WorldWideScience

Sample records for fabricated rubber plants

  1. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  2. Fabrication of shape memory natural rubber using palmitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sze-Hua Wee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the practicability of fabricating a shape memory natural rubber with the use of palmitic acid as the swelling agent. Strips of natural rubber samples were swollen in molten palmitic acid at 75 °C. Equilibrium swelling of natural rubber with palmitic acid was found to occur at approximately 50 min of swelling time. Under cooling effect, the palmitic acid crystallized to form a percolated crystalline platelet network. These networks allow fabricated shape memory natural rubber (SMNR to deform and recover its shape at a temperature above the melting point of palmitic acid. Under controlled uniaxial stress, the natural rubber sample with 0 parts per hundred rubber (phr carbon black loading exhibits fixity and recovery of 80 ± 10%. Motivation of this research is primarily on practicability of palmitic acid to be used as a swelling agent for shape memory properties. Results show that palmitic acid is a relatively good swelling agent to induce shape memory properties into natural rubber.

  3. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Shao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs, this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts, elongation at break (Eb, hardness (Ha and rebound resilience (Rr as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  4. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2016-06-14

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%-50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15-45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55-0.75. Four regression equations, i.e. , the tensile strength ( T s), elongation at break ( E b), hardness ( H a) and rebound resilience ( R r) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the T s, E b and R r of the panels were reduced, H a was considerably increased by 17%-58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%-3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  5. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  6. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  7. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Currently, Hevea brasiliensis has been only one resource for commercial natural rubber production. ...... ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ... polymer chain. Combinations of an amine antioxidant and a zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate have been used to counter these effects, improving guayule rubber ...

  8. Super Lightweight, Metal Rubber Fabric for Extreme Space Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has fabricated revolutionary nanostructured, yet macroscale, multifunctional Metal RubberTM films via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which...

  9. Viscoelastic and thermal properties of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the dynamic mechanical behavior of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber composites. The influence of chemical modification on the viscoelastic properties has also been determined. Moreover, the effect of frequency...

  10. Improving Mechanical Properties of Molded Silicone Rubber for Soft Robotics Through Fabric Compositing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gregory, Cherry; Minor, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    Molded silicone rubbers are common in manufacturing of soft robotic parts, but they are often prone to tears, punctures, and tensile failures when strained. In this article, we present a fabric compositing method for improving the mechanical properties of soft robotic parts by creating a fabric/rubber composite that increases the strength and durability of the molded rubber. Comprehensive ASTM material tests evaluating the strength, tear resistance, and puncture resistance are conducted on multiple composites embedded with different fabrics, including polyester, nylon, silk, cotton, rayon, and several blended fabrics. Results show that strong fabrics increase the strength and durability of the composite, valuable in pneumatic soft robotic applications, while elastic fabrics maintain elasticity and enhance tear strength, suitable for robotic skins or soft strain sensors. Two case studies then validate the proposed benefits of the fabric compositing for soft robotic pressure vessel applications and soft strain sensor applications. Evaluations of the fabric/rubber composite samples and devices indicate that such methods are effective for improving mechanical properties of soft robotic parts, resulting in parts that can have customized stiffness, strength, and vastly improved durability.

  11. Durable Superomniphobic Surface on Cotton Fabrics via Coating of Silicone Rubber and Fluoropolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheen Moiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance textiles that protect human from different threats and dangers from environment are in high demand, and the advancement in functionalization technology together with employing advanced materials have made this an area of research focus. In this work, silicone rubber and environmentally friendly fluoropolymers have been employed to explore superomniphobic surface on cotton fabrics without compromising comfort much. It has been found that a cross-linked network between the rubber membrane and the fluoropolymers has been formed. The surface appearance, morphology, handle, thickness and chemical components of the surface of cotton fabrics have been changed. The coated fabrics showed resistance to water, aqueous liquid, oil, chemicals and soil. The comfort of the coated fabrics is different to uncoated cotton fabrics due to the existence of coated layers on the surface of cotton fabrics. This work would benefit the development and design of the next generation of performance textiles with balanced performance and comfort.

  12. Pyrolysis of rubber gloves in integral pyrolysis test plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Mohd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohd Annuar Assadat Husain; Farid Nasir Ani

    2010-01-01

    Previously, pyrolysis of rubber gloves in laboratory study was described. In order to visualize the practical application of rubber gloves pyrolysis in terms of treating rubber gloves in medical waste, a new test plant was designed and constructed. The semi-continuous test plant was designed to accommodate rubber gloves that were not cut or shredded. The test plant has a capacity of 2kg/ hr and employed auxiliary fuel instead of the conventional electrical power for heating. The concept was based on moving bed reactor, but additional feature of sand jacket feature was also introduced in the design. Pyrolysis of the gloves was conducted at three temperatures, namely 350 degree Celsius, 400 degree Celsius and 450 degree Celsius. Oxygen presents inside of the reactor due to the combined effect of imperfect sealing and suction effect. This study addresses the performance of this test plant covering the time temperature profile, gas evolution profile and product yield. Comparison between the yield of the liquid, gas and char pyrolyzate was made against the laboratory study. It was found that the oil yield was less than the one obtained from bench scale study. Water formation was more pronounced. The presence of the oxygen also altered the tail gas composition but eliminate the sticky nature of solid residue, making it easier to handle. The chemical composition of the oil was determined and the main compounds in the oil were esters and phtalic acid. (author)

