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Sample records for fabricating 124i nuclear

  1. Simulation of Thermal Responses of 125TeO2 Solid Target to Energetic Proton Bombardment from Cyclotron When Fabricating 124I Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peir, Jinn-Jer; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Duh, Ting-Shieh

    With nuclear medicine receiving greater attention due to its unique characteristics in both diagnostics and therapeutics during recent decades, finding a highly controllable fabrication method becomes more urgent. The radioisotope 124I (T1/2=4.18d Eβ+=2.13MeV Iβ+=25%) has gained plentiful interests in the medical usages such as functioning imaging of cell proliferation in brain tumors using [124I]iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), imaging of immunoreactions in tumors using 124I-labelled monoclonal antibodies, the in-vivo imaging of 124I-labelled tyrosine derivatives, and the classical imaging of thyroid diseases with 124I, among others. Furthermore, it is because that thermal response of target during the fabrication process may affect the production of 124I to some extent and needs thorough investigations. Hence, the compact cyclotron located in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was employed in this study to generate 20MeV protons to irradiate TeO2 solid targets in which the radioisotopes 124I were produced through the 125Te(p, 2n)124I nuclear reaction. In addition, the widely-used ANSYS computer code was adopted to theoretically analyze thermal responses of TeO2 to irradiation cases with variations in ion beam current and its thermal conductivity. The results indicate that TeO2 temperature is strongly dependent on its thermal conductivity and ion beam current. In particular, TeO2 surface temperature is extremely sensitive to the air-gap size between TeO2 and target holder. Thus the target holder is suggested to be re-designed in order to prevent TeO2 from melting and a high efficiency production of radioisotopes 124I for nuclear medical diagnostics can be successfully achieved.

  2. Excitation functions of 124Te(d,xn)124,125I reactions from threshold up to 14 MeV: comparative evaluation of nuclear routes for the production of 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T H; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-09-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 124Te(d,xn)124-125I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 14.0 MeV via the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.8% enriched 124Te on Ti-backing. The excitation function of the 124Te(d,n)125I reaction was measured for the first time. The present data for the 124Te(d,2n)124I reaction are by an order of magnitude higher than the literature experimental data but are in good agreement with the results of a hybrid model calculation. From the measured cross sections, integral yields of 124,125I were calculated. The energy range Ed = 14 --> 10 MeV appears to be the best compromise between 124I-yield and 1251-impurity. The calculated 124I-yield amounts to 17.5 MBq/microA h and the 125I-impurity to 1.7%. A critical evaluation of the three nuclear routes for the production of 124I, viz. 124Te(d,2n)-, 124Te(p,n)- and 125Te(p,2n)-processes, is given. The reaction studied in this work proved to be least suitable. The 124Te(p,n)-reaction gives 124I of the highest radionuclidic purity, and a small-sized cyclotron is adequate for production purposes. The 125Te(p,2n)-reaction is more suitable at a medium-sized cyclotron: the yield of 124I is four times higher than in the other two reactions but the level of 0.9% 125I-impurity is relatively high.

  3. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  4. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  5. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  6. Welding and fabrication in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Safety and reliability are vital elements for a nuclear plant because of the catastrophic consequences of failure. As a result, the standards demanded of welding and fabrication are higher than those in any other comparable industry. Meeting these standards has exercised the ingenuity and skill of scientists and engineers to produce improvements in properties of materials, tightening of specifications, refinements in detailed design, new and improved fabrication processes and exacting inspecting and testing methods. The task has also become more difficult as plant sizes have increased and much thicker sections have had to be used. The papers and discussions reported in this volume demonstrate the response to this challenge. While laboratory work and testing techniques are covered, the bias is towards the practical problems of design and specification of materials and processes, production and site construction work, and the feedback from plant operating experience. Though directed to solving the particular problems of nuclear plants, many of the techniques and methods described will be of broader interest, since they have applications in other environments where a high standard of integrity is required. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers in scope. (DLC)

  7. Evaluation of {sup 124}I PET/CT and {sup 124}I PET/MRI in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercle, Laurent; Deandreis, Desiree; Terroir, Marie; Leboulleux, Sophie; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    The work of Binse and colleagues points out that there are probably some research perspectives for the use of {sup 124}I PET/ CT and PET/MRI in patients with DTC. It shows that there is no substantial advantage of {sup 124}I PET/MRI over {sup 124}I PET/CT for the detection of tumour lesions in the neck when using similar PET devices. It confirms the superiority of {sup 124}I PET over CT and MRI for the detection of iodine-positive lesions. It demonstrates that the use of a more sensitive PET device and a longer acquisition time leads to the detection of more lesions. {sup 124}I PET is a promising research tool for pretherapy dosimetry, the evaluation of response to {sup 131}I treatment and the staging of recurrent or residual disease. The recognized advantages of MRI are the evaluation of aerodigestive tract lesions and suprahyoid region lesions. The coregistration of MRI and {sup 124}I PET/CT might thus be more convenient than {sup 124}I PET/ MRI (shorter time of acquisition, better cost-effectiveness and more accurate attenuation correction). The benefits of these procedures in terms of patient outcome, and for the clinician and the healthcare system remain to be determined.

  8. Excitation functions of 125Te(p, xn)-reactions from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV with special reference to the production of 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, A; Nortier, F M; Scholten, B; van der Walt, T N; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-08-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 125Te(p, xn) (119,120m, 120g, 121,122,123,124,125)I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 98.3% enriched 125Te on Ti-backing. In addition to experimental studies, excitation functions were calculated by the modified hybrid model code ALICE-IPPE. The experimental and theoretical data generally showed good agreement. From the measured cross section data, integral yields of (123,124,125)I were calculated. The energy range Ep 21 --> 15 MeV appears to be very suitable for the production of the medically interesting radionuclide 124I (T(1/2) = 4.18 d; I(beta)+ = 25%). The thick target yield of 124I amounts to 81 MBq/microA h and the level of 125I-impurity to 0.9%. The 125Te(p,2n)124I reaction gives 124I yield about four times higher than the commonly used 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(d,2n)124I reactions. The proposed production energy range is too high for small cyclotrons but large quantities of 124I can be produced with medium-sized commercial machines.

  9. Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hench, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of UN-USix Nuclear Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Raftery, Alicia Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, UN-U3Si2 nuclear fuel was fabricated using spark plasma sintering and characterized to analyze the microstructure and crystal structure of the resulting pellets. This work was done in collaboration with accident tolerant fuel research, an effort which aims at developing nuclear fuel with superior safety and performance compared to currently used oxide fuels. Uranium silicide was manufactured by arc melting to produce U3Si2 and uranium mononitride was synthesized by using the h...

  11. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  12. PET quantitation and imaging of the non-pure positron-emitting iodine isotope 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, H; Tellman, L; Qaim, S M; Spellerberg, S; Schmid, A; Coenen, H H

    2002-05-01

    A series of PET studies using phantoms is presented to characterize the imaging and quantitative performance of the positron-emitting iodine isotope 124I. Measurements were performed on the 2D-PET scanner GE 4096+ as well as on the Siemens PET scanner HRR+ operated in both 2D and 3D modes. No specific correction was applied for the gamma-rays emitted together with the positrons. As compared to 18F, in studies with 124I there is a small loss of image resolution and contrast, and an increase in background. The quantitative results varied between different scanners and various acquisition as well as reconstruction modes, with an average relative difference of -6 +/- 13% (mean+/-SD) in respect of the phantom radioactivity as measured with gamma-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that quantitation of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with 124I is feasible and may be improved by the development of specific corrections.

  13. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests.

  14. Development of Fabrication Technology for Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, Y. G.; Jung, C. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Son, D. S

    2006-04-15

    Purpose and Necessity Research purposes for the 3rd stage were to reaffirm the MOX fabrication processes and to establish the process database, based on the fabrication technology developed during the previous stage. This project was also proceeded to improve the fuel performance and to accomplish the inherent MOX technology for PWR. The fabrication processes should be proceeded in the glove boxes because the raw powders of MOX fuel is very toxic. Therefore, some special technology were needed to develop besides the fuel fabrication technology. Both core technology and steadiness of fabrication process are important to obtain homogeneity and thermo-physical properties of MOX fuel pellet. By developing these technology in fashion unique to ourselves, we can take the initiative in the nuclear fuel for next generation. The uranium price has been increasing along with the oil price recently. We have to secure the MOX fabrication technology which serves the effective use of uranium resource. Improvement of pellet characteristics along with the MOX irradiation analysis: Collection and monitoring of the MOX irradiation data, Establishment of the improvement methods of pellet characteristics Establishment of the MOX pellet fabrication process by the unique technology, Establishment of database with the MOX fabrication parameters and characteristics, Analysis of co-relation and re-appearance of the pellet characteristics affected by each process parameter, Construction of feedback system between database and process, Application of the unique fabrication technology to the industrial spot. Applicability of the unique fabrication processes to the glove box technology, Installment of process equipment in the glove box and development of operation skill, Methods for modifying, handling, maintaining and fixing of glove box and subsidiary, Construction of transport channel for the connection between glove boxes - MOX fabrication by the unique technology in the glove box. Research

  15. A recommendation for revised dose calibrator measurement procedures for 89Zr and 124I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Beattie

    Full Text Available Because of their chemical properties and multiday half lives, iodine-124 and zirconium-89 are being used in a growing number of PET imaging studies. Some aspects of their quantitation, however, still need attention. For (89Zr the PET images should, in principle, be as quantitatively accurate as similarly reconstructed 18F measurements. We found, however, that images of a 20 cm well calibration phantom containing (89Zr underestimated the activity by approximately 10% relative to a dose calibrator measurement (Capintec CRC-15R using a published calibration setting number of 465. PET images of (124I, in contrast, are complicated by the contribution of decays in cascade that add spurious coincident events to the PET data. When these cascade coincidences are properly accounted for, quantitatively accurate images should be possible. We found, however, that even with this correction we still encountered what appeared to be a large variability in the accuracy of the PET images when compared to dose calibrator measurements made using the calibration setting number, 570, recommended by Capintec. We derive new calibration setting numbers for (89Zr and (124I based on their 511 keV photon peaks as measured on an HPGe detector. The peaks were calibrated relative to an 18F standard, the activity level of which was precisely measured in a dose calibrator under well-defined measurement conditions. When measuring (89Zr on a Capintec CRC-15R we propose the use of calibration setting number 517. And for (124I, we recommend the use of a copper filter surrounding the sample and the use of calibration setting number 494. The new dose calibrator measurement procedures we propose will result in more consistent and accurate radioactivity measurements of (89Zr and (124I. These and other positron emitting radionuclides can be accurately calibrated relative to 18F based on measurements of their 511 keV peaks and knowledge of their relative positron abundances.

  16. Optimization and assessment of quantitative {sup 124}I imaging on a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Rebecca A.; Hooker, Claire A.; Partridge, Mike; Flux, Glenn D. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Quantitative {sup 124}I PET imaging is challenging as {sup 124}I has a complex decay scheme. In this study the performance of a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system was optimized and assessed for {sup 124}I. The energy window giving the maximum noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and NEMA 2001-NU2 image quality were measured. The activity concentration (AC) accuracy of images calibrated using factors from {sup 18}F and {sup 124}I decaying source measurements were investigated. The energy window 455-588 keV gave the maximum NECR of 9.67 kcps for 233 MBq. {sup 124}I and {sup 18}F image quality was comparable, although {sup 124}I background variability was increased. The average underestimation in AC in {sup 124}I images was 17.9 {+-} 2.9% for nonuniform background and 14.7 {+-} 2.9% for single scatter simulation (SSS) subtraction scatter correction. At 224 MBq the underestimation was 10.8 {+-} 11.3%, which is comparable to 7.7 {+-} 5.3% for {sup 18}F, but increased with decreasing activity. The best {sup 124}I PET quantitative accuracy was achieved for the optimized energy window, using SSS scatter correction and calibration factors from decaying {sup 124}I source measurements. The quantitative accuracy for {sup 124}I was comparable to that for {sup 18}F at high activities of 224 MBq but diminishing with decreasing activity. Specific corrections for prompt {gamma}-photons may further improve the quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  17. Matched pairs dosimetry: {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I metaiodobenzylguanidine and {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi and University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Pepe, Giovanna; Antunovic, Lidija [IRCCS Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Castellani, Maria Rita; Bombardieri, Emilio [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The technological advances in imaging and production of radiopharmaceuticals are driving an innovative way of evaluating the targets for antineoplastic therapies. Besides the use of imaging to better delineate the volume of external beam radiation therapy in oncology, modern imaging techniques are able to identify targets for highly specific medical therapies, using chemotherapeutic drugs and antiangiogenesis molecules. Moreover, radionuclide imaging is able to select targets for radionuclide therapy and to give the way to in vivo dose calculation to target tissues and to critical organs. This contribution reports the main studies published on matched pairs dosimetry with {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I- and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, with an emphasis on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  18. Disseminated iodine-avid lung metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer: a challenge to {sup 124}I PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz S.; Jentzen, Walter; Mueller, Stefan P.; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    This study assessed the ability of visual and quantitative 124-iodine positron emission tomography ({sup 124}I PET) data to detect disseminated iodine-avid lung metastases (DILM) of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using ''post-therapy'' 131-iodine ({sup 131}I) whole-body scintigraphy (TxWBS) and thoracic computed tomography (CT), we retrospectively divided 70 consecutive DTC patients undergoing {sup 124}I PET dosimetry {proportional_to}1 week before {sup 131}I therapy into subgroups positive (n = 7) or negative (n = 63) for DILM, defined as lung metastases visible on TxWBS but not thoracic CT. To determine whether {sup 124}I PET data could distinguish patients with versus without DILM, we compared these data with the TxWBS findings. The {sup 124}I PET data were acquired via whole-body PET scans {proportional_to}24 h after oral administration of {sup 124}I, 24 {+-} 2 MBq. Quantitative data comprised absolute lung {sup 124}I activity concentrations and lung-to-background (L/B) {sup 124}I uptake ratios. Only 1/7 DILM-positive patients had visible disseminated lung uptake. Absolute {sup 124}I lung uptake activities overlapped considerably between both groups and did not differ significantly (P = 0.150). Mean L/B ratios, however, differed significantly between the DILM-positive and negative groups (P < 0.001). Nevertheless, L/B ratios overlapped between the groups (0.62-1.37 versus 0.13-0.69). Quantitative analysis of {sup 124}I PET data using the L/B ratio is a promising tool to detect patients suspicious for DILM. However, L/B ratios overlapped between the groups to an extent that an unequivocal diagnosis based solely on this criterion was impossible in some patients. In those cases, additional diagnostic tests are necessary for diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Novel fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These materials include refractory alloys based on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as SiC--SiCf; carbon--carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor components is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the fuel can lower the center-line temperature and, thereby, enhance power production capabilities and reduce the risk of premature fuel pellet failure. Crystalline silicon carbide has superior characteristics as a structural material from the viewpoint of its thermal and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance, chemical stability, and low radioactivation. Therefore, there have been many efforts to develop SiC based composites in various forms for use in advanced energy systems. In recent years, with the development of high yield preceramic precursors, the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method has aroused interest for the fabrication of ceramic based materials, for various applications ranging from disc brakes to nuclear reactor fuels. The pyrolysis of preceramic polymers allow new types of ceramic materials to be processed at relatively low temperatures. The raw materials are element-organic polymers whose composition and architecture can be tailored and varied. The primary focus of this study is to use a pyrolysis based process to fabricate a host of novel silicon carbide-metal carbide or oxide composites, and to synthesize new materials based on mixed-metal silicocarbides that cannot be processed using conventional techniques. Allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), which is an organometal polymer, was used as the precursor for silicon carbide. Inert gas pyrolysis of AHPCS produces near-stoichiometric amorphous

  20. Dual monitoring using {sup 124}I-FIAU and bioluminescence for HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kwon, H. C. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is the most common reporter gene and is used in cancer gene therapy with a prodrug nucleoside analog, ganciclovir (GCV). The aim of this study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of suicide gene therapy with 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-[{sup 124}I] iodouracil ({sup 124}I - FIAU) and bioluminescence in retrovirally HSV -tk and firefly luciferase transduced hepatoma model. The HSV -tk and firefly luciferase (Luc) was retrovirally transduced and expressed in MCA rat Morris hepatoma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors, MCA and MCA-TK-Luc, were subjected to GCV treatment (50mg/Kg/d intraperitoneally) for 5 day. PET imaging and biodistribution with ({sup 124}I-FIAU) were performed at before and after initiation of therapy with GCV. Bioluminescent signal was also measured during GCV treatment. Before GCV treatment, no significant difference in tumor volume was found in tumors between MCA and MCA-TK-Luc. After GCV treatment, tumor volume of MCA-TK-Luc markedly reduced compared to that of MCA. In biodistribution study, {sup 124}I-FIAU uptake after GCV therapy significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels (34.8 13.67 %ID/g vs 7.6 2.59 %ID/g) and bioluminescent signal was also significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels. In small animal PET imaging, {sup 124}I-FIAU selectively localized in HSV -tk expressing tumor and the therapeutic efficacy of GCV treatment was evaluated by {sup 124}I-FIAU PET imaging. {sup 124}I-FIAU PET and bioluminescence imaging in HSV-tk suicide gene therapy were effective to evaluate the therapeutic response. {sup 124}I-FIAU may serve as an efficient and selective agent for monitoring of transduced HSV1-tk gene expression in vivo in clinical trials.

  1. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part I. Fuel descriptions and fabrication processes, P. O. 1236909 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; Miller, C.L.

    1978-12-01

    The report presents information on foreign nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Fuel descriptions and fuel fabrication information for three basic reactor types are presented: The information presented for LWRs assumes that Pu--U Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) will be used as fuel.

  2. Comparison of Imaging Characteristics of 124I PET for Determination of Optimal Energy Window on the Siemens Inveon PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ram Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.124I has a half-life of 4.2 days, which makes it suitable for imaging over several days over its uptake and washout phases. However, it has a low positron branching ratio (23%, because of prompt gamma coincidence due to high-energy γ-photons (602 to 1,691 keV, which are emitted in cascade with positrons. Methods. In this study, we investigated the optimal PET energy window for 124I PET based on image characteristics of reconstructed PET. Image characteristics such as nonuniformities, recovery coefficients (RCs, and the spillover ratios (SORs of 124I were measured as described in NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results. The maximum and minimum prompt gamma coincidence fraction (PGF were 33% and 2% in 350~800 and 400~590 keV, respectively. The difference between best and worst uniformity in the various energy windows was less than 1%. The lowest SORs of 124I were obtained at 350~750 keV in nonradioactive water compartment. Conclusion. Optimal energy window should be determined based on image characteristics. Our developed correction method would be useful for the correction of high-energy prompt gamma photon in 124I PET. In terms of the image quality of 124I PET, our findings indicate that an energy window of 350~750 keV would be optimal.

  3. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period.

  4. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  5. Composite nuclear fuel fabrication methodology for gas fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    An advanced fuel form for use in Gas Fast Reactors (GFR) was investigated. Criteria for the fuel includes operation at high temperature (˜1400°C) and high burnup (˜150 MWD/MTHM) with effective retention of fission products even during transient temperatures exceeding 1600°C. The GFR fuel is expected to contain up to 20% transuranics for a closed fuel cycle. Earlier evaluations of reference fuels for the GFR have included ceramic-ceramic (cercer) dispersion type composite fuels of mixed carbide or nitride microspheres coated with SiC in a SiC matrix. Studies have indicated that ZrC is a potential replacement for SiC on account of its higher melting point, increased fission product corrosion resistance and better chemical stability. The present work investigated natural uranium carbide microspheres in a ZrC matrix instead of SiC. Known issues of minor actinide volatility during traditional fabrication procedures necessitated the investigation of still high temperature but more rapid fabrication techniques to minimize these anticipated losses. In this regard, fabrication of ZrC matrix by combustion synthesis from zirconium and graphite powders was studied. Criteria were established to obtain sufficient matrix density with UC microsphere volume fractions up to 30%. Tests involving production of microspheres by spark erosion method (similar to electrodischarge machining) showed the inability of the method to produce UC microspheres in the desired range of 300 to 1200 mum. A rotating electrode device was developed using a minimum current of 80A and rotating at speeds up to 1500 rpm to fabricate microspheres between 355 and 1200 mum. Using the ZrC process knowledge, UC electrodes were fabricated and studied for use in the rotating electrode device to produce UC microspheres. Fabrication of the cercer composite form was studied using microsphere volume fractions of 10%, 20%, and 30%. The macrostructure of the composite and individual components at various stages were

  6. {sup 124}I-L19-SIP for immuno-PET imaging of tumour vasculature and guidance of {sup 131}I-L19-SIP radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijink, Bernard M.; Perk, Lars R.; Budde, Marianne; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Leemans, C.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M.; Kloet, Reina W. [VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Berlin (Germany); Neri, Dario [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    The human monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment L19-SIP is directed against extra domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. A clinical radioimmunotherapy (RIT) trial with {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was recently started. In the present study, after GMP production of {sup 124}I and efficient production of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP, we aimed to demonstrate the suitability of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP immuno-PET for imaging of angiogenesis at early-stage tumour development and as a scouting procedure prior to clinical {sup 131}I-L19-SIP RIT. {sup 124}I was produced in a GMP compliant way via {sup 124}Te(p,n){sup 124}I reaction and using a TERIMO trademark module for radioiodine separation. L19-SIP was radioiodinated by using a modified version of the IODO-GEN method. The biodistribution of coinjected {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was compared in FaDu xenograft-bearing nude mice, while {sup 124}I PET images were obtained from mice with tumours of <50 to {proportional_to}700 mm{sup 3}. {sup 124}I was produced highly pure with an average yield of 15.4 {+-} 0.5 MBq/{mu}Ah, while separation yield was {proportional_to}90% efficient with <0.5% loss of TeO{sub 2}. Overall labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and immunoreactive fraction were for {sup 124}I-L19-SIP: {proportional_to}80, 99.9 and >90%, respectively. Tumour uptake was 7.3{+-}2.1, 10.8{+-}1.5, 7.8{+-}1.4, 5.3{+-}0.6 and 3.1{+-}0.4%ID/g at 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h p.i., resulting in increased tumour to blood ratios ranging from 6.0 at 24 h to 45.9 at 72 h p.i. Fully concordant labelling and biodistribution results were obtained with {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP using a high-resolution research tomograph PET scanner revealed clear delineation of the tumours as small as 50 mm{sup 3} and no adverse uptake in other organs. {sup 124}I-MAb conjugates for clinical immuno-PET can be efficiently produced. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP appeared qualified for sensitive

  7. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-11-C-0047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ECBC-TR-1326 HIGH RESOLUTION MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (HRMAS NMR) FOR STUDIES OF REACTIVE FABRICS David J. McGarvey...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An analytical chemistry method is described for measuring the reactivity and permeation of

  8. Criticality Calculations for a Typical Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant with Low Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Hade; Nagy, Mohamed; Agamy, Said; Shaat, Mohmaed [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    The operations with the fissile materials such as U{sup 235} introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel and can lead the facility to shutdown. Therefore, the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The objectives of criticality safety are to prevent a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and to minimize the consequences. Sixty criticality accidents were occurred in the world. These are accidents divided into two categories, 22 accidents occurred in process facilities and 38 accidents occurred during critical experiments or operations with research reactor. About 21 criticality accidents including Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co. (JCO) accident took place with fuel solution or slurry and only one accident occurred with metal fuel. In this study the nuclear criticality calculations have been performed for a typical nuclear fuel fabrication plant producing nuclear fuel elements for nuclear research reactors with low enriched uranium up to 20%. The calculations were performed for both normal and abnormal operation conditions. The effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) during the nuclear fuel fabrication process (Uranium hexafluoride - Ammonium Diuranate conversion process) was determined. Several accident scenarios were postulated and the criticalities of these accidents were evaluated. The computer code MCNP-4B which based on Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations were performed for the cases of, change of moderator to fuel ratio, solution density and concentration of the solute in order to prevent or mitigate criticality accidents during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The calculation results are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Literature on fabrication of tungsten for application in pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Phillips, A.G.; Johnson, L.D.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-10-11

    The pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels requires crucibles, stirrers, and transfer tubing that will withstand the temperature and the chemical attack from molten salts and metals used in the process. This report summarizes the literature that pertains to fabrication (joining, chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, forming, and spinning) is the main theme. This report also summarizes a sampling of literature on molbdenum and the work previously performed at Argonne National Laboratory on other container materials used for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  10. Repercussions of DNA tracking by the type IC restriction endonuclease EcoR124I on linear, circular and catenated substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczelkun, M.D.; Dillingham, M. S.; Janscak, P; Firman, K; Halford, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases such as EcoR124I cleave DNA at undefined loci, distant from their recognition sequences, by a mechanism that involves the enzyme tracking along the DNA between recognition and cleavage sites. This mechanism was examined on plasmids that carried recognition sites for EcoR124I and recombination sites for resolvase, the latter to create DNA catenanes. Supercoiled substrates with either one or two restriction sites were linearized by EcoR124I at similar rates, alt...

  11. High-quality {sup 124}I-labelled monoclonal antibodies for use as PET scouting agents prior to {sup 131}I-radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verel, Iris [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Charlestown (United States); Visser, Gerard W.M. [VU University Medical Center, Radionuclide Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Finn, Ronald [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Center, PET Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) labelled with {sup 124}I are an attractive option for quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in a scouting procedure prior to {sup 131}I-radioimmunotherapy ({sup 131}I-RIT). In this study, three important items in the labelling of MAbs with {sup 124}I were introduced to obtain optimal and reproducible product quality: restoration of radiation-induced inorganic deterioration of the starting {sup 124}I solution, radiation protection during and after {sup 124}I labelling, and synchronisation of the I/MAb molar ratio. A new method was applied, using an NaIO{sub 3}/NaI carrier mix, realising in one step >90% restoration of deteriorated {sup 124}I into the iodide form and chemical control over the I/MAb molar ratio. Chimeric MAb (cMAb) U36 and the murine MAbs 425 and E48 were labelled with {sup 124}I using the so-called Iodogen-coated MAb method, as this method provides optimal quality conjugates under challenging radiation conditions. As a standardising condition, NaIO{sub 3}/NaI carrier mix was added at a stoichiometric I/MAb molar ratio of 0.9. For comparison, MAbs were labelled with {sup 131}I and with a mixture of {sup 124}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 126}I and {sup 130}I. Labelling with {sup 124}I in this setting resulted in overall yields of >70%, a radiochemical purity of >95%, and preservation of MAb integrity and immunoreactivity, including at the patient dose level (85 MBq). No significant quality differences were observed when compared with {sup 131}I products, while the iodine isotope mixture gave exactly the same labelling efficiency for each of the isotopes, excluding a different chemical reactivity of {sup 124}I-iodide. The scouting performance of {sup 124}I-cMAb U36 labelled at the patient dose level was evaluated in biodistribution studies upon co-injection with {sup 131}I-labelled cMAb U36, and by PET imaging in nude mice bearing the head and neck cancer xenograft line HNX-OE. {sup 124}I-cMAb and {sup 131}I

  12. Determination and quantification of impurities found in samples of {sup 124}I using gamma spectrometry; Determinacao e quantificacao de impurezas encontradas em amostra de {sup 124}I usando a espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo Lins da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Poledna, Roberto; Veras, Eduardo de; Almeida, Maria Candida M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braghirolli, Ana Maria S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 124}I, positron emitter is produced in the IEN/CNEN-RJ and used in diagnosis image of tumors. In this radioisotope production process impurities appear and health agency requires that the level of these characteristics is quantified. These radionuclides emit gamma and X-radiation, allowing the identification and quantitation by gamma spectrometry. With the use of HPGE detector, coupled with the efficiency curve, was identified {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I. The impurity levels measured in the sample were in the range of 0.5% to 90%, respectively, indicating the feasibility of the method for controlling the quality of the radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Fabrication of nuclear fuel assemblies in Mexico; Fabricacion de ensambles de combustible nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano B, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: amb@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In the Pilot Production Plant of Nuclear Fuel facilities (PPFCN) located in the Nuclear Center of Mexico; its were processed approximately 1000 Kg of powder of uranium dioxide with 11 different enrichments from 0.71 up to 3.95% U-235, the pellets were encapsulated in Zircaloy tubes and armed around 300 rods of nuclear fuel for to manufacture four assembles of nuclear fuel and a DUMMY for the qualification of processes, personnel and equipment. The project beginning in 1990 with the one agreement among General Electric, Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), after building the PPFCN, to install equipment, to design the parameters of production and to qualify us as suppliers of nuclear fuel; it was begins in 1994 the production of four GE9B assemblies that surrendered to the CNLV in May, 1996. In 1998 its were loaded in the unit 1 of the CNLV, assemble them of nuclear fuel with serial numbers INI002, INI003, INI004 and INI005 with an average enrichment of 3.03% U-235, four complete operational cycles worked including the central control cell. During the works of the ninth recharge of the unit 1 of the CNLV, September 20, 2002 were removed these assemblies from the reactor core reaching a burnt of 35313 MWD/TMU. (Author)

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of GeoPET experiments: 3D images of tracer distributions (18F, 124I and 58Co) in Opalinus clay, anhydrite and quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Understanding conservative fluid flow and reactive tracer transport in soils and rock formations requires quantitative transport visualization methods in 3D+t. After a decade of research and development we established the GeoPET as a non-destructive method with unrivalled sensitivity and selectivity, with due spatial and temporal resolution by applying Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging method, to dense rock material. Requirements for reaching the physical limit of image resolution of nearly 1 mm are (a) a high-resolution PET-camera, like our ClearPET scanner (Raytest), and (b) appropriate correction methods for scatter and attenuation of 511 keV—photons in the dense geological material. The latter are by far more significant in dense geological material than in human and small animal body tissue (water). Here we present data from Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) reflecting selected GeoPET experiments. The MCS consider all involved nuclear physical processes of the measurement with the ClearPET-system and allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the method and the scatter fractions in geological media as function of material (quartz, Opalinus clay and anhydrite compared to water), PET isotope (18F, 58Co and 124I), and geometric system parameters. The synthetic data sets obtained by MCS are the basis for detailed performance assessment studies allowing for image quality improvements. A scatter correction method is applied exemplarily by subtracting projections of simulated scattered coincidences from experimental data sets prior to image reconstruction with an iterative reconstruction process.

  15. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste containers for storage at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA)

    1989-04-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B & W`s role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O' Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  17. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of CeO{sub 2} pellets for simulation of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ostos, C.; Rodríguez-Ortiz, J.A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Arévalo, C., E-mail: carevalo@us.es [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Cobos, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense, 40, Madrid (Spain); Gotor, F.J. [Materials Science Institute of Seville (CSIC-US), Av. Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Torres, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} is presented as a surrogate material for UO{sub 2} to study nuclear fuel. • Powder-metallurgy methods are applied to fabricate CeO{sub 2} pellets with controlled porosity. • An optimization of the fabrication parameters is established. • Microstructural and tribo-mechanical characterizations are performed. • Properties are compared to those of the nuclear fuel. - Abstract: Cerium Oxide, CeO{sub 2}, has been shown as a surrogate material to understand irradiated Mixed Oxide (MOX) based matrix fuel for nuclear power plants due to its similar structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, CeO{sub 2} pellets with controlled porosity have been developed through conventional powder-metallurgy process. Influence of the main processing parameters (binder content, compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time) on porosity and volumetric contraction values has been studied. Microstructure and physical properties of sintered compacts have also been characterized through several techniques. Mechanical properties such as dynamic Young's modulus, hardness and fracture toughness have been determined and connected to powder-metallurgy parameters. Simulation of nuclear fuel after reactor utilization with radial gradient porosity is proposed.

  19. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  20. Microstructural Examination to Aid in Understanding Friction Bonding Fabrication Technique for Monolithic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen L. Shropshire

    2008-04-01

    Monolithic nuclear fuel is currently being developed for use in research reactors, and friction bonding (FB) is a technique being developed to help in this fuel’s fabrication. Since both FB and monolithic fuel are new concepts, research is needed to understand the impact of varying FB fabrication parameters on fuel plate characteristics. This thesis research provides insight into the FB process and its application to the monolithic fuel design by recognizing and understanding the microstructural effects of varying fabrication parameters (a) FB tool load, and (b) FB tool face alloy. These two fabrication parameters help drive material temperature during fabrication, and thus the material properties, bond strength, and possible formation of interface reaction layers. This study analyzed temperatures and tool loads measured during those FB processes and examined microstructural characteristics of materials and bonds in samples taken from the resulting fuel plates. This study shows that higher tool load increases aluminum plasticization and forging during FB, and that the tool face alloy helps determine the tool’s heat extraction efficacy. The study concludes that successful aluminum bonds can be attained in fuel plates using a wide range of FB tool loads. The range of tool loads yielding successful uranium-aluminum bonding was not established, but it was demonstrated that such bonding can be attained with FB tool load of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf) when using a FB tool faced with a tungsten alloy. This tool successfully performed FB, and with better results than tools faced with other materials. Results of this study correlate well with results reported for similar aluminum bonding techniques. This study’s results also provide support and validation for other nuclear fuel development studies and conclusions. Recommendations are offered for further research.

  1. In vivo cell tracking imaging of hexadecyl-4-[{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]iodobenzoate labeled adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyo Chul [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring of transplanted stem cells for cardiac repair is important part in regenerative medicine. Direct cell labeling techniques using [{sup 18}F]FDG, [{sup 64}Cu]PTSM and [{sup 99m}Tc]-HMPAO have been developed for in vivo imaging. Especially, {sup 18}F-labeled derivates have been widely used for direct labeling agent. But the {sup 18}F has short half life (T{sub 1/2}={approx}2 h), thus this imaging agent has limitation of in vivo imaging. We used {sup 123}I or {sup 124}I which has relative long half life, to track the transplanted stem cells for a long-term imaging. This study is aimed to track the transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in rat heart using hexadecyl-4-[{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo

  2. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P. O. 1236909. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design.

  3. CDMS Detector Fabrication Improvements and Low Energy Nuclear Recoil Measurements in Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastram, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) experiment is scaled up to tackle new dark matter parameter spaces (lower masses and cross-sections), detector production efficiency and repeatability becomes ever more important. A dedicated facility has been commissioned for SuperCDMS detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods, equipment, and tuning of process parameters. This work has demonstrated the capability for production of next generation CDMS SNOLAB detectors. Additionally, as the dark matter parameter space is probed further, careful calibrations of detector response to nuclear recoil interactions must be performed in order to extract useful information (in relation to dark matter particle characterzations) from experimental results. A neutron beam of tunable energy is used in conjunction with a commercial radiation detector to characterize ionization energy losses in germanium during nuclear recoil events. Data indicates agreement with values predicted by the Lindhard equation, providing a best-t k-value of 0.146.

  4. PET/CT imaging of the diapeutic alkylphosphocholine analog (124)I-CLR1404 in high and low-grade brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lance T; Titz, Benjamin; Robins, H Ian; Bednarz, Bryan P; Perlman, Scott B; Weichert, Jamey P; Kuo, John S

    2017-01-01

    CLR1404 is a cancer-selective alkyl phosphocholine (APC) analog that can be radiolabeled with (124)I for PET imaging, (131)I for targeted radiotherapy and/or SPECT imaging, or (125)I for targeted radiotherapy. Studies have demonstrated avid CLR1404 uptake and prolonged retention in a broad spectrum of preclinical tumor models. The purpose of this pilot trial was to demonstrate avidity of (124)I-CLR1404 in human brain tumors and develop a framework to evaluate this uptake for use in larger studies. 12 patients (8 men and 4 women; mean age of 43.9 ± 15.1 y; range 23-66 y) with 13 tumors were enrolled. Eleven patients had suspected tumor recurrence and 1 patient had a new diagnosis of high grade tumor. Patients were injected with 185 MBq ± 10% of (124)I-CLR1404 followed by PET/CT imaging at 6-, 24-, and 48-hour. (124)I-CLR1404 PET uptake was assessed qualitatively and compared with MRI. After PET image segmentation SUV values and tumor to background ratios were calculated. There was no significant uptake of (124)I-CLR1404 in normal brain. In tumors, uptake tended to increase to 48 hours. Positive uptake was detected in 9 of 13 lesions: 5/5 high grade tumors, 1/2 low grade tumors, 1/1 meningioma, and 2/4 patients with treatment related changes. (124)I-CLR1404 uptake was not detected in 1/2 low grade tumors, 2/4 lesions from treatment related changes, and 1/1 indeterminate lesion. For 6 malignant tumors, the average tumor to background ratios (TBR) were 9.32 ± 4.33 (range 3.46 to 15.42) at 24 hours and 10.04 ± 3.15 (range 5.17 to 13.17) at 48 hours. For 2 lesions from treatment related change, the average TBR were 5.05 ± 0.4 (range 4.76 to 5.33) at 24 hours and 4.88 ± 1.19 (range 4.04 to 5.72) at 48 hours. PET uptake had areas of both concordance and discordance compared with MRI. (124)I-CLR1404 PET demonstrated avid tumor uptake in a variety of brain tumors with high tumor-to-background ratios. There were regions of concordance and discordance compared with MRI

  5. Imaging with {sup 124}I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, L. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT{sub 2}) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after {sup 124}I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT{sub 2} acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI{sub 2}) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI{sub 30}). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI{sub 2} detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT{sub 2} (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI{sub 30} tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI{sub 2} (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine

  6. SAFT inspections for developing empirical database of fabrication flaws in nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Pardini, Allan F.

    1998-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a methodology for estimating the size and density distribution of fabrication flaws in U.S. nuclear reactor pressure vessels. This involves the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reactor pressure vessel materials and the destructive validation of the flaws found. NDE has been performed on reactor pressure vessel material made by Babcock & Wilcox and Combustion Engineering. A metallographic analysis is being performed to validate the flaw density and size distributions estimated from the 2500 indications of fabrication flaws that were detected and characterized in the very sensitive SAFT-UT (synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing) inspection data from the Pressure Vessel Research User Facility (PVRUF) vessel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Research plans are also described for expanding the work to include other reactor pressure vessel materials.

  7. Fabric composite radiators for space nuclear power applications. Final report, March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.C.; Al-Baroudi, H.; Gulshan-Ara, Z.; Kiestler, W.C.; Snuggerud, R.D.; Abdul-Hamid, S.A.; Marks, T.S.

    1993-03-24

    Nuclear power systems will be required to provide much greater power levels for both civilian and defense space activities in the future than an currently needed. Limitations on the amount of usable power from radioisotope thermal generators and the limited availability of radioisotope heat source materials lead directly to the conclusion that nuclear power reactors will be needed to enhance the exploration of the solar system as well as to provide for an adequate defense. Lunar bases and travel to the Martian surface will be greatly enhanced by the use of high levels of nuclear power. Space based radar systems requiring many kilowatts of electrical power can provide intercontinental airline traffic control and defense early warning systems. Since the, figure of merit used in defining any space power system is the specific power, the decrease in die mass of any reactor system component will yield a tremendous benefit to the overall system performance. Also, since the heat rejection system of any power system can make up a large portion of the total system mass, any reduction in the mass of the heat rejection radiators will significantly affect the performance of the power system. Composite materials which combine the high strength, flexibility, and low mass characteristics of Si% based fibers with the attractive compatibility and heat transfer features of metallic foils, have been proposed for use m a number of space radiator applications. Thus, the weave of the fabric and the high strength capability of the individual fibers are combined with the high conductivity and chemical stability of a metallic liner to provide a light weight, flexible alternative to heavy, rigid, metallic radiator structural containers. The primary focus of this investigation revolves around two applications of the fabric composite materials, notably a fabric heat pipe radiator design and the Bubble Membrane Radiator concept.

  8. Characterisation and fabrication of zirconia and thoria based ceramics for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrier, D.C.

    2005-11-01

    The reduction of the long term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste during disposal is the aim of the research called ''Partitioning and Transmutation of Minor actinides (MAs)'', which also requires the development of inert ceramic support materials. Moreover, after separation, if the transmutation is not available, the actinides can be conditioned into stable dedicated solid matrices (Partitioning and Conditioning strategy). Yttrium-stabilized zirconia and thoria are discussed in the international nuclear community as candidates for the fixation of long-lived actinides as target material for transmutation and as stable materials for long-term final disposal. The aims of the following work are twofold: determine the impact of the addition of actinides, simulated by cerium on the properties of the matrices and study the possibility of synthesising homogeneous ceramics using simple fabrication routes. Within this framework, (ZrY)O{sub 2-x}-CeO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} powders with variable ceria contents (from 0 to 100 %) were synthesised by a co-precipitation method of nitrate solution. The influence of ceria concentration on the powder' properties, such as thermal behaviour and the evolution of material crystallisation during annealing, was investigated in detail by thermogravimetry (TG) coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both systems crystallise at high temperature in a stable solid solution, fcc, fluorite type structure and follow the Vegard's law for the complete range of ceria. For both systems a critical concentration of 20 mol% has been established. For ceria concentrations lower than 20%, the properties of the system are mainly controlled by the matrix. Pellets with different ceria concentrations were compacted from these powders by using different technological cycles. In order to obtain materials with reliable properties, the technological parameters of each chosen fabrication

  9. Uranium aerosols at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant: Characterization using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, E.; Pettersson, H. B. L.; Fortin, C.; Eriksson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Detailed aerosol knowledge is essential in numerous applications, including risk assessment in nuclear industry. Cascade impactor sampling of uranium aerosols in the breathing zone of nuclear operators was carried out at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant. Collected aerosols were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Imaging revealed remarkable variations in aerosol morphology at the different workshops, and a presence of very large particles (up to ≅ 100 × 50 μm2) in the operator breathing zone. Characteristic X-ray analysis showed varying uranium weight percentages of aerosols and, frequently, traces of nitrogen, fluorine and iron. The analysis method, in combination with cascade impactor sampling, can be a powerful tool for characterization of aerosols. The uranium aerosol source term for risk assessment in nuclear fuel fabrication appears to be highly complex.

  10. Subsoil exploration of the estimated building site for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report, as the result of subsoil exploration, is to provide basic design data of structural plan for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility that is builded on Duckjin 150, Yusong, Taejeon, Korea, and provide basic data for execution of work. The soft rock level of estimated building site is deep(18.0m:BH-1, 20.5m:BH-2, 25.5m:BH-3) and the hard rock level of it is very deep (33.0m:BH-1, 46.0m:BH-2, 34.5m:BH-3) , for structural design, the hard rock shall be the bottom of foundation. 9 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  11. Sub-nanoliter nuclear magnetic resonance coils fabricated with multilayer soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Matthew H. C.; Homenuke, Mark A.; Michal, Carl A.; Hansen, Carl L.

    2009-09-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of sub-nanoliter volume nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transceiver coils that are easily amenable to integration within PDMS-based microfluidics. NMR coils were constructed by the injection of liquid metal into solenoidal cavities created around a microchannel using consecutive replica molding and bonding of PDMS layers. This construction technique permits the integration of NMR coils with solenoidal, toroidal or other three-dimensional geometries within highly integrated microfluidic systems and are one step toward NMR-based chemical screening and analysis on chip. The current proof-of-principle implementation displays limited sensitivity and resolution due to the conductivity and magnetic susceptibilities of the construction materials. However, NMR measurements and finite-element simulations made with the current device geometry indicate that optimization of these materials will allow for the collection of spectra from sub-millimolar concentration samples in less than 1 nL of solution.

  12. Subsoil exploration of the estimated building site for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report, as the result of subsoil exploration, is to provide basic design data of structural plan for nuclear fuel development and fabrication facility that is builded on Duckjin 150, Yusong, Taejeon, Korea, and provide basic data for execution of work. The soft rock level of estimated building site is deep(18.0m:BH-1, 20.5m:BH-2, 25.5m:BH-3) and the hard rock level of it is very deep (33.0m:BH-1, 46.0m:BH-2, 34.5m:BH-3) , for structural design, the hard rock shall be the bottom of foundation. 9 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  13. Experiment on the improvement of OREOX process for fabrication of dry recycling nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Park, G. I. [and others

    2004-01-01

    The OREOX(Oxidation and REduction of OXide fuel) process has been performed to fabricate dry recycling(DUPIC ; Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) nuclear fuel pellets by using spent PWR fuel. Generally, sinterable DUPIC powder has been manufactured from spent PWR fuel pellets by the 3 cycles of oxidation and reduction treatment. The OREOX process is one of the most important processes for DUPIC pellet fabrication. A lot of time more than 37 hours as well as a lot of reaction gas is required to perform 3 cycles of OREOX treatments. In this experiment, 1 cycle OREOX process was adopted to improve the powdering process of DUPIC pellet manufacturing processes. As a result of experiment, the densities of pellets sintered at 1800 .deg. C for 10 hours ranged from 10.15 to 10.22 g/cm{sup 3}(93.8{approx}94.5 % of T.D.). The pellets were sintered again to increase the sintered density. The sintered densities of pellets re-sintered at 1850 .deg. C for 7 hours ranged from 10.27 to 10.33 g/cm{sup 3}(94.9{approx} 95.5 % of T.D)

  14. The Combination of In vivo (124)I-PET and CT Small Animal Imaging for Evaluation of Thyroid Physiology and Dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Henrik H; Eckerwall, Martin; Skovgaard, Dorthe;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A thyroid rat model combining functional and anatomical information would be of great benefit for better modeling of thyroid physiology and for absorbed dose calculations. Our aim was to show that (124)I-PET and CT small animal imaging are useful as a combined model for studying thyroid...... physiology and dose calculation. METHODS: Seven rats were subjects for multiple thyroid (124)I-imaging and CT-scans. S-values [mGy/MBqs] for different thyroid sizes were simulated. A phantom with spheres was designed for validation of performances of the small animal PET and CT imaging systems. RESULTS...... indicates the importance of using an accurate volume-measuring technique such as the small animal CT. The small animal PET system was on the other hand able to accurately estimate the activity concentration in the thyroid volumes. We conclude that the combination of the PET and CT image information...

  15. Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.S. Azzam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanoclay composites were fabricated using the synthesized poly 6-(3-aminophenoxy hexane-1-thiol, poly 8-(3-aminophenoxy octane-1-thiol and poly 10-(3-aminophenoxy decane-1-thiol surfactants with gold nanoparticles. The polymeric thiol surfactants were first assembled on gold nanoparticles and then impregnated into the clay matrix. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Transmission microscope (TEM were used to characterize the fabricated nanoclay composites. The results showed that the polymeric thiol surfactants assembled on gold nanoparticles are located in the interlayer space of the clay mineral and affected the clay structure.

  16. Crystal Growth, Characterization and Fabrication of Cadmium Zinc Telluride-based Nuclear Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ramesh M.

    crystal homogeneity of other modern CZT growth techniques. However, information about crystals grown with this method has not been undertaken in a comprehensive way thus far. In this work, Cd0.9Zn0.1Te is grown using the solvent-growth method using zone-refined precursor materials loaded into carbon-coated quartz ampoules. Ampoules were sealed and crystal growth was performed using crystal growth furnaces built in-house at USC. Ingots 1-2" in diameter produced using the solvent-growth method were wafered, processed, and polished for characterization. Semiconductor characterization is performed on the CZT crystals to determine band gap, elemental stoichiometry, and electrical resistivity. Surface modification studies were undertaken to determine if surface leakage current can be reduced using sulfur passivation. XPS studies were used to confirm the effects of passivation on the surface states, and electrical characterization was performed to measure the effects of passivation on the CZT crystals. Deep-level and surface defect studies were conducted on the CZT samples to determine the type and intensity of defects present in the crystals which may affect detector performance. Finally, nuclear detectors were fabricated and characterized using analog and digital radiation detection systems to measure their performance and energy resolution.

  17. Spectral X-ray Radiography for Safeguards at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2017-04-20

    The methods currently used by the International Atomic Energy Agency to account for nuclear materials at fuel fabrication facilities are time consuming and require in-field chemistry and operation by experts. Spectral X-ray radiography, along with advanced inverse algorithms, is an alternative inspection that could be completed noninvasively, without any in-field chemistry, with inspections of tens of seconds. The proposed inspection system and algorithms are presented here. The inverse algorithm uses total variation regularization and adaptive regularization parameter selection with the unbiased predictive risk estimator. Performance of the system is quantified with simulated X-ray inspection data and sensitivity of the output is tested against various inspection system instabilities. Material quantification from a fully-characterized inspection system is shown to be very accurate, with biases on nuclear material estimations of < 0.02%. It is shown that the results are sensitive to variations in the fuel powder sample density and detector pixel gain, which increase biases to 1%. Options to mitigate these inaccuracies are discussed.

  18. Characteristics and fabrication of cermet spent nuclear fuel casks: ceramic particles embedded in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Swaney, P.M.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Cermets are being investigated as an advanced material of construction for casks that can be used for storage, transport, or disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Cermets, which consist of ceramic particles embedded in steel, are a method to incorporate brittle ceramics with highly desirable properties into a strong ductile metal matrix with a high thermal conductivity, thus combining the best properties of both materials. Traditional applications of cermets include tank armor, vault armor, drill bits, and nuclear test-reactor fuel. Cermets with different ceramics (DUO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.) are being investigated for the manufacture of SNF casks. Cermet casks offer four potential benefits: greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same gross weight cask, greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same external dimensions, improved resistance to assault, and superior repository performance. These benefits are achieved by varying the composition, volume fraction, and particulate size of the ceramic particles in the cermet with position in the cask body. Addition of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) to the cermet increases shielding density, improves shielding effectiveness, and increases cask capacity for a given cask weight or size. Addition of low-density aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the outer top and bottom sections of the cermet cask, where the radiation levels are lower, can lower cask weight without compromising shielding. The use of Al2O3 and other oxides, in appropriate locations, can increase resistance to assault. Repository performance may be improved by compositional control of the cask body to (1) create a local geochemical environment that slows the long-term degradation of the SNF and (2) enables the use of DUO{sub 2} for longterm criticality control. While the benefits of using cermets follow directly from their known properties, the primary challenge is to develop low-cost methods to fabricate

  19. The helical domain of the EcoR124I motor subunit participates in ATPase activity and dsDNA translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Bialevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I restriction-modification enzymes are multisubunit, multifunctional molecular machines that recognize specific DNA target sequences, and their multisubunit organization underlies their multifunctionality. EcoR124I is the archetype of Type I restriction-modification family IC and is composed of three subunit types: HsdS, HsdM, and HsdR. DNA cleavage and ATP-dependent DNA translocation activities are housed in the distinct domains of the endonuclease/motor subunit HsdR. Because the multiple functions are integrated in this large subunit of 1,038 residues, a large number of interdomain contacts might be expected. The crystal structure of EcoR124I HsdR reveals a surprisingly sparse number of contacts between helicase domain 2 and the C-terminal helical domain that is thought to be involved in assembly with HsdM. Only two potential hydrogen-bonding contacts are found in a very small contact region. In the present work, the relevance of these two potential hydrogen-bonding interactions for the multiple activities of EcoR124I is evaluated by analysing mutant enzymes using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to provide structural interpretation of the functional data. The results indicate that the helical C-terminal domain is involved in the DNA translocation, cleavage, and ATPase activities of HsdR, and a role in controlling those activities is suggested.

  20. The helical domain of the EcoR124I motor subunit participates in ATPase activity and dsDNA translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamayeva, Katsiaryna; Guzanova, Alena; Řeha, David; Csefalvay, Eva; Carey, Jannette; Weiserova, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Type I restriction-modification enzymes are multisubunit, multifunctional molecular machines that recognize specific DNA target sequences, and their multisubunit organization underlies their multifunctionality. EcoR124I is the archetype of Type I restriction-modification family IC and is composed of three subunit types: HsdS, HsdM, and HsdR. DNA cleavage and ATP-dependent DNA translocation activities are housed in the distinct domains of the endonuclease/motor subunit HsdR. Because the multiple functions are integrated in this large subunit of 1,038 residues, a large number of interdomain contacts might be expected. The crystal structure of EcoR124I HsdR reveals a surprisingly sparse number of contacts between helicase domain 2 and the C-terminal helical domain that is thought to be involved in assembly with HsdM. Only two potential hydrogen-bonding contacts are found in a very small contact region. In the present work, the relevance of these two potential hydrogen-bonding interactions for the multiple activities of EcoR124I is evaluated by analysing mutant enzymes using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to provide structural interpretation of the functional data. The results indicate that the helical C-terminal domain is involved in the DNA translocation, cleavage, and ATPase activities of HsdR, and a role in controlling those activities is suggested. PMID:28133570

  1. Development of advanced nuclear materials - Fabrication of Zr-Nb alloy used in PHWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang In; Kim, Won Baek; Lee, Chul Kyung; Choi, Kuk Sun; Kang, Dae Kyu; Seo, Chang Ryul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The following conclusions can be made from the second year research: 1. Easy control for alloying elements can be made for the following adding metals like Nb, V, Sn, Mo, Fe due to low vapor pressure. In case of Cr and Te= known to have high vapor pressure, they are controlled by adding master alloy(Zr-Cr) or quite excess of aimed composition. However, Bi was found to be very difficult to charging the certain amount into the melt. 2. Oxygen content can be adjusted by adding the Zr-10%O master alloy considering the inherent amount of oxygen in sponge zirconium. 3. The charging rod of 38 mm in diameter, 96 mm in length was made by a series of button melting, casting and vacuum welding, from this, Zr-2.5Nb ingot of 50 mm in diameter and 550 mm in length was fabricated by EB drip melting process. 4. The amount of Nb can be successfully adjusted at 2.8% with charging 15% excess. Nb as adding element is easily controlled due to high-melting -point metal and its low vapor pressure. 5. Oxygen content is not varied during remelting, casting, and drip melting, only slight change was observed in button melting stage due to uptake the desorbed gases during the melting operation. Nuclear materials in domestic nuclear power plants depend on import and this amount reaches 100 million dollars per year. The increase in demand for the development of new zirconium based alloys are expecting. All the results involving this research can be applied for the melting of reactive metals, vacuum refining and alloy design. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs., 10 ills. (author)

  2. Combined metabolic and morphologic imaging in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin and negative cervical ultrasonography: role of {sup 124}I-PET/CT and FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Jentzen, W.; Rosenbaum, S.J.; Bockisch, A.; Goerges, R. [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Antoch, G.; Kuehl, H. [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Frilling, A. [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Essen (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This study sought to compare iodine-124 positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I-PET/CT) and 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose- (FDG-) PET in the detection of recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) lesions in patients with increasing serum thyroglobulin (Tg), Tg-antibodies, or both, but without pathological cervical ultrasonography. We assessed the lesion detection accuracy of {sup 124}I-PET alone, CT alone, {sup 124}I-PET/CT, FDG-PET, and all these modalities combined. The study included 21 patients (9 follicular, 12 papillary DTC) who had been rendered disease-free by thyroidectomy and radioiodine treatment (RIT) and followed up for 21-275 months after the last RIT. In all patients, FDG-PET was performed first. Within 1 week, {sup 124}I-PET/CT was performed 24 h after oral administration of 43 {+-} 11 MBq {sup 124}I. Imaging results were correlated with further clinical follow-up with (n = 12) or without (n = 9) post-study histology as the reference standard. The sensitivities for DTC lesion detection were: {sup 124}I-PET, 49%; CT, 67%; {sup 124}I-PET/CT, 80%; FDG-PET, 70%; and all modalities combined, 91%. For local recurrences (distant metastases), the sensitivities were: {sup 124}I-PET, 60% (45%); CT, 20% (84%); and FDG-PET, 65% (71%). One-third of lesions demonstrated pathological tracer uptake with both {sup 124}I- and FDG-PET, while two-thirds were positive with only one of these modalities. Used together, {sup 124}I-PET and CT allow localization of foci of highly specific {sup 124}I uptake as well as non-iodine-avid lesions. The combination of {sup 124}I-PET/CT and FDG-PET improves restaging in recurrent DTC by enabling detection on whole-body scans of local recurrence or metastases that are often not found if only one of the methods or other imaging modalities are applied. (orig.)

  3. The Combination of In vivo 124I-PET and CT Small Animal Imaging for Evaluation of Thyroid Physiology and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. El-Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A thyroid rat model combining functional and anatomical information would be of great benefit for better modeling of thyroid physiology and for absorbed dose calculations. Our aim was to show that 124I-PET and CT small animal imaging are useful as a combined model for studying thyroid physiology and dose calculation. Methods: Seven rats were subjects for multiple thyroid 124I-imaging and CT-scans. S-values [mGy/MBqs] for different thyroid sizes were simulated. A phantom with spheres was designed for validation of performances of the small animal PET and CT imaging systems. Results: Small animal image-based measurements of the activity amount and the volumes of the spheres with a priori known volumes showed a good agreement with their corresponding actual volumes. The CT scans of the rats showed thyroid volumes from 34–70 mL. Conclusions: The wide span in volumes of thyroid glands indicates the importance of using an accurate volume-measuring technique such as the small animal CT. The small animal PET system was on the other hand able to accurately estimate the activity concentration in the thyroid volumes. We conclude that the combination of the PET and CT image information is essential for quantitative thyroid imaging and accurate thyroid absorbed dose calculation.

  4. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  5. Modeling Forced Flow Chemical Vapor Infiltration Fabrication of SiC-SiC Composites for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P. Deck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix (SiC-SiC composites exhibit remarkable material properties, including high temperature strength and stability under irradiation. These qualities have made SiC-SiC composites extremely desirable for use in advanced nuclear reactor concepts, where higher operating temperatures and longer lives require performance improvements over conventional metal alloys. However, fabrication efficiency advances need to be achieved. SiC composites are typically produced using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI, where gas phase precursors flow into the fiber preform and react to form a solid SiC matrix. Forced flow CVI utilizes a pressure gradient to more effectively transport reactants into the composite, reducing fabrication time. The fabrication parameters must be well understood to ensure that the resulting composite has a high density and good performance. To help optimize this process, a computer model was developed. This model simulates the transport of the SiC precursors, the deposition of SiC matrix on the fiber surfaces, and the effects of byproducts on the process. Critical process parameters, such as the temperature and reactant concentration, were simulated to identify infiltration conditions which maximize composite density while minimizing the fabrication time.

  6. PET-based compartmental modeling of {sup 124}I-A33 antibody: quantitative characterization of patient-specific tumor targeting in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, Pat; O' Donoghue, Joseph A.; Humm, John L. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Ruan, Shutian; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Stony Brook School of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Divgi, Chaitanya [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [La Trobe University, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Kemeny, Nancy E.; Wong, Douglas; Scheinberg, David [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Fong, Yuman [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); City of Hope, Department of Surgery, Duarte, CA (United States); Ritter, Gerd; Jungbluth, Achem; Old, Lloyd J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The molecular specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against tumor antigens has proven effective for targeted therapy of human cancers, as shown by a growing list of successful antibody-based drug products. We describe a novel, nonlinear compartmental model using PET-derived data to determine the ''best-fit'' parameters and model-derived quantities for optimizing biodistribution of intravenously injected {sup 124}I-labeled antitumor antibodies. As an example of this paradigm, quantitative image and kinetic analyses of anti-A33 humanized mAb (also known as ''A33'') were performed in 11 colorectal cancer patients. Serial whole-body PET scans of {sup 124}I-labeled A33 and blood samples were acquired and the resulting tissue time-activity data for each patient were fit to a nonlinear compartmental model using the SAAM II computer code. Excellent agreement was observed between fitted and measured parameters of tumor uptake, ''off-target'' uptake in bowel mucosa, blood clearance, tumor antigen levels, and percent antigen occupancy. This approach should be generally applicable to antibody-antigen systems in human tumors for which the masses of antigen-expressing tumor and of normal tissues can be estimated and for which antibody kinetics can be measured with PET. Ultimately, based on each patient's resulting ''best-fit'' nonlinear model, a patient-specific optimum mAb dose (in micromoles, for example) may be derived. (orig.)

  7. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis; Control de calidad para fabricacion de combustible nuclear en base a inspecciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes S, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B `Quality assurement for nuclear plants` specially in the criteria `Inspections` that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  8. Fabrication of cermet bearings for the control system of a high temperature lithium cooled nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Heestand, R. L.; Kizer, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The techniques used to fabricate cermet bearings for the fueled control drums of a liquid metal cooled reference-design reactor concept are presented. The bearings were designed for operation in lithium for as long as 5 years at temperatures to 1205 C. Two sets of bearings were fabricated from a hafnium carbide - 8-wt. % molybdenum - 2-wt. % niobium carbide cermet, and two sets were fabricated from a hafnium nitride - 10-wt. % tungsten cermet. Procedures were developed for synthesizing the material in high purity inert-atmosphere glove boxes to minimize oxygen content in order to enhance corrosion resistance. Techniques were developed for pressing cylindrical billets to conserve materials and to reduce machining requirements. Finishing was accomplished by a combination of diamond grinding, electrodischarge machining, and diamond lapping. Samples were characterized in respect to composition, impurity level, lattice parameter, microstructure and density.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle. The...

  10. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  11. Nuclear metallurgy lectures. Chapter 9, Fabrication and heat treatment of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, J.W.

    1955-05-12

    This chapter presents the highlights of the fabrication and heat treatment of uranium with emphasis on HAPO type core material. For pile use three properties of uranium are of prime interest; grain size, type and degree of preferred orientation, and the mechanical properties.

  12. Development of CANDU advanced fuel fabrication technology - A development of amorphous alloys for the solder of nuclear reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Young; Lee, Ki Young; Kim, Yoon Kee; Jung, Jae Han; Yu, Ji Sang; Kim, Hae Yeol; Han, Young Su [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    In the case of advanced CANDU fuel being useful in future, the fabrication processes for soundness insurance of a improved nuclear fuel bundle must be developed at the same time because it have three times combustibility as existing fuel. In particular, as the improved nuclear fuel bundle in which a coated layer thickness is thinner than existing that, firmity of a joint part is very important. Therefore, we need to develop a joint technique using new solder which can settle a potential problem in current joining method. As the Zr-Be alloy system and the Ti-Be system are composed with the elements having high neutron permeability, they are suitable for joint of nuclear fuel pack. The various compositions Zr-Be and Ti-Be binary metallic glass alloys were applicable to the joining the nuclear fuel bundles. The thickness of joint layer using the Zr{sub 1-x} Be{sub x} amorphous ribbon as a solder is thinner than that using physical vapor deposited Be. Among the Zr{sub 1-x} Be{sub x} amorphous binary alloys, Zr{sub 0.7} Be{sub 0.3} binary alloy is the most appropriated for joint of nuclear fuel bundle because its joint layer is smooth and thin due to low degree of Be diffusion. The microstructures of brazed layer using Ti{sub 1-y} Be{sub y} alloy, however, a solid-solution layer composed with Zr and Ti is formed toward the Zr cladding sheath and many of Zr is detected in the joint lever. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 23 figs. (author)

  13. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Tom; Joyal, John [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, James B. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems RDS, Inc., Apharetta, GA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [Division Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John W. [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmacy, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[{sup 124}I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of {sup 124}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nuclear localization signal-conjugated glycol chitosan micelles for improving the nuclear delivery of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jingmou Yu,1 Xin Xie,1 Meirong Zheng,1 Ling Yu,2 Lei Zhang,1 Jianguo Zhao,1 Dengzhao Jiang,1 Xiangxin Che11Key Laboratory of Systems Biology Medicine of Jiangxi Province, College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, 2Division of Nursing, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Yichun University, Yichun, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Supramolecular micelles as drug-delivery vehicles are generally unable to enter the nucleus of nondividing cells. In the work reported here, nuclear localization signal (NLS-modified polymeric micelles were studied with the aim of improving nuclear drug delivery.Methods: In this research, cholesterol-modified glycol chitosan (CHGC was synthesized. NLS-conjugated CHGC (NCHGC was synthesized and characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug with an intracellular site of action in the nucleus, was chosen as a model drug. DOX-loaded micelles were prepared by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The cellular uptake of different DOX formulations was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxicity of blank micelles, free DOX, and DOX-loaded micelles in vitro was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in HeLa and HepG2 cells.Results: The degree of substitution was 5.9 cholesterol and 3.8 NLS groups per 100 sugar residues of the NCHGC conjugate. The critical aggregation concentration of the NCHGC micelles in aqueous solution was 0.0209 mg/mL. The DOX-loaded NCHGC (DNCHGC micelles were observed as being almost spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy, and the size was determined as 248 nm by dynamic light scattering. The DOX-loading content of the DNCHGC micelles was 10.1%. The DOX-loaded micelles showed slow drug-release behavior within 72 hours in vitro. The DNCHGC micelles exhibited greater

  15. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  16. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  17. Approaching six sigma quality in nuclear fuel fabrication - an Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxminarayana, B.; Kamalesh Kumar, B.; Saratchandran, N.; Ganguly, C. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel complex (NFC), Hyderabad, manufactures fuel and structural components for both Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurised Heavy water (PHWR). Customer and product quality has always been assigned top priority at NFC. At present, NFC is pursuing the goal of attaining six sigma quality levels, the paper brings out the details of various steps initiated and progress made towards the same, with a special reference to end closure welds. (author)

  18. Fabrication and measurement of hoop strength of SiC triplex tube for nuclear fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejong; Lee, Hyun-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2015-03-01

    The SiC ceramics are under investigation for the fuel cladding in the light water nuclear reactors because of its excellent high temperature strength and corrosion resistance against hot steam under the severe accident conditions. In this study, the SiC triplex tubes consisting of a SiC inner layer, a SiC/PyC/SiC intermediate layer, and a SiC outer layer were fabricated by the chemical vapor processes. The hoop strength and fracture behaviors of the SiC triplex tube were investigated. The SiC triplex tubes fabricated at the high ratio of H2/MTS had a quite high average strength with a relatively small standard deviation. The hoop strength of the composite tubes tends to increase with the volume fraction of the reinforced fibers. The highest fiber volume fraction was obtained using Tyranno SA3-0.8k with the dense winding patterns such as bamboo-like mosaic pattern, which resulted in the high hoop strength compared to other fibers of Tyranno SA3-1.6k and Hi-Nicalon Type S. Hoop strength also increased slightly as the winding angle increased from 45° to 65°. Fracture behaviors of the SiC triplex tube were investigated via the observation of microstructure of the failed samples.

  19. Fabrication and measurement of hoop strength of SiC triplex tube for nuclear fuel cladding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejong, E-mail: dkim@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Hyun-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2015-03-15

    The SiC ceramics are under investigation for the fuel cladding in the light water nuclear reactors because of its excellent high temperature strength and corrosion resistance against hot steam under the severe accident conditions. In this study, the SiC triplex tubes consisting of a SiC inner layer, a SiC/PyC/SiC intermediate layer, and a SiC outer layer were fabricated by the chemical vapor processes. The hoop strength and fracture behaviors of the SiC triplex tube were investigated. The SiC triplex tubes fabricated at the high ratio of H{sub 2}/MTS had a quite high average strength with a relatively small standard deviation. The hoop strength of the composite tubes tends to increase with the volume fraction of the reinforced fibers. The highest fiber volume fraction was obtained using Tyranno SA3-0.8k with the dense winding patterns such as bamboo-like mosaic pattern, which resulted in the high hoop strength compared to other fibers of Tyranno SA3-1.6k and Hi-Nicalon Type S. Hoop strength also increased slightly as the winding angle increased from 45° to 65°. Fracture behaviors of the SiC triplex tube were investigated via the observation of microstructure of the failed samples.

  20. Nuclear Rocket Ceramic Metal Fuel Fabrication Using Tungsten Powder Coating and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. W.; Tucker, D. S.; Hone, L.; Cook, S.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is an enabling technology for crewed Mars missions. An investigation was conducted to evaluate spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a method to produce tungsten-depleted uranium dioxide (W-dUO2) fuel material when employing fuel particles that were tungsten powder coated. Ceramic metal fuel wafers were produced from a blend of W-60vol% dUO2 powder that was sintered via SPS. The maximum sintering temperatures were varied from 1,600 to 1,850 C while applying a 50-MPa axial load. Wafers exhibited high density (>95% of theoretical) and a uniform microstructure (fuel particles uniformly dispersed throughout tungsten matrix).

  1. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung

    2005-02-01

    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  2. 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 for TAG-72 antigen-directed positron emission tomography (PET imaging of LS174T colon adenocarcinoma tumor implants in xenograft mice: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojzisik Cathy M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET is widely used in diagnostic cancer imaging. However, the use of 18F-FDG in PET-based imaging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity. In contrast, anti-TAG (tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for binding to a variety of adenocarcinomas, including colorectal cancer. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate a complimentary determining region (CDR-grafted humanized CH2-domain-deleted anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody (HuCC49deltaCH2, radiolabeled with iodine-124 (124I, as an antigen-directed and cancer-specific targeting agent for PET-based imaging. Methods HuCC49deltaCH2 was radiolabeled with 124I. Subcutaneous tumor implants of LS174T colon adenocarcinoma cells, which express TAG-72 antigen, were grown on athymic Nu/Nu nude mice as the xenograft model. Intravascular (i.v. and intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was then evaluated in this xenograft mouse model at various time points from approximately 1 hour to 24 hours after injection using microPET imaging. This was compared to i.v. injection of 18F-FDG in the same xenograft mouse model using microPET imaging at 50 minutes after injection. Results At approximately 1 hour after i.v. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was distributed within the systemic circulation, while at approximately 1 hour after i.p. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was distributed within the peritoneal cavity. At time points from 18 hours to 24 hours after i.v. and i.p. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 demonstrated a significantly increased level of specific localization to LS174T tumor implants (p = 0.001 when compared to the 1 hour images. In contrast, approximately 50 minutes after i.v. injection, 18F-FDG failed to demonstrate any increased level of specific localization to a LS174T tumor implant, but showed the propensity toward more nonspecific uptake within the

  3. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  4. Micro-fabricated Helmholtz coil featuring disposable microfluidic sample inserts for applications in nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, N.; Moazenzadeh, A.; Meier, R. Ch; Badilita, V.; Korvink, J. G.; Wallrabe, U.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we report on a novel, multi-use, high-resolution NMR/MRI micro-detection probe for the screening of flat samples. It is based on a Helmholtz coil pair in the centre of the probe, built out of two 1.5 mm diameter wirebonded copper coils, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of the magnetic field. For liquids and suspensions, custom fabricated, disposable sample inserts are placed inside the pair and aligned automatically, preventing the sensor and the samples from contamination. The sensor was successfully tested in a 500 MHz (11.7 T) spectrometer where we achieved a linewidth of 1.79 Hz (3.58 ppb) of a water phantom. Nutation experiments revealed an overall B1-field uniformity of 92% (ratio in signal intensity at flip angles of 810°/90°), leading to a homogeneous excitation of concentration limited samples. To demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the detector, we acquired images of a solid and a liquid sample—of a piece of leaf, directly inserted into the probe and of a sample insert, filled with a suspension of 50 μm diameter polymer beads and deionized water, with in-plane resolutions of 20 × 20 μ m2 and 10 × 10 μ m2, respectively.

  5. Study of developing nuclear fabrication facility's integrated emergency response manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeh Yeong; Cho, Nam Chan; Han, Seung Hoon; Moon, Jong Han; Lee, Jin Hang [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Guem Young; Han, Ji Ah [Dongguk Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Public begin to pay attention to emergency management. Thus, public's consensus on having high level of emergency management system up to advanced country's is reached. In this social atmosphere, manual is considered as key factor to prevent accident or secure business continuity. Therefore, we first define possible crisis at KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (hereinafter KNF) and also make a 'Reaction List' for each crisis situation at the view of information-design. To achieve it, we analyze several country's crisis response manual and then derive component, indicate duties and roles at the information-design point of view. From this, we suggested guideline to make 'Integrated emergency response manual(IERM)'. The manual we used before have following few problems; difficult to applicate at the site, difficult to deliver information. To complement these problems, we searched manual elements from the view of information-design. As a result, we develop administrative manual. Although, this manual could be thought as fragmentary manual because it confined specific several agency/organization and disaster type.

  6. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  7. Site specific discrete PEGylation of (124)I-labeled mCC49 Fab' fragments improves tumor MicroPET/CT imaging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiming; Carlton, Michelle M; Povoski, Stephen P; Milum, Keisha; Kumar, Krishan; Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Hinkle, George H; Colcher, David; Brody, Rich; Davis, Paul D; Pokora, Alex; Phelps, Mitchell; Martin, Edward W; Tweedle, Michael F

    2013-11-20

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) antigen is highly overexpressed in various human adenocarcinomas and anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, and fragments are therefore useful as pharmaceutical targeting vectors. In this study, we investigated the effects of site-specific PEGylation with MW 2-4 kDa discrete, branched PEGylation reagents on mCC49 Fab' (MW 50 kDa) via in vitro TAG72 binding, and in vivo blood clearance kinetics, biodistribution, and mouse tumor microPET/CT imaging. mCC49Fab' (Fab'-NEM) was conjugated at a hinge region cysteine with maleimide-dPEG 12-(dPEG24COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-A), maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG12COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-B), or maleimide-dPEG12-(m-dPEG24)3 (Mal-dPEG-C), and then radiolabeled with iodine-124 ((124)I) in vitro radioligand binding assays and in vivo studies used TAG-72 expressing LS174T human colon carcinoma cells and xenograft mouse tumors. Conjugation of mCC49Fab' with Mal-dPEG-A (Fab'-A) reduced the binding affinity of the non PEGylated Fab' by 30%; however, in vivo, Fab'-A significantly lengthened the blood retention vs Fab'-NEM (47.5 vs 28.1%/ID at 1 h, 25.1 vs 8.4%/ID at 5 h, p images due to higher tumor accumulation, and increased tumor concentration in excised tissues at 72 h by 130% (5.09 ± 0.83 vs 3.83 ± 1.50%ID/g, p imaging tumor signal intensity, and residual 72 h tumor concentration by 49% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.97 ± 0.29%ID/g, p < 0.05) and 63% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.42 ± 0.35%ID/g, p < 0.05), respectively. We conclude that remarkably subtle changes in the structure of the PEGylation reagent can create significantly altered biologic behavior. Further study is warranted of conjugates of the triple branched, negatively charged Mal-dPEG-A.

  8. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Co-Doped TiO2 Powders Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Shi-Hui; WANG Xin-Wei; KOU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Xue-Yun; XI Li; ZUO Ya-Lu; YANG Xiao-Lin; ZHAO Yu-Xuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Co0.04 Ti0.96 O2 powders are fabricated by sol-gel method. The structure and magnetic properties are investigated under different annealing conditions systematically with emphasis on the influence of oxygen pressure. Pure anatase structure was acquired for all the samples annealed at 450 ℃ for one hour. The samples annealed in air exhibit evident room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) with a small magnetic moment of 0.029μB per Co atom and coercivity Hc of 26 Oe, while the samples annealed in vacuum have strong RTFM with a larger magnetic moment of 1.18 μB per Co atom and Hc of 430 Oe. The zero-field spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 59 Co is obtained to prove the existence of Co clusters in the latter samples, implying that the Co clusters are responsible for the strong RTFM in the samples annealed in vacuum. No Co cluster could be observed using both XPS and NMR techniques in the samples annealed in air, implying that the RTFM found in these samples is intrinsic.

  9. High Temperature Nanocomposites For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and In-Space Fabrication by Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Webb, N. D.; Espinoza, M.; Cook, S.; Houts, M.; Kim, T.

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is an indispensable technology for the manned exploration of the solar system. By using Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (HP-LCVD), the authors propose to design and build a promising next-generation fuel element composed of uranium carbide UC embedded in a latticed matrix of highly refractory Ta4HfC5 for an NTP rocket capable of sustaining temperatures up to 4000 K, enabling an Isp of up to 1250 s. Furthermore, HP-LCVD technology can also be harnessed to enable 3D rapid prototyping of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and composites, opening up the possibility of in-space fabrication of components, replacement parts, difficult-to-launch solar sails and panels and a variety of other space structures. Additionally, rapid prototyping with HP-LCVD makes a feasible "live off the land" strategy of interplanetary and interstellar exploration ­ the precursors commonly used in the technology are found, often in abundance, on other solar system bodies either as readily harvestable gas (e.g. methane) or as a raw material that could be converted into a suitable precursor (e.g. iron oxide into ferrocene on Mars).

  10. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  11. An evaluation of UO2-CNT composites made by SPS as an accident tolerant nuclear fuel pellet and the feasibility of SPS as an economical fabrication process for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas, Andrew R.

    The innovative and advanced purpose of this study is to understand and establish proper sintering procedures for Spark Plasma Sintering process in order to fabricate high density, high thermal conductivity UO2 -CNT pellets. Mixing quality and chemical reactions have been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of various types of CNTs on the mixing and sintering quality of UO2-CNT pellets with SPS processing have been examined. The Archimedes Immersion Method, laser flash method, and FE-SEM will be used to investigate the density, thermal conductivity, grain size, pinning effects, and CNT dispersion of fabricated UO2-CNT pellets. Pre-fabricated CNT's were added to UO 2 powder and dispersed via sonication and/or ball milling and then made into composite nuclear pellets. An investigation of the economic impact of SPS on the nuclear fuel cycle for producing pure and composite UO2 fuels was conducted.

  12. Using microcontact printing to fabricate microcoils on capillaries for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance on nanoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A.; Jackman, R.J.; Whitesides, G.M. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Olson, D.L.; Sweedler, J.V. [Beckman Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This letter describes a method for producing conducting microcoils for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopy on nanoliter volumes. This technique uses microcontact printing and electroplating to form coils on microcapillaries. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra collected using these microcoils, have linewidths less than 1 Hz for model compounds and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for ethylbenzene of 2.6 nmol in 13 min. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET

  14. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  15. Prognostic impact of incomplete surgical clearance of radioiodine sensitive local lymph node metastases diagnosed by post-operative {sup 124}I-NaI-PET/CT in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Binse, Ina; Grafe, Hong; Goerges, Rainer; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Bockisch, Andreas; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Nodal involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Neither the international guidelines nor the recently introduced ongoing risk adaptation concept consider the extent of initial surgical clearance of radioiodine sensitive lymph node metastases in their stratification systems. We investigated the prognostic relevance of incomplete initial surgical clearance in patients with purely lymphogeneous metastatic PTC (pN1 M0) despite successful radioiodine therapy. Accurate assessment of pre-ablative nodal status was attempted using PET/CT studies with both {sup 124}I-NaI and {sup 18}F-FDG along with high-resolution cervical ultrasound. Sixty-five patients with histologically diagnosed lymph node metastases (pN1 M0) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with iodine-negative lymph node metastases diagnosed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT or distant metastases were excluded from the analysis. The association of disease recurrence with the pre-ablative nodal status, as well as other baseline characteristics, were examined applying nonparametric tests for independent samples and multiple regression analysis. Patients with persistent lymph node metastases in {sup 124}I-NaI PET/CT were further divided according to the additional presence or absence of FDG-uptake in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model for uni- and multivariate analyses to assess the influence of prognostic factors on progression free survival (PFS). Incomplete metastatic lymph node resection captured by {sup 124}I-NaI PET/CT (n = 33) was an independent risk factor for recurrence (61 % vs 25 %, p = 0.006) and shorter PFS (46 months vs not reached, HR 4.0 [95 %-CI, 1.7-9.2], p = 0.001). Ultrasound could detect lymph node metastases only in 19/33 patients (58 %). Among patients with positive nodal status, FDG-avidity of metastatic iodine positive lymph nodes worsened the outcome (16 vs 69

  16. US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Allentuck, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Barham, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bishop, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wentz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steele, B.; Bricker, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cherry, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Snegosky, T. [Dept. of Defense, Washington, DC (United States). Defense Nuclear Agency

    1996-09-01

    In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

  17. Fabrication of surfactant-free quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: evaluation of hepatoprotective efficacy by nuclear scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Soumya; Gaonkar, Raghuvir H.; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Sachdeva, Satbir S.; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop surfactant-free quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (Qr-NPs) and investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy of the product non-invasively by nuclear scintigraphy. The nanoparticles were prepared using PLGA by dialysis method and ranged in size between 50 and 250 nm with a narrow range of distribution. They were found to arrive at the fenestra of liver sinusoidal epithelium for accumulation. The sizes of nanoparticles (batch S1) were optimal to reach the target and offer enough protection of the hepatocytes degenerated by CCl4 intoxication as determined by various biochemical and histopathological tests. In vitro studies exhibited the cytotoxic effect of the formulation against HepG2 cell line. The hepatoprotective efficacy of Qr-NPs evaluated non-invasively by nuclear scintigraphic technique using 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid revealed abnormality in liver at the area of decreased uptake in rats of CCl4-treated group, which disappeared in Qr-NP-treated group. In dynamic studies with 99mTc-mebrofenin, excretion was severely impaired in CCl4-treated group but was moderate in drug-treated group, proving the recovery of animals from damage.

  18. Topics of nuclear medicine research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Oku, Naohiko

    2017-07-25

    Last year in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, we introduced some recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan. This was favorably received by European readers in the main. This year we wish to focus on the Annals of Nuclear Medicine on some of the fine nuclear medicine research work executed in Europe recently. In the current review article, we take up five topics: prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging, recent advances in radionuclide therapy, [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) for dementia, quantitative PET assessment of myocardial perfusion, and iodine-124 ((124)I). Just at the most recent annual meeting of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine 2016, Kyoto was selected as the host city for the 2022 Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. We hope that our continuous efforts to strengthen scientific cooperation between Europe and Japan will bring many European friends and a great success to the Kyoto meeting.

  19. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with (90)Y-, (177)Lu-, (131)I-, (124)I-, and (188)Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S; Feron, O; Gallez, B; Masereel, B; Michiels, C; Vander Borght, T

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like (131)I or (90)Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of (90)Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as (90)Y, (177)Lu, (131)I, (124)I, and (188)Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). (90)Y and (188)Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  20. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC. 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  1. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S.; Feron, O.; Gallez, B.; Masereel, B.; Michiels, C.; Vander Borght, T.

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  2. Interpretation of the results from individual monitoring of workers at the Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility, Brazil; Interpretacao de resultados de monitoracao individual interna da Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marcelo Xavier de

    2005-07-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Although in this kind of facility the main route of intake is inhalation, ingestion may occur in some situations, and also a mixture of both. The interpretation of the bioassay data is very complex, since it is necessary taking into account all the different parameters, which is a big challenge. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this study, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference of measurement methodologies in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. Results of monitoring of working environment may provide information that assists in the interpretation on particle size, chemical form, solubility and date of intake. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the studied nuclear fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary and faecal excretion (collected over a period of 3 consecutive days), chest counting and personal air sampling. The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown to be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. The chest counting methodology has not shown

  3. Pairwise comparison of {sup 89}Zr- and {sup 124}I-labeled cG250 based on positron emission tomography imaging and nonlinear immunokinetic modeling: in vivo carbonic anhydrase IX receptor binding and internalization in mouse xenografts of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Punzalan, Blesida; Doran, Michael G.; Osborne, Joseph R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Evans, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiochemistry and Imaging Sciences Service, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States); Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The PET tracer, {sup 124}I-cG250, directed against carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) shows promise for presurgical diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) (Divgi et al. in Lancet Oncol 8:304-310, 2007; Divgi et al. in J Clin Oncol 31:187-194, 2013). The radiometal {sup 89}Zr, however, may offer advantages as a surrogate PET nuclide over {sup 124}I in terms of greater tumor uptake and retention (Rice et al. in Semin Nucl Med 41:265-282, 2011). We have developed a nonlinear immunokinetic model to facilitate a quantitative comparison of absolute uptake and antibody turnover between {sup 124}I-cG250 and {sup 89}Zr-cG250 using a human ccRCC xenograft tumor model in mice. We believe that this unique model better relates quantitative imaging data to the salient biological features of tumor antibody-antigen binding and turnover. We conducted experiments with {sup 89}Zr-cG250 and {sup 124}I-cG250 using a human ccRCC cell line (SK-RC-38) to characterize the binding affinity and internalization kinetics of the two tracers in vitro. Serial PET imaging was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous ccRCC tumors to simultaneously detect and quantify time-dependent tumor uptake in vivo. Using the known specific activities of the two tracers, the equilibrium rates of antibody internalization and turnover in the tumors were derived from the PET images using nonlinear compartmental modeling. The two tracers demonstrated virtually identical tumor cell binding and internalization but showed markedly different retentions in vitro. Superior PET images were obtained using {sup 89}Zr-cG250, owing to the more prolonged trapping of the radiolabel in the tumor and simultaneous washout from normal tissues. Estimates of cG250/CAIX complex turnover were 1.35 - 5.51 x 10{sup 12} molecules per hour per gram of tumor (20 % of receptors internalized per hour), and the ratio of {sup 124}I/{sup 89}Zr atoms released per unit time by tumor was 17.5. Pairwise evaluation of {sup 89}Zr-cG250 and {sup

  4. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  6. 核燃料元件制造厂 UF6气化工序风险分析%Risk Assessment of UF6 Vaporization Process in Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙骥; 何玮; 蒋婧; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    A variety of hazards coexist in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities , so risk assessment is necessary .There are a variety of risk assessment methodologies for risk assessment of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities .HAZOP and LOPA method were select‐ed for UF6 vaporization process which is the most important in risk assessment of nucle‐ar fuel fabrication facilities . The process deviations which have serious consequences were obtained by HAZOP .The risk reduced by independent protection layers and the residual risk of UF6 vaporization process were obtained by LOPA .%多种危险并存于核燃料元件制造厂,因此有必要对核燃料元件厂进行风险分析。目前有多种风险评估方法适用于核燃料元件制造厂风险评估,本文选取HAZOP和LOPA方法,对核燃料元件制造厂风险评估中的最重要工艺UF6气化工序进行了分析。 HAZOP分析得到了可能产生严重后果的工艺偏离。LOPA分析得到了针对工艺偏离所采取的独立保护层措施所降低的风险和 UF6气化工序的残余风险。

  7. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  8. Center for emergency response at the ENUSA fuel fabrication plant in Juzbado; El centro de gestion de las emergencias de la fabrica de combustible nuclear de ENUSA en Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Perez, C.; Romano, A.

    2016-08-01

    Effective emergency preparedness and management is critical for a safe exploitation of nuclear installations like the Enusa fuel fabrication plant. In 2012, an important project was carried out at the plant which enlarged and remodeled the Emergency Room used until then to give response to the Internal Emergency Plan postulated scenarios. This project was motivated after carefully analyzing the results of audits, inspections and operation experience as well as after studying the conclusions of the Fukushima accident emergency management weaknesses. The new Center for Emergency Response, which hosts the plant control room, devoted to monitoring the plant safety systems on a constant basis, greatly improves both technical means available and operative procedures as well as human interactions during an emergency. This paper describes the most relevant technical features of this Center, the safety systems which support its operation and the emergency management process that takes place in it. (Author)

  9. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables.

  10. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Otto, B; Bander, NH [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the binding kinetics of human IgG monoclonal antibody J591 which targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a pre-clinical mouse cancer model using quantitative PET compartmental analysis of two radiolabeled variants. Methods: PSMA is expressed in normal human prostate, and becomes highly upregulated in prostate cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Two forms of J591, radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I, were prepared. {sup 89}Zr is a radiometal that becomes trapped in the cell upon internalization by the antigen-antibody complex, while radioiodine leaves the cell. Mice with prostate cancer xenografts underwent non-invasive serial imaging on a Focus 120 microPET up to 144 hours post-injection of J591. A non-linear compartmental model describing the binding and internalization of antibody in tumor xenograft was developed and applied to the PET-derived time-activity curves. The antibody-antigen association rate constant (ka), total amount of antigen per gram tumor (Ag-total), internalization rate of antibody-antigen complex, and efflux rate of radioisotope from tumor were fitted using the model. The surface-bound and the internalized activity were also estimated. Results: Values for ka, Ag-total, and internalization rate were found to be similar regardless of radiolabel payload used. The efflux rate, however, was ∼ 9-fold higher for {sup 124}I-J591 than for {sup 89}Zr-J591. Time-dependent surface-bound and internalized radiotracer activity were similar for both radiolabels at early times post-injection, but clearly differed beyond 24 hours. Conclusion: Binding and internalization of J591 to PSMA-expressing tumor xenografts were similar when radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I payload. The difference in efflux of radioactivity from tumor may be attributable to differential biological fate intracellularly of the radioisotopes. This has great significance for radioimmunotherapy and antibody

  11. Metal finishing and vacuum processes groups, Materials Fabrication Division progress report, March-May 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Romo, J.G.; Jones, L.M.

    1984-07-11

    Progress is reported in fabrication and coating activities being conducted for the weapons program, nuclear test program, nuclear design program, magnetic fusion program, and miscellaneous applications. (DLC)

  12. The nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is divided into 7 chapters bearing on: (1) Nuclear power: an historical perspective (2) Diversity of reactor designs (3) Safety and the environment (4) Architecture and heavy construction (5) Fabrication and installation (6) Nuclear fuel (7) Working for the electric power industry.

  13. Applications of polymer coatings for the fabrication of copper-based containers for the ultimate disposal of Canada's spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, Aba

    Oxygen-free, phosphorous doped copper containers have been proposed for the storage of the used nuclear fuel bundles as a part of Canada's multi-barrier, adaptive phased management procedure for long term storage of spent nuclear fuel bundles. The spent nuclear fuel disposal system proposed for Canada has been engineered based on the multi-barrier approach intended to minimize the risk that the radioactive materials enter the biosphere. Copper is known to be susceptible to corrosion and it is thought that the simultaneous exposure to aggressive ionizing radiation field and residual heat produced by the spent nuclear fuel and the surrounding groundwater would all challenge the container's integrity. The goal of the present work is to reduce the impact of corrosion in the early stages of emplacement with the addition of a protective coating. Specifically, castor oil based polyurethanes were assessed as coatings and their ability to act as an additional physical barrier in the multi-barrier system mentioned previously. The novelty of this work stems from the use of a naturally derived non-petroleum based material in the form of castor oil as the polyol component. Two types of castor oil polyurethanes were investigated, one based on an aliphatic hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), and the other based on an aromatic 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Radiation and saturation tests were conducted using varying conditions. Mixed field ionizing radiation was provided by a SLOWPOKE-2 pool-type nuclear research reactor, up to accumulated doses of 6 MGy at dose rates of 37 kGy h-1 and 55.5 kGy h-1. Weight gain immersion studies, at temperatures of 25° C, 50° C, 70° C, were used to determine the mass uptake of several different solutions. The solutions utilized in the present work included hydrochloric acids of varying pHs, distilled water, and buffered solutions, which simulated chloride and sulphide rich calcium-sodium bicarbonate waters. After being exposed to radiation and

  14. Environmental concerns regarding a materials test reactor fuel fabrication facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G. R. T.; Durazzo, M.; Carvalho, E. F. U. [IPEN, CNEN-SP, P.O. Box 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Riella, H. G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Campus Universitario, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900 (Brazil)]. e-mail: grsantos@ipen.br

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the industrial activities success, front to a more and more informed and demanding society and to a more and more competitive market demands an environmental administration policy which doesn't limit itself to assist the legislation but anticipate and prevent, in a responsible way, possible damages to the environment. One of the maim programs of the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research of the national Commission of Nuclear Energy located in Brazil, through the Center of Nuclear Fuel - CCN - is to manufacture MTR-type fuel elements using low-enrichment uranium (20 wt% {sup 2}35U), to supply its IEA-RI research reactor. Integrated in this program, this work aims at well developing and assuring a methodology to implant an environment, health and safety policy, foreseeing its management with the use of detailed data reports and through the adoption of new tools for improving the management, in order to fulfil the applicable legislation and accomplish all the environmental, operational and works aspects. The applied methodology for the effluents management comprises different aspects, including the specific environmental legislation of a country, main available effluents treatment techniques, process flow analyses from raw materials and intakes to products, generated effluents, residuals and emissions. Data collections were accomplished for points gathering and tests characterization, classification and compatibility of the generated effluents and their eventual environmental impacts. This study aims to implant the Sustainable Concept in order to guarantee access to financial resources, allowing cost reduction, maximizing long-term profits, preventing and reducing environmental accident risks and stimulating both the attraction and the keeping of a motivated manpower. Work on this project has already started and, even though many technical actions have not still ended, the results have being extremely valuable. These results can already give to

  15. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Bin; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

  16. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R.; Le Coguie, R.; Leger, P.; Salon, L.; Thierry, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  17. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  18. Photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  19. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  20. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  1. Review of qualifications for fuel assembly fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabu, Dan; Zemek, Martin; Hellwig, Christian [Axpo AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The required quality of nuclear fuel in industrial production can only be assured by applying processes in fabrication and inspection, which are well mastered and have been proven by an appropriate qualification. The present contribution shows the understanding and experiences of Axpo with respect to qualifications in the frame of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reflects some related expectations of the operator. (orig.)

  2. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  3. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  4. Interim Report on Design, Fabrication and Test of HANARO Instrumented Capsule (07M-13N) for the Researches of Irradiation Performance of Parts of X-Gen Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Seo, C. G.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. H

    2008-02-15

    An instrumented capsule of 07M-13N was designed, fabricated and irradiated for and evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the parts of a a X-Gen nuclear fuel assembly for PWR requested by KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel). The basic structure of the 07M-13N capsule was based on the 05M-07U capsule in which similar materials has been successfully irradiated in HANARO in 2006. Some specimens of control rod materials of AP1000 reactor requested by Westinghouse Co. were inserted in this capsule as a preliminary irradiation test and Polyimide specimens requested by Hanyang university were also inserted. 463 specimens such as bucking and spring test specimens of 1x1 cell spacer grid, tensile, microstructure and tensile of welded parts, irradiation growth, spring test specimens made of HANA tube, Zirlo, Zircaloy-4, Inconel-718, Polyimide, Ag and Ag-In-Cd alloys were placed in the capsule. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 7 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A new friction welded tube between STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated for 49days (2 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 295 {approx} 460 .deg. C and maintained in the service pool because of reactor shut-down for the FTL construction. The specimen will be irradiated up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 1.2x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV) after 4 cycle irradiation. The obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users.

  5. Final Report on Design, Fabrication and Test of HANARO Instrumented Capsule (07M-13N) for the Researches of Irradiation Performance of Parts of X-Gen Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    An instrumented capsule of 07M-13N was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the parts of a X-Gen nuclear fuel assembly for PWR requested by KNF. Some specimens of control rod materials of AP1000 reactor requested by Westinghouse Co. were inserted in this capsule as a preliminary irradiation test and Polyimide specimens requested by Hanyang university were also inserted. 463 specimens such as buckling and spring test specimens of cell spacer grid, tensile, microstructure and tensile of welded parts, irradiation growth, spring test specimens made of HANA tube, Zirlo, Zircaloy-4, Inconel-718, Polyimide, Ag and Ag-In-Cd alloys were placed in the capsule. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 7 sets of neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A new friction welded tube between STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated for 95.19 days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 230 {approx} 420 .deg. C. The specimens were irradiated up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 1.27x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV) and the dpa of the irradiated specimens were evaluated as 1.21 {approx} 1.97. The irradiated specimens were tested to evaluate the irradiation performance of the parts of an X-Gen fuel assembly in the IMEF hot cell and the obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users.

  6. 15 CFR 744.2 - Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., manufacture, construction, testing or maintenance of any nuclear explosive device, or components or subsystems... nuclear reactor, critical facility, facility for the fabrication of nuclear fuel, facility for the... nuclear material; or (iv) Facilities for the fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel containing plutonium....

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  8. 扩散连接技术在核聚变反应堆包层模块制造中的应用%Application of Diffusion Bonding Technique in Fabrication of Blanket Module Components of Nuclear Fusion Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨曦; 刘永长; 周晓胜; 马宗青; 王颖; 李会军; 杨建国

    2015-01-01

    国际受控热核聚变实验堆计划是全球规模最大、影响最深远的国际科研合作项目之一,有望彻底解决能源危机。核聚变反应堆关键部件———包层模块的结构复杂、体积庞大,且服役环境恶劣,焊接接头成为影响反应堆安全运行的薄弱环节。以扩散连接为代表的固相焊接技术对接头性能及组织影响较小,已逐渐取代熔化焊应用于包层模块复杂构件制造。在简要介绍扩散连接及其原理的基础上,对包层模块构件扩散连接的研究进展进行了阐述,包括低活化铁素体/马氏体钢及氧化物弥散强化钢构件的扩散连接,Be,W,SiC等其他先进高温材料的扩散连接等。%International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is one of the world′s largest and the most far-reaching in-ternational scientific collaborative projects, which is expected to solve the energy crisis.As a key built-up part, blanket module has complex structure and large size, and serves under harsh service conditions.The welding joints of blanket mod-ule have become the weak links affecting the operation of the nuclear fusion reactor.Solid-phase welding technology, repre-sented by diffusion bonding, have relatively low effect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joints, and has gradually taken the place of the fusion welding technology used for fabrication of the blanket module complex compo-nents.Based on the brief presentation of diffusion bondingand its bonding mechanism, the research progress in diffusion bonding of blanket module components was discussed in this paper, including the diffusion bonding of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels and oxide dispersion strengthened steels, and the diffusion bonding of Be, W, SiC and/or other advanced high-temperature materials.

  9. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  10. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  11. AP10001#机组反应堆压力容器腔室的顶法兰预制技术研究%Fabrication Technology Research of 1# Top Flange of Reactor Vessel Cavity in Sanmen AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant Phase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭远红; 郑文炳

    2015-01-01

    The paper is based on the engineering experience of Reactor Vessel cavity top flange fabrication mockup test. A practical and mature top flange fabrication method is generated with the simplified design of top flange and better welding plan of components. At the same time, the surveyed data from 1# top flange fabrication process of Reactor Vessel cavity in Sanmen AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant is used to prove this mature method of top flange fabrication.%基于反应堆压力容器腔室的顶部法兰预制模拟件的工程经验,通过简化顶法兰设计,优化零部件的焊接方案,形成了一套切实可行的、成熟的顶法兰预制方法,并且结合三门核电一期AP10001#机组反应堆压力容器腔室的顶法兰预制过程中的实际测量数据,进一步验证了这套成熟的顶法兰预制方法。

  12. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  13. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others

    1999-03-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  14. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  15. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  16. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  17. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  18. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  19. Sustainable and safe nuclear fission energy technology and safety of fast and thermal nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Unlike existing books of nuclear reactor physics, nuclear engineering and nuclear chemical engineering this book covers a complete description and evaluation of nuclear fission power generation. It covers the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the extraction of natural uranium from ore mines, uranium conversion and enrichment up to the fabrication of fuel elements for the cores of various types of fission reactors. This is followed by the description of the different fuel cycle options and the final storage in nuclear waste repositories. In addition the release of radioactivity under normal and possible accidental conditions is given for all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially for the different fission reactor types.

  20. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Determination and Fabrication of New Shield Super Alloys Materials for Nuclear Reactor Safety by Experiments and Cern-Fluka Monte Carlo Simulation Code, Geant4 and WinXCom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Bünyamin; Korkut, Turgay; Karabulut, Abdulhalik

    2016-05-01

    Despite the possibility of depletion of fossil fuels increasing energy needs the use of radiation tends to increase. Recently the security-focused debate about planned nuclear power plants still continues. The objective of this thesis is to prevent the radiation spread from nuclear reactors into the environment. In order to do this, we produced higher performanced of new shielding materials which are high radiation holders in reactors operation. Some additives used in new shielding materials; some of iron (Fe), rhenium (Re), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), boron (B), copper (Cu), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), boron carbide (B4C). The results of this experiments indicated that these materials are good shields against gamma and neutrons. The powder metallurgy technique was used to produce new shielding materials. CERN - FLUKA Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation code and WinXCom were used for determination of the percentages of high temperature resistant and high-level fast neutron and gamma shielding materials participated components. Super alloys was produced and then the experimental fast neutron dose equivalent measurements and gamma radiation absorpsion of the new shielding materials were carried out. The produced products to be used safely reactors not only in nuclear medicine, in the treatment room, for the storage of nuclear waste, nuclear research laboratories, against cosmic radiation in space vehicles and has the qualities.

  3. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  4. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  5. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  6. Fabrication process for sintered mixed oxides soluble in nitric acid from nitrate solutions. [nuclear fuels]. Procede d'obtention d'oxydes mixtes frittes solubles dans l'acide nitrique a partir de solutions de nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelard, R.; Germanaz, P.

    1987-10-02

    Mixed oxide nuclear fuels are obtained by mixing the nitrate solutions, concentration, heat treatment for an intermediary mixed oxide containing U(VI) and Pu(IV or VI), calcination to obtain U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, reduction in U(IV) and Pu(IV), pelletizing, sintering and machining. Less wastes are produced and the fuel pellets are soluble in nitric acid.

  7. Strategies for CT tissue segmentation for Monte Carlo calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CT images are used for patient specific Monte Carlo treatment planning in radionuclide therapy. The authors investigated the impact of tissue classification, CT image segmentation, and CT errors on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose estimates in nuclear medicine. Methods: CT errors...... as a function of patient size, CT reconstruction, and tube current modulation methods were assessed in a phantom experiment on a clinical CT system. The impact of tissue segmentation methods and CT number variations on EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose distributions was assessed for 99mTc and 131I...... in the ICRP/ICRU male phantom and in a patient PET/CT-scanned with 124I prior to radioiodine therapy. Results: CT number variations types and accurate...

  8. Study of internal exposure to uranium compounds in fuel fabrication plants in Brazil; Estudo da exposicao interna a compostos de uranio na fabricacao do elemento combustivel nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maristela Souza

    2006-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 and Supporting Guidance 3) strongly recommends that specific information on lung retention parameters should be used in preference to default values wherever appropriate, for the derivation of effective doses and for bioassay interpretation of monitoring data. A group of 81 workers exposed to UO{sub 2} at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was selected to evaluate the committed effective dose. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the urinary and faecal excretion. The contribution of intakes by ingestion and inhalation were assessed on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. For the selected workers it was concluded that inhalation dominated intake. According to ICRP 66, uranium oxide is classified as insoluble Type S compound. The ICRP Supporting Guidance 3 and some recent studies have recommended specific lung retention parameters to UO{sub 2}. The solubility parameters of the uranium oxide compound handled by the workers at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was evaluated on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. Excretion data were corrected for dietary intakes. This paper will discuss the application of lung retention parameters recommended by the ICRP models to these data and also the dependence of the effective committed dose on the lung retention parameters. It will also discuss the problems in the interpretation of monitoring results, when the worker is exposed to several uranium compounds of different solubilities. (author)

  9. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  10. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  11. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  12. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  13. Nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, W

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. The studies of the nuclear many-body system provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction, nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales, and the modes of the nucleonic matter.

  14. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs.

  15. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  16. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  18. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  19. Nuclear Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  20. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinski, C. (Christophe); Gokhale, M. (Maya); McCabe, K. P. (Kevin P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  1. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  2. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  3. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal: Volume 35, No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-09-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and de commissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  4. Objective Evaluation of Fabric Drape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; YAO Mu

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of our previous research work, an expressing index was proposed for the lively degree of dynamic fabric drape. Meanwhile, the main factoranalysis for parameters of fabric drape was applied and the 5 main factors, comprehensive indexes of expressing aesthetics of fabric drape, were obtained. Through the scored diagrams of main factors of fabric drape aesthetics, 100 kinds of fabric samples could be identified and catalogued. A new method was found out for the objective evaluation of aesthetics of fabric drape.

  5. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  6. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  7. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  8. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  9. Fabric Structures Team Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 6th Bi-Annual DOD JOCOTAS Meeting with Rigid & Soft Wall Shelter Industry & Indoor & Outdoor Exhibition, 2-4 Nov 2009, Panama City...Maintenance Shelter Demonstrated in July 09 • Designed and fabricated by Hunter Defense Technologies/Vertigo Shelters (prime), Johnson Outdoors ...Congressionally directed program with Nemo , Inc., Nashua, NH f• Designs include novel in latable airbeam technology and tensioned fabric/pole

  10. Fabrics with tunable oleophobicity

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Gareth H.; Choi, Wonjae; Cohen, Robert E.; Tuteja, Anish; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Mabry, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    A simple “dip-coating” process that imbues oleophobicity to various surfaces that inherently possess re-entrant texture, such as commercially available fabrics, is reported. These dip-coated fabric surfaces exhibit reversible, deformation-dependent, tunable wettability, including the capacity to switch their surface wetting properties (between super-repellent and super-wetting) against a wide range of polar and nonpolar liquids.

  11. Radiological and nuclear safety aspects in the fabrication of 1.8% enriched U O{sub 2} fuel rods for the RA-8 critical facility; Aspectos de seguridad radiologica y nuclear en la fabricacion de barras combustibles, con U O{sub 2} enriquecido al 1.8%, para la facilidad critica RA-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Hugo; Becarra, Fabian; Herrero, Jorge; Luna, Manuel; Perez, Aldo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1997-10-01

    The neutronic behavioral study of the fuel for the future nuclear reactor CAREM required to mount critical facility with 1.8% enriched U O{sub 2} fuel rods. The present work describes the various operation and production processes, the safety and radioprotection systems, the administrative procedures and the associated radiological controls. Also, the results obtained in the area and personal monitoring and waste generation are detailed. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  13. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  14. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...

  15. A Fabric RevolutionAFFOA Is Weaving the Next Fiber and Textile Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    nuclear agents, provide sound reduction, and enable solar generation of power from the fabric itself • Apparel capable of changing color, based upon...programs, internship opportunities, skills certification, community college engage- ment, university collaboration, graduate studies, postdoc- toral

  16. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  17. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  18. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  19. Fabrication of PDMS architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    The study report novel, yet simple and flexible fabrication method for micro channel patterning PDMS thin mold on glass surfaces, the method allows microstructures with critical dimensions to be formed using PDMS. Micro channel production is a two-step process. First, soft photolithography methods are implemented to fabricate a reusable mold. The mold is then used to create the micro channel, which consists of SU8, PDMS and glass. The micro channel design was performed using AutoCAD and the fabrication begins by creating a replicable mold. The mold is created on a glass slide. by spin-coating speed between 500 to 1250rpm with an acceleration of 100 rpm/s for 100 and 15 second ramp up and down speed respectively. Channel flow rate based on concentration were measured by analyzing the recorded flow profiles which was collected from the high powered microscope at. 80µ, 70µm, 50µm for inlet channel 1, 2, 3 respectively the channel flow were compared for flow efficiency at different concentrations and Re. Thus, the simplicity of device structure and fabrication makes it feasible to miniaturize it for the development of point-of-care kits, facilitating its use in both clinical and non-clinical environments. With its simple geometric structure and potential for mass commercial fabrication, the device can be developed to become a portable photo detection sensor that can be use for both environmental and diagnostic application.

  20. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  1. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  2. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium); Takahashi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  3. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  4. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  6. The South African nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, John

    1997-07-01

    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  7. Les fabricants de superlourds

    CERN Multimedia

    Thivent, Viviane

    2006-01-01

    Who said that russian science was not competitive any more? Today, the nuclear physics laboratory in Dubna asserts the record of the heaviest chimical element ever manufactured: 118 protons. (4 pages)

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  10. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  15. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  16. Crimp-Imbalanced Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    tows (non-twisted yarns) of alternative cross-sections. Many ballistic fabrics employ non-circular cross-section yarns such as rectangular...coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene 27 and acrylic monomers), plastic (poly vinyl chloride

  17. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  18. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  19. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  20. Nuclear Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the $\\pi$-$\\gamma$ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding some of the many facets of the Universe through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other sub-fields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Many long-standing problems remain to be solved, however, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endanger old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experime...

  2. Nuclear energy. Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-10-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  4. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES K.EBINGER; JOHN P.BANKS

    2010-01-01

    @@ In President Barack Obama's State of the Union address in January 2009,he called for the building of "a new generation of safe,clean nuclear power plants" This was followed by his highprofile speech in Prague in April 2009,in which he noted the need "to harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change."In December 2009 in Copenhagen,he pledged the United States will reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020.

  5. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  6. Readiness Review of BWXT for Fabrication of AGR 5/6/7 Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharp, Michelle Tracy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In support of preparations for fabricating compacts for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification irradiation experiments (AGR-5/6/7), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a readiness review of the BWX Technology (BWXT) procedures, processes, and equipment associated with compact fabrication activities at the BWXT Nuclear Operations Group (BWXT-NOG) facility outside Lynchburg, VirginiaVA. The readiness review used quality assurance requirements taken from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance Standard (NQA-1-2008/1a-2009) as a basis to assess readiness to start compact fabrication.

  7. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  8. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  10. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  11. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES; K.; EBINGER; JOHN; P.; BANKS

    2010-01-01

    The United States needs a comprehensive policy and market-based solutions to address the challenges and demands of energy provision in President Barack Obama’s State of the Union address in January 2009, he called for the building of "a new generation of safe, clean nuclear power plants." This was followed by his high- profile speech in Prague in April 2009,

  12. Nuclear Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  13. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control.

  14. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  15. International Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  16. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  17. Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. O' Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  18. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. O' Brien

    2001-09-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  19. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  20. Fabrication of High T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperley, Miles Hyam

    1992-01-01

    Metal-clad high-T_{rm c} superconductor wires have been fabricated by conventional hot extrusion and wire drawing techniques. The fabrication processes which were used influenced the microstructure which, in turn, governed the superconducting properties of metal-clad Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) and Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) superconductors. The ability to form these materials into long thin wires and the electrical properties of the wires were assessed. Extruded metal-clad wire was fabricated by coextruding a Cu billet containing a Ag-clad superconductor core at 920^circC and 800 ^circC for YBCO and BPSCCO materials, respectively. The deformation behaviour of the composite billets was investigated by extruding through dies with semicone angle alpha = 30 ^circ and using a range of core diameters and reduction ratios. For combinations of initial core diameter and reduction ratio, domains of deformation behaviour were established including sound flow, nonuniform flow, core fracture and sleeve fracture. Hot extruded YBCO and BPSCCO superconductor had densities estimated to be between 95% and 98% of the theoretical values. The material contained transverse cracks except for a sample of YBCO which had an addition of 10 wt% Ag. The microstructure of the YBCO material consisted of YBa _2Cu_3O{_{7-x}}, while the BPSCCO material contained an intimate mixture of the high-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_2Cu _3O{_ {10-x}} (110 K) and low-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_1Cu _2O{_ {8-x}} (80 K) phases with Ca _2CuO_3 and Sr-Ca -Cu-O impurity particles. X-ray polefigure goniometry of extruded BPSCCO superconductor revealed that the material was relatively untextured. As-extruded YBCO and BPSCCO were semiconducting. Oxygen treated YBCO had a lower normal-state resistivity than the as-extruded material, and a superconducting transition above 77 K was not achieved. Heat treatment of extruded BPSCCO regenerated superconductivity above 77 K, with the transition behaviour dependent on the proportion of high

  1. Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: V Dinucleons, published in The Physical Review , v93 n4 p908-909, 15 Feb 1954; Concentration of a Cyclotron Beam by Strong Focusing Lenses...published in The Review of Scientific Instruments, v25 n4 p365-367, Apr 1954; and Photon Splitting in a Nuclear Electrostatic Field, published in The Physical Review , v94 n2 p367-368, 15 Apr 1954.

  2. Nuclear Waffles

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Horowitz, C J

    2014-01-01

    The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate a...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  4. Engineering fabrics in transportation construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, S. C.

    1983-11-01

    The following areas are discussed: treatments for reduction of reflective cracking of asphalt overlays on jointed-concrete pavements in Georgia; laboratory testing of fabric interlayers for asphalt concrete paving: interim report; reflection cracking models: review and laboratory evaluation of engineering fabrics; optimum-depth method for design of fabric-reinforced unsurfaced roads; dynamic test to predict field behavior of filter fabrics used in pavement subdrains; mechanism of geotextile performance in soil-fabric systems for drainage and erosion control; permeability tests of selected filter fabrics for use with a loess-derived alluvium; geotextile filter criteria; use of fabrics for improving the placement of till on peat foundation; geotextile earth-reinforced retaining wall tests: Glenwood Canyon, Colorado; New York State Department of Transportation's experience and guidelines for use of geotextiles; evaluation of two geotextile installations in excess of a decade old; and, long-term in situ properties of geotextiles.

  5. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing

  6. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  7. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  8. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  9. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  10. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the challenges for the textile industry has changed because of technological development and outsourcing. The consequence is an increased focus on innovation in the textile trade. This paper describes the objectives in a three year research project. In order to contribute...... to the establishment of an initial framework for the project it has a focus on how to explore costumers and users emotional experiences with fabrics. The three year research project is based on experimental design research and the textile designer's competences and knowledge. During the research project exploring...

  11. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  12. Reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    several examples. At a fuel fabrication plant at Tokai-mura in Japan making mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel out of powdered uranium and nuclear weapons... MOX scrap in Japan where at least one bomb’s worth of weapons-usable plutonium went missing and another accounting discrepancy at a Japanese repro...mixed oxide fuels or MOX ) do not fare as well. Here, Dr. Cochran points out that it would take no more than a week and possibly as little as a few

  13. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  14. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  15. Thick tellurium electrodeposition on nickel-coated copper substrate for 124I production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Dastan, M; Ensaf, M R; Tehrani, A Abaspour; Tenreiro, C; Avila, M

    2008-10-01

    Tellurium electrodeposition on a nickel-coated copper substrate was investigated for production of iodine-124. The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by the alkali plating baths. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tellurium were as follows: 6 g l(-1) tellurium, pH=10, DC current density of ca. 8.55 mA cm(-2) and room temperature.

  16. Impact of high (131)I-activities on quantitative (124)I-PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, P E N; Hansen, Søren B.; Høilund-Carlsen, P F

    2015-01-01

    relevant [Formula: see text]I/[Formula: see text]I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled...... [Formula: see text]I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at [Formula: see text]I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of [Formula...

  17. PET imaging with the non-pure positron emitters: 55Co, 86Y and 124I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Hansen, S B; Thisgaard, H;

    2015-01-01

    PET/CT with non-pure positron emitters is a highly valuable tool in immuno-PET and for pretherapeutic dosimetry. However, imaging is complicated by prompt gamma coincidences (PGCs) that add an undesired background activity to the images. Time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction improves lesion detecta...

  18. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  19. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  20. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  1. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  2. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  3. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  4. Nuclear Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Jentschel, M; Thirolf, P G

    2012-01-01

    With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies <=20 MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIGS facility (Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear pho...

  5. AFIP-4 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore

    2010-02-01

    The AFIP-4 (ATR Full –size-plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Twelve qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-4 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts; including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  6. AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  7. AFIP-2 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn Moore

    2010-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full-size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position (AFIP)-2 experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP 2 experiment to be irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory ATR. This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  8. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  9. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  11. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  12. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear "waffles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  14. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, April--June 1996: Volume 37, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, M D [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  15. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, January--March 1993: Volume 34, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  16. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1992: Volume 33, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  17. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, April--June 1992: Volume 33, No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  18. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, January--March 1992: Volume 33, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, January--March 1994: Volume 35, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1994-01-01

    This is a journal that covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  20. Nuclear nirvana?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, T.

    1997-06-10

    This article describes a proposed method of processing high-level radioactive wastes from existing PWR reactors and weapons grade plutonium to produce relatively benign medium-level wastes, which is easier to handle and store. The energy amplifier proposed by Carlo Rubbia, ex-director-general of CERN, causes fission to occur as a result of nuclear cascades, rather than chain reactions, by bombarding a thorium-based mixture of radioactive materials with a high-intensity beam of sub-atomic particles. He claims that, as it depends largely on proven technology it could be in commercial operation with ten years, well ahead of even a prototype fusion reactor and thus provide a viable, sustainable and more environmentally acceptable power source. (Author).

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. Nuclear exoticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  3. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  4. No Nuclear Worries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China National Nuclear Corp.will learn lessons from the Fukushima accident while expanding its operations As Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp.(CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear power operator,comes under

  5. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  6. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter: initial feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Sungmin; Park, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine (RI) such as (131)I or (124)I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with γ-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of (124)I. Small animal PET or γ-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies.

  7. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication r

  8. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  9. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiyari, M. İ.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  10. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  11. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  12. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  13. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  14. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  15. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  16. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  17. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  18. Consolidation: Thwarting Nuclear Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Matthew G.; Harrell, Eben

    2013-01-01

    At the first nuclear security summit in April 2010, the assembled leaders agreed on the goal of securing all vulnerable nuclear material worldwide within four years, including consolidating plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) to fewer locations and minimizing the use of HEU “where technically and economically feasible.†Reducing the number of buildings and sites where nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear material exist is a key element of preventing nuclear theft and nuclear ...

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  20. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  1. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  2. Nuclear Entalpies

    CERN Document Server

    Rozynek, J

    2013-01-01

    In a compressed Nuclear Matter (NM) an increasing pressure between the nucleons starts to increase the ratio of a nucleon Fermi to average single particle energy and in accordance with the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem the longitudinal Momentum Sum Rule (MSR) is broken in a Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) approach. We propose to benefit from the concept of enthalpy in order to show how to fulfill the MSR above a saturation density with pressure corrections. As a result a nucleon mass can decrease with density, making the Equation of State (EoS) softer. The course of the EoS in our modified RMF model is close to a semi-empirical estimate and to results obtained from extensive DBHF calculations with a Bonn A potential, which produce the EoS stiff enough to describe neutron star properties (mass-radius constraint), especially the most massive known neutron star. The presented model has proper saturation properties, including good values of a compressibility and a spin-orbit term.

  3. Nuclear Data and Nuclear Model Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Developing nuclear data needs towards to sustainable development on fission reactor design and many nuclear applications out the field of fission reactor technology that are growing economicsignificance and that have substantial data requirements are introduced. International standard codes used in nuclear data evaluations and calculations are introduced and compared each other. Generally

  4. Design and Fabrication of Remote Welding Equipment in a Hot-Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote welding equipment for nuclear fuel bundle fabrication in a hot-cell was designed and developed. To achieve this, a preliminary investigation of hands-on fuel fabrication outside a hot-cell was conducted with a consideration of the constraints caused by the welding in a hot-cell. Some basic experiments were also carried out to improve the end-plate welding process for nuclear fuel bundle fabrication. The resistance welding equipment using end-plate welding was also improved. It was found that the remote resistance welding was more suitable for joining an end-plate to end caps in a hot-cell. This paper presents an outline of the developed welding equipment for nuclear fuel bundle fabrication and reviews a conceptual design of remote welding equipment using a master-slave manipulator. Furthermore, the mechanical considerations and a mock-up simulation test were described. Finally, its performance test results were presented for a mock-up of the remote resistance welding equipment for nuclear fuel bundle fabrication.

  5. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  6. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  7. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  8. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-09-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication results of a non-conventional process, which uses a combination of focused gallium ion-beam milling and hydrofluoric acid vapor etching. This process makes it possible to fabricate nanoscale electrostatic lenses down to 140 nm in aperture diameter and 4.2 µm in column length, with a superior control of the geometry as compared to conventional lithography-based techniques.

  9. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  10. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  11. Information security as part of the nuclear safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitnica, A., E-mail: demetrkj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    No industry, organization, individual or even the government is immune to the information security risks which are associated with nuclear power. It can no longer be ignored, delayed or treated as unimportant. Nuclear safety is paramount to our industry, and cyber security must be woven into the fabric of our safety culture in order to succeed. Achieving this in an environment which has remained relatively unchanged and conservative prior to digitalisation demands a shift in behavior and culture. (Author)

  12. Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhang, Yanwen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-20

    This is the final report of the NEUP project “Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms.” This project started on July 1, 2012 and was successfully completed on June 30, 2016. This report provides an overview of the main achievements, results and findings through the duration of the project. Additional details can be found in the main body of this report and in the individual Quarterly Reports and associated Deliverables of this project, which have been uploaded in PICS-NE. The objective of this research was to advance understanding and develop validated models on the effects of self-radiation from beta and alpha decay on the response of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste forms during high-temperature interim storage and long-term permanent disposition. To achieve this objective, model used-fuel materials and model waste form materials were identified, fabricated, and studied.

  13. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices. © 2009 Springer-Verlag....

  14. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  15. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technolo...

  16. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  17. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  18. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    I Foreign Ministry on Algerian Nuclear Reactor [ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE] .............................. I...Nuclear Facilities Urged [Seoul YONHAP] .................................................... 5 WPK’s ’Anti- War , Anti-Nuke’ Policy Viewed [KCNA...34 JPRS-TND-91-008 31 May 1991 CHINA 1 Algerian Nuclear Reactor Algeria signed a protocol on nuclear cooperation, in which China agreed

  19. Ensuring Nuclear Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident precipitates overall safety inspection by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corp The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan had barely made headlines around the world when China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corp.(CGNPC),a nuclear power magnate in China,organized

  20. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  1. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  2. Energy from nuclear fission(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripani M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  3. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  4. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  6. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for...

  7. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R. [InnovaTech, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  8. 14 CFR 29.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 29.605 Section 29.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication...

  9. 14 CFR 27.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 27.605 Section 27.605... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such...

  10. 14 CFR 23.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 23.605 Section 23.605... Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a... fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program....

  11. 14 CFR 25.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 25.605 Section 25.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce a consistently sound structure. If a fabrication...

  12. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.).

  13. Standard specification for nuclear-grade hafnium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for hafnium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  15. Fabrication of particulate metal fuel for fast burner reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Lee, Sun Yong; Kim, Jong Hwan; Woo, Yoon Myung; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Chan Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    U Zr metallic fuel for sodium cooled fast reactors is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. Therefore, innovative fuel concepts should be developed to address the fabrication challenges pertaining to TRU while maintaining good performances of metallic fuel. Particulate fuel concepts have already been proposed and tested at several experimental fast reactor systems and vipac ceramic fuel of RIAR, Russia is one of the examples. However, much less work has been reported for particulate metallic fuel development. Spherical uranium alloy particles with various diameters can be easily produced by the centrifugal atomization technique developed by KAERI. Using the atomized uranium and uranium zirconium alloy particles, we fabricated various kinds of powder pack, powder compacts and sintered pellets. The microstructures and properties of the powder pack and pellets are presented.

  16. Macro fluid analysis of laminated fabric permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A porous jump model is put forward to predict the breathability of laminated fabrics by utilizing fluent software. To simplify the parameter setting process, the methods of determining the parameters of jump porous model by means of fabric layers are studied. Also, effects of single/multi-layer fabrics and thickness on breathability are analyzed, indicating that fabric breathability reduces with the increase of layers. Multi-layer fabric is simplified into a single layer, and the fabric permeability is calculated by proportion. Moreover, the change curve of fabric layer and face permeability, as well as the equation between the fabric layer and the face permeability are obtained. Then, face permeability and pressure-jump coefficient parameters setting of porous jump model could be integrated into single parameter (i. e. fabric layers, which simplifies the fluent operation process and realizes the prediction of laminated fabric permeability.

  17. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice.... Introduction The NRC has received, by letter dated February 8, 2011, an amendment request from Shaw AREVA...

  18. Design and Fabrication of Remote Welding Equipment in a Hot-Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Soosung; Kim, Kihwan; Lee, Jungwon; Koh, Jinhyun

    2013-01-01

    ... was necessary in consideration of the constraints caused by remote welding in a hot-cell [2]. The DFDF (DUPIC Fuel Development Facility) is a completely shielded cell made of heavy concrete. As the DFDF is active, direct human access to its inner cell is not possible. All the nuclear fuel fabrication processes and equipment operations, therefore, are conducted ...

  19. Fabrication of First Chinese Made Reactor for Oxosvnthesis of Acetic Acid in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first set of Chinese made reactor for oxo-synthesis of acetic acid has been fabricated by the Xi'an Nuclear Equipment Company,Ltd.This reactor has been transported to the site of equipment installation at the acetic acid production project owned by Shandong Yimeng Company,Ltd.,which has shattered the long-time precedent of relying upon imported equipment.

  20. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  1. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry; Le panorama nucleaire russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear and radiochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Konya, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of

  3. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  4. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  5. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  6. Stirling Microregenerators Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale Stirling refrigerator patented by the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently under development. This refrigerator has a predicted efficiency of 30 percent of Carnot and potential uses in electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and microsystems. The mesoscale Stirling refrigerator is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines and a microregenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. Diaphragms are used to eliminate frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were fabricated under NASA grants for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, which were fabricated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist, which was fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies. The candidate regenerators are being tested by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics in a custom piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, Johns Hopkins is using deep reactive ion etching to fabricate electrostatically driven, comb-drive diaphragm actuators. These actuators will drive the Stirling cycle in the prototype device. The top photograph shows the porous ceramic microregenerators. Two microregenerators were fabricated with coarse pores and two with fine pores. The bottom photograph shows the test apparatus parts for evaluating the microregenerators, including the layered nickel-and-photoresist regenerator fabricated using LIGA techniques.

  7. Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S; Stritt, N; Bochud, F O

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half-lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. (123)I, (124)I, (125)I and (131)I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (≤ 6 h), such as (99m)Tc and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. (11)C, (15)O, (18)F and (68)Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. (67)Ga, (111)In and (201)Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. (90)Y and (169)Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re and (188)Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations.

  8. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G.; et al.

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  9. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  10. Nuclear domains and the nuclear matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, R; Wansink, D G; van Steensel, B; Grande, M A; Schul, W; de Jong, L

    1995-01-01

    This overview describes the spatial distribution of several enzymatic machineries and functions in the interphase nucleus. Three general observations can be made. First, many components of the different nuclear machineries are distributed in the nucleus in a characteristic way for each component. They are often found concentrated in specific domains. Second, nuclear machineries for the synthesis and processing of RNA and DNA are associated with an insoluble nuclear structure, called nuclear matrix. Evidently, handling of DNA and RNA is done by immobilized enzyme systems. Finally, the nucleus seems to be divided in two major compartments. One is occupied by compact chromosomes, the other compartment is the space between the chromosomes. In the latter, transcription takes place at the surface of chromosomal domains and it houses the splicing machinery. The relevance of nuclear organization for efficient gene expression is discussed.

  11. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  12. Fabrication method for microscopic vapor cells for alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluktsian, T; Urban, C; Bublat, T; Giessen, H; Löw, R; Pfau, T

    2010-06-15

    A quantum network that consists of several components should ideally work on a single physical platform. Neutral alkali atoms have the potential to be very well suited for this purpose due to their electronic structure, which involves long-lived nuclear spins and very sensitive highly excited Rydberg states. In this Letter, we describe a fabrication method based on quartz glass to structure arbitrary shapes of microscopic vapor cells. We show that the usual spectroscopic properties known from macroscopic vapor cells are almost unaffected by the strong confinement.

  13. The Study on Domestic and Foreign Cases for Decommissioning of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ye Ji; Hhu, Joo Youn; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study was able to analyze domestic and foreign cases, and collect data on the approximate amount of waste and time required time; however, data on applied technology, input manpower, required cost, and waste disposal method was insufficient. DPRK activities such as nuclear weapon development or nuclear testing not only threaten our country's security but also have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation and security in the international society. Therefore, denuclearization of the DPRK is prior task that is essential to peace on the Korean Peninsula. The fundamental purpose of denuclearization of the DPRK is to safely decommission facilities related to developing nuclear weapons and to depose related radioactive waste and nuclear materials. Understanding descriptive references and physical properties of the facility and its purpose important for decommissioning nuclear facilities. Although it was impossible to collect data on DPRK nuclear facilities to perform complete decommissioning, we were able to understand the process used at DPRK nuclear facilities with open source data. This study has been conducted to establish overall measures for decommissioning DPRK nuclear facilities. DPRK nuclear facilities in this study include a IRT- 2000 type nuclear research reactor, a 5 MWe graphite moderated reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, and a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, which are considered as facilities that produce or manufacture nuclear materials needed for nuclear weapons or related to such activities.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  15. Nuclear fear revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  16. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  17. Theory of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.M.; Sarkisyan, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of degenerate stellar matter in the region of nuclear densities are considered. The threshold of the transition of the electron-nucleus phase to the state of continuous nuclear matter is found.

  18. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  2. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  4. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  5. Generalized Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-15

    This software is code related to reading/writing/manipulating nuclear data in the Generalized Nuclear Data (GND) format, a new format for sharing nuclear data among institutions. In addition to the software and its documentation, notes and documentation from the WPEC Subgroup 43 will be included. WPEC Subgroup 43 is an international committee charged with creating the API for the GND format.

  6. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  7. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  8. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  9. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  10. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  11. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  12. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    . This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...

  13. Fabricated Helicopter Transmission Housing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This program was conducted for the Military Operations Technology Division under the technical management of Hr. L. Thomas Mazza, Technology Applications...Data Xritred) Uncl ssified .UIJRITY -’.ASSIFICA ’.Wi OF THIS PAGE(Wen Date Entered) materials, analytical methods, and fabrication tecniques . The

  14. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags. However, the advent of today’s high performance fibers...were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low pressures because of fabric...environmental exposure to ultraviolet rays, moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating such as urethane , PVC (polyvinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene

  15. Crimp-Imbalanced Protective Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    line 12). [0009] The parameters of FIG. 3 are applicable for defining the geometric dependencies of crimp in fabrics constructed with tows (non...yarns with a suitably thickened temporary coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene and acrylic

  16. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jin, M.L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den A.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized su

  17. Fabrication of green polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-06-16

    Provided herein are methods of fabricating membranes using polymers with functionalized groups such as sulfone (e.g., PSf and PES), ether (e.g., PES), acrylonitrile (e.g., PAN), fluoride(e.g., pvdf and other fluoropolymers), and imide (e.g., extem) and ionic liquids. Also provided are membranes made by the provided methods.

  18. Relation between nuclear envelope and nuclear lamina in nuclear assembly in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡树涛; 翟中和

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis egg extracts cell-free nuclear assembly system was used as an experimental model to study the process of nuclear lamina assembly in nuclear reconstitution in vitro. The experimental results showed that lamin was involved in the nuclear assembly in vitro. The assembly of nuclear lamina was preceded by the assembly of nuclear matrix, and probably, inner nuclear matrix assembly provided the basis for nuclear lamina assembly. Inhibition of normal assembly of nuclear lamina, by preincubating egg extracts cell-free system with anti-lamin antibodies, resulted in abnormal assembly of nuclear envelope, suggesting that nuclear envelope assembly is closely associated with nuclear lamina assembly.

  19. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  20. Tests and analyses on the laboratory equipment in fuel-fabrication mockup test facility (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, T.; Gunji, Y.; Kikumo, H.; Okamoto, N.; Murakami, T.; Sato, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-11-01

    A rotary press has been manufactured for trial use of fabricating nuclear-fuel pellets, which is compact and superior in processing capacity compared to conventional reciprocating presses, and its performance tests were done. Tests include (1) finding out of problems in the equipment maintenance, (2) a comparative test of rotary and reciprocating presses in pellet fabrication, (3) an injection test of dry-recovered fuel powders, and (4) a confirmation test for process holdup of the fuel powders in the equipment. To evaluate the applicability to MOX (uranium and plutonium mixed oxide) fuel fabrication, 0 - 40 weight % of dry-recovered powders obtained from sintered uranium pellets was added to the raw materials of uranium powders to make the pellets. Some recommendations based on the present testing results in designing large scale MOX fuel fabricating machines are given. (S. Ohno)

  1. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  2. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  3. Nuclear Egress of Herpesviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard J.Roller

    2008-01-01

    Herpesviruses assemble and fill their capsids in the infected cell nucleus,and must then move this enormous macromolecular assembly across the nuclear membrane and into the cytoplasm.Doing so is a complex,multi-step process that involves envelopment of the capsid at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment by fusion with the outer nuclear membrane.This process is orchestrated by viral proteins,but requires the modification of cellular structures and mechanisms including the nuclear lamina.In this review I summarize recent research on the mechanism of nuclear envelopment and the viral and cellular systems involved in its execution.

  4. Nuclear parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulagin S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review a microscopic model of the nuclear parton distribution functions, which accounts for a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions and nuclear shadowing. We also discuss applications of this model to a number of processes including lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, proton-nucleus Drell-Yan lepton pair production at Fermilab, as well as W± and Z0 boson production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC.

  5. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear education and training

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern? , which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the w

  7. Femtosecond fabricated photomasks for fabrication of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2006-10-30

    This paper describes the direct write laser fabrication of a photolithography mask for prototyping of microfluidic devices in polydimethylsiloxane. An amplified femtosecond pulse laser is used to selectively remove the aluminium metal layer from the poly(methyl methacrylate) photomask substrate. The use of a femtosecond pulse laser to selectively etch a metal layer has several advantages over other conventional methods for binary photomask fabrication, namely rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using soft lightography. Control of the energy density and defocus position of the focusing objective lens results in the etching of features with widths ranging from 2 microm to 35 microm when using an objective lens with numerical aperture of 0.25.

  8. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  9. The nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  10. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  11. Overview of nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.

    2003-06-30

    For many years, nuclear structure and decay data have been compiled and disseminated by an International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) evaluators under the auspices of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this lecture I will discuss the kinds of data that are available and describe various ways to obtain this information. We will learn about some of the publications that are available and Internet sources of nuclear data. You will be introduced to Isotope Explorer software for retrieving and displaying nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. The on-line resources Table of Radioactive Isotopes, PGAA Database Viewer, Nuclear Science Reference Search, Table of Isotopes Educational Website, and other information sources will be discussed. Exercises will be provided to increase your ability to understand, access, and use nuclear data.

  12. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  13. [Experimental nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  14. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  15. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particles counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors having areas between 0.01 to 100 cm{sup 2} and thicknesses 30 to 600 microns, have been fabricated with single, linear strip and square pixel contact. The large area detectors 10 to 600 cm{sup 2} were produced by industrial ceramic equipment while the smaller ones, about 1 cm{sup 2} area, were produced in the laboratory. The large detectors still had large leakage currents and the production process is being revised. The smaller detectors were tested and their response to lower and higher gamma energy, beta and even 100 GeV muons at CERN will be reported.

  16. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  17. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  18. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution In Repairs to Reactor Pressure Vessel and Piping Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Schuster, FA Simonen, SR Doctor

    2008-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a generalized fabrication flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in U.S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This report describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs. These results show that repair flaws are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. The relevance of construction records is established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. An analysis of these records shows there was a significant change in repair frequency over the years when these components were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance. Fabrication flaws in repairs are characterized using optimized-access, high-sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Flaw characterizations are then validated by other nondestructive evaluation techniques and complemented by destructive testing.

  19. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  20. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad E. Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which is expected to exhibit hyperbolic properties in the visible range. As the second approach we apply the atomic layer deposition technique to arrange vertical alignment of layers or pillars of heavily doped ZnO or TiN, which enables us to produce hyperbolic metamaterials for the near- and mid-infrared ranges.

  1. Fabrics China Trends Released in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ During April 8th-14th, China Textiles Development center, along with China Textile Information Center, released their newly developed "Fabrics China Trends 10 S/S" in China Fabrics & Accessories Center in the city of Guangzhou, aiming to improve the fashion style of China Fabrics & Accessories Center, upgrade the integration of fabrics and fashion trend development, attract more buyers and talent designers, and enhance the quality competitiveness of the trade center significantly.

  2. A review on the status of development in thorium-based nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Na, S. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Joung, C.Y

    2000-02-01

    Thorium as an alternative nuclear energy source had been widely investigated in the 1950s-1960s because it is more abundant than uranium, but the studies of thorium nuclear fuel cycle were discontinued by political and economic reasons in the 1970s. Recently, however, renewed interest was vested in thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle because it may generate less long-lived minor actinides and has a lower radiotoxicity of high level wastes after reprocessing compared with the thorium fuel cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle and fuel fabrication processes developed so far with different reactor types are reviewed and analyzed to establish basic technologies of thorium fuel fabrication which could meet our situation. (author)

  3. An Overview of Current and Past W-UO[2] CERMET Fuel Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Daniel M. Wachs; James E. Werner; Steven D. Howe

    2007-06-01

    Studies dating back to the late 1940s performed by a number of different organizations and laboratories have established the major advantages of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems, particularly for manned missions. A number of NTP projects have been initiated since this time; none have had any sustained fuel development work that appreciably contributed to fuel fabrication or performance data from this era. As interest in these missions returns and previous space nuclear power researchers begin to retire, fuel fabrication technologies must be revisited, so that established technologies can be transferred to young researchers seamlessly and updated, more advanced processes can be employed to develop successful NTP fuels. CERMET fuels, specifically W-UO2, are of particular interest to the next generation NTP plans since these fuels have shown significant advantages over other fuel types, such as relatively high burnup, no significant failures under severe transient conditions, capability of accommodating a large fission product inventory during irradiation and compatibility with flowing hot hydrogen. Examples of previous fabrication routes involved with CERMET fuels include hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and press and sinter, whereas newer technologies, such as spark plasma sintering, combustion synthesis and microsphere fabrication might be well suited to produce high quality, effective fuel elements. These advanced technologies may address common issues with CERMET fuels, such as grain growth, ductile to brittle transition temperature and UO2 stoichiometry, more effectively than the commonly accepted ‘traditional’ fabrication routes. Bonding of fuel elements, especially if the fabrication process demands production of smaller element segments, must be investigated. Advanced brazing techniques and compounds are now available that could produce a higher quality bond segment with increased ease in joining. This paper will briefly address the history of

  4. An State-of-Art Report on Remote Fabrication Technology Development for EBR-II Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K. C.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. S.; Park, J. J.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Lee, C. B

    2008-05-15

    The Generation-IV nuclear system program, aiming to continue the sustainable development of nuclear power utilization, was internationally started from 2000. In order to develop the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is expected to be commercialized firstly among Gen-IV candidate nuclear systems, it would be essential that construction of hot-cell facility for SFR fuel fabrication will be important. SFR fuel contains minor actinide elements recycled from spent fuel and R and D program on a fabrication technology development of TRU metal fuel is currently conducted. Therefore, SFR fuel fabrication technology in hot cell will be future urgent issue. This report is an state-of art report related to remote fabrication technologies of metal fuel for the development of EBR-II fuel cycle at ANL. The focus in this report is the summary on the development of EBR-II fuel fabrication processes and its equipment, operation experience in each process which covers melt refining process of spent metal fuel, fuel pin and element fabrication processes and subassembly fabrication process, waste management. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) (retitled to INL) designed and constructed the EBR(Experimental fast neutron Breeder Reactor)-II and were into operation using enriched uranium alloy fuel in July 1964. Over 700 irradiated reactor subassemblies were processed in the FCF (Fuel Cycle Facility) and returned to EBR-II reactor through April 1969. The comprehensive remote fabrication technology in hot cell for metallic fuel has been established according to EBR-II fuel cycle program. In FCF, the spent uranium alloy fuel from reactor was promptly recovered for reuse on site by low-decontamination, pyrometallurgical partial purification process called melt refining process. About 2.4 metric tons of irradiated fuel were processed by melt refining process. From the recovered fuel and additional new alloy, about 34,500 fully acceptable fuel elements were fabricated remotely in hot cell

  5. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clean technology that effectively eliminates the use of hazardous solvents and prevents the generation of volatile organic emissions and hazardous solid waste. publish information

  6. Virtual Manufacturing (la Fabrication virtuelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    L’imbrication sera realisee en temps reel par un algorithme genetique en fonction des priorites de production. 4.3 gestion de revolution des...distribuee dynamiquement entre divers sites specialistes contrairement ä la fabrication reelle qui est geographique, - l’aptitude ä manipuler un...visually gen- erate assembly sequences. Because of the speed in which a FlyThru® model can be manipulated on screen, it is a great tool for Integrated

  7. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Jin, M. L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized surface plasmon resonance effect is obtained. These plasmonic microcapsules can be engineered and modified by nanoparticle size and the metal film thickness. Repeatable Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scatte...

  8. Fabric Structures Team Technology Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    catalyst layer CBWAs destroyed through reaction with generated H2O2 in presence of oxidative catalyst • Rapidly disinfects surfaces exposed...Demonstrated reactive textile in developmental airlock Crosslink, Inc: •A reactive, electrochemical polymer coating system capable •of generating H2O2 to...singlet oxygen (1O2 ), a mild oxidant Counter electrode V or i Fabric shelter Working electrode: Quinone-modified H2O2 generating electrode Oxidative

  9. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer...

  10. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  11. The Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry ene...

  12. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  13. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  14. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  15. Robust fabric substrates for photonic textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pieterson, L.; Bouten, P.C.P.; Kriege, J.C.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. The fabric's robustness, as a function of the electrical reliability of its conductive yarn connections, is shown to hold over large deformations.This fabric is then used to

  16. Robust fabric substrates for photonic textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pieterson, L.; Bouten, P.C.P.; Kriege, J.C.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. The fabric's robustness, as a function of the electrical reliability of its conductive yarn connections, is shown to hold over large deformations.This fabric is then used to

  17. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-03-16

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule.

  18. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti (

  19. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti

  20. Innovative Fabric Show Every Month in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It normally costs a long term for fabric manufacturers to develop a new product. The delay of marketing the innovative fabric not only affect the benefit of the textile mills, but also baffle the development of the industry. Shanghai Fabric Hall responses to this with a regular exhibition of

  1. Nuclear energy - some aspects; Energia nuclear - alguns aspectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-15

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy.

  2. Development of TRIGA Fuel Fabrication by Powder Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suwarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of operation of the Indonesian TRIGA reactors may be jeopardizes in the future due to the lack of fuel and control rods. Both fuel and control rods may not longer be imported and should be developed domestically. The most specific technology to fabricate TRIGA fuel rod is the production of UZrH1.6 pellet. The steps include converting the massive U metal into powder in by hydriding-dehydriding technique and mixing the U and Zr powders. A research has been planned to conducted by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN in Indonesia. Fixed amount of U-Zr mixed powders at the ratio of U/Zr = 10 wt% was pressed into a pellet with a diameter of 1.41 in and a thickness of 1 or 1.5 in, sintered at a temperature of 1200oC, followed by hydriding at 800oC to obtained UZrH1.6. The pellets, cladding, and other components were then fabricated into a fuel rod. A detailed discussion of the TRIGA fuel fabrication is presented in the paper.

  3. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  4. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  5. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  6. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear Power Feasibility 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Beltrán, José María; Hill, Barrie Frederick; Kadak, Andrew C.; Shultz, Donald F.; Spitalnik, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high capital costs, the risks posed by ...

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Nuclear spirals in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejewski, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations indicate that nuclear spirals are often present in the innermost few hundred parsecs of disc galaxies. My models show that nuclear spirals form naturally as a gas response to non-axisymmetry in the gravitational potential. Some nuclear spirals take the form of spiral shocks, resulting in streaming motions in the gas, and in inflow comparable to the accretion rates needed to power local Active Galactic Nuclei. Recently streaming motions of amplitude expected...

  10. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  11. Nuclear South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against geopolitical...to drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  12. Facilitating Global Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Junr

    2014-01-01

    <正>I.Introduction Since the advent of nuclear weapons,especially after the United States dropped atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,the capacity of massive and indiscriminate annihilation of nuclear weapons have made people of insight across the world realize that such weapons cannot be used arbitrarily.In the 1960s,the then Chinese leader Mao Zedong said that to throw them(nuclear weapons)about at will is committing a

  13. Nuclear electronic instrumentation; Instrumentacion electronica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F. J., E-mail: francisco.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  15. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  16. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Basson

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The impending operation of South Africa’s first nuclear power station, Koeberg, necessitates a thorough analysis of nuclear safety under local conditions. More is known, worldwide, about radiation effects than about any other health hazard, and international norms have already been accepted since 1928. The widespread use of X-rays and radio-isotopes, the extraction and processing of uranium, visits by nuclear-powered ships and, especially, the nuclear-reactor operation in South Africa. Consequently, the pre-operational investigations of Koeberg could be completed thoroughly, with full confidence in its safe commissioning.

  17. Nuclear level density predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucurescu Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple formulas depending only on nuclear masses were previously proposed for the parameters of the Back-Shifted Fermi Gas (BSFG model and of the Constant Temperature (CT model of the nuclear level density, respectively. They are now applied for the prediction of the level density parameters of all nuclei with available masses. Both masses from the new 2012 mass table and from different models are considered and the predictions are discussed in connection with nuclear regions most affected by shell corrections and nuclear structure effects and relevant for the nucleosynthesis.

  18. Nuclear power in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (UK))

    1991-04-01

    The 1990s are turning out to be a most crucial phase for the nuclear industries of Europe. A time of uncertainty, as well as considerable opportunity, lies ahead. Despite a measure of public and political opposition to nuclear power, many are beginning to realise that, as a method of generating electricity that produces only 1% of greenhouse gases compared to coal per unit of electricity, nuclear energy may be the best alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Although advances have been made in renewable energy, nuclear power is still the main non-fossil fuel source that can cope with today's energy demands. (author).

  19. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  20. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  1. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  2. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  3. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  4. Influence of zone purification process on TlBr crystals for radiation detector fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro [Department of Electronics, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: hitomi@tohtech.ac.jp; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Tadayoshi [Department of Electronics, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a wide gap compound semiconductor and is a promising material for fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. In this study, the conventional zone refining method was employed to reduce the concentration of impurities in the TlBr crystals. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the zone purification, the zone purification process was repeated up to 300 times. The resistivity, the charge transport properties, and the spectroscopic performance of TlBr detectors fabricated from the crystals zone purified 1 time, 100 times, and 300 times were compared in this study in order to clarify the effectiveness of the zone purification process.

  5. Integrated Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor Fabricated In A Single Fabric Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, S.; Owen, J. R.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible solid- state electrical double layer supercapacitor fabricated in a single fabric layer. The proposed supercapacitors were based on fabric electrodes fabricated with low cost carbon materials via a spray coating technique. The single layer solid state supercapacitors achieved a specific capacitances of 40.5 F.g-1, area capacitance of 40.5 mF.cm-2.

  6. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stanley; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space fission power systems can provide a power rich environment anywhere in the solar system, independent of available sunlight. Space fission propulsion offers the potential for enabling rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. One type of space fission propulsion is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). NTP systems operate by using a fission reactor to heat hydrogen to very high temperature (>2500 K) and expanding the hot hydrogen through a supersonic nozzle. First generation NTP systems are designed to have an Isp of approximately 900 s. The high Isp of NTP enables rapid crew transfer to destinations such as Mars, and can also help reduce mission cost, improve logistics (fewer launches), and provide other benefits. However, for NTP systems to be utilized they must be affordable and viable to develop. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) NTP project is a technology development project that will help assess the affordability and viability of NTP. Early work has included fabrication of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, coating of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, fabrication of representative cermet fuel element segments, and testing of fuel element segments in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET). Near-term activities will include testing approximately 16" fuel element segments in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES), and ongoing research into improving fuel microstructure and coatings. In addition to recapturing fuels technology, affordable development, qualification, and utilization strategies must be devised. Options such as using low-enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) are being assessed, although that option requires development of a key technology before it can be applied to NTP in the thrust range of interest. Ground test facilities will be required, especially if NTP is to be used in conjunction with high value or

  7. Nuclear Safety Technical Progress Journal, January--June 1995. Volume 36, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1995-01-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, July--September 1992: Volume 33, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  10. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, April--June 1993: Volume 34, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1993-01-01

    This review journal that covers significant developments in the field of Nuclear Safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations are also treated.

  11. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  12. Design Thinking for Digital Fabrication in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjorth, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that digital fabrication in education may benefit from design thinking, to foster a more profound understanding of digital fabrication processes among students. Two related studies of digital fabrication in education are presented in the paper. In an observational study we...... found that students (eleven to fifteen) lacked an understanding of the complexity of the digital fabrication process impeding on the potentials of digital fabrication in education. In a second explorative research through design study, we investigated how a focus on design thinking affected the students......’ performance in digital fabrication processes. Our findings indicate that design thinking can provide students with a general understanding of the creative and complex process through which artifacts and futures emerge in processes of digital fabrication....

  13. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  14. Design and fabrication of radiation shielded laser ablation ICP-MS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Yeong Keong; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Park, Yang Soon; Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Won Ho

    2006-09-15

    In relation to high burn up and extended fuel cycle for the fuel cycle efficiency, we need to take chemical analysis of spent nuclear fuel for the integrity of nuclear fuel at high burn up. to measure the isotopic distribution of fission product in a high burn up nuclear fuel, radiation shielded laser ablation system was designed and fabricated. By probing the sample with a laser beam, micro sampling system for the mass analyzer was successfully developed. This report describes the structural design and the function of developed radiation shielded LA system. This system will be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution from core to rim of a spent nuclear fuel prepared from the hot-cell in PIE facility and/or an irradiated fuel from research reactor.

  15. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Nuclear Manpower Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2006-01-15

    Through the project on nuclear human resources development in 2005, the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI has provided 67 nuclear education and training courses for 3,658 persons from the domestic nuclear related organizations such as Government Agencies, nuclear industries, R and D institutes, universities, and public as well as from IAEA Member States. In addition, 6 students (MS and Ph D.) have taken nuclear technology related courses offered by UST-KAERI. The project has developed 8 programs and 12 courses. They includes programs for IAEA training, bilateral education and training, and in-house training as well as courses dealing with maintenance of nuclear power plants and management of electricity generation, thermal-hydraulics nuclear hydrogen, nuclear safeguards, radiation emergency preparedness and etc. National and international cooperation has been promoted. For ANENT, test operation, data loading and revision of the web-portal have been undertaken. Also the web-portal operation system has been established. For FNCA, NTC has cooperated for the establishment of a model of human resource development and the exchange of information/materials. With WNU, the NTC has made an effort for hosting 2007 WNU Summer Institute. The infrastructure for nuclear education and training has been strengthened. Basic directions for providing the customers with better service, This includes showing kindness to the customer, renovation of the interior of training facilities, and upgrading of web-based management system for learning and using facilities of NTC. Other efforts have resulted in the publication of 25 course materials (10 for international courses and 15 for national courses), and the improvement of education and training equipment. The International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC), which was opened in 2002, has hosted 296 international and domestic events in 2005.

  17. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MICRONOZZLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean How Cheah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Micronozzle, a key component in micropropulsion system, has been designed and fabricated. Quasi 1D inviscid theory was used in designing a series of conical micronozzles of different expander half-angles (10°-50°. Aerospike micronozzle, a promising candidate to achieve high performance propulsion system, was designed with Angelino method (or Approximate method. Both micronozzles were fabricated using soft lithography, an inexpensive and relatively simple technique comparing to well-established deep reactive ion etching (DRIE technique, with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as structural material. Micronozzles with two different nozzle throat width, 53.5µm and 107µm, were fabricated for comparison. Microscopic inspections reveal 107µm is the more producible nozzle throat width with current equipments. The PDMS-based micronozzle can be used as cold gas microthruster system for micro- and nanosatellites.

  18. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  19. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  20. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  1. Exotic nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenske H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan being performed, you will receive specific preparation instructions for what your child may eat and drink before the exam, especially ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo. ...

  3. Battling Nuclear Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the North Korean and Iranian nuclear issues develop and efforts to resolve them continue, global attention to anti-nuclear proliferation and the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has become even more intense. Pang Sen, Chairman of

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    have eased in recent years, with their nuclear tests in 1998 and continued animosity toward each other, India and Pakistan have joined the list of...could be complex, difficult, and very time- consuming . 137 Given the large disparity in the numbers of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons

  7. (Nuclear theory: Annual report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iachello, F.; Alhassid, Y.; Kusnezov, D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses topics on : nuclear structure models; algebraic models of hadronic structure; nuclear reactions; hot rotating nuclei; chaos in nuclei; signatures of the quark-gluon plasma; hadronic spectroscopy; octupole collectivity in nuclei; finite-temperature methods for the many-body problem; and classical limit of algebraic hamiltonians. (LSP)

  8. [Nuclear theory: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iachello, F.; Alhassid, Y.; Kusnezov, D.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses topics on : nuclear structure models; algebraic models of hadronic structure; nuclear reactions; hot rotating nuclei; chaos in nuclei; signatures of the quark-gluon plasma; hadronic spectroscopy; octupole collectivity in nuclei; finite-temperature methods for the many-body problem; and classical limit of algebraic hamiltonians. (LSP)

  9. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  11. Industrialization of Nuclear Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    1 Overview1.1 Income from operating activities Sale income from application of nuclear technology and non-nuclear products totaled 419million Yuan in 2015,an increase of 23.6%over the previous year,exceeding the target income set at the beginning of 2015.Of the total,sale incomes from iridium source,cobalt source,inspection system

  12. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  13. Decision no. 2011-DC-0220 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the FBFC company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0220 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a FBFC de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the FBFC (Franco-Belge de Fabrication du Combustible), a daughter fuel fabrication company of Areva NC (France). (J.S.)

  14. Themes in nuclear law; Temas de Derecho Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers.

  15. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  16. Nuclear risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives the list of contributions to Eurosafe 2001 which was organised around two round tables on the first day and five seminars on the second day. The first round table dealt with the technical, organisational and societal aspects of risk management aimed at the prevention of accidents in nuclear power plants. The second round table focused on radiological risks from the normal operation of nuclear installations. Special consideration has been given to the involvement of stakeholders. The five seminars were held in order to provide opportunities for comparing experiences and learning about recent activities of IRSN, GRS and their partners in the European Union and Eastern Europe: - Safety assessment and analysis of nuclear installations; -Nuclear safety research; -Environment and radiation protection; - Waste management; - Nuclear material security. (author)

  17. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  18. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  19. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  20. Nuclear Pasta Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Berry, D K

    2013-01-01

    The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm$^{-3}$ and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01 fm$^{-3}$ or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles ("swiss cheese"), hollow tubes, flat plates ("lasagna"), thin rods ("spaghetti") and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates non equilibrium effects...

  1. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  2. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  3. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  4. European Nuclear Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-09-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear medicine consensus; Consenso sobre medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Edwaldo E.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio; Naccarato, Alberto F.P.; Ramires, Jose Antonio F.; Castro, Iran de; Paiva, Eleuses Vieira; Thom, Anneliese F.; Barroso, Adelanir; Blum, Bernardo; Hollanda, Ricardo; Mansur, Antonio de Padua

    1995-04-01

    The use of nuclear methods in cardiovascular diseases is studied concerning diagnosis, risk, prognosis, indications and accuracy. Aspects concerning chronic coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, viable myocardium, valvular heart disease, ventricular dysfunction, heart transplant, congenital heart diseases in adults, are discussed.

  6. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  7. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  8. Compression Properties of Polyester Needlepunched Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Debnath, Ph.D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a study of the effects of fabricweight, fiber cross-sectional shapes (round, hollowand trilobal and presence of reinforcing materialon the compression properties (initial thickness,percentage compression, percentage thickness lossand percentage compression resilience of polyesterneedle punched industrial nonwoven fabrics ispresented. It was found that for fabrics with noreinforcing material, the initial thickness,compression, and thickness loss were higher thanfabrics with reinforcing material, irrespectiveoffiber cross-section. Compression resilience datashowed the reverse trend. Initial thickness fortrilobal cross-sectional fabric sample was highestfollowed by round and hollow cross-sectionedpolyester needle punched fabrics. The polyesterfabric made from hollow cross-sectioned fibersshowed the least percentage compression at everylevel of fabric weights. The trilobal cross-sectionedpolyester fabric sample showed higher thicknessloss followed by round and hollow cross-sectionedpolyester fabric samples respectively. The hollowcross-sectioned polyester fabric samples showedmaximum compression resilience followed byround and trilobal cross-sectioned polyestersamples irrespective of fabric weights. The initialthickness increases, but percentage compression,thickness loss and compression resilience decreaseswith the increase in fabric weight irrespective offiber cross-sectional shapes.

  9. A review on the development of the advanced fuel fabrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Yung Woo; Sohn, Dong Sung; Yang, Myung Seung; Bae, Kee Kwang; Nah, Sang Hoh; Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Bong Koo; Song, Keun Woo; Kim, See Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this state-of art report, the development status of the advanced nuclear fuel was investigated. The current fabrication technology for coated particle fuel and non-oxide fuel such as sol-gel technology, coating technology, and carbothermic reduction reaction has also been examined. In the view point of inherent safety and efficiency in the operation of power plant, the coated particle fuel will keep going on its reputation as nuclear fuel for a high temperature gas cooled reactor, and the nitride fuel is very prospective for the next liquid metal fast breeder reactor. 43 figs., 17 tabs., 96 refs. (Author).

  10. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  11. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  12. The Relationship between Nuclear Disarmament and Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Xiangli

    2015-01-01

    The history of nuclear weapons development since the end of World War II is also one of nuclear arms control.There are two major aspects that represent the global efforts of nuclear arms control,which include limiting on nuclear weapon development in quantities and qualities,and limiting on the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the relevant research and development technologies.The limitation on the nuclear weapons development constitute

  13. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  14. Development of an indirect stereolithography technology for scaffold fabrication with a wide range of biomaterial selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-09-01

    Tissue engineering, which is the study of generating biological substitutes to restore or replace tissues or organs, has the potential to meet current needs for organ transplantation and medical interventions. Various approaches have been attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) solid freeform fabrication technologies to tissue engineering for scaffold fabrication. Among these, the stereolithography (SL) technology not only has the highest resolution, but also offers quick fabrication. However, a lack of suitable biomaterials is a barrier to applying the SL technology to tissue engineering. In this study, an indirect SL method that combines the SL technology and a sacrificial molding process was developed to address this challenge. A sacrificial mold with an inverse porous shape was fabricated from an alkali-soluble photopolymer by the SL technology. A sacrificial molding process was then developed for scaffold construction using a variety of biomaterials. The results indicated a wide range of biomaterial selectivity and a high resolution. Achievable minimum pore and strut sizes were as large as 50 and 65 μm, respectively. This technology can also be used to fabricate three-dimensional organ shapes, and combined with traditional fabrication methods to construct a new type of scaffold with a dual-pore size. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography analyses, showed that this technology has great potential for tissue engineering applications.

  15. Gallium Nitride Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Min, E-mail: mlu2006@sinano.ac.c [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Zhang Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Fu Kai; Yu Guohao [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Su Dan; Hu Jifeng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Gallium Nitride nuclear batteries with Ni-63 are demonstrated for the first time. {yields} Open circuit voltage of 0.1 V and conversion efficiency of 0.32% have been obtained. {yields} The limited performance is due to thin effective energy deposition layer. {yields} The output power is expected to greatly increase with growing thick GaN films. -- Abstract: Gallium Nitride (GaN) Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries (GNBB) are demonstrated in our work for the first time. GaN films are grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and then GaN Schottky diodes are fabricated by normal micro-fabrication process. Nickel with mass number of 63 ({sup 63}Ni), which emits {beta} particles, is loaded on the GaN Schottky diodes to achieve GNBB. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) are carried out to investigate the crystal quality for the GaN films as grown. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics shows that the GaN Schottky diodes are not jet broken down at -200 V due to consummate fabrication processes, and the open circuit voltage of the GNBB is 0.1 V and the short circuit current density is 1.2 nA cm{sup -2}. The limited performance of the GNBB is due to thin effective energy deposition layer, which is only 206 nm to absorb very small partial energy of the {beta} particles because of the relatively high dislocation density and carrier concentration. However, the conversion efficiency of 0.32% and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 29% for the GNBB have been obtained. Therefore, the output power of the GNBB are expected to greatly increase with growing high quality thick GaN films.

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics by silica hydrosol and hydrophobization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lihui; Zhuang Wei; Xu Bi [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics were prepared by the incorporation of silica nanoparticles and subsequent hydrophobization with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS). The silica nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel reaction with methyl trimethoxy silane (MTMS) as the precursor in the presence of the base catalyst and surfactant in aqueous solution. As for the resulting products, characterization by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed respectively. The size of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the catalyst and surfactant concentrations. The wettability of cotton textiles was evaluated by the water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The results showed that the treated cotton sample displayed remarkable water repellency with a WCA of 151.9{sup o} for a 5 {mu}L water droplet and a WSA of 13{sup o} for a 15 {mu}L water droplet.

  17. Nuclear power, society and environment; Nucleaire, societe et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    2 subjects are treated: the regular public opinion poll ordered by CEA, EdF, COGEMA and FRAMATOME and the denuclearization of one of the nuclear research center belonging to CEA. Every year in december the BVA polling institute leads a public opinion poll about how nuclear activities are perceived by people. This year about 1000 people have been questioned about the French nuclear power program, radioactivity, safety in nuclear facilities, nuclear wastes, information and public debates. The most meaningful result is that now fewer people think that nuclear energy will play a major role in 10 or 20 years. More people now think that radioactivity even at very low doses is dangerous. In 1946 the ZOE reactor was built on the site of the ancient stronghold of Chatillon which became the nuclear research center of Fontenay-aux-roses in april 1957. From 1958 to 1962 ZOE and a pilot unit of spent fuel reprocessing were dismantled. The test reactor Triton whose definitive shutdown took place in 1982, underwent a complete decontamination, as for Minerve reactor it was removed to Cadarache. The hot laboratories in which methods concerning the fabrication of plutonium fuels, the reprocessing and the handling of high activity wastes have been settled and tested, are due to be dismantled. 20 hot cells, 134 glove boxes and about 100 tanks of liquid effluents are involved. CEA has budgeted 910 millions of francs for the complete denuclearization of this site, it will be over in 2010. (A.C.)

  18. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  19. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... (10 CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  20. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee)...

  1. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee) is...

  2. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease in its earliest stage, often before symptoms ... benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. To learn more about nuclear medicine, visit Radiology ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  8. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and...

  9. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  10. Nuclear Terrorism: Assessing the Threat, Developing a Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    separated plutonium might be found at civilian reprocessing facilities or mixed oxide ( MOX ) fuel fabrication plants, but this material would likely be in...2008. 165 Potter and Ferguson, The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism, p. 121. MOX reactor fuel contains approxi- mately four to seven percent...stealing spent power reactor fuel or fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel, both of which would need to have their plutonium chemically extracted. While separating

  11. A Multidisciplinary Approach to High Throughput Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Pourmodheji; Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh; Sebastian Magierowski

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a non-contact, powerful structure-elucidation technique for biochemical analysis. NMR spectroscopy is used extensively in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. However, existing NMR technology is limited in that it cannot run a large number of experiments simultaneously in one unit. Recent advances in micro-fabrication technologies have attracted the attention of researchers to overcome these limitations and significantly accelera...

  12. Lanthanum halide nanoparticle scintillators for nuclear radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul; Guise, Ronald [Remote Sensing Laboratory, P.O. Box 98521, M/S RSL-48, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Yuan Ding [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, P.O. Box 809, M/S LAO/C320, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [Remote Sensing Laboratory-Andrews, Building 1783, Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Maryland 20762 (United States); O' Brien, Robert; Lowe, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Kang Zhitao; Menkara, Hisham [Georgia Tech Research Institute, 925 Dalney St., Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Nagarkar, Vivek V. [RMD, Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States)

    2013-02-14

    Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated and characterized for their nanocomposite radiation detector properties. This work investigated the properties of several nanostructured radiation scintillators, in order to determine the viability of using scintillators employing nanostructured lanthanum trifluoride. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with the idea that these materials have an intrinsic response to nuclear radiation that may be correlated to the energy of the incident radiation.

  13. An Efficient Way of Fabric Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yue-qi; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    A partide system model is presented for the simulation of fabric draping. The interaction of each partide is based on a refined mass-spring structure. Regarded the fabric material as an orthotropic continuum, the refinement of our model is focused on the construction of mechanical responses of bending and shearing springs by means of a piecewise polynomial approximation of KES-F testing data. In this way, the draping figure of a silk fabric, a wool fabric and a polyester fabric are simulated. The static final shape and animation of simulation proves that our model has developed an efficient technique on real fabric- drape modeling, and the little computation time of the simulation execution on a PC with Celeron 450 CPU may meet the requirement of real-time simulation.

  14. Modelling the nuclear parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kulagin, S A

    2016-01-01

    We review a semi-microscopic model of nuclear parton distributions, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions as well as nuclear shadowing effect. We also discuss applications of the model to the lepton-nuclear deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan process and neutrino total cross sections.

  15. Advances in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Review articles on three topics of considerable current interest make up the present volume. The first, on A-hypernuclei, was solicited by the editors in order to provide nuclear physicists with a general description of the most recent developments in a field which this audience has largely neglected or, perhaps, viewed as a novelty in which a bizarre nuclear system gave some information about the lambda-nuclear intersection. That view was never valid. The very recent developments reviewed here-particularly those pertaining to hypernuclear excitations and the strangeness exchange reactions-emphasize that this field provides important information about the models and central ideas of nuclear physics. The off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is a topic which was at first received with some embarrassment, abuse, and neglect, but it has recently gained proper attention in many nuclear problems. Interest was first focused on it in nuclear many-body theory, but it threatened nuclear physicists'comf...

  16. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  17. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  18. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  19. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  20. Crimp-Imbalanced Protective (CRIMP) Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    Spectra, and Zylon fabrics for enhancing the performance of lightweight fragmentation barriers used in commercial aircraft. Impact tests were conducted...on the fabric specimens as well as on aluminum 2024-T3 skin for baseline purposes. The Kevlar, Spectra, and Zylon outperformed the aluminum on an...areal density basis by 6 to 1, 7 to 1, and 12 to 1, respectively. Additional tests were performed on Zylon fabric specimens to compare the effects of