-emitting diodes on non-refractory substrates.

  2. Local structure reconstruction in hydrogenated amorphous silicon from angular correlation and synchrotron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Minani, E.; Knoesen, D.; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Furlan, F.; Giles, C.; Haerting, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a widely used thin film semiconductor material which is still incompletely understood. It is generally assumed to form a continuous random network, with a high concentration of coordination defects (dangling bonds), which are hydrogen terminated. Neither the exact nature of these sites nor the degree of medium range order has been fully determined. In this paper, we present the first results for the local structure, from a combined study using angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR) and synchrotron radiation diffraction. Reciprocal space information is obtained directly, for the mesoscale structure and the local defect structure, from the orientation dependent diffraction and 2D-ACAR patterns, respectively. Furthermore, inversion of both patterns yields a comparison of real space information through maps of the silicon-silicon pair correlation function and the electron-positron autocorrelation function B 2γ (r). From this information, it is possible to identify the dominant structural defect as a vacancy-size dangling bond cluster, around which the network strain is fully relaxed

  3. Development of amorphous silicon based EUV hardmasks through physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Anuja; Mignot, Yann; Meli, Luciana; DeVries, Scott; Xu, Yongan; Seshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Zeng, Wilson; Cao, Yong; Phan, Khoi; Dai, Huixiong; Ngai, Christopher S.; Stolfi, Michael; Diehl, Daniel L.

    2017-10-01

    Extending extreme ultraviolet (EUV) single exposure patterning to its limits requires more than photoresist development. The hardmask film is a key contributor in the patterning stack that offers opportunities to enhance lithographic process window, increase pattern transfer efficiency, and decrease defectivity when utilizing very thin film stacks. This paper introduces the development of amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited through physical vapor deposited (PVD) as an alternative to a silicon ARC (SiARC) or silicon-oxide-type EUV hardmasks in a typical trilayer patterning scheme. PVD offers benefits such as lower deposition temperature, and higher purity, compared to conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. In this work, sub-36nm pitch line-space features were resolved with a positive-tone organic chemically-amplified resist directly patterned on PVD a-Si, without an adhesion promotion layer and without pattern collapse. Pattern transfer into the underlying hardmask stack was demonstrated, allowing an evaluation of patterning metrics related to resolution, pattern transfer fidelity, and film defectivity for PVD a-Si compared to a conventional tri-layer patterning scheme. Etch selectivity and the scalability of PVD a-Si to reduce the aspect ratio of the patterning stack will also be discussed.

  4. Optical properties of p–i–n structures based on amorphous hydrogenated silicon with silicon nanocrystals formed via nanosecond laser annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivyakin, G.K.; Volodin, V.; Kochubei, S.A.; Kamaev, G.N.; Purkrt, Adam; Remeš, Zdeněk; Fajgar, Radek; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2016), s. 935-940 ISSN 1063-7826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrogenated amorphous silicon * nanocrystals * laser annealing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2016

  5. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdenweber, Jan

    2011-09-26

    single-chamber process for the fabrication of amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. The main aspect is the suppression of boron cross-contamination. Before the deposition of the i-layer a boron doped p-layer is deposited and thus, after the p-layer deposition some of the boron remains in the recipient. In this work different solar cell configurations and reactor treatments are examined for their suppression of the boron cross-contamination. The various treatments are compared for their effectivity, their working principle, and their time consumption. Amongst the investigated reactor treatments the application of a H{sub 2}O-flush or a process chamber evacuation to 9 x 10{sup -7} mbar turned out to be most favourable in order to suppress the boron cross-contamination. (orig.)

  6. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbide Micropillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun; Kim, Don Jin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has outstanding thermal and mechanical properties under high temperature and high neutron irradiation. SiC and SiC/SiC composites have been proposed as a promising candidate material for structural components in fusion reactors. Characterization of the mechanical properties such as fracture strength is important in ensuring the reliability of these ceramic structures. This study demonstrates a micro-compression test of SiC micropillars which are fabricated by mask and dryetching technique. Our fabrication method involves lithographic pattering of spun and baked photoresist on chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) polycrystalline beta-SiC substrates, followed by lift-off process of electroplated metal into the prescribed photoresist template. This metal works as an etch cap for inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Our fabrication method enables the production of more than a few hundred micropillars under an identical fabrication condition, which is a great benefit for the statistical analysis of the fracture properties of brittle ceramic materials. The diameters of fabricated SiC micropillars range from 6 down to 0.5 μm. The ratio of micropillar diameter to height is set to 1:3 ∼ 1:4. Uniaxial compression tests have been conducted using flat punch nanoindentation at room temperature. We observed the specimen size effect on the measured fracture stress of SiC micropillars. In this paper we present the results of the micro-compression tests of SiC micropillars with the diameters of 0.8 and 2.6 μm

  7. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H 2 O 2 /HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing. (paper)

  8. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-17

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices' applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  9. Design and fabrication of a self-aligned parallel-plate-type silicon micromirror minimizing the effect of misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Jin, Joo-Young; Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a self-alignment method whereby a mirror actuation voltage, corresponding to a specific tilting angle, is unvarying in terms of misalignment during fabrication. A deep silicon etching process is proposed to penetrate the top silicon layer (the micromirror layer) and an amorphous silicon layer (the addressing electrode layer) together, through an aluminum mask pattern, in order to minimize the misalignment effect on the micromirror actuation. The size of a fabricated mirror plate is 250 × 250 × 4 µm 3 . A pair of amorphous silicon electrodes under the mirror plate is about half the size of the mirror plate individually. Numerical analysis associated with calculating the pull-in voltage and the bonding misalignment is performed to verify the self-alignment concepts focused upon in this paper. Curves of the applied voltage versus the tilt angle of the self-aligned micromirror are observed using a position sensing detector in order to compare the measurement results with MATLAB analysis of the expected static deflections. Although a 3.7 µm misalignment is found between the mirror plate and the electrodes, in the direction perpendicular to the shallow trench of the electrodes, before the self-alignment process, the measured pull-in voltage has been found to be 103.4 V on average; this differs from the pull-in voltage of a perfectly aligned micromirror by only 0.67%. Regardless of the unpredictable misalignments in repetitive photolithography and bonding, the tilting angles corresponding to the driving voltages are proved to be uniform along the single axis as well as conform to the results of analytical analysis

  10. Effect of TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns on the performance of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ji-Hwan; Lim, Koeng Su [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kang-Soo; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon; Song, Jun-Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Kook [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Gyeonggi 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: tyseong@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-31

    We investigate how TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns formed onto ZnO:Al (AZO) films affect the performance of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy results show that the dome-shaped TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns (300 nm in diameter) having a period of 500 nm are formed onto AZO films and vary from 60 to 180 nm in height. Haze factor increases with an increase in the height of the nanopatterns in the wavelength region below 530 nm. Short circuit current density also increases with an increase in the height of the nanopatterns. As the nanopatterns increases in height, the fill factor of the cells slightly increases, reaches maximum (0.64) at 100 nm, and then decreases. Measurements show that a-Si:H solar cells fabricated with 100 nm-high TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns exhibit the highest conversion efficiency (6.34%) among the solar cells with the nanopatterns and flat AZO sample. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the height effect of TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns on the a-Si:H solar cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light scattering and anti-reflection were introduced by TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer a-Si:H Solar cells with the 100 nm-high TiO{sub 2} nanopatterns showed highest efficiency.

  11. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  12. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  13. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  14. Direct and inverse Staebler-Wronski effects observed in carbon-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon photo-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M.G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.

    2011-01-01

    The photo-response behaviour of Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors (ASPDs) under prolonged illumination with a 681 nm diode-laser and a 633 nm He-Ne laser is presented. Both direct and inverse Staebler-Wronski effects are observed.

  15. New amorphous-silicon image sensor for x-ray diagnostic medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfield, Richard L.; Hartney, Mark A.; Street, Robert A.; Apte, Raj B.

    1998-07-01

    This paper introduces new high-resolution amorphous Silicon (a-Si) image sensors specifically configured for demonstrating film-quality medical x-ray imaging capabilities. The devices utilizes an x-ray phosphor screen coupled to an array of a-Si photodiodes for detecting visible light, and a-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) for connecting the photodiodes to external readout electronics. We have developed imagers based on a pixel size of 127 micrometer X 127 micrometer with an approximately page-size imaging area of 244 mm X 195 mm, and array size of 1,536 data lines by 1,920 gate lines, for a total of 2.95 million pixels. More recently, we have developed a much larger imager based on the same pixel pattern, which covers an area of approximately 406 mm X 293 mm, with 2,304 data lines by 3,200 gate lines, for a total of nearly 7.4 million pixels. This is very likely to be the largest image sensor array and highest pixel count detector fabricated on a single substrate. Both imagers connect to a standard PC and are capable of taking an image in a few seconds. Through design rule optimization we have achieved a light sensitive area of 57% and optimized quantum efficiency for x-ray phosphor output in the green part of the spectrum, yielding an average quantum efficiency between 500 and 600 nm of approximately 70%. At the same time, we have managed to reduce extraneous leakage currents on these devices to a few fA per pixel, which allows for very high dynamic range to be achieved. We have characterized leakage currents as a function of photodiode bias, time and temperature to demonstrate high stability over these large sized arrays. At the electronics level, we have adopted a new generation of low noise, charge- sensitive amplifiers coupled to 12-bit A/D converters. Considerable attention was given to reducing electronic noise in order to demonstrate a large dynamic range (over 4,000:1) for medical imaging applications. Through a combination of low data lines capacitance

  16. Ga–Ge–Te amorphous thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Němec, P.; Nazabal, V.; Dussauze, M.; Ma, H.-L.; Bouyrie, Y.; Zhang, X.-H.

    2013-01-01

    UV pulsed laser deposition was employed for the fabrication of amorphous Ga–Ge–Te thin films. The local structure of the bulk glasses as well as corresponding thin films was studied using Raman scattering spectroscopy; the main structural motifs were found to be [GeTe 4 ], eventually [GaTe 4 ] corner-sharing tetrahedra and disordered Te chains. Optical functions of the films (refractive index, extinction coefficient) were characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Photostability experiments showed all Ga–Ge–Te laser deposited films to be stable against 1550 nm laser irradiation in an as-deposited state. In an annealed state, the most photostable composition seems to be Ga 10 Ge 15 Te 75 . This particular composition was further studied from the point of view of thermal stability and stability against ageing in as-deposited state. - Highlights: ► Pulsed laser deposition was used for fabrication of amorphous Ga–Ge–Te thin films. ► GeTe 4 , eventually GaTe 4 tetrahedra and disordered Te chains form the film structure. ► Optical functions of Ge–Ga–Te films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. ► All as-deposited Ga–Ge–Te thin films are stable against 1550 nm irradiation. ► In annealed state, the most photostable composition seems to be Ga 10 Ge 15 Te 75

  17. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (>30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed

  18. Investigation of the degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dyk, E.E.; Audouard, A.; Meyer, E.L. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Woolard, C.D. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-01-23

    The degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic (PV) module has been studied. We investigated the different modes of electrical and physical degradation of a-Si:H PV modules by employing a degradation and failure assessment procedure used in conjunction with analytical techniques, including, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry. This paper reveals that due to their thickness, thin films are very sensitive to the type of degradation observed. Moreover, this paper deals with the problems associated with the module encapsulant, poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA). The main objective of this study was to establish the influence of outdoor environmental conditions on the performance of a thin-film PV module comprising a-Si:H single-junction cells. (author)

  19. Electronic structure of xenon implanted with low energy in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, P.F.; Landers, R.; Oliveira, M.H. de; Alvarez, F.; Marques, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic structure of Xe implanted in amorphous silicon (a-Si) films are investigated. Xe atoms were implanted with low energy by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique during growth of the a-Si films. The Xe implantation energy varied in the 0-300 eV energy range. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Auger excited spectroscopy (XAES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were used for investigating the Xe electronic structure. The Xe M 4 N 45 N 45 transitions were measured to extract the Auger parameter and to analyze the initial state and relaxation contributions. It was found that the binding energy variation is mainly due to initial state contribution. The relaxation energy variation also shows that the Xe trapped environment depends on the implantation energy. XAS measurements reveals that Xe atoms are dispersed in the a-Si matrix

  20. Optimization of growth parameters of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-sulphur alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dallal, S.; Aljishi, S.; Arekat, S.; Al-alawi, S.M.; Hammam, H.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon sulphur thin films were grown by capacitively coupled radio frequency glow discharge decomposition of SiH/sub 4/ + He) and H/sub 2/S + He) gas mixtures. In this work we report on a study undertaken to instigative the effect of deposition conditions on the optoelectronic properties of a-Si,S:H films. Three series of deposition conditions on the optoelectronic properties of a-Si,S:H films. Three series of films were prepared using a constant flow rate of the gaseous mixture while varying one of the other deposition parameters: substrate temperature, RF powder and process pressure. The films are characterized via IR measurements, optical transmission, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence, the constant photocurrent methods and conductivity measurements. Results indicate that a relatively high power level and a high substrate temperature are necessary to obtain the best films. (author) 8 figs

  1. Effect of silane dilution on intrinsic stress in glow discharge hydrogenated amorphous silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, J. P.; Williams, A. J.; Lang, D. V.

    1984-02-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic stress in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) films grown by rf glow discharge decomposition of silane diluted to varying degrees in argon are presented. Films are found to grow under exceedingly high compressive stress. Low values of macroscopic film density and low stress values are found to correlate with high growth rate. An abrupt drop in stress occurs between 2 and 3% silane at precisely the point where columnar growth morphology appears. No corresponding abrupt change is noted in density, growth rate, or plasma species concentrations as determined by optical emissioin spectroscopy. Finally a model of diffusive incorporation of hydrogen or some gaseous impurity during growth into the bulk of the film behind the growing interface is proposed to explain the results.

  2. Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of glow-discharge intrinsic amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M T; Carabe, J; Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Solonko, A [Inst. of High Temperatures of the USSR (IVTAN), Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR)

    1992-04-01

    The influence of the preparation conditions (process pressure, substrate temperature, RF-power density and deposition time/thickness) on the optical and electrical properties of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been investigated with the aim of optimising such films to be used as absorbent layers of a-Si:H-based p-i-n solar cells. Highly photosensitive films have been obtained at high growth rates (6.2 A s{sup -1}) in the depletion regime using a high process pressure (1000 mTorr), a moderate substrate temperature (250deg C) and a relatively high RF-power density (35.2 mW cm{sup -2}). These films have excellent properties for the application in question. (orig.).

  3. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  4. Distribution of electrode elements near contacts and junction layers in amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, T; Hiraki, A; Okamoto, H

    1982-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy with the ion sputter-etching technique and secondary ion mass spectroscopy have been utilized to investigate the depth distribution of Sn and In electrode elements in amorphous silicon layers of the photovoltaic device. The comparison of the depth profiles with the cell performances has indicated that the presence of the reduced state of In in both the p and i-layers affects the solar cell performance, but that of Sn does not. It was also shown that layered structure of In-Sn oxide (ITO)/SnO2 effectively prevents the diffusion of In and achieves high cell performances, having the thickness of the SnO2 layer about 200 A. 8 references.

  5. Direct measurements of the velocity and thickness of ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Pennycook, S.J.; Withrow, S.P.; Mashburn, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous infrared (1152 nm) and visible (633 nm) reflectivity measurements with nanosecond resolution were used to study the initial formation and subsequent motion of pulsed KrF laser-induced ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in ion implantation-amorphized silicon. The buried layer velocity decreases with depth below the surface, but increases with KrF laser energy density; a maximum velocity of about 14 m/s was observed, implying an undercooling-velocity relationship of approx. 14 K/(m/s). Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to form a direct chemical image of implanted Cu ions transported by the buried layer and showed that the final buried layer thickness was <15 nm

  6. Improved amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation for heterojunction solar cells by low-temperature chemical vapor deposition and post-annealing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Xu, Shengzhi; Zhao, Ying

    2014-10-07

    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are deposited using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) system. The Si-H configuration of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface is regulated by optimizing the deposition temperature and post-annealing duration to improve the minority carrier lifetime (τeff) of a commercial Czochralski (Cz) silicon wafer. The mechanism of this improvement involves saturation of the microstructural defects with hydrogen evolved within the a-Si:H films due to the transformation from SiH2 into SiH during the annealing process. The post-annealing temperature is controlled to ∼180 °C so that silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) could be prepared without an additional annealing step. To achieve better performance of the SHJ solar cells, we also optimize the thickness of the a-Si:H passivation layer. Finally, complete SHJ solar cells are fabricated using different temperatures for the a-Si:H film deposition to study the influence of the deposition temperature on the solar cell parameters. For the optimized a-Si:H deposition conditions, an efficiency of 18.41% is achieved on a textured Cz silicon wafer.

  7. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, A; El Demellawi, J K; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2014-12-14

    Nano-silicon is a nanostructured material in which quantum or spatial confinement is the origin of the material's luminescence. When nano-silicon is broken into colloidal crystalline nanoparticles, its luminescence can be tuned across the visible spectrum only when the sizes of the nanoparticles, which are obtained via painstaking filtration methods that are difficult to scale up because of low yield, vary. Bright and tunable colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures have not yet been reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size of the individual particles and their distribution, is the distortion of the molecular orbitals by a strained silicon-silicon bond angle. This mechanism is also responsible for the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of silicon.

  8. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Nano-silicon is a nanostructured material in which quantum or spatial confinement is the origin of the material\\'s luminescence. When nano-silicon is broken into colloidal crystalline nanoparticles, its luminescence can be tuned across the visible spectrum only when the sizes of the nanoparticles, which are obtained via painstaking filtration methods that are difficult to scale up because of low yield, vary. Bright and tunable colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures have not yet been reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size of the individual particles and their distribution, is the distortion of the molecular orbitals by a strained silicon-silicon bond angle. This mechanism is also responsible for the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of silicon. This journal is

  9. Controllable fabrication of amorphous Si layer by energetic cluster ion bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Chvostová, Dagmar; Jäger, Aleš; Vacík, Jiří; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Naramoto, H.; Narumi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, SI (2013), s. 49-55 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : energetic cluster s * silicon * surface modification * amorphization * nanostructure * Raman scattering * ion channeling Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2013 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0042207X13001759/1-s2.0-S0042207X13001759-main.pdf?_tid=04e9c946-21dd-11e3-b076-00000aacb361&acdnat=1379672070_859355b2850a09ac74bc8ff413e35dda

  10. Comparison of stress in single and multiple layer depositions of plasma-deposited amorphous silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, V; Charles, C; Boswell, R W

    2006-01-01

    The stress in a single-layer continuous deposition of amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) film is compared with the stress within multiple-layer intermittent or 'stop-start' depositions. The films were deposited by helicon activated reactive evaporation (plasma assisted deposition with electron beam evaporation source) to a 1 μm total film thickness. The relationships for stress as a function of film thickness for single, two, four and eight layer depositions have been obtained by employing the substrate curvature technique on a post-deposition etch-back of the SiO 2 film. At film thicknesses of less than 300 nm, the stress-thickness relationships clearly show an increase in stress in the multiple-layer samples compared with the relationship for the single-layer film. By comparison, there is little variation in the film stress between the samples when it is measured at 1 μm film thickness. Localized variations in stress were not observed in the regions where the 'stop-start' depositions occurred. The experimental results are interpreted as a possible indication of the presence of unstable, strained Si-O-Si bonds in the amorphous SiO 2 film. It is proposed that the subsequent introduction of a 'stop-start' deposition process places additional strain on these bonds to affect the film structure. The experimental stress-thickness relationships were reproduced independently by assuming a linear relationship between the measured bow and film thickness. The constants of the linear model are interpreted as an indication of the density of the amorphous film structure

  11. Highly ordered amorphous silicon-carbon alloys obtained by RF PECVD

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, I; Carreno, M N P; Prado, R J; Fantini, M C A

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that close to stoichiometry RF PECVD amorphous silicon carbon alloys deposited under silane starving plasma conditions exhibit a tendency towards c-Si C chemical order. Motivated by this trend, we further explore the effect of increasing RF power and H sub 2 dilution of the gaseous mixtures, aiming to obtain the amorphous counterpart of c-Si C by the RF-PECVD technique. Doping experiments were also performed on ordered material using phosphorus and nitrogen as donor impurities and boron and aluminum as acceptor ones. For nitrogen a doping efficiency close to device quality a-Si:H was obtained, the lower activation energy being 0,12 eV with room temperature dark conductivity of 2.10 sup - sup 3 (OMEGA.cm). Nitrogen doping efficiency was higher than phosphorous for all studied samples. For p-type doping, results indicate that, even though the attained conductivity values are not device levels, aluminum doping conducted to a promising shift in the Fermi level. Also, aluminum resulted a more efficie...

  12. Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Sensor Deposited on Integrated Circuit for Radiation Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Moraes, D; Nardulli, A; Powolny, F; Wyrsch, N

    2008-01-01

    Radiation detectors based on the deposition of a 10 to 30 mum thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) sensor directly on top of integrated circuits have been developed. The performance of this detector technology has been assessed for the first time in the context of particle detectors. Three different circuits were designed in a quarter micron CMOS technology for these studies. The so-called TFA (Thin-Film on ASIC) detectors obtained after deposition of a-Si:H sensors on the developed circuits are presented. High internal electric fields (104 to 105 V/cm) can be built in the a-Si:H sensor and overcome the low mobility of electrons and holes in this amorphous material. However, the deposited sensor's leakage current at such fields turns out to be an important parameter which limits the performance of a TFA detector. Its detailed study is presented as well as the detector's pixel segmentation. Signal induction by generated free carrier motion in the a-Si:H sensor has been characterized using a 660 nm pul...

  13. The fabrication of quantum wires in silicon utilising the characteristics of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in semiconductor materials is one which has been intensively researched due to possible applications in the semiconductor industry. SPE is a solid phase transformation, in which an amorphous layer can be recrystallized either through heating or a combination of heating and ion bombardment. The transformation is believed to occur exclusively at the interface between the amorphous and crystalline layers, with individual atoms from the amorphous phase being incorporated into the crystalline phase by some point defect mechanism. The process has been observed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. A wafer silicon was subjected to a multi-energy silicon implant through a fine nickel grid to amorphise region to a depth of 5μm creating an array of amorphous wells. Metal impurity atoms were then implanted in this region at energy of 500 keV. Samples were examined using an optical microscope and the Alphastep profiler at RMIT. It was confirmed that burgeoning wells were about 2 μm wide and rose about 0.01 μm above the silicon substrate

  14. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Krajangsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and temperature coefficient (TC of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5% (Voc=700 mV, Jsc=33.5 mA/cm2, and FF=0.79. The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C.

  15. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Alloy Based Solar Cells and Modules; Final Technical Progress Report, 30 May 2002--31 May 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2005-10-01

    The principal objective of this R&D program is to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for development of high-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) related thin-film multijunction solar cells and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. Our strategy has been to use the spectrum-splitting triple-junction structure, a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, to improve solar cell and module efficiency, stability, and throughput of production. The methodology used to achieve the objectives included: (1) explore the highest stable efficiency using the triple-junction structure deposited using RF glow discharge at a low rate, (2) fabricate the devices at a high deposition rate for high throughput and low cost, and (3) develop an optimized recipe using the R&D batch large-area reactor to help the design and optimization of the roll-to-roll production machines. For short-term goals, we have worked on the improvement of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H alloy solar cells. a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H are the foundation of current a-Si:H based thin-film photovoltaic technology. Any improvement in cell efficiency, throughput, and cost reduction will immediately improve operation efficiency of our manufacturing plant, allowing us to further expand our production capacity.

  16. Device and material characterization and analytic modeling of amorphous silicon thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Holly Claudia

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) are now well-established as switching elements for a variety of applications in the lucrative electronics market, such as active matrix liquid crystal displays, two-dimensional imagers, and position-sensitive radiation detectors. These applications necessitate the development of accurate characterization and simulation tools. The main goal of this work is the development of a semi- empirical, analytical model for the DC and AC operation of an amorphous silicon TFT for use in a manufacturing facility to improve yield and maintain process control. The model is physically-based, in order that the parameters scale with gate length and can be easily related back to the material and device properties. To accomplish this, extensive experimental data and 2D simulations are used to observe and quantify non- crystalline effects in the TFTs. In particular, due to the disorder in the amorphous network, localized energy states exist throughout the band gap and affect all regimes of TFT operation. These localized states trap most of the free charge, causing a gate-bias-dependent field effect mobility above threshold, a power-law dependence of the current on gate bias below threshold, very low leakage currents, and severe frequency dispersion of the TFT gate capacitance. Additional investigations of TFT instabilities reveal the importance of changes in the density of states and/or back channel conduction due to bias and thermal stress. In the above threshold regime, the model is similar to the crystalline MOSFET model, considering the drift component of free charge. This approach uses the field effect mobility to take into account the trap states and must utilize the correct definition of threshold voltage. In the below threshold regime, the density of deep states is taken into account. The leakage current is modeled empirically, and the parameters are temperature dependent to 150oC. The capacitance of the TFT can be

  17. Predicting the performance of amorphous and crystalline silicon based photovoltaic solar thermal collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghigh, Ronak; Ibrahim, Adnan; Jin, Goh Li; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2011-01-01

    BIPVT is an application where solar PV/T modules are integrated into the building structure. System design parameters such as thermal conductivity and fin efficiency, type of cells, type of coolant and operating conditions are factors which influence the performance of BIPVT. Attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT). A new design concept of water-based PVT collector for building-integrated applications has been designed and evaluated. The results of simulation study of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV/T and crystalline silicon (c-Si) module types are based on the metrological condition of Malaysia for a typical day in March. At a flow rate of 0.02 kg/s, solar radiation level between 700 and 900 W/m 2 and ambient temperature between 22 and 32 o C, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies for the PV/T (a-Si) were 4.9%, 72% and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the PV/T (c-Si) were 11.6%, 51% and 63%.

  18. EBSD analysis of polysilicon films formed by aluminium induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuezuen, O. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: Ozge.Tuzun@iness.c-strasbourg.fr; Auger, J.M. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); SMS Centre, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Gordon, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Focsa, A.; Montgomery, P.C. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Maurice, C. [SMS Centre, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Slaoui, A. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-08-30

    Among the methods for enlarging the grain size of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films, aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon is considered to be a very promising approach. In the AIC process, a thin a-Si layer on top of an aluminium layer crystallizes at temperatures well below the eutectic temperature of the Al/Si system (T{sub eu} = 577 deg. C). By means of electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), we have mainly studied the effect of the aluminium layer quality varying the deposition system on the grain size, the defects and the preferential crystallographic orientation. We have found a strong correlation between the mean grain size and the size distribution with the Al deposition system and the surface quality. Furthermore, we show for the first time that more than 50% of the surface of the AIC films grown on alumina substrates are (103) preferentially oriented, instead of the commonly observed (100) preferential orientation. This may have important consequences for epitaxial thickening of the AIC layer into polysilicon absorber layers for solar cells.

  19. High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H2, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are

  20. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  1. SILICON COMPATIBLE ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONATORS: DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Continuous advancement in wireless technology and silicon microfabrication has fueled exciting growth in wireless products. The bulky size of discrete vibrating mechanical devices such as quartz crystals and surface acoustic wave resonators impedes the ultimate miniaturization of single-chip transceivers. Fabrication of acoustic wave resonators on silicon allows complete integration of a resonator with its accompanying circuitry.  Integration leads to enhanced performance, better functionality with reduced cost at large volume production. This paper compiles the state-of-the-art technology of silicon compatible acoustic resonators, which can be integrated with interface circuitry. Typical acoustic wave resonators are surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators.  Performance of the resonator is measured in terms of quality factor, resonance frequency and insertion loss. Selection of appropriate piezoelectric material is significant to ensure sufficient electromechanical coupling coefficient is produced to reduce the insertion loss. The insulating passive SiO2 layer acts as a low loss material and aims to increase the quality factor and temperature stability of the design. The integration technique also is influenced by the fabrication process and packaging.  Packageless structure using AlN as the additional isolation layer is proposed to protect the SAW device from the environment for high reliability. Advancement in miniaturization technology of silicon compatible acoustic wave resonators to realize a single chip transceiver system is still needed. ABSTRAK: Kemajuan yang berterusan dalam teknologi tanpa wayar dan silikon telah menguatkan pertumbuhan yang menarik dalam produk tanpa wayar. Saiz yang besar bagi peralatan mekanikal bergetar seperti kristal kuarza menghalang pengecilan untuk merealisasikan peranti cip. Silikon serasi  gelombang akustik resonator mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk menggantikan unsur

  2. Fabrication of Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Thin Layer Film and ItsCharacterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Santoso; Lely-Susita RM; Tjipto-Sujitno

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous Germanium thin film by vacuumevaporation method and then deposition with hydrogen atom by glow dischargeplasma radio frequency has been done. This germanium amorphous (a-Ge) thinfilm involves a lot of dangling bonds in the network due to the irregularityof the atomic structures and it will decrease is conductivity. To improve theband properties of (a-Ge) thin film layer a hydrogenated plasma isintroduced. Process of introducing of the hydrogen into the a-Ge film is meanto reduce the dangling bonds so that the best electric conductivity of a Ge:Hthin film will obtained. To identify the hydrogen atom in the sample acharacterization using infrared spectrometer has been done, as well as themeasurement of conductivity of the samples. From the characterization usinginfrared spectroscopy the existence of hydrogen atom was found at absorptionpeak with wave number 1637.5 cm -1 , while the optimum conductivity of thesample 1634.86 Ω -1 cm -1 was achieved at 343 o K. (author)

  3. Development of ultrafine and pure amorphous and crystalline new materials and their fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. G.; Gu, J. H.; Yoon, N. K.; Seong, S. Y.; Ryu, S. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1996-07-01

    Based on an estimation of annual rice production of 5.2 Million tons, rice husks by-production reaches to 1.17 Million tons per year in Korea. distinguished to other corns, rice contains a lot of Si; 10 ∼ 20 % by weight in rice husks calculated as silica. The aim of this research project is to develop technologies for ceramic powders and materials utilizing the silica in rice husks called phytoliths. In this researches of the following subjects were performed; decomposition of the organic components, acid treatments, extraction of the organic matter, effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the acid treatment, plasma treatment, crystallization of silica powder, dispersion of amorphous silica powder, fabrication of ultrafine crystalline fibrous materials.. (author). 18 refs., 5 tabs., 55 figs

  4. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2014-01-01

    reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size

  5. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guigen, E-mail: wanggghit@yahoo.com [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zuo Hongbo [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  6. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guigen; Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can; Han Jiecai; Zuo Hongbo; Ma Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. ► It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. ► The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  7. Use of an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device for multileaf collimator quality control and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S J K; Budgell, G J; MacKay, R I

    2005-01-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and quality control is a time-consuming procedure typically involving the processing, scanning and analysis of films to measure leaf and collimator positions. Faster and more reliable calibration procedures are required for these tasks, especially with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy which requires more frequent checking and finer positional leaf tolerances than previously. A routine quality control (QC) technique to measure MLC leaf bank gain and offset, as well as minor offsets (individual leaf position relative to a reference leaf), using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been developed. The technique also tests the calibration of the primary and back-up collimators. A detailed comparison between film and EPID measurements has been performed for six linear accelerators (linacs) equipped with MLC and amorphous silicon EPIDs. Measurements of field size from 4 to 24 cm with the EPID were systematically smaller than film measurements over all field sizes by 0.4 mm for leaves/back-up collimators and by 0.2 mm for conventional collimators. This effect is due to the gain calibration correction applied by the EPID, resulting in a 'flattening' of primary beam profiles. Linac dependent systematic differences of up to 0.5 mm in individual leaf/collimator positions were also found between EPID and film measurements due to the difference between the mechanical and radiation axes of rotation. When corrections for these systematic differences were applied, the residual random differences between EPID and film were 0.23 mm and 0.26 mm (1 standard deviation) for field size and individual leaf/back-up collimator position, respectively. Measured gains (over a distance of 220 mm) always agreed within 0.4 mm with a standard deviation of 0.17 mm. Minor offset measurements gave a mean agreement between EPID and film of 0.01 ± 0.10 mm (1 standard deviation) after correction for the tilt of the

  8. Photostability Assessment in Amorphous-Silicon Solar Cells; Determinacion de la Fotoestabilidad en Celulas Solares de Silicio Amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.; Fabero, F.; Jimenez, R.; Rivero, J. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of amorphous-silicon-solar-cell research and development at CIEMAT requires the possibility to characterise the devices prepared from the point of view of their stability against sunlight exposure. Therefore a set of tools providing such a capacity has been developed. Together with an introduction to photovoltaic applications of amorphous silicon and to the photodegradation problem, the present work describes the process of setting up these tools. An indoor controlled-photodegradation facility has been designed and built, and a procedure has been developed for the measurement of J-V characteristics in well established conditions. This method is suitable for a kinds of solar cells, even for those for which no model is still available. The photodegradation and characterisation of some cells has allowed to validate both the new testing facility and method. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Fabrication of porous silicon based tunable distributed Bragg reflectors by anodic etching of irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendamani, V.S.; Dang, Z.Y.; Ramana, P.; Pathak, A.P.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V.V.; Breese, M.B.H.; Nageswara Rao, S.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of tunable distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) by gamma/ion irradiation of Si and subsequent formation of porous silicon multilayers has been described. • The central wavelength and the width of the stop band are found to decrease with increase in irradiation fluence. • The Si samples irradiated with highest fluence of 2 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 (100 MeV Ag ions) and 60 kGy (gamma) showed a central reflection at λ = 476 nm and 544 nm respectively, in contrast to un-irradiated sample, where λ = 635 nm. • The observed changes in the central wavelengths are attributed to the density of defects generated by gamma and ion irradiation in c-Si. • This study is expected to provide useful information for fabricating tunable wave reflectors for optical communication and other device applications. - Abstract: We report a study on the fabrication of tunable distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) by gamma/ion irradiation of Si and subsequent formation of porous silicon multilayers. Porous Si multilayers with 50 bilayers were designed to achieve high intensity of reflection. The reflection spectra appear to have a broad continuous band between 400 and 800 nm with a distinct central wavelength corresponding to different wave reflectors. The central wavelength and the width of the stop band are found to decrease with increase in irradiation fluence. The Si samples irradiated with highest fluence of 2 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 (100 MeV Ag ions) and 60 kGy (gamma) showed a central reflection at λ = 476 nm and 544 nm respectively, in contrast to un-irradiated sample, where λ = 635 nm. The observed changes are attributed to the density of defects generated by gamma and ion irradiation in c-Si. These results suggest that the gamma irradiation is a convenient and alternative method to tune the central wavelength of reflection without creating high density of defects by high energy ion implantation. This study is expected to provide useful information for

  10. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Complex nano-patterning of structural, optical, electrical and electron emission properties of amorphous silicon thin films by scanning probe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fait, Jan; Čermák, Jan; Stuchlík, Jiří; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 428, Jan (2018), s. 1159-1165 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01809S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amorphous silicon * nano-templates * nanostructures * electrical conductivity * electron emission * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  12. The performance of an amorphous silicon flat panel for neutron imaging at the PSI NEUTRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estermann, Mirko; Frei, Gabriel; Lehmann, Eberhard; Vontobel, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Commonly applied imaging methods in neutron radiography use a CCD camera in conjunction with a scintillator or imaging plates. CCDs and imaging plates have desirable properties concerning resolution, linearity, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) but both techniques have the disadvantage of a slow read out and for the CCD camera, an additional disadvantage is the loss of light through the optical system. Amorphous silicon detectors, originally developed for medical and industrial X-ray imaging, generally do not have the above-mentioned disadvantages. These detectors have a much faster readout and, in comparison to the generally used crystalline silicon, can be put directly in the X-ray or neutron beam without being damaged. This type of detector also does not require any optical interface, minimizing possible light loss. The detector is operated at room temperature, which has some influence on the noise. Using the whole dynamic range with a low gain, results in a S/N of up to 30, for normal applications, however, a S/N of about 15-20 is typical. The main drawback of this imaging device is the dynamic range of only 12 bits and the relatively complicated operating system in which different operation modes can be chosen. In 2003, successful experiments were performed with this new device, but it is still in its fledgling stages and improvements from the manufacturer as well as the experience from the NEUTRA team will help to advance this technique for neutron imaging in a most efficient way

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James

    Nanoscale fillers can significantly enhance the performance of composites by increasing the extent of filler-to-matrix interaction. Thus far, the embedding of nanomaterials into composites has been achieved, but the directional arrangement has proved to be a challenging task. Even with advances in in-situ and shear stress induced orientation, these methods are both difficult to control and unreliable. Therefore, the fabrication of nanomaterials with an ability to orient along a magnetic field is a promising pathway to create highly controllable composite systems with precisely designed characteristics. To this end, the goal of this dissertation is to develop magnetically active nanoscale whiskers and study the effect of the whiskers orientation in a polymer matrix on the nanocomposite's behavior. Namely, we report the surface modification of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCWs) with magnetic nanoparticles and fabrication of SiC/epoxy composite materials. The magnetic nanoparticles attachment to the SiCWs was accomplished using polyelectrolyte polymer-to-polymer complexation. The "grafting to" and adsorption techniques were used to attach the polyelectrolytes to the surface of the SiCWs and magnetic nanoparticles. The anchored polyelectrolytes were polyacrylic acid (PAA) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). Next, the SiC/epoxy composites incorporating randomly oriented and magnetically oriented whiskers were fabricated. The formation of the composite was studied to determine the influence of the whiskers' surface composition on the epoxy curing reaction. After curing, the composites' thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. These properties were related to the dispersion and orientation of the fillers in the composite samples. The obtained results indicated that the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties could be improved by orienting magnetically-active SiCWs inside the matrix. Silanization, "grafting to", adsorption, and complexation were used to modify

  14. Thermal processing of strained silicon-on-insulator for atomically precise silicon device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.C.T.; Bishop, N.; Thompson, D.L.; Xue, K.; Scappucci, G.; Cederberg, J.G.; Gray, J.K.; Han, S.M.; Celler, G.K.; Carroll, M.S.; Simmons, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) samples were flash-annealed at high temperature under ultra-high vacuum conditions. ► The extend of surface strain relaxation depends on the annealing temperature with no strain relaxation observed below 1020 °C. ► A 2 × 1 reconstructed surface with low defect density can be achieved. ► The annealed sSOI surface shows enhanced step undulations due to the unique energetics caused by surface strain. - Abstract: We investigate the ability to reconstruct strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) substrates in ultra-high vacuum for use in atomic scale device fabrication. Characterisation of the starting sSOI substrate using μRaman shows an average tensile strain of 0.8%, with clear strain modulation in a crosshatch pattern across the surface. The surfaces were heated in ultra-high vacuum from temperatures of 900 °C to 1100 °C and subsequently imaged using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The initial strain modulation on the surface is observed to promote silicon migration and the formation of crosshatched surface features whose height and pitch increases with increasing annealing temperature. STM images reveal alternating narrow straight S A steps and triangular wavy S B steps attributed to the spontaneous faceting of S B and preferential adatom attachment on S B under biaxial tensile strain. Raman spectroscopy shows that despite these high temperature anneals no strain relaxation of the substrate is observed up to temperatures of 1020 °C. Above 1100 °C, strain relaxation is evident but is confined to the surface.

  15. Flexible semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric with high-k/metal gate devices

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    (100) wafers and then released as continuous, mechanically flexible, optically semi-transparent and high thermal budget compatible silicon fabric with devices. This is the first ever demonstration with this set of materials which allows full degree

  16. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  17. Fabrication of a novel silicon single electron transistor for Si:P quantum computer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, S.J.; Smith, C.E.A.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.; Snider, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Quantum computation relies on the successful measurement of quantum states. Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be able to perform fast and sensitive charge measurements of solid state qubits. However, due to their sensitivity, SETs are also very susceptible to random charge fluctuations in a solid-state materials environment. In previous dc transport measurements, silicon-based SETs have demonstrated greater charge stability than A1/A1 2 O 3 SETs. We have designed and fabricated a novel silicon SET architecture for a comparison of the noise characteristics of silicon and aluminium based devices. The silicon SET described here is designed for controllable and reproducible low temperature operation. It is fabricated using a novel dual gate structure on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A silicon quantum wire is formed in a 100nm thick high-resistivity superficial silicon layer using reactive ion etching. Carriers are induced in the silicon wire by a back gate in the silicon substrate. The tunnel barriers are created electrostatically, using lithographically defined metallic electrodes (∼40nm width). These tunnel barriers surround the surface of the quantum wire, thus producing excellent electrostatic confinement. This architecture provides independent control of tunnel barrier height and island occupancy, thus promising better control of Coulomb blockade oscillations than in previously investigated silicon SETs. The use of a near intrinsic silicon substrate offers compatibility with Si:P qubits in the longer term

  18. Thermal grafting of fluorinated molecular monolayers on doped amorphous silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbah, H.; Zebda, A.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Solal, F.; Godet, C.; Conde, J. P.; Chu, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally induced (160-300 deg. C) gas phase grafting of linear alkene molecules (perfluorodecene) was performed on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films, either nominally undoped or doped with different boron and phosphorus concentrations. Dense and smooth a-Si:H films were grown using plasma decomposition of silane. Quantitative analysis of in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the grafting of a single layer of organic molecules. The hydrophobic properties of perfluorodecene-modified surfaces were studied as a function of surface coverage. Annealing experiments in ultrahigh vacuum show the covalent binding and the thermal stability of these immobilized layers up to 370 deg. C; this temperature corresponds to the Si-C bond cleavage temperature. In contrast with hydrogenated crystalline Si(111):H, no heavy wet chemistry surface preparation is required for thermal grafting of alkene molecules on a-Si:H films. A threshold grafting temperature is observed, with a strong dependence on the doping level which produces a large contrast in the molecular coverage for grafting performed at 230 deg. C

  19. Effects of phosphorus on the electrical characteristics of plasma deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcinkaya, Burak; Sel, Kivanc

    2018-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiCx:H) thin films, that were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique with four different carbon contents (x), were analyzed and compared with those of the intrinsic a-SiCx:H thin films. The carbon contents of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thickness and optical energies, such as Tauc, E04 and Urbach energies, of the thin films were determined by UV-Visible transmittance spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the films, such as conductivities and activation energies were analyzed by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. Finally, the conduction mechanisms of the films were investigated by numerical analysis, in which the standard transport mechanism in the extended states and the nearest neighbor hopping mechanism in the band tail states were taken into consideration. It was determined that, by the effect of phosphorus doping the dominant conduction mechanism was the standard transport mechanism for all carbon contents.

  20. A comparative chemical network study of HWCVD deposited amorphous silicon and carbon based alloys thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Bibhu P., E-mail: bibhuprasad.swain@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, Rangpo Sikkim (India); Swain, Bhabani S.; Hwang, Nong M. [Thin Films and Microstructure Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • a-SiC:H, a-SiN:H, a-C:H and a-SiCN:H films were deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. • Evolution of microstructure of a-SiCN:H films deposited at different NH{sub 3} flow rate were analyzed. • The chemical network of Si and C based alloys were studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Silicon and carbon based alloys were deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The microstructure and chemical bonding of these films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electron microscopy revealed various microstructures were observed for a-C:H, a-SiC:H, a-SiN:H, a-CN:H and a-SiCN:H films. The microstructure of SiN:H films showed agglomerate spherical grains while a-C:H films showed more fractal surface with branched microstructure. However, a-SiC:H, a-CN:H and a-SiCN:H indicated uniform but intermediate surface fractal microstructure. A series of a-SiCN:H films were deposited with variation of NH{sub 3} flow rate. The nitrogen incorporation in a-SiCN:H films alter the carbon network from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} bonding The detail chemical bonding of amorphous films was analyzed by curve fitting method.

  1. Transparent amorphous silicon sensors for the alignment system of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this document we will present a historical review of ALMY sensors. The starting point was 1993 when the first prototypes were built. A description of their performance at this early stage will make clear which features have to be modified in order to cope with the stringent requirements imposed by ATLAS and CMS. As time went by, the problems were fixed and nowadays a fine working and operational ALMY sensor has been built. The following sections of this paper show how these aims were achieved. In section 2 the reader will know where and when ALMY sensors were born. It explains some reasons why amorphous silicon was chosen as photosensitive material. Section 3 intends to describe the morphology and physical properties of this device. Next sections present results from the diverse characterizations from ATLAS and CMS. Particularly, section 4 deals with the uniformity and spatial resolution of the first prototypes. Details on the light transmission after one sensor are given in section 5. The different radiation hardness tests for ALMYs are introduced in section 6. The propagation of a plane wave through the different layers helps to understand the origin of the systematics found in the first prototypes (section 7). The performance of the new ALMY sensors is presented in section 8. (author)

  2. Transparent amorphous silicon sensors for the alignment system of particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M.G. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In this document we will present a historical review of ALMY sensors. The starting point was 1993 when the first prototypes were built. A description of their performance at this early stage will make clear which features have to be modified in order to cope with the stringent requirements imposed by ATLAS and CMS. As time went by, the problems were fixed and nowadays a fine working and operational ALMY sensor has been built. The following sections of this paper show how these aims were achieved. In section 2 the reader will know where and when ALMY sensors were born. It explains some reasons why amorphous silicon was chosen as photosensitive material. Section 3 intends to describe the morphology and physical properties of this device. Next sections present results from the diverse characterizations from ATLAS and CMS. Particularly, section 4 deals with the uniformity and spatial resolution of the first prototypes. Details on the light transmission after one sensor are given in section 5. The different radiation hardness tests for ALMYs are introduced in section 6. The propagation of a plane wave through the different layers helps to understand the origin of the systematics found in the first prototypes (section 7). The performance of the new ALMY sensors is presented in section 8. (author)

  3. Towards high frequency heterojunction transistors: Electrical characterization of N-doped amorphous silicon-graphene diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, C.; Chavarin, C. A.; Kitzmann, J.; Lupina, G.; Wenger, Ch.; Albert, M.; Bartha, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    N-type doped amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) is deposited on top of graphene (Gr) by means of very high frequency (VHF) and radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). In order to preserve the structural integrity of the monolayer graphene, a plasma excitation frequency of 140 MHz was successfully applied during the a-Si:H VHF-deposition. Raman spectroscopy results indicate the absence of a defect peak in the graphene spectrum after the VHF-PECVD of (n)-a-Si:H. The diode junction between (n)-a-Si:H and graphene was characterized using temperature dependent current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage measurements, respectively. We demonstrate that the current at the (n)-a-Si:H-graphene interface is dominated by thermionic emission and recombination in the space charge region. The Schottky barrier height (qΦB), derived by temperature dependent IV-characteristics, is about 0.49 eV. The junction properties strongly depend on the applied deposition method of (n)-a-Si:H with a clear advantage of the VHF(140 MHz)-technology. We have demonstrated that (n)-a-Si:H-graphene junctions are a promising technology approach for high frequency heterojunction transistors.

  4. Dose patient verification during treatment using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Today, amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (aSi EPID) are currently used to check the accuracy of patient positioning. However, they are not use for dose reconstruction yet and more investigations are required to allow the use of an aSi EPID for routine dosimetric verification. The aim of this work is first to study the dosimetric characteristics of the EPID available at the Institut Curie and then, to check patient dose during treatment using these EPID. First, performance optimization of the Varian aS500 EPID system is studied. Then, a quality assurance system is set up in order to certify the image quality on a daily basis. An additional study on the dosimetric performance of the aS500 EPID is monitored to assess operational stability for dosimetry applications. Electronic portal imaging device is also a useful tool to improve IMRT quality control. The validation and the quality assurance of a portal dose image prediction system for IMRT pre-treatment quality control are performed. All dynamic IMRT fields are verified in clinical routine with the new method based on portal dosimetry. Finally, a new formalism for in vivo dosimetry using transit dose measured with EPID is developed and validated. The absolute dose measurement issue using aSi EPID is described and the midplane dose determination using in vivo dose measurements in combination with portal imaging is used with 3D-conformal-radiation therapy. (author) [fr

  5. On the structural and optical properties of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Chafik El ldrissi, M.

    2002-08-01

    The present work is essentially focused on the study of optical and structural properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films (a-Si:H) prepared by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering. We examine separately the influence of hydrogen partial pressure during film deposition, and the effect of post-deposition thermal annealings on the main optical characteristics of the layers such as refraction index, optical gap and Urbach energy. Using the grazing X-rays reflectometry technique, thin film structural properties are examined immediately after films deposition as well as after surface oxidation or annealing. We show that low hydrogen pressures allow a saturation of dangling bonds in the layers, while high doses lead to the creation of new defects. We show also that thermal annealing under moderate temperatures improves the structural quality of the deposited layers. For the films examined just after deposition, the role of hydrogen appears in the increase of their density. For those analysed after a short stay in the ambient, hydrogen plays a protective role against the oxidation of their surfaces. This role disappears for a long time stay in the ambient. (author)

  6. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  7. Thick and low-stress PECVD amorphous silicon for MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Chen Bangtao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the deposition of thick amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) in PECVD reactors for MEMS applications, such as sacrificial layer or mask layer for dry or wet etching of glass. This achievement was possible by tuning the deposition parameters to a 'zero' value of the residual stress in the α-Si:H layer. The influence of the process parameters, such as power, frequency mode, temperature, pressure and SiH 4 /Ar flow rates for tuning the residual stress and for a good deposition rate is analyzed. The deposition of low-stress and thick (more than 12 µm in our case) α-Si:H layers was possible without generation of hillock defects (previously reported in literature for layers thicker then 2 µm). Finally, the paper presents some MEMS applications of such a deposited α-Si:H layer: masking layer for deep wet etching as well as dry etching of glass, and sacrificial layer for dry or wet release

  8. Small-angle x-ray scattering in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Durga; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Drabold, David A.; Elliott, Stephen R.; Biswas, Parthapratim

    2018-05-01

    We present a computational study of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in amorphous silicon (a -Si) with particular emphasis on the morphology and microstructure of voids. The relationship between the scattering intensity in SAXS and the three-dimensional structure of nanoscale inhomogeneities or voids is addressed by generating large high-quality a -Si networks with 0.1%-0.3% volume concentration of voids, as observed in experiments using SAXS and positron annihilation spectroscopy. A systematic study of the variation of the scattering intensity in the small-angle scattering region with the size, shape, number density, and the spatial distribution of the voids in the networks is presented. Our results suggest that the scattering intensity in the small-angle region is particularly sensitive to the size and the total volume fraction of the voids, but the effect of the geometry or shape of the voids is less pronounced in the intensity profiles. A comparison of the average size of the voids obtained from the simulated values of the intensity, using the Guinier approximation and Kratky plots, with that of the same from the spatial distribution of the atoms in the vicinity of void surfaces is presented.

  9. Radical species involved in hotwire (catalytic) deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure the radicals that cause deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by 'hotwire' (HW), or 'catalytic,' chemical vapor deposition. We provide the probability of silane (SiH 4 ) decomposition on the HW, and of Si and H release from the HW. The depositing radicals, and H atoms, are measured versus conditions to obtain their radical-silane reaction rates and contributions to film growth. A 0.01-3 Pa range of silane pressures and 1400-2400 K range of HW temperatures were studied, encompassing optimum device production conditions. Si 2 H 2 is the primary depositing radical under optimum conditions, accompanied by a few percent of Si atoms and a lot of H-atom reactions. Negligible SiH n radical production is observed and only a small flux of disilane is produced, but at the higher pressures some Si 3 H n is observed. A Si-SiH 4 reaction rate coefficient of 1.65 * 10 -11 cm 3 /s and a H + SiH 4 reaction rate coefficient of 5 * 10 -14 cm 3 /s are measured

  10. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors based on thin film on ASIC technology

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Anelli, G; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Rusack, R; Saramad, S; Wyrsch, N

    2006-01-01

    The performance and limitations of a novel detector technology based on the deposition of a thin-film sensor on top of processed integrated circuits have been studied. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been deposited on top of CMOS circuits developed for these studies and the resulting "thin-film on ASIC" (TFA) detectors are presented. The leakage current of the a-Si:H sensor at high reverse biases turns out to be an important parameter limiting the performance of a TFA detector. Its detailed study and the pixel segmentation of the detector are presented. High internal electric fields (in the order of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ V/cm) can be built in the a-Si:H sensor and overcome the low mobility of electrons and holes in a-Si:H. Signal induction by generated carrier motion and speed in the a-Si:H sensor have been studied with a 660 nm pulsed laser on a TFA detector based on an ASIC integrating 5 ns peaking time pre- amplifiers. The measurement set-up also permits to study the depletion of the senso...

  11. Agglomeration of amorphous silicon film with high energy density excimer laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Metselaar, Wim; Beenakker, Kees

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration phenomena of amorphous Si (α-Si) films due to high energy density excimer laser irradiation are systematically investigated. The agglomeration, which creates holes or breaks the continuous Si film up into spherical beads, is a type of serious damage. Therefore, it determines an upper energy limit for excimer laser crystallization. It is speculated that the agglomeration is caused by the boiling of molten Si. During this process, outbursts of heterogeneously nucleated vapor bubbles are promoted by the poor wetting property of molten silicon on the SiO 2 layer underneath. The onset of the agglomeration is defined by extrapolating the hole density as a function of the energy density of the laser pulse. A SiO 2 capping layer (CL) is introduced on top of the α-Si film to investigate its influence on the agglomeration. It is found that effects of the CL depend on its thickness. The CL with a thickness less than 300 nm can be used to suppress the agglomeration. A thin CL acts as a confining layer and puts a constraint on bubble burst, and hence suppresses the agglomeration

  12. Biocompatibility of Hydrogen-Diluted Amorphous Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Artificial Heart Valve Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Umesh; Swain, Bhabani S.; Rameshbabu, N.; Swain, Bibhu P.

    2018-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) thin films were synthesized using trichloromethylsilane by a hot wire chemical vapor deposition process. The deposited films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm its chemical bonding, structural network and composition of the a-SiC:H films. The optical microscopy images reveal that hydrogen dilution increased the surface roughness and pore density of a-SiC:H thin film. The Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectra reveal chemical network consisting of Si-Si, C-C and Si-C bonds, respectively. The XRD spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate a-SiC:H still has short-range order. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity test ensures the behavior of cell-semiconductor hybrid to monitor the proper coordination. The live-dead assays and MTT assay reveal an increase in green nucleus cell, and cell viability is greater than 88%, respectively, showing non-toxic nature of prepared a-SiC:H film. Moreover, the result indicated by direct contact assay, and cell prefers to adhere and proliferate on a-SiC:H thin films having a positive effect as artificial heart valve coating material.

  13. Fabrication of High-Frequency pMUT Arrays on Silicon Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Zawada, Tomasz; Hansen, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique based on silicon micromachining for fabrication of linear arrays of high-frequency piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUT) is presented. Piezoelectric elements are formed by deposition of lead zirconia titanate into etched features of a silicon substrate...

  14. Fabrication Method for LOBSTER-Eye Optics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Collier, Michael; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Soft x-ray optics can use narrow slots to direct x-rays into a desirable pattern on a focal plane. While square-pack, square-pore, slumped optics exist for this purpose, they are costly. Silicon (Si) is being examined as a possible low-cost replacement. A fabrication method was developed for narrow slots in Si demonstrating the feasibility of stacked slot optics to replace micropores. Current micropore optics exist that have 20-micron-square pores on 26-micron pitch in glass with a depth of 1 mm and an extent of several square centimeters. Among several proposals to emulate the square pore optics are stacked slot chips with etched vertical slots. When the slots in the stack are positioned orthogonally to each other, the component will approach the soft x-ray focusing observed in the micropore optics. A specific improvement Si provides is that it can have narrower sidewalls between slots to permit greater throughput of x-rays through the optics. In general, Si can have more variation in slot geometry (width, length). Further, the sidewalls can be coated with high-Z materials to enhance reflection and potentially reduce the surface roughness of the reflecting surface. Narrow, close-packed deep slots in Si have been produced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching and a patterned silicon nitride (SiN) mask. The achieved slot geometries have sufficient wall smoothness, as observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, to enable evaluation of these slot plates as an optical element for soft x-rays. Etches of different angles to the crystal plane of Si were evaluated to identify a specific range of etch angles that will enable low undercut slots in the Si material. These slots with the narrow sidewalls are demonstrated to several hundred microns in depth, and a technical path to 500-micron deep slots in a precision geometry of narrow, closepacked slots is feasible. Although intrinsic stress in ultrathin wall Si is observed, slots with walls approaching 1

  15. Excess oxygen limited diffusion and precipitation of iron in amorphous silicon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveneur, J.; Langlois, M.; Kennedy, J.; Metson, James B.

    2017-10-01

    In micro- and nano- electronic device fabrication, and particularly 3D designs, the diffusion of a metal into sublayers during annealing needs to be minimized as it is usually detrimental to device performance. Diffusion also causes the formation and growth of nanoprecipitates in solid matrices. In this paper, the diffusion behavior of low energy, low fluence, ion implanted iron into a thermally grown silicon oxide layer on silicon is investigated. Different ion beam analysis and imaging techniques were used. Magnetization measurements were also undertaken to provide evidence of nanocrystalline ordering. While standard vacuum furnace annealing and electron beam annealing lead to fast diffusion of the implanted species towards the Si/SiO2 interface, we show that furnace annealing in an oxygen rich atmosphere prevents the diffusion of iron that, in turn, limits the growth of the nanoparticles. The diffusion and particle growth is also greatly reduced when oxygen atoms are implanted in the SiO2 prior to Fe implantation, effectively acting as a diffusion barrier. The excess oxygen is hypothesized to trap Fe atoms and reduce their mean free path during the diffusion. Monte-Carlo simulations of the diffusion process which consider the random walk of Fe, Fick's diffusion of O atoms, Fe precipitation, and desorption of the SiO2 layer under the electron beam annealing were performed. Simulation results for the three preparation conditions are found in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Fabrication of novel AFM probe with high-aspect-ratio ultra-sharp three-face silicon nitride tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Rolf; Berenschot, Johan W.; Sarajlic, Edin; Tas, Niels Roelof; Jansen, Henricus V.

    In this paper we present the wafer-scale fabrication of molded AFM probes with high aspect ratio ultra-sharp three-plane silicon nitride tips. Using $\\langle$111$\\rangle$ silicon wafers a dedicated process is developed to fabricate molds in the silicon wafer that have a flat triangular bottom

  17. Band engineering of amorphous silicon ruthenium thin film and its near-infrared absorption enhancement combined with nano-holes pattern on back surface of silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Anran; Zhong, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wli@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Gu, Deen; Jiang, Xiangdong [School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • The increase of Ru concentration leads to a narrower bandgap of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film. • The absorption coefficient of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} is higher than that of SiGe. • A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} film and Si nano-holes layer is achieved. - Abstract: Silicon is widely used in semiconductor industry but has poor performance in near-infrared photoelectronic devices because of its bandgap limit. In this study, a narrow bandgap silicon rich semiconductor is achieved by introducing ruthenium (Ru) into amorphous silicon (a-Si) to form amorphous silicon ruthenium (a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}) thin films through co-sputtering. The increase of Ru concentration leads to an enhancement of light absorption and a narrower bandgap. Meanwhile, a specific light trapping technique is employed to realize high absorption of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film in a finite thickness to avoid unnecessary carrier recombination. A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film and silicon random nano-holes layer is formed on the back surface of silicon substrates, and significantly improves near-infrared absorption while the leaky light intensity is less than 5%. This novel absorber, combining narrow bandgap thin film with light trapping structure, may have a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic devices.

  18. Fabrication of amorphous IGZO thin film transistor using self-aligned imprint lithography with a sacrificial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Hyung Tae; Choi, Jong Hoon; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Cho, Sung Min

    2018-04-01

    An amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) was fabricated by a self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL) method with a sacrificial photoresist layer. The SAIL is a top-down method to fabricate a TFT using a three-dimensional multilayer etch mask having all pattern information for the TFT. The sacrificial layer was applied in the SAIL process for the purpose of removing the resin residues that were inevitably left when the etch mask was thinned by plasma etching. This work demonstrated that the a-IGZO TFT could be fabricated by the SAIL process with the sacrificial layer. Specifically, the simple fabrication process utilized in this study can be utilized for the TFT with a plasma-sensitive semiconductor such as the a-IGZO and further extended for the roll-to-roll TFT fabrication.

  19. Additive advantage in characteristics of MIMCAPs on flexible silicon (100) fabric with release-first process

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We report the inherent increase in capacitance per unit planar area of state-of-the art high-κ integrated metal/insulator/metal capacitors (MIMCAPs) fabricated on flexible silicon fabric with release-first process. We methodically study and show

  20. Additive advantage in characteristics of MIMCAPs on flexible silicon (100) fabric with release-first process

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2013-11-20

    We report the inherent increase in capacitance per unit planar area of state-of-the art high-κ integrated metal/insulator/metal capacitors (MIMCAPs) fabricated on flexible silicon fabric with release-first process. We methodically study and show that our approach to transform bulk silicon (100) into a flexible fabric adds an inherent advantage of enabling higher integration density dynamic random access memory (DRAM) on the same chip area. Our approach is to release an ultra-thin silicon (100) fabric (25 μm thick) from the bulk silicon wafer, then build MIMCAPs using sputtered aluminium electrodes and successive atomic layer depositions (ALD) without break-ing the vacuum of a high-κ aluminium oxide sandwiched between two tantalum nitride layers. This result shows that we can obtain flexible electronics on silicon without sacrificing the high density integration aspects and also utilize the non-planar geometry associated with fabrication process to obtain a higher integration density compared to bulk silicon integration due to an increased normalized capacitance per unit planar area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Design, fabrication and characterization of a two-step released silicon dioxide piezoresistive microcantilever immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Youzheng; Wang, Zheyao; Wang, Chaonan; Ruan, Wenzhou; Liu, Litian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a silicon dioxide piezoresistive microcantilever immunosensor fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The microcantilever consists of two strips of single crystalline silicon piezoresistors sandwiched in between two silicon dioxide layers. A theoretical model for the laminated microcantilever with a discontinuous layer is deduced using classic laminated beam theory. A two-step release method combining anisotropic and isotropic etching is developed to suspend the microcantilever, and the fabrication results show an excellent yield. The residual stress-induced free bending of the microcantilever and the stress caused by self-heating of the piezoresistors are discussed. The microcantilever sensor is characterized as an immunosensor using specific binding of antigen and antibody. These methods and some conclusions are also applicable to the development of other piezoresistive sensors that use laminated structures

  2. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Sougrat, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) fabricated using silver (Ag) ions assisted electroless etching method. Silicon nanocrystallites with sizes <5 nm embedded in amorphous silica have been

  3. Infrared-transmission spectra and hydrogen content of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuehi; Chen, Guanghua; Wu, Yueying; Yin, Shengyi; Gao, Zhuo; Wang, Qing; Song, Xuemei; Deng, Jinxiang

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, two kinds of methods of calculating the hydrogen content of a-Si:H thin film by means of the wagging mode and the stretching modes of infrared-transmission spectra, are investigated. The reason for the difference in these two calculation results is analyzed. If the contents of SiH2 and (SiH2) n are indicated in terms of a structure factor F=(/840+/880)//2000, it is shown that the calculation results obtained from the two different methods are almost equal when the refractive index n is approximately 3.4 or the fitting thickness is between 0.71 and 0.89 μm in the case of a small F. It is shown that the ways of fabrication of thin film can influences silicon-hydrogen bonding configuration of a-Si: H film, and different ways of fabrication can lead to different contents of SiH2 and (SiH2) n . The uniformity of the thin film with a big F is bad. In this case, there is great difference between the thickness measured by the SurfCom408A surface profile apparatus and the thickness obtained by fitting the fringes; and the hydrogen contents of a-Si:H films obtained by means of the wagging mode and the stretching modes are different, too. But the fabrication of the MWECR CVD assisted by CAT CVD can effectively restrain the formation of SiH2 and (SiH2) n .

  4. Self-assembled peptide nanotubes as an etching material for the rapid fabrication of silicon wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    This study has evaluated self-assembled peptide nanotubes (PNTS) and nanowires (PNWS) as etching mask materials for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of silicon wires using reactive ion etching (RIE). The self-assembled peptide structures were fabricated under mild conditions and positioned on c...... characterization by SEM and I-V measurements. Additionally, the fabricated silicon structures were functionalized with fluorescent molecules via a biotin-streptavidin interaction in order to probe their potential in the development of biosensing devices....

  5. Humidity-dependent stability of amorphous germanium nitrides fabricated by plasma nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Okamoto, Gaku; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of amorphous germanium nitride (Ge 3 N 4 ) layers formed by plasma nitridation of Ge(100) surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We have found that humidity in the air accelerates the degradation of Ge 3 N 4 layers and that under 80% humidity condition, most of the Ge-N bonds convert to Ge-O bonds, producing a uniform GeO 2 layer, within 12 h even at room temperature. After this conversion of nitrides to oxides, the surface roughness drastically increased by forming GeO 2 islands on the surfaces. These findings indicate that although Ge 3 N 4 layers have superior thermal stability compared to the GeO 2 layers, Ge 3 N 4 reacts readily with hydroxyl groups and it is therefore essential to take the best care of the moisture in the fabrication of Ge-based devices with Ge 3 N 4 insulator or passivation layers

  6. Structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of high-density amorphous silicon: a first-principles molecular-dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Tetsuya

    2009-05-21

    We report a first-principles study of the structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) silicon, which was found to be formed by pressurizing low-density amorphous (LDA) silicon (a normal amorphous Si) [T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055503 (2004); P. F. McMillan, M. Wilson, D. Daisenberger, and D. Machon, Nature Mater. 4, 680 (2005)]. Striking structural differences between HDA and LDA are revealed. The LDA structure holds a tetrahedral network, while the HDA structure contains a highly distorted tetrahedral network. The fifth neighboring atom in HDA tends to be located at an interstitial position of a distorted tetrahedron composed of the first four neighboring atoms. Consequently, the coordination number of HDA is calculated to be approximately 5 unlike that of LDA. The electronic density of state (EDOS) shows that HDA is metallic, which is consistent with a recent experimental measurement of the electronic resistance of HDA Si. We find from local EDOS that highly distorted tetrahedral configurations enhance the metallic nature of HDA. The vibrational density of state (VDOS) also reflects the structural differences between HDA and LDA. Some of the characteristic vibrational modes of LDA are dematerialized in HDA, indicating the degradation of covalent bonds. The overall profile of the VDOS for HDA is found to be an intermediate between that for LDA and liquid Si under pressure (high-density liquid Si).

  7. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC) 4 (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 μs shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 x 10 14 cm -2 . Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of ∼4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of ∼10 13 cm -2

  8. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Varadhan, Purushothaman; He, Jr-Hau; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  9. Leaf trajectory verification during dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy using an amorphous silicon flat panel imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Brand, Bob; Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Herk, Marcel van

    2004-01-01

    An independent verification of the leaf trajectories during each treatment fraction improves the safety of IMRT delivery. In order to verify dynamic IMRT with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), the EPID response should be accurate and fast such that the effect of motion blurring on the detected moving field edge position is limited. In the past, it was shown that the errors in the detected position of a moving field edge determined by a scanning liquid-filled ionization chamber (SLIC) EPID are negligible in clinical practice. Furthermore, a method for leaf trajectory verification during dynamic IMRT was successfully applied using such an EPID. EPIDs based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) arrays are now widely available. Such a-Si flat panel imagers (FPIs) produce portal images with superior image quality compared to other portal imaging systems, but they have not yet been used for leaf trajectory verification during dynamic IMRT. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of motion distortion and motion blurring on the detection accuracy of a moving field edge for an Elekta iViewGT a-Si FPI and to investigate its applicability for the leaf trajectory verification during dynamic IMRT. We found that the detection error for a moving field edge to be smaller than 0.025 cm at a speed of 0.8 cm/s. Hence, the effect of motion blurring on the detection accuracy of a moving field edge is negligible in clinical practice. Furthermore, the a-Si FPI was successfully applied for the verification of dynamic IMRT. The verification method revealed a delay in the control system of the experimental DMLC that was also found using a SLIC EPID, resulting in leaf positional errors of 0.7 cm at a leaf speed of 0.8 cm/s

  10. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  11. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed

    2017-05-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  12. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for fabrication of thin-film solar cells/materials and substrates (Development of technologies for fabrication of high-quality amorphous materials and substrates); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for the amorphous/microcrystalline solar cells with the thin microcrystalline silicon film as the i layer, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The fabrication technologies are investigated for the microcrystalline silicon solar cells of pin or nip structure by RF or VHF plasma CVD using SiH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} as the stock gases. The tests are conducted for evaluating characteristics of the thin microcrystalline silicon film, to investigate the effects of film-making pressure, power and hydrogen dilution rate on the characteristics at a constant film-making temperature of 180 degrees C. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of pin structure confirm that use of VHF plasma CVD improves crystallinity, electrical and optical characteristics of the p-type thin microcrystalline silicon film. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of nip structure covers transparent substrates, film-making speed of the p layer, power and substrates, and a conversion efficiency of 7.5% is realized by the solar cell formed on a texture substrate. (NEDO)

  13. Roof-integrated amorphous silicon photovoltaic installation at the Institute for Micro-Technology; Installation photovoltaique IMT Neuchatel silicium amorphe integre dans toiture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscharner, R.; Shah, A.V.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the 6.44 kW grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power plant that has been in operation since 1996 at the Institute for Micro-Technology in Neuchatel, Switzerland. The PV plant, which features large-area, fully integrated modules using amorphous silicon cells was the first of its kind in Switzerland. Experience gained with the installation, which has been fully operational since its construction, as well as the power produced and efficiencies measured are presented and commented. The role of the installation as the forerunner of new, so-called 'micro-morph' thin-film solar cell technology developed at the institute is stressed. Technical details of the plant and its performance are given.

  14. Nanoscale phosphorus atom arrays created using STM for the fabrication of a silicon based quantum computer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J. L. (Jeremy L.); Schofield, S. R. (Steven R.); Simmons, M. Y. (Michelle Y.); Clark, R. G. (Robert G.); Dzurak, A. S. (Andrew S.); Curson, N. J. (Neil J.); Kane, B. E. (Bruce E.); McAlpine, N. S. (Neal S.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.)

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computers offer the promise of formidable computational power for certain tasks. Of the various possible physical implementations of such a device, silicon based architectures are attractive for their scalability and ease of integration with existing silicon technology. These designs use either the electron or nuclear spin state of single donor atoms to store quantum information. Here we describe a strategy to fabricate an array of single phosphorus atoms in silicon for the construction of such a silicon based quantum computer. We demonstrate the controlled placement of single phosphorus bearing molecules on a silicon surface. This has been achieved by patterning a hydrogen mono-layer 'resist' with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and exposing the patterned surface to phosphine (PH3) molecules. We also describe preliminary studies into a process to incorporate these surface phosphorus atoms into the silicon crystal at the array sites. Keywords: Quantum computing, nanotechriology scanning turincling microscopy, hydrogen lithography

  15. Electroless porous silicon formation applied to fabrication of boron-silica-glass cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teva, Jordi; Davis, Zachary James; Hansen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the characterization and optimization of anisotropic formation of porous silicon in large volumes (0.5-1 mm3) of silicon by an electroless wet etching technique. The main goal is to use porous silicon as a sacrificial volume for bulk micromachining processes, especially in cases...... where etching of the full wafer thickness is needed. The porous silicon volume is formed by a metal-assisted etching in a wet chemical solution composed of hydrogen peroxide (30%), hydrofluoric acid (40%) and ethanol. This paper focuses on optimizing the etching conditions in terms of maximizing...... for bio-chemical sensors. The porous silicon volume is formed in an early step of the fabrication process, allowing easy handling of the wafer during all of the micromachining processes in the process flow. In the final process step, the porous silicon is quickly etched by immersing the wafer in a KOH...

  16. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen

    2008-07-01

    Within this thesis, several important subjects related to the use of amorphous silicon nitride made by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition as an anti-reflective coating on silicon solar cells are presented. The first part of the thesis covers optical simulations to optimise single and double layer anti-reflective coatings with respect to optical performance when situated on a silicon solar cell. The second part investigates the relationship between important physical properties of silicon nitride films when deposited under different conditions. The optical simulations were either based on minimising the reflectance off a silicon nitride/silicon wafer stack or maximising the transmittance through the silicon nitride into the silicon wafer. The former method allowed consideration of the reflectance off the back surface of the wafer, which occurs typically at wavelengths above 1000 nm due to the transparency of silicon at these wavelengths. However, this method does not take into consideration the absorption occurring in the silicon nitride, which is negligible at low refractive indexes but quite significant when the refractive index increases above 2.1. For high-index silicon nitride films, the latter method is more accurate as it considers both reflectance and absorbance in the film to calculate the transmittance into the Si wafer. Both methods reach similar values for film thickness and refractive index for optimised single layer anti-reflective coatings, due to the negligible absorption occurring in these films. For double layer coatings, though, the reflectance based simulations overestimated the optimum refractive index for the bottom layer, which would have lead to excessive absorption if applied to real anti-reflective coatings. The experimental study on physical properties for silicon nitride films deposited under varying conditions concentrated on the estimation of properties important for its applications, such as optical properties, passivation

  17. Amorphous silicon oxide layers for surface passivation and contacting of heterostructure solar cells of amorphous and crystalline silicon; Amorphe Siliziumoxidschichten zur Oberflaechenpassivierung und Kontaktierung von Heterostruktur-Solarzellen aus amorphen und kristallinem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einsele, Florian

    2010-02-05

    Atomic hydrogen plays a dominant role in the passivation of crystalline silicon surfaces by layers of amorphous silicon. In order to research into this role, this thesis presents the method of hydrogen effusion from thin amorphous films of silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H). The oxygen concentration of the sub-stoichiometric a-SiO{sub x}:H films ranges up to 10 at.-%. The effusion experiment yields information about the content and thermal stability of hydrogen and about the microstructure of the films. A mathematical description of the diffusion process of atomic hydrogen yields an analytical expression of the effusion rate R{sub E} depending on the linearly increasing temperature in the experiment. Fitting of the calculated effusion rates R{sub E} to measured effusion spectra yields the diffusion coefficient of atomic hydrogen in a-SiO{sub x}:H. With increasing oxygen concentration, the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the a-SiO{sub x}:H films decreases. This is attributed to an increasing Si-H bond energy due to back bonded oxygen, resulting in a higher stability of hydrogen in the films. This result is confirmed by an increasing thermal stability of the p-type c-Si passivation with a-SiO{sub x}:H of increasing oxygen concentrations up to 5 at.-%. The passivation reaches very low recombination velocities of S < 10 cm/s at the interface. However, for higher oxygen concentrations up to 10 at.-%, the passivation quality decreases significantly. Here, infrared spectroscopy of Si-H vibrational modes and hydrogen effusion show an increase of hydrogen-rich interconnected voids in the films. This microstructure results in a high amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the layers, which is not suitable for the saturation of c-Si interface defects. Annealing of the films at temperatures around 400 C leads to a release of H{sub 2} from the voids, as a result of which Si-Si bonds in the material reconstruct. Subsequently, hydrogen migration in the

  18. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo0.75Ge0.25 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo 0.75 Ge 0.25 thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  19. Luminescence in amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes under double-injection dispersive-transport-controlled recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.; Wang, K.; Yeh, C.; Yang, L.; Deng, X.; Von Roedern, B.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and electric-field dependence of the forward bias current and the electroluminescence (EL) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n and n-i-p diodes have been studied. Both the current and the EL efficiency temperature dependence show three regions depending on either hopping-controlled or multiple-trapping or ballistic transport mechanisms. Comparing the thermalization-controlled geminate recombination processes of photoluminescence to the features of EL, the differences can be explained by transport-controlled nongeminate recombination in trap-rich materials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.

    2006-03-01

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  1. Characterization of 13 and 30 mum thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes deposited over CMOS integrated circuits for particle detection application

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Commichau, S C; Dissertori, G; Garrigos, A; Jarron, P; Miazza, C; Moraes, D; Shah, A; Wyrsch, N; Viertel, Gert M; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.022

    2004-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained with a novel monolithic silicon pixel detector which consists in depositing a n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) diode straight above the readout ASIC (this technology is called Thin Film on ASIC, TFA). The characterization has been performed on 13 and 30mum thick a-Si:H films deposited on top of an ASIC containing a linear array of high- speed low-noise transimpedance amplifiers designed in a 0.25mum CMOS technology. Experimental results presented have been obtained with a 600nm pulsed laser. The results of charge collection efficiency and charge collection speed of these structures are discussed.

  2. Depth control of a silicon structure fabricated by 100q keV Ar ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasegi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawasegi@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp; Morita, Noboru [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nmorita@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp; Yamada, Shigeru [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: syamada@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp; Takano, Noboru [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: takano@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp; Oyama, Tatsuo [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: ohyama@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp; Momota, Sadao [Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: momota.sadao@kochi-tech.ac.jp; Taniguchi, Jun [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: junt@te.noda.tus.ac.jp; Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: iwao@te.noda.tus.ac.jp

    2007-01-15

    Ion beam lithography of a silicon surface using an Ar ion beam with an ion energy in the order of hundreds of keV is demonstrated in this study. A specially designed ion irradiation facility was employed that enabled generation and irradiation with a highly accelerated and highly charged Ar ion beam. An ion-beam-induced amorphous layer on a silicon substrate can be selectively etched in hydrofluoric acid, whereas, a non-irradiated area is scarcely etched and, consequently, a concave structure can be fabricated on the irradiated area. To control the depth of the structure, parameters for dependence of the depth on ion irradiation were investigated. As a result, the depth of irradiated area can be controlled by the ion energy that is adjusted by the acceleration voltage and the ion charge. In addition, the etch resistance of the irradiated area increases with an increase in ion energy due to the crystalline layer formed on the surface. Simulation results reveal that the depth is strongly related to the defect distribution induced by ion irradiation. These results indicate the potential use of this method for novel three-dimensional lithography.

  3. Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M F; Budgell, G J

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0 0 and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range of gantry angles, the accuracy of the QC checks at other gantry angles has been investigated. When the gantry is rotated to angles other than 0 0 it was found that the apparent pixel size measured using the EPID varies up to a maximum value of 0.0015 mm per pixel due to a sag in the EPID of up to 9.2 mm. A correction factor was determined using two independent methods at a range of gantry angles between 0 deg. and 360 deg. The EPID was used to measure field sizes (defined by both x-jaws and MLC) at a range of gantry angles and, after this correction had been applied, any residual gravitational sag was studied. It was found that, when fields are defined by the x-jaws and y-back-up jaws, no errors of greater than 0.5 mm were measured and that these errors were no worse when the MLC was used. It was therefore concluded that, provided the correction is applied, measurements of the field size are, in practical terms, unaffected by gantry angle. Experiments were also performed to study how the reproducibility of individual leaves is affected by gantry angle. Measurements of the relative position of each individual leaf (minor offsets) were performed at a range of gantry angles and repeated three times. The position reproducibility was defined by the RMS error in the position of each leaf and this was found to be 0.24 mm and 0.21 mm for the two leaf banks at a gantry angle of 0 0 . When measurements were performed at a range of gantry angles, these reproducibility values remained within 0.09 mm and 0.11 mm. It was therefore concluded that the calibration of the Elekta MLC is stable at

  4. A thermal model for amorphous silicon photovoltaic integrated in ETFE cushion roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bing; Chen, Wujun; Hu, Jianhui; Qiu, Zhenyu; Qu, Yegao; Ge, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermal model is proposed to estimate temperature of a-Si PV integrated in ETFE cushion. • Nonlinear equation is solved by Runge–Kutta method integrated in a new program. • Temperature profiles varying with weather conditions are obtained and analyzed. • Numerical results are in good line with experimental results with coefficients of 0.821–0.985. • Reasons for temperature difference of 0.9–4.6 K are solar irradiance and varying parameters. - Abstract: Temperature characteristics of amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) integrated in building roofs (e.g. the ETFE cushions) are indispensible for evaluating the thermal performances of a-Si PV and buildings. To investigate the temperature characteristics and temperature value, field experiments and numerical modeling were performed and compared in this paper. An experimental mock-up composed of a-Si PV and a three-layer ETFE cushion structure was constructed and experiments were carried out under four typical weather conditions (winter sunny, winter cloudy, summer sunny and summer cloudy). The measured solar irradiance and air temperature were used as the real weather conditions for the thermal model. On the other side, a theoretical thermal model was developed based on energy balance equation which was expressed as that absorbed energy was equal to converted energy and energy loss. The corresponding differential equation of PV temperature varying with weather conditions was solved by the Runge–Kutta method. The comparisons between the experimental and numerical results were focusing on the temperature characteristics and temperature value. For the temperature characteristics, good agreement was obtained by correlation analysis with the coefficients of 0.821–0.985, which validated the feasibility of the thermal model. For the temperature value, the temperature difference between the experimental and numerical results was only 0.9–4.6 K and the reasons could be the dramatical

  5. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and its characterization by transient photoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a semiconductor material that has generated recent widespread interest because of its low manufacturing and processing costs compared with other semiconducting materials. The performance of devices incorporating a-Si:H depends to a large extent on the photoresponse of the a-Si:H. The work in this thesis involves the construction of an a-Si:H plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, characterization of the quality of the a-Si:H produced by this system, and measurement of the transient photoconductivity n response to pulses of laser illumination with different durations. The relationship of the design of the PECVD system to the quality of the a-Si:H is treated, emphasizing the features included in the system to reduce the incorporation of defects in the a-Si:H layers. These features include an ultra-high-vacuum deposition chamber, a load-lock chamber enabling samples to be loaded under vacuum, and an electrode assembly designed to produce a uniform electric field for decomposing the reactant gases. The quality of the A-Si:H films is examined. The dark conductivity activation energy, optical absorption, and photoconductivity are measured to characterize intrinsic, p-doped, and n-doped a-Si:H layers. The current vs. voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions, and the quantum efficiency are measured on a-Si:H p-i-n diodes made in our system, and the results show that these diodes compare favorably to similar high-quality p-i-n diodes produced at other laboratories. An investigation into the effect of the light-induced degradation associated with a-Si:H on the performance of OASLMs is also presented. Finally, the transient photoresponse to laser pulses ranging in duration from 1 μs to 1 s over a range of temperatures from 100 to 300 K is investigated. We have discovered that the response time of the initial photoconductivity decay increases as the excitation-pulse duration increases

  6. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal - oxide - semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n + /p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Surface plasmon effects in the absorption enhancements of amorphous silicon solar cells with periodical metal nanowall and nanopillar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Kuo, Yang; Liao, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, C C; Kiang, Yean-Woei

    2012-01-02

    The authors numerically investigate the absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell, in which a periodical one-dimensional nanowall or two-dimensional nanopillar structure of the Ag back-reflector is fabricated such that a dome-shaped grating geometry is formed after Si deposition and indium-tin-oxide coating. In this investigation, the effects of surface plasmon (SP) interaction in such a metal nanostructure are of major concern. Absorption enhancement in most of the solar spectral range of significant amorphous Si absorption (320-800 nm) is observed in a grating solar cell. In the short-wavelength range of high amorphous Si absorption, the weakly wavelength-dependent absorption enhancement is mainly caused by the broadband anti-reflection effect, which is produced through the surface nano-grating structures. In the long-wavelength range of diminishing amorphous Si absorption, the highly wavelength-sensitive absorption enhancement is mainly caused by Fabry-Perot resonance and SP interaction. The SP interaction includes the contributions of surface plasmon polariton and localized surface plasmon.

  8. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  9. Silicon Nano fabrication by Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Mechanical Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sh.; Wang, M.; Kim, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews silicon nano fabrication processes using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, it summarizes recent results obtained in our research group regarding AFM-based silicon nano fabrication through mechanochemical local oxidation by diamond tip sliding, as well as mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical processing using an electrically conductive diamond tip. Microscopic three-dimensional manufacturing mainly relies on etching, deposition, and lithography. Therefore, a special emphasis was placed on nano mechanical processes, mechanochemical reaction by potassium hydroxide solution etching, and mechanical and electrical approaches. Several important surface characterization techniques consisting of scanning tunneling microscopy and related techniques, such as scanning probe microscopy and AFM, were also discussed.

  10. Properties of Silicon Dioxide Amorphous Nanopowder Produced by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav G. Il’ves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 amorphous nanopowder (NP is produced with the specific surface area of 154 m2/g by means of evaporation by a pulsed electron beam aimed at Aerosil 90 pyrogenic amorphous NP (90 m2/g as a target. SiO2 NP nanoparticles showed improved magnetic, thermal, and optical properties in comparison to Aerosil 90 NP. Possible reasons of emergence of d0 ferromagnetism at the room temperature in SiO2 amorphous NP are discussed. Photoluminescent and cathode luminescent properties of the SiO2 NP were investigated.

  11. A buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer optimization for thin film amorphous silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinjoo; Dao, Vinh Ai [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chonghoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeongsik [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electricity and Electronics, Ulsan College West Campus, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Amorphous silicon based (a-Si:H-based) solar cells with a buffer-layer/boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H(p)) window-layer were fabricated and investigated. In the first part, in order to reduce the Schottky barrier height at the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer heterointerface, we have used buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) for the window-layer, in which boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)) or boron doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) is introduced as a buffer layer between the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) and FTO of the a-Si:H-based solar cells. The a-Si:H-based solar cell using a μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer shows the highest efficiency compared to the optimized bufferless, and a-Si:H(p) buffer-layer in the a-Si:H-based solar cells. This highest performance was attributed not only to the lower absorption of the μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer but also to the lower Schottky barrier height at the FTO/window-layer interface. Then, we present the dependence of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) and blue response of the devices on the inversion of activation energy (ξ) of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. The enhancement of both V{sub bi} and blue response is observed, by increasing the value of ξ. The improvement of V{sub bi} and blue response can be ascribed to the enlargement of the optical gap of a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) films in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. Finally, the conversion efficiency was increased by 22.0%, by employing μc-Si:H(p) as a buffer-layer and raising the ξ of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), compared to the optimized bufferless case, with a 10 nm-thick a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. - Highlights: • Low Schottky barrier height benefits fill factor, and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). • High band gap is beneficial for short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). • Boron doped microcrystalline silicon is a suitable buffer-layer for

  12. Achievement report on Sunshine Program research and development for fiscal 1981. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Optical research of electronic state in amorphous silicon); 1981 nendo amorphous silicon no denshi jotai no kagakuteki kenkyu seika hokokusho. Amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The basic physical properties of glow discharge-decomposed amorphous silicon film are studied. The performance of an a-Si p-i-n (amorphous silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) junction solar cell is found to be greatly affected by the binding of carriers along the p-i or i-n interface. A new concept is introduced, which is useful in the study of the photo-produced carrier collection process. The distance between the plasma excitation center and the substrate and the intensity of the electric field just above the substrate are changed systematically for the evaluation of film quality and for the study of film formation mechanism. It is found that plasma excitation as a mechanism of film deposition, the transportation of excited seeds to the substrate, and the incorporation of film constituting atoms into the film are important. A high-speed ion beam technique is used for the analysis of impurities. In the case of a-Si or a-SiC deposition by glow discharge decomposition, metallic Sn or In is deposited along the interface and diffused into the deposited film. The diffusion is closely related to the performance of solar cells, and a 2-layer structure incorporating the merits of both ITO (indium-tin oxide) and SnO{sub 2} films is found suitable for this purpose. Using an a-SiC:H/a-Si:H heterojunction solar cell, a conversion efficiency of 8.04% is achieved. (NEDO)

  13. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Study on growth mechanism of a-Si:H and preparation of the stable, high quality films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Amorphous silicon no seimaku kiko to kohinshitsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on a film forming mechanism for amorphous silicon for solar cells and its quality improvement. In in-situ observation on plasma CVD surface reaction by using the total reflection infrared absorbing spectroscopy, an observation on a real time basis was performed on the reaction process of an a-Si:H surface in contact with gas mixture plasma composed of SiH4 + CH4. In microscopic observation on initial processes of amorphous silicon growth, surface morphological change before and after a-Si:H deposition at 200{degree}C was observed by using an inter-atomic force microscope. The observation verified that a-Si:H has grown to an atomic layer. In research on defect density in a-Si:H fabricated under high-speed film forming conditions, analysis was made on correlation between the film forming speed at 250{degree}C and defect density in the film. Other research works include those on a high-quality a-SiGe:H film fabricated by using the nanometer film forming/hydrogen plasma annealing method, modulated doping into multi-layer films of a-Si:H/a-Ge:H, and thin film transistor using very thin multi layer films of a-Si:H/a-Ge:H. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Advanced Materials and PV Devices: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2001--31 January 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. C.

    2005-11-01

    The major objectives of this subcontract have been: (1) understand the microscopic properties of the defects that contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect to eliminate this effect, (2) perform correlated studies on films and devices made by novel techniques, especially those with promise to improve stability or deposition rates, (3) understand the structural, electronic, and optical properties of films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) made on the boundary between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases, (4) search for more stable intrinsic layers of a-Si:H, (5) characterize the important defects, impurities, and metastabilities in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces in a-Si:H films and devices and in important alloy systems, and (6) make state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) devices out of new, advanced materials, when appropriate. All of these goals are highly relevant to improving photovoltaic devices based on a-Si:H and related alloys. With regard to the first objective, we have identified a paired hydrogen site that may be the defect that stabilizes the silicon dangling bonds formed in the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  15. On the importance of considering the incident spectrum when measuring the outdoor performance of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalg, R.; Betts, T.R.; Infield, D.G. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology; Kearney, M.J. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, Advanced Technology Institute

    2004-02-01

    Conventional measurement practice for the outdoor performance evaluation of solar cells does not make use of the complete spectrum, relying instead on the total irradiance as measured, say, with a pyranometer. In this paper it is shown that this can result in significant errors for solar cells having wide band gaps, in particular, for amorphous silicon solar cells. Two effects are investigated. The first relates to quantifying the typical errors associated with instantaneous measurements; what one might term the calibration of devices. The second relates to quantifying the impact of neglecting variations in the spectrum on the estimation of the annual energy production. It is observed that the fraction of the spectrum falling in the spectrally useful range for amorphous silicon can vary by as much as +10% to -15% with respect to standard test conditions at the test site used in this study, which translates directly into performance variations of similar magnitude. The relationship between changes due to spectral variations as opposed to variations in device temperature is also investigated. The results show that there is a strong case for investigating spectral effects more thoroughly, and explicitly including the measurement of the spectral distribution in all outdoor performance testing. (author)

  16. Effect of fabrication parameters on morphological and optical properties of highly doped p-porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Maryam, E-mail: mar.zare@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Abbas [Young Researchers Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seraji, Faramarz E. [Optical Communication Group, Iran Telecom Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were fabricated by anodization of low resistive (highly doped) p-type silicon in HF/ethanol solution, by varying current density, etching time and HF concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analyses were used to investigate the physical properties and reflection spectrum was used to investigate the optical behavior of PS layers in different fabrication conditions. Vertically aligned mesoporous morphology is observed in fabricated films and with HF concentration higher than 20%. The dependence of porosity, layer thickness and rms roughness of the PS layer on current density, etching time and composition of electrolyte is also observed in obtained results. Correlation between reflectivity and fabrication parameters was also explored. Thermal oxidation was performed on some mesoporous layers that resulted in changes of surface roughness, mean height and reflectivity of the layers.

  17. Development and applications of monocrystalline silicon radiation sensors fabricated at Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzi, C; Bruno, C; Duran, J; Godfrin, E; Martinez Bogado, M; Pla, J; Tamasi, M

    2005-01-01

    The development of silicon photovoltaic sensors at CNEA has begun in 1998.These sensors, fabricated in the Photovoltaic Laboratory of the Solar Energy Group at Constituyentes Atomic Center, have been used to build low cost radiometers as well as solar angular position sensors on board of artificial satellites.The design, fabrication and calibration of these sensors have been made in different prototypes in order to analyze its performance and to evaluate its limitations.Nowadays, several commercial prototypes have been distributed in different laboratories of our country in order to evaluate them in real work conditions.Particularly, the first experiment of argentine solar cells on space performed on board of SAC-A satellite, included the fabrication of position sensors of this satellite as part of the alignment system of the solar array respect to the sun.In this article, the state of the art of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic sensors fabricated at CNEA for terrestrial and space applications is presented

  18. Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Fortuna, Franck; O'Donnell, Benedict; Jeon, Taewoo; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2012-08-08

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are becoming a popular choice to develop a new generation of radial junction solar cells. We here explore a bismuth- (Bi-) catalyzed growth and doping of SiNWs, via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mode, to fabricate amorphous Si radial n-i-p junction solar cells in a one-pump-down and low-temperature process in a single chamber plasma deposition system. We provide the first evidence that catalyst doping in the SiNW cores, caused by incorporating Bi catalyst atoms as n-type dopant, can be utilized to fabricate radial junction solar cells, with a record open circuit voltage of V(oc) = 0.76 V and an enhanced light trapping effect that boosts the short circuit current to J(sc) = 11.23 mA/cm(2). More importantly, this bi-catalyzed SiNW growth and doping strategy exempts the use of extremely toxic phosphine gas, leading to significant procedure simplification and cost reduction for building radial junction thin film solar cells.

  19. Low-energy excitations in amorphous films of silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Pohl, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    We present measurements of internal friction and shear modulus of amorphous Si (a-Si) and amorphous Ge (a-Ge) films on double-paddle oscillators at 5500 Hz from 0.5 K up to room temperature. The temperature- independent plateau in internal friction below 10 K, which is common to all amorphous solids, also exists in these films. However, its magnitude is smaller than found for all other amorphous solids studied to date. Furthermore, it depends critically on the deposition methods. For a-Si films, it decreases in the sequence of electron-beam evaporation, sputtering, self-ion implantation, and hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition (HWCVD). Annealing can also reduce the internal friction of the amorphous films considerably. Hydrogenated a-Si with 1 at.% H prepared by HWCVD leads to an internal friction more than two orders of magnitude smaller than observed for all other amorphous solids. The internal friction increases after the hydrogen is removed by effusion. Our results are compared with earlier measurements on a-Si and a-Ge films, none of which had the sensitivity achieved here. The variability of the low-energy tunneling states in the a-Si and a-Ge films may be a consequence of the tetrahedrally bonded covalent continuous random network. The perfection of this network, however, depends critically on the preparation conditions, with hydrogen incorporation playing a particularly important role. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Comparison of silicon pin diode detector fabrication processes using ion implantation and thermal doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.Z.; Warburton, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two processes for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors are described and compared. Both processes are compatible with conventional integrated-circuit fabrication techniques and yield very low leakage currents. Devices made from the process using boron thermal doping have about a factor of 2 lower leakage current than those using boron ion implantation. However, the boron thermal doping process requires additional process steps to remove boron skins. (orig.)

  1. Glow discharge preparation and electrooptical characterisation of amorphous silicon alloys for solar cells. Preparacion por descarga luminiscente y caracterizacion electrooptica de aleaciones de silicio amorfo para celulas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carabe, J

    1990-11-01

    A study is presented, focused on the preparation and characterisation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy thin films for their application as p type window layers in pin silicon solar cells. The preparation technique used was radio frequency glow discharge. The samples were characterised optically (visible, near infrared and infrared absorption spectrophotometry) and electrically (dark and photoconductivities at ambient temperature and as functions of temperature). The influence of each of the preparation parameters on film properties has been systematically studied. The results have been analysed according to the existing models. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the material in question and its photovoltaic applications. Chapter 2 describes the experimental procedure used. Capter 3 shows and discusses the most relevant results obtained in the study of intrinsic amorphous silicon, p type amorphous silicon and p type amorphous silicon carbide window layers, with special emphasis on the influence of the use of an alternative dopant gas: boron trifluoride. Finally, chapter 4 summarises the most relevant conclusions drawn from this research work. (Author)

  2. Durable Superomniphobic Surface on Cotton Fabrics via Coating of Silicone Rubber and Fluoropolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheen Moiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance textiles that protect human from different threats and dangers from environment are in high demand, and the advancement in functionalization technology together with employing advanced materials have made this an area of research focus. In this work, silicone rubber and environmentally friendly fluoropolymers have been employed to explore superomniphobic surface on cotton fabrics without compromising comfort much. It has been found that a cross-linked network between the rubber membrane and the fluoropolymers has been formed. The surface appearance, morphology, handle, thickness and chemical components of the surface of cotton fabrics have been changed. The coated fabrics showed resistance to water, aqueous liquid, oil, chemicals and soil. The comfort of the coated fabrics is different to uncoated cotton fabrics due to the existence of coated layers on the surface of cotton fabrics. This work would benefit the development and design of the next generation of performance textiles with balanced performance and comfort.

  3. A repeatable and scalable fabrication method for sharp, hollow silicon microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Theogarajan, L. S.; Pennathur, S.

    2018-03-01

    Scalability and manufacturability are impeding the mass commercialization of microneedles in the medical field. Specifically, microneedle geometries need to be sharp, beveled, and completely controllable, difficult to achieve with microelectromechanical fabrication techniques. In this work, we performed a parametric study using silicon etch chemistries to optimize the fabrication of scalable and manufacturable beveled silicon hollow microneedles. We theoretically verified our parametric results with diffusion reaction equations and created a design guideline for a various set of miconeedles (80-160 µm needle base width, 100-1000 µm pitch, 40-50 µm inner bore diameter, and 150-350 µm height) to show the repeatability, scalability, and manufacturability of our process. As a result, hollow silicon microneedles with any dimensions can be fabricated with less than 2% non-uniformity across a wafer and 5% deviation between different processes. The key to achieving such high uniformity and consistency is a non-agitated HF-HNO3 bath, silicon nitride masks, and surrounding silicon filler materials with well-defined dimensions. Our proposed method is non-labor intensive, well defined by theory, and straightforward for wafer scale mass production, opening doors to a plethora of potential medical and biosensing applications.

  4. CMOS compatible fabrication of flexible and semi-transparent FeRAM on ultra-thin bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hanna, Amir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Commercialization of flexible electronics requires reliable, high performance, ultra-compact and low power devices. To achieve them, we fabricate traditional electronics on bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) and transform the top portion into an ultra-thin flexible silicon fabric with prefabricated devices, preserving ultra-large-scale-integration density and same device performance. This can be done in a cost effective manner due to its full compatibility with standard CMOS processes. In this paper, using the same approach, for the first time we demonstrate a ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) cell on flexible silicon fabric platform and assess its functionality and practical potential.

  5. CMOS compatible fabrication of flexible and semi-transparent FeRAM on ultra-thin bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-08-01

    Commercialization of flexible electronics requires reliable, high performance, ultra-compact and low power devices. To achieve them, we fabricate traditional electronics on bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) and transform the top portion into an ultra-thin flexible silicon fabric with prefabricated devices, preserving ultra-large-scale-integration density and same device performance. This can be done in a cost effective manner due to its full compatibility with standard CMOS processes. In this paper, using the same approach, for the first time we demonstrate a ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) cell on flexible silicon fabric platform and assess its functionality and practical potential.

  6. Surface modification of aluminum nitride by polysilazane and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide ceramic for the enhancement of thermal conductivity in silicone rubber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien Tang; Sukachonmakul, Tanapon; Kuo, Ming Tai; Wang, Yu Hsiang; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

    2014-02-01

    Polysilazane (PSZ) and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramic were coated on aluminum nitride (AlN) by using a dip-coating method to allow moisture-crosslinking of PSZ on AlN, followed by heat treatment at 700 °C in air to convert PSZ into SiOC on AlN. The results from FTIR, XPS and SEM indicated that the surface of AlN was successfully coated by PSZ and SiOC film. It was found that the introduction of PSZ and SiOC film help improve in the interfacial adhesion between the modified AlN (PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN) and silicone rubber lead to the increase in the thermal conductivity of the composites since the thermal boundary resistance at the filler-matrix interface was decreased. However, the introduction of SiOC as an intermediate layer between AlN and silicone rubber could help increase the thermal energy transport at the filler-matrix interface rather than using PSZ. This result was due to the decrease in the surface roughness and thickness of SiOC film after heat treatment at 700 °C in air. Thus, in the present work, a SiOC ceramic coating could provide a new surface modification for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the thermally conductive filler and the matrix in which can enhance the thermal conductivity of the composites.

  7. Electroless porous silicon formation applied to fabrication of boron–silica–glass cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teva, J; Davis, Z J; Hansen, O

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the characterization and optimization of anisotropic formation of porous silicon in large volumes (0.5–1 mm 3 ) of silicon by an electroless wet etching technique. The main goal is to use porous silicon as a sacrificial volume for bulk micromachining processes, especially in cases where etching of the full wafer thickness is needed. The porous silicon volume is formed by a metal-assisted etching in a wet chemical solution composed of hydrogen peroxide (30%), hydrofluoric acid (40%) and ethanol. This paper focuses on optimizing the etching conditions in terms of maximizing the etching rate and reproducibility of the etching. In addition to that, a study of the morphology of the pore that is obtained by this technique is presented. The results from the characterization of the process are applied to the fabrication of boron–silica–glass cantilevers that serve as a platform for bio-chemical sensors. The porous silicon volume is formed in an early step of the fabrication process, allowing easy handling of the wafer during all of the micromachining processes in the process flow. In the final process step, the porous silicon is quickly etched by immersing the wafer in a KOH solution

  8. Development of a fabrication technology for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors for tracking applications. Two batches of detectors with good electrical figures and a low defect rate were successfully manufactured at IRST Laboratory. The processing techniques and the experimental results obtained from these detector prototypes are presented and discussed

  9. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghodsi Nasseri, Seyed Faizelldin; Bersuker, G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect

  10. Epitaxy - a new technology for fabrication of advanced silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Wiest, F.; Pahlke, A.; Boslau, O.; Goldstrass, P.; Eggert, T.; Schindler, M.; Eisele, I.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty five years after the introduction of the planar process to the fabrication of silicon radiation detectors a new technology, which replaces the ion implantation doping by silicon epitaxy is presented. The power of this new technique is demonstrated by fabrication of silicon drift detectors (SDDs), whereby both the n-type and p-type implants are replaced by n-type and p-type epi-layers. The very first SDDs ever produced with this technique show energy resolutions of 150 eV for 55 Fe at -35 deg C. The area of the detectors is 10 mm 2 and the thickness 300 μm. The high potential of epitaxy for future detectors with integrated complex electronics is described

  11. Assessment of an amorphous silicon EPID for quality assurance of enhanced dynamic wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    2004-01-01

    measurements made with an ionisation chamber under the same conditions. The reproducibility of the EPID measured wedge-factors was determined by comparing three weekly measurement results. EPID profiles measured were in good agreement (within 5%) of Profiler measurements for both wedge angles and all field sizes. The EPID profiles had flood-field corrections removed to give the raw-response of the EPID system. Normalised EPID 60 deg wedge profiles measured at weekly intervals were within 0.5% of each other excluding the penumbra region. The EPID measured wedge-factors are shown. These were all within 0.6% of the mean result from routine weekly ion-chamber measurements. The standard deviation of the three measurements was 0.27% which is similar to the standard deviation of the routine ion-chamber measurements of 0.4%. The amorphous silicon EPID is highly suited to routine quality assurance of EDW. Measurements of both wedge-factors and wedge profiles are accurate and reproducible. The quality assurance measurements can be made in a matter of a few minutes, with virtually no experimental set-up time. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  12. Progress toward clinical implementation of the first flat-panel amorphous silicon imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Weidong, Huang; Sandler, Howard; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Yorkston, John

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 7 years after the development of the general concept, megavoltage imagers based on thin-film, flat-panel electronics will likely enter routine clinical use within the next few years. In this paper, current capabilities and anticipated development of this imaging technology as pertains to clinical use will be presented. The results of the first use of this technology with an early prototype imager in a clinical setting are reported. The development of a more advanced clinical prototype imager designed for routine clinical use is described and the clinically-relevant capabilities, advantages, and limitations of this device are described. Materials and Methods: Flat-panel amorphous silicon imagers consist of an imaging array, an x-ray converter, external data acquisition electronics, along with appropriate software and a host workstation. The array consists of a two-dimensional grid of imaging pixels with each pixel consisting of a transistor coupled to a photodiode. An initial study of patient imaging has been performed with an early prototype imager which incorporates a 512x560 array with 450 μm pixels giving an imaging surface of 23x25 cm 2 . Portal images acquired with this prototype imager and with film under similar geometric and irradiation conditions were acquired and compared. In addition, a clinical prototype imager based upon a 26x26 cm 2 array with 508 μm pixels (512x512 pixels) is under development. This prototype incorporates advanced analog and digital external electronics which will improve imaging performance thereby increasing clinical utility of the device. The imagers are interfaced to the operation of a treatment machine so as to allow both radiographic and fluoroscopic operation. Results: The image quality is limited by the presence of pixel and line defects in the array and by the presence of correlated and uncorrelated noise sources in the acquisition system. Nevertheless, the contrast and spatial resolution offered by

  13. Development of an IMRT quality assurance program using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.; Oliver, L.; Mallik, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Quality Assurance (QA) for an intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) megavoltage beam is a complex task. The positional accuracy of the MLC; its radiation leakage; the overall distribution of the dose delivered as compared to the treatment plan and; the accuracy of the calculated monitor units to deliver this dose, are all important parameters to clinically monitor. We are presently assessing the Varian version 6 software package with CadPlan, Helios with IMRT and inverse planning, VARiS Vision and the linear accelerator DMLC controller. Whilst conventional QA tools such as ionisation chamber and film measurements are used, these methods are inconvenient for directly monitoring an IMRT patient treatment. Varian Medical Systems has developed an improved electronic portal imaging device (EPID) with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) detector array. The A-Si has a sensitive area of 40x30cm and an improved image resolution of 512x384 pixels. Images are recorded at approximately 7-10 frames per second for an exposure rate of 100-600 MU/minute. Although the A-Si was designed as an EPID for a static treatment field, this new device could be a valuable IMRT QA tool for a range of different tests. Measurements taken on the RNSH and Varian prototype A-Si EPI devices showed a linear dose response for 6-18MeV X-ray energy. In addition to the Varian IAS2 internal software handlers, we have developed some image data handling programs to view and analyse these images in more detail. The software is primarily used to view the images; measure the reading in a region of interest or profile; or merge, overlay, add or subtract images during the analysis. The small pixel resolution provides a reliable, highly accurate means of measuring beam size, leaf position, MLC radiation leakage or profile intensity curves with a positional accuracy of 0.8mm. The images produced by an IMRT exposure is clearly discernible and appears consistent with the result expected. Step wedge images

  14. The role of oxide interlayers in back reflector configurations for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demontis, V.; Sanna, C.; Melskens, J.; Santbergen, R.; Smets, A.H.M.; Damiano, A.; Zeman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin oxide interlayers are commonly added to the back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells to increase their current. To gain more insight in the enhancement mechanism, we tested different back reflector designs consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) and/or hydrogenated silicon

  15. Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviero, E.; David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 °C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 °C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {311} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon interface); 1984 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous silicon no kaimen no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    As for the formation of amorphous semiconductors by photo-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes, details are examined of a-Si formed by the excimer laser-excited photo-CVD process, a-SiC formed by the directly excited photo-CVD process, a-SiGe formed by the mercury sensitized reaction photo-CVD process, and {mu}c-Si formed by the mercury-sensitized reaction photo-CVD process. It is then found that all of the said materials are superior to a product of the plasma CVD process in terms of film quality. As for the fabrication of amorphous Si solar cells by a photo-CVD process, a 3-separate-chamber unit is built, in which all the p-, I-, and n-layer are formed by photo-CVD. It is then found that the introduction of a buffer layer into the p/I interface is a powerful tool to enhance efficiency and that the use of the buffer zone brings about an increase of 9% or more in conversion efficiency. In the case of an amorphous solar cell using monosilane, buffer layer introduction results in a conversion efficiency of 9.05%. (NEDO)

  17. Influence of post-hydrogenation upon electrical, optical and structural properties of hydrogen-less sputter-deposited amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, S., E-mail: sebastian.gerke@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Becker, H.-W.; Rogalla, D. [RUBION — Central Unit for Ion Beams and Radioisotopes, University of Bochum, Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Singer, F.; Brinkmann, N.; Fritz, S.; Hammud, A.; Keller, P.; Skorka, D.; Sommer, D. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Weiß, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Flege, S. [Department of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt 64287 (Germany); Hahn, G. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Job, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Münster University of Applied Sciences, Steinfurt 48565 (Germany); Terheiden, B. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is common in the production of technical devices and can be deposited by several techniques. In this study intrinsic and doped, hydrogen-less amorphous silicon films are RF magnetron sputter deposited and post-hydrogenated in a remote hydrogen plasma reactor at a temperature of 370 °C. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of a boron doped (p) a-Si layer shows that the concentration of dopants in the sputtered layer becomes the same as present in the sputter-target. Improved surface passivation of phosphorous doped 5 Ω cm, FZ, (n) c-Si can be achieved by post-hydrogenation yielding a minority carrier lifetime of ~ 360 μs finding an optimum for ~ 40 nm thin films, deposited at 325 °C. This relatively low minority carrier lifetime indicates high disorder of the hydrogen-less sputter deposited amorphous network. Post-hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the number of localized states within the band gap. Optical band gaps (Taucs gab as well as E{sub 04}) can be determined to ~ 1.88 eV after post-hydrogenation. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and optical Raman investigations show that the sputtered layers are amorphous and stay like this during post-hydrogenation. As a consequence of the missing hydrogen during deposition, sputtered a-Si forms a rough surface compared to CVD a-Si. Atomic force microscopy points out that the roughness decreases by up to 25% during post-hydrogenation. Nuclear resonant reaction analysis permits the investigation of hydrogen depth profiles and allows determining the diffusion coefficients of several post-hydrogenated samples from of a model developed within this work. A dependency of diffusion coefficients on the duration of post-hydrogenation indicates trapping diffusion as the main diffusion mechanism. Additional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements show that hardly any interstitial hydrogen exists in the post-hydrogenated a-Si layers. The results of this study open the way for

  18. Moessbauer and magnetic resonance experiments on amorphous iron-silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, C.; Campbell, S.J.; Stewart, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements at room temperature and 4.2 K, and room temperature magnetic resonance measurments on a series of amorphous Fesub(x)Sisub(1-x) thin films (0.23 <= x <= 0.81) are presented. The concentration dependence of the isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings provides information on the nature of the local coordination in these amorphous materials. Analysis of the distributions of magnetic hyperfine splitting combined with the presence of multiple resonance in the magnetic resonance data indiates that magnetoanisotropy plays a dominant role in determining the magnetic behaviour of these films. (orig.)

  19. Flexible high-κ/Metal gate metal/insulator/metal capacitors on silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Implementation of memory on bendable substrates is an important step toward a complete and fully developed notion of mechanically flexible computational systems. In this paper, we have demonstrated a simple fabrication flow to build metal-insulator-metal capacitors, key components of dynamic random access memory, on a mechanically flexible silicon (100) fabric. We rely on standard microfabrication processes to release a thin sheet of bendable silicon (area: 18 {\\ m cm}2 and thickness: 25 \\\\mu{\\ m m}) in an inexpensive and reliable way. On such platform, we fabricated and characterized the devices showing mechanical robustness (minimum bending radius of 10 mm at an applied strain of 83.33% and nominal strain of 0.125%) and consistent electrical behavior regardless of the applied mechanical stress. Furthermore, and for the first time, we performed a reliability study suggesting no significant difference in performance and showing an improvement in lifetime projections. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  20. Ultra-thin alumina and silicon nitride MEMS fabricated membranes for the electron multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, V.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. V. D.; Sarro, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of large arrays of ultrathin freestanding membranes (tynodes) for application in a timed photon counter (TiPC), a novel photomultiplier for single electron detection. Low pressure chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (Si x N y ) and atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) with thicknesses down to only 5 nm are employed for the membrane fabrication. Detailed characterization of structural, mechanical and chemical properties of the utilized films is carried out for different process conditions and thicknesses. Furthermore, the performance of the tynodes is investigated in terms of secondary electron emission, a fundamental attribute that determines their applicability in TiPC. Studied features and presented fabrication methods may be of interest for other MEMS application of alumina and silicon nitride as well, in particular where strong ultra-thin membranes are required.