  13. Quality assurance during fabrication of high-damping rubber isolation bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, D.; Greaves, W.C. [Base Isolation Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Successful implementation of a high-damping rubber (HDR) base isolation project requires the application of Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) methodology through all phases of the bearing fabrication process. HDR base isolation bearings must be fabricated with uniform physical characteristics while being produced in large quantities. To satisfy this requirement, manufacturing processes must be controlled. Prototype tests that include dynamic testing of small samples of rubber are necessary. Stringent full scale bearing testing must be carried out prior to beginning production, during which manufacturing is strictly regulated by small rubber sample and production bearing testing. All such activities should be supervised and continuously inspected by independent and experienced QA/QC personnel.

  14. Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  15. The working of RVNRL pilot plant of Rubber Board and it's safety devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, I.J.; Thomas, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot plant for producing radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was established at Rubber Board, India in 1992. Irradiation is done by a batch process in the plant. The plant has a versatile safety system for safety of operators and people working in and around the plant

  16. New strategy and easy fabrication of solid-state supercapacitor based on polypyrrole and nitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyool; Lee, Youngkwan; Cho, Mi-Suk; Nam, Jae-Do

    2008-09-01

    Solid state redox supercapacitors were fabricated using a solid polymer electrolyte, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)-KCI and chemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) as the conducting polymer electrodes on both surfaces of a NBR film. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the PPy/NBR electrode were confirmed as functions of the uptake of pyrrole monomer into the NBR matrix as well as the immersion time in an oxidant solution. The morphology of the PPy-NBR-KCI capacitor was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The performance of the capacitors was characterized using a galvanostatic charge-discharge technique.

  17. AC/TiO2/Rubber Composite Sheet Catalysts; Fabrication, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwong Chaval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AC/TiO2/Rubber (ACTR composite sheets weresuccessfully fabricated by a simply mixing of fixed TiO2 suspension and natural rubber latex (60% HA contents withthe varyingamounts of activated carbon (AC suspension, followed by stirring, pouring into apetri dish mold, drying at room temperature (RT, after that taking out from a mold, reversing and drying again at RT. Then, the as-fabricated ACTR composite sheets were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and scanning electron microscopy (SEMtechniques. The photocatalytic efficiencies of all ACTR composite sheet samples were evaluated by photo degrading of methylene blue (MB dye solution under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of ACTR sheet with10.0wt%AC loading has the highest efficiency for the photo degradation of MB dye than the other sheets. This is due to the fact that it is relatively with the synergistic effect of well-combined titanium dioxide catalyst and activated carbon adsorbent.

  18. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  19. Fabrication of Extrinsically Conductive Silicone Rubbers with High Elasticity and Analysis of Their Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Saleem

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conductive plastics are attracting more and more interest in electronics due to their light weight and inability to rust, which are common problems associated with metals. The field of conducting plastics is not new. Much work has been done to impart electrical conductivity to mechanically strong polymers such as polypropylene, polycarbonate and epoxies, etc. However there is a need to fabricate more flexible and elastic conductive polymers such as conducting silicone rubbers for use in various applications. In this work silicone rubbers reinforced with conductive fillers have been fabricated for use as sensors in textiles to detect the resistance change produced by stretching or relaxing. The variations of electrical resistance have been investigated by stretching and releasing the strands of conductive rubbers as a function of time. Two types of silicone rubbers—addition cured and condensation cured—were compounded with different electrically conductive fillers, among which carbon fibers have shown the best results. The carbon fibers improved the electrical conductance of the rubbers, even in very low weight percentages. The increasing concentration of fillers decreases the elasticity of the rubber. In order to keep the original properties of silicones, the filler concentration was kept as low as possible to produce a significantly detectable signal. The fabricated compounds were analyzed for their mechanical properties by stress strain curves. Such materials find their applications in electronics, antistatic applications, sports and the automotive industry where they can be used as deformation sensors.

  20. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  1. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud, E-mail: mjamshidi@iust.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • In this research UV-irradiated PET fabric was chemically modified. • The fabric at first carboxylated under UV irradiation using glutaric anhydride, then it was grafted using isocyanate (i.e. MDI). • The surface of the fabric was characterized before and after each treating satge. • The composite samples were prepared and tested for T-Peel test. The surfaces of the fabrics were surface characterized to understand. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  2. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research UV-irradiated PET fabric was chemically modified. • The fabric at first carboxylated under UV irradiation using glutaric anhydride, then it was grafted using isocyanate (i.e. MDI). • The surface of the fabric was characterized before and after each treating satge. • The composite samples were prepared and tested for T-Peel test. The surfaces of the fabrics were surface characterized to understand. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  3. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR—a granulated material derived from scrap tires—and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  4. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2015-01-06

    Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR)-a granulated material derived from scrap tires-and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  5. Analysis of Work Design in Rubber Processing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni Dini; Nasution Harmein; Budiman Irwan; Wijaya Khairini

    2018-01-01

    The work design illustrates how structured jobs, tasks, and roles are defined and modified and their impact on individuals, groups, and organizations. If the work is not designed well, the company must pay greater costs for workers’ health, longer production processes or even penalties for not being able to meet the delivery schedule. This is visible to the condition in a rubber processing factory in North Sumatra. Work design aspects such as layouts, machinery and equipment, worker's physica...

  6. Introduction to Exxon nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant in Richland, Washington produces fuel assemblies for both pressurized water and boiling water reactors. The Richland plant was the first US bulk-handling facility selected by the IAEA for inspection under the US-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. The plant was under IAEA inspection from March 1981 through October 1983. This text provides a written description of the plant layout, operation and process. The text also includes a one ton-a-day model (or reference) plant which was adapted from the Exxon Nuclear plant. The Model Plant provides a generic example of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) bulk-handling facility. The Model Plant is used to illustrate in a more quantitative way some of the key safeguards requirements for a bulk-handling facility

  7. Waste management in MOX fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.

    1982-01-01

    After a short description of a MOX fuel fabrication plant's activities the waste arisings in such a plant are discussed according to nature, composition, Pu-content. Experience has shown that proper recording leads to a reduction of waste arisings by waste awareness. Aspects of the treatment of α-waste are given and a number of treatment processes are reviewed. Finally, the current waste management practice and the α-waste treatment facility under construction at ALKEM are outlined. (orig./RW)

  8. Rotan manau intercropped with rubber: rate of root growth between three and four years after planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rashidah Kadir; Aminuddin Mohamad; Ahmad Sahali Mardi; Zaharah Abd Rahman

    1997-01-01

    Wan Rashidah, K., Aminuddin, M., Ahmad Sahali, M. & Zaharah, A.R. 1997. Rotan manau intercropped with rubber: rate of root growth between three and four years after planting. Efficient fertiliser management depends partly on understanding the active root distribution. In the present study, the active root distribution of 3- and 4-y-old plantation grown rotan manau (Calamus manan) was assessed using isotope tracer technique. For the 3-y-old rotan manau, three distances from the plant base (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) at 5 and 30 cm depths were examined. For the 4-y-old plants, two distances, viz-a-viz at a centre between two rattan plants and another in the middle between two rattan plants and two rubber trees were studied. The isotope used was 32P, applied as a solution with KH2PO4. The rotan manau plants had been established under mature rubber plantation. High proportions of feeder roots were found at 0.5 and 1.0 m distances at the surface (5 cm depth) for the 3-y-old plants. Uptake of 32P was also observed for the application at 1.5 m distance for both depths but the counts were small. Statistical analysis gave a highly significant difference within the distances and within the different depths. For a better synchronisation between fertiliser application and plant uptake, it seems that application at approximately between 0.5 and 1.0 m distance around the plant is most appropriate at this age. At four years after planting, important uptake was obtained only for the two plants located near the application area. Anyhow, to some extent it reflected that roots had already extended for another 1 m compared to the 3-y-old plants

  9. Implementation of sobel method to detect the seed rubber plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto; Munte, J.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted to develop a system that can identify and recognize the type of rubber tree based on the pattern of leaves of the plant. The steps research are started with the identification of the image data acquisition, image processing, image edge detection and identification method template matching. Edge detection is using Sobel edge detection. Pattern recognition would detect image as input and compared with other images in a database called templates. Experiments carried out in one phase, identification of the leaf edge, using a rubber plant leaf image 14 are superior and 5 for each type of test images (clones) of the plant. From the experimental results obtained by the recognition rate of 91.79%.

  10. Analysis of Work Design in Rubber Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Dini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work design illustrates how structured jobs, tasks, and roles are defined and modified and their impact on individuals, groups, and organizations. If the work is not designed well, the company must pay greater costs for workers’ health, longer production processes or even penalties for not being able to meet the delivery schedule. This is visible to the condition in a rubber processing factory in North Sumatra. Work design aspects such as layouts, machinery and equipment, worker's physical working environment, work methods, and organizational policies have not been well-organized. Coagulum grinding machines into sheets are often damaged, resulting in 4 times the delay of product delivery in 2016, the presence of complaints of heat exposure submitted by workers, and workstation that has not been properly arranged is an indication of the need for work design. The research data will be collected through field observation, and distribution of questionnaires related aspects of work design. The result of the analysis depends on the respondent's answer from the distributed questionnaire regarding the 6 aspects studied.

  11. Analysis of Work Design in Rubber Processing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dini; Nasution, Harmein; Budiman, Irwan; Wijaya, Khairini

    2018-02-01

    The work design illustrates how structured jobs, tasks, and roles are defined and modified and their impact on individuals, groups, and organizations. If the work is not designed well, the company must pay greater costs for workers' health, longer production processes or even penalties for not being able to meet the delivery schedule. This is visible to the condition in a rubber processing factory in North Sumatra. Work design aspects such as layouts, machinery and equipment, worker's physical working environment, work methods, and organizational policies have not been well-organized. Coagulum grinding machines into sheets are often damaged, resulting in 4 times the delay of product delivery in 2016, the presence of complaints of heat exposure submitted by workers, and workstation that has not been properly arranged is an indication of the need for work design. The research data will be collected through field observation, and distribution of questionnaires related aspects of work design. The result of the analysis depends on the respondent's answer from the distributed questionnaire regarding the 6 aspects studied.

  12. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  13. Robotic fabrication and inspection for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Ranjit

    2002-01-01

    The usage of Robotic Automation is now an integral part of the modern manufacturing systems. Applications in nuclear power plants is no exception. As a matter of fact, as a result of the hazards of radiations for the human workers makes automation of the on-site working highly desirable. This presentation will focus on the broad benefits by use of automation in Power plants. Various processes and technologies for robotic applications in fabrication, maintenance and inspection will be highlighted. The specific technology features for use in nuclear environments will be highlighted

  14. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  15. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  16. [Epidemiology of contact hypersensitivity to rubber components in manufacturers of automobile tires at the Stomil plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubisz-Brzezińska, J; Bogdanowski, T; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Mozdzanowska, K; Bajcar, S

    1990-01-01

    Dermatological examination and patch tests with 34 rubber components were carried out in 114 tire manufacturers, 78 women and 36 men aged 29 years on average, with a mean duration of work in the plant 7 years. For correct interpretation of the obtained results patch tests with the same components were done in two control groups that is in 120 healthy subjects and 120 patients with contact dermatitis. Patch tests with proper concentrations of the studied components were evaluated after 48, 72 and 96 hours. Positive patch tests were found most frequently with antioxidants--16.6% (including IPPD--8.6%), followed by vulcanization accelerators--10.6%, and other rubber components--11.4% in all. During about 3 years of follow-up in 4 manufacturers contact allergic eczema was noted and polyvalent hypersensitivity to antioxidants and vulcanization accelerators without clinical manifestations of this hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 3 other subjects.

  17. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Glutaric anhydride peroxide (GAP) was grafted on PET surface by UV irradiation method. Then MDI was attached to GAP on PET surface. • The fabric was vulcanized by nitrile rubber. • Peet test was performed after each stage of surface modification. • Curing temperature was increased and the tests were repeated. • Effect of MDI coating on PET without carboxylation was evaluated. Effect of vulcanizing temperature on this product was also studied. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  18. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  19. Surgical gloves fabrication using natural rubber latex vulcanized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Hugo David Chirinos.

    1995-01-01

    Surgical gloves were manufactured by immersion coagulant method from vulcanized natural rubber latex by gamma rays at dose of 10 kGy in the air, at room temperature, using the following sensitizer vulcanization An-B 3 phr/KOH 0.2 phr. The influence of the parameter in the thickness of the surgical gloves manufacture, studied through fractional factorial designs technic, can be resumed by empirical linear correlation: y = 0.213 + 0.025 [Ca Cl 2 ] + 0.019 t. (author). 49 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  20. Radiation Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL): A Potential Material for Nuclear Power Plant Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Keong, C.C.; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2011-01-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has great potential for the production of nuclear power plant gloves due to its low ash and mineral content. And this is in-line with the role played by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as Technical Supporting Organization for Nuclear Power Program. This paper discussed the evaluation done to determine ash content in RVNRL and SVNRL films. Both samples were prepared using casting technique and the properties were compared. Films prepared from raw latex without any vulcanizing agent were regarded as a control. (author)

  1. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Fabrication of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using electrolysis plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianbing; Dong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Xiuting; Yin, Zhanmin

    2015-04-01

    An anti-adhesion surface with a water contact angle of 167° was fabricated on aluminium samples of rubber plastic moulds by electrolysis plasma treatment using mixed electrolytes of C6H5O7(NH4)3 and Na2SO4, followed by fluorination. To optimise the fabrication conditions, several important processing parameters such as the discharge voltage, discharge time, concentrations of supporting electrolyte and stearic acid ethanol solution were examined systematically. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse surfaces morphology, micrometer scale pits, and protrusions were found on the surface, with numerous nanometer mastoids contained in the protrusions. These binary micro/nano-scale structures, which are similar to the micro-structures of soil-burrowing animals, play a critical role in achieving low adhesion properties. Otherwise, the anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting samples were analysed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), electrons probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), optical contact angle meter, digital Vickers microhardness (Hv) tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that the electrolysis plasma treatment does not require complex processing parameters, using a simple device, and is an environment-friendly and effective method. Under the optimised conditions, the contact angle (CA) for the modified anti-adhesion surface is up to 167°, the sliding angle (SA) is less than 2°, roughness of the sample surface is only 0.409μm. Moreover, the adhesion force and Hv are 0. 9KN and 385, respectively.

  3. Fabrication of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using electrolysis plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbing Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An anti-adhesion surface with a water contact angle of 167° was fabricated on aluminium samples of rubber plastic moulds by electrolysis plasma treatment using mixed electrolytes of C6H5O7(NH43 and Na2SO4, followed by fluorination. To optimise the fabrication conditions, several important processing parameters such as the discharge voltage, discharge time, concentrations of supporting electrolyte and stearic acid ethanol solution were examined systematically. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM to analyse surfaces morphology, micrometer scale pits, and protrusions were found on the surface, with numerous nanometer mastoids contained in the protrusions. These binary micro/nano-scale structures, which are similar to the micro-structures of soil-burrowing animals, play a critical role in achieving low adhesion properties. Otherwise, the anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting samples were analysed by the atomic force microscope (AFM, Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR, electrons probe micro-analyzer (EPMA, optical contact angle meter, digital Vickers microhardness (Hv tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that the electrolysis plasma treatment does not require complex processing parameters, using a simple device, and is an environment-friendly and effective method. Under the optimised conditions, the contact angle (CA for the modified anti-adhesion surface is up to 167°, the sliding angle (SA is less than 2°, roughness of the sample surface is only 0.409μm. Moreover, the adhesion force and Hv are 0. 9KN and 385, respectively.

  4. Fabrication of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using electrolysis plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jianbing, E-mail: jianbingmeng@126.com; Dong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Xiuting; Yin, Zhanmin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255049 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An anti-adhesion surface with a water contact angle of 167° was fabricated on aluminium samples of rubber plastic moulds by electrolysis plasma treatment using mixed electrolytes of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}(NH{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by fluorination. To optimise the fabrication conditions, several important processing parameters such as the discharge voltage, discharge time, concentrations of supporting electrolyte and stearic acid ethanol solution were examined systematically. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse surfaces morphology, micrometer scale pits, and protrusions were found on the surface, with numerous nanometer mastoids contained in the protrusions. These binary micro/nano-scale structures, which are similar to the micro-structures of soil-burrowing animals, play a critical role in achieving low adhesion properties. Otherwise, the anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting samples were analysed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), electrons probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), optical contact angle meter, digital Vickers microhardness (Hv) tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that the electrolysis plasma treatment does not require complex processing parameters, using a simple device, and is an environment-friendly and effective method. Under the optimised conditions, the contact angle (CA) for the modified anti-adhesion surface is up to 167°, the sliding angle (SA) is less than 2°, roughness of the sample surface is only 0.409μm. Moreover, the adhesion force and H{sub v} are 0. 9KN and 385, respectively.

  5. Fabrication of pressure vessels for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, M.S.P. de

    1982-01-01

    The status of the technology used in the fabrication of pressure vessel for nuclear power plants and the performance of the Brazilian industry in this area are presented. The followng aspects are discussed: qualification of the industries for the supplying equipment in its requirement categories; the calculation of the components; the choice of the materials; the fabrication process; and, the destructive and nondestructive tests associated to the fabrication. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Description of a reference mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (MOFFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environment impact, due to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plants, work has been initiated to describe the general design and operating conditions of a reference Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant (MOFFP) for the 1990 time frame. The various reference data and basic assumptions for the reference MOFFP plant have been defined after discussion with experts. The data reported in this document are only made available to allow an evaluation of the environmental impact due to a reference MOFFP plant. These data have therefore not to be used as recommandation, standards, regulatory guides or requirements

  7. Research on plant of metal fuel fabrication using casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Yasuhide; Mori, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the plant concept of metal fuel fabrication system (38tHM/y) using casting process in electrolytic recycle, which based on recent studies of its equipment design and quality control system. And we estimate the cost of its construction and operation, including costs of maintenance, consumed hardware and management of waste. The content of this work is as follows. (1) Designing of fuel fabrication equipment: We make material flow diagrams of the fuel fabrication plant and rough designs of the injection casting furnace, demolder and inspection equipment. (2) Designing of resolution system of liquid waste, which comes from analytical process facility. Increased analytical items, we rearrange analytical process facility, estimate its chemicals and amount of waste. (3) Arrangement of equipments: We made a arrangement diagram of the metal fuel fabrication equipments in cells. (4) Estimation of cost data: We estimated cost to construct the facility and to operate it. (author)

  8. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  9. Report on the socio-economic impact of Natural Rubber cultivation under the block planting scheme in Tripura

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Joby; George K., Tharian; S.K, Dey

    2010-01-01

    The study is a pioneering attempt to assess the socio-economic impact of the Block Planting Scheme (BPS) from the angle of the beneficiaries,implementing agencies and the policymakers.The report is based on the primary information gathered from 480 households drawn from Block Planting Units with mature (Mature BPUs)and immature (Immature BPUs) area under Natural Rubber (NR) as well as households attached to Group Processing Scheme (GPUs) with mature area under NR during the year 2008.The trip...

  10. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Air purification in industrial plants producing automotive rubber components in terms of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzebielec Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry plants, which use injection molding machines for rubber processing, tar contaminates air to such an extent that air fails to enter standard heat recovery systems. Accumulated tar clogs ventilation heat recovery exchangers in just a few days. In the plant in which the research was conducted, tar contamination causes blockage of ventilation ducts. The effect of this phenomenon was that every half year channels had to be replaced with new ones, since the economic analysis has shown that cleaning them is not cost-efficient. Air temperature inside such plants is often, even in winter, higher than 30°C. The air, without any means of heat recovery, is discharged outside the buildings. The analyzed plant uses three types of media for production: hot water, cold water at 14°C (produced in a water chiller, and compressed air, generated in a unit with a rated power consumption of 180 kW. The aim of the study is to determine the energy efficiency improvement of this type of manufacturing plant. The main problem to solve is to provide an air purification process so that air can be used in heat recovery devices. The next problem to solve is to recover heat at such a temperature level that it would be possible to produce cold for technological purposes without air purification. Experimental studies have shown that air purification is feasible. By using one microjet head, a total of 75% of tar particles was removed from the air; by using 4 heads, a purification efficiency of 93% was obtained. This method of air purification causes air temperature to decrease from 35°C to 20°C, which significantly reduces the potential for heat recovery. The next step of the research was designing a cassette-plate heat exchanger to exchange heat without air purification. The economic analysis of such a solution revealed that replacing the heat exchanger with a new one even once a year was not cost-efficient. Another issue examined in the context of

  12. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  13. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 hours of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 hours of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use

  14. Plant overview of JNFL MOX fuel fabrication plant (J-MOX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masataka; Shimizu, Junji; Suzuki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Deguchi, Morimoto; Fujimaki, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    In April 2005, JNFL submitted METI an application for the permission of MOX fuel fabrication business for JNFL MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (J-MOX). Accordingly, safeguards formalities and discussion with the Agency have been also started for J-MOX as an official project. This report describes J-MOX plant overview and also presents outline of J-MOX by focusing on safeguards features and planned material accountancy method. (author)

  15. Shield requirement estimation for pin storage room in fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, M.M.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.; Sivashankaran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is an upcoming project in Kalpakkam. It has the facility to recycle the fuel from PFBR. It is an integrated facility, consists of fuel reprocessing plant, fuel fabrication plant (FFP), core subassembly plant, Reprocessed Uranium plant (RUP) and waste management plant. The spent fuel from PFBR would be reprocessed in fuel reprocessing plant. The reprocessed fuel material would be sent to fuel fabrication plant. The main activity of fuel fabrication plant is the production of MOX fuel pins. The fuel fabrication plant has a fuel pin storage room. The shield requirement for the pin storage room has been estimated by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  16. Evaluation of bioassay program at uranium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, D.

    1981-03-01

    Results of a comprehensive study of urinalysis, lung burden and personal air sample measurements for workers at a uranium fuel fabrication plant are presented. Correlations between measurements were found and regression models used to explain the relationship between lung burden, daily intakes and urinary excretions of uranium. Assuming the ICRP lung model, the lung burden histories of ten workers were used to estimate the amounts in each of the long-term compartments of the lung. Estimates of the half lives of each compartment and of the maximum relative contributions to the urine from each compartment are given. These values were then used to predict urinary excretions from the long-term compartments for workers at another fuel fabrication plant. The standard error of estimate compared well with the daily variation in urinary excretion. (author)

  17. Description of ECRI (CNEA'S MTR fuel fabrication plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, P.; Fabro, J.; Podesta, D.; Restelli, M.; Rossi, G.; Alvarez, L.; Adelfang, P.

    2002-01-01

    The ECRI Plant is dedicated to the development and fabrication of high-density fuel elements and targets for 99 Mo. In this sector had been done the start up Fuel Elements for the Reactors of Peru, Iran, Algeria and Egypt. All of them were made with U 3 O 8 . The targets for 99 Mo using HEU were fabricated too in the last years. The new material of high-density for Fuel Elements as U 3 Si 2 were done in this sector, three prototypes were fabricated, two are still under irradiation. (P06 and P07). As new developments we are working with U-Mo (7%) Fuel Plates with both material Korean and HMD. This work is under the RERTR Program and two fuel elements, manufactured by us, with both powders, will be irradiated in Petten. For 99 Mo targets, we are fabricating miniplates of LEU with an AlUx powder by pulvi-metallurgy technique. And it is under development the foils targets under the RERTR Program. A general view of the fabrication facilities and control sector will be shown. The different operations that are done in each sector will be explained. All our activities will be certified under the ISO 9000 and we are working hard to get it in the middle of 2003. (author)

  18. Degradation mechanisms of organic rubber and glass flake/vinyl ester linings in flue gas desulphurization plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R [Allianz-Centre for Technology GmbH, Ismaning (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    In recent years, there have been reports in numerous publications about damage to rubber and glass flake coatings in flue gas desulphurization plants. The pattern of damage has been described and attempts have frequently been made to determine and explain the cause of the damage. Oxidation/hydrolytic changes were generally observed as the damage mechanisms. In addition, blistering occurs in both the chloroprene coatings in the absorbers and in the glass flake coatings in clean gas ducts. This blistering may be considered as the end of the useful life and leads to cost-intensive and time-intensive repair and restoration measures. The present state of knowledge suggests that the blistering is mainly due to osmotic processes preceded by permeation processes and with permeation processes superimposed on them. Among other things, the reports describe the permeation behaviour of water and other flue gas constituents; the blistering in chloroprene rubber coatings and glass flake coatings is explained by means of the knowledge gained. (au) 16 refs.

  19. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that approximately 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 h of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 h of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use. (U.S.)

  20. Alternative sources of natural rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.; Cornish, K.

    2000-01-01

    Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian

  1. Airborne effluent control at fuel enrichment, conversion, and fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities generate gaseous wastes that must be treated prior to being discharged to the atmosphere. Since all three process and/or handle similar compounds, they also encounter similar gaseous waste disposal problems, the majority of which are treated in a similar manner. Ventilation exhausts from personnel areas and equipment off-gases that do not contain corrosive gases (such as HF) are usually passed through roughening and/or HEPA filters prior to release. Ventilation exhausts that contain larger quantities of particles, such as the conversion facilities' U 3 O 8 sampling operation, are passed through bag filters or cyclone separators, while process off-gases containing corrosive materials are normally treated by sintered metal filters or scrubbers. The effectiveness of particle removal varies from about 90 percent for a scrubber alone to more than 99.9 percent for HEPA filters or a combination of the various filters and scrubbers. The removal of nitrogen compounds (N 2 , HNO 3 , NO/sub x/, and NH 3 ) is accomplished by scrubbers in the enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities. The conversion facility utilizes a nitric acid recovery facility for both pollution control and economic recovery of raw materials. Hydrogen removal from gaseous waste streams is generally achieved with burners. Three different systems are currently utilized by the conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication plants to remove gaseous fluorides from airborne effluents. The HF-rich streams, such as those emanating from the hydrofluorination and fluorine production operations of the conversion plant, are passed through condensers to recover aqueous hydrofluoric acid

  2. Developing a method of fabricating microchannels using plant root structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional (3D) microchannels are expected to be applied to a lab-on-a-chip, especially an organ-on-a-chip. There are fine microchannel networks such as blood vessels in a living organ. However, it is difficult to recreate the complicated 3D microchannels of real living structures. Plant roots have a similar structure to blood vessels. They spread radially and three-dimensionally, and become thinner as they branch. In this research, we propose a method of fabricating microchannels using a live plant root as a template to mimic a blood vessel structure. We grew a plant in ceramic slurry instead of soil. The slurry consists of ceramic powder, binder and water, so it plays a similar role to soil consisting of fine particles in water. After growing the plant, the roots inside the slurry were burned and a sintered ceramic body with channel structures was obtained by heating. We used two types of slurry with different composition ratios, and compared the internal channel structures before and after sintering.

  3. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  4. Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of natural rubber and natural rubber filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The present article compares the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled natural rubber composites. Four types of nanocomposite specimens are fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The specimens are tested for their mechanical properties. It is observed that the tensile strength, hardness and elongation break of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs. Percentage of the elongation at break of rubber CNTs composites is lower than that of raw rubber.

  5. MELOX fuel fabrication plant: Operational feedback and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugelmann, D.; Greneche, D.

    2000-01-01

    As of December 1, 1998, 32 Europeans LWRs are loaded with MOX fuel. It clearly means that plutonium recycling in MOX fuels is a mature industry, with successful operational experience in fabrication plants in some European countries, especially in France. Indeed, the recycling of plutonium generated in LWRs is one of the objectives of the full Reprocessing-Conditioning-Recycling (RCR) strategy chosen by France in the 70's. The most impressive results of this strategy, is the fact that 31 of the 32 reactors are loaded with MOX fuels supplied by the COGEMA Group from the same efficient fabrication process, the MIMAS process, improved for the MELOX plant to become the A-MIMAS process. In France, 17 reactors are already loaded and 11 additional reactors are technically suited to do so. Indeed, the EDF MOX program plans to use MOX in 28 of its 57 reactors. An EDF 900 MWe reactor core contains 157 assemblies of 264 rods each. 52 fuel assemblies per year are necessary for a 'UO 2 3-batches-MOX 3-batches' core management. In this case, a third of the UO 2 and a third of the MOX assemblies are replaced yearly, that means 36 UO 2 fuel assemblies and 16 MOX fuel assemblies. Some MOX fuelled reactors have now switched from the previously described core management to a so-called 'hybrid core management'. In this case, a quarter of UO 2 assemblies is replaced yearly. The first EDF reactor loaded with MOX fuel was Saint-Laurent B1, in 1987. The in-core experience, based on several hundred assemblies loaded, with reloading on a 1/3 cycle basis, shows that there is no operational difference between UO 2 and MOX fuels, both in terms of performance and safety. MOX fueling of 900 MWe EDF's PWRs, with a limited in-core MOX ratio of 30%, has needed only minor adaptations, such as addition of control rods, modification of the boron concentration in the cooling system and precaution against radiation exposure, easy to set up (optimisation of the fresh MOX fuel handling process, remote

  6. Influence of rubber granulate in the coal blend on important process parameters of the coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Winter; K. Pilz; A. Gahleitner; G. Woisetschlaeger; Monika Friedl [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The talk is outlined in a series of 14 slides/overheads. It discusses the use of scrapped tires in coking plant and traces the amount of zinc present in every product of the coking plant, blast furnaces and sintering plant - coke, coke breeze, sinter and waste water produced.

  7. Radiation shielding calculation for the MOX fuel fabrication plant Melox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Nimal, J.C.; Chiron, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation shielding calculation is an important engineering work in the design of the MOX fuel fabrication plant MELOX. Due to the recycle of plutonium and uranium from UO2 spent fuel reprocessing and the large capacity of production (120t HM/yr.), the shielding design requires more attention in this LWR fuel plant. In MELOX, besides several temporary storage facilities of massive fissile material, about one thousand radioactive sources with different geometries, forms, densities, quantities and Pu concentrations, are distributed through different workshops from the PuO 2 powder reception unit to the fuel assembly packing room. These sources, with or without close shield, stay temporarily in different locations, containers and glove boxes. In order to optimize the dimensions, the material and the cost of shield as well as to limit the calculation work in a reasonable engineer-hours, a calculation scheme for shielding design of MELOX is developed. This calculation scheme has been proved to be useful in consideration of the feedback from the evolutionary design and construction. The validated shielding calculations give a predictive but reliable radiation doses information. (authors). 2 figs., 10 refs

  8. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  9. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  10. Investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Tamaki, Yoshihisa

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, a comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems has been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration was carried out. Until last fiscal year, conceptual design studies of the fuel fabrication plant in 200t-HM/y scale were conducted, and system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was acquired. In addition to this, 50t-HM/y scale plant was also schematically studied. In this fiscal year, a rationalization study on conceptual design of 50t-HM/y scale plant was conducted with main aim of economic improvement, and the 200t-HM/y scale plant design was revised based on the recent R and D progress. The system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In both case of the 50t-HM/y and 200t-HM/y scale plant, it was suggested that the equipment costs were reduced in several percentages because of reduction of maintenance equipments and cut in line number at the pellet fabrication process although granulation process fro denitration converted powder and O/M control process for pellets were added. System properties data for comparative evaluation of candidate fuel fabrication systems was also prepared. (author)

  11. Status report - expert knowledge of operators in fuel reprocessing plants, enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Kramer, J.; Wildberg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary qualifications of the responsible personnel and the knowledge required by personnel otherwise employed in nuclear plants are among the requirements for licensing laid down in paragraph 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. The formal regulations for nuclear power plants are not directly applicable to plants in the fuel cycle because of the differences in the technical processes and the plant and work organisation. The aim of the project was therefore to establish a possible need for regulations for the nuclear plants with respect to the qualification of the personnel, and to determine a starting point for the definition of the required qualifications. An extensive investigation was carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany into: the formal requirements for training; the plant and personnel organisation structures; the tasks carried out by the responsible and otherwise employed personnel; and the state of training. For this purpose plant owners and managers were interviewed and the literature and plant specific documentation (e.g. plant rules) were reviewed. On the basis of literature research, foreign practices were determined and used to make comparative evaluations. The status report is divided into three separate parts for the reprocessing, the uranium enrichment, and the manufacture of the fuel elements. On the basis of the situation for reprocessing plants (particularly that of the WAK) and fuel element manufacturing plants, the development of a common (not uniform) regulation for all the examined plants in the fuel cycle was recommended. The report gives concrete suggestions for the content of the regulations. (orig.) [de

  12. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  13. Shaking table test of a base isolated model in main control room of nuclear power plant using LRB (lead rubber bearing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Suh, Y. P.

    2005-01-01

    LRB(Lead Rubber Bearing) is a widely used isolation system which is installed between equipment and foundation to reduce seismic vibration from ground. LRB is consist of bearings which are resistant to lateral motion and torsion and has a high vertical stiffness. For that reason, several studies are conducted to apply LRB to the nuclear power plant. In this study, we designed two types of main control floor systems (type I, type II) and a number of shaking table tests with and without isolation system were conducted to evaluate floor isolation effectiveness of LRB

  14. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  15. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  16. Cotton Fabric Coated with Conducting Polymers and its Application in Monitoring of Carnivorous Plant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Bajgar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, modified fabrics were again coated with polypyrrole or polyaniline, respectively, in order to investigate any synergetic effect between both polymers with respect to conductivity and its stability during repeated dry cleaning. The coating was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The resulting fabrics have been used as electrodes to collect the electrical response to the stimulation of a Venus flytrap plant. This is a paradigm of the use of conducting polymers in monitoring of plant neurobiology.

  17. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  18. Decision fundamentals for emergencies in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.; Pfeffer, W.; Wiesemes, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of fundamental physical and chemical data for emergencies in fuel element fabrication facilities. The release of uranium and plutonium and a criticality accident constitute the main hazards to be considered. In addition information related to the chemical risk of a release of toxic uranium hexafluoride is included in the report. This fundamental information is to be applied in planning emergency measures and could be useful as advisory material for the emergency staff. (orig.) [de

  19. Investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Shimizu, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems have been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process was conducted. Until last fiscal year, equipment layout in cells and overall layout design of the 200t-HM/y scale fuel fabrication plant were conducted as well as schematical design studies on main equipments in gelation and reagent recovery processes of the plant. System property data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In this fiscal year, the processes from vibropacking to fuel assemblies storage were added to the investigation range, and a conceptual design of whole fuel fabrication plant was studied as well as deepening the design study on main equipments. The conceptual design study was mainly conducted for small 50t-HM/y scale plant and a revising investigation was done for 200t-HM/y scale plant. Taking the planed comparative evaluation with pellet fuel fabrication system into account, design of equipments which should be equivalent with pellet system, especially in post-vibropacking processes, were standardized in each system. Based on these design studies, system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of the plant was also acquired. In comparison with existing design, the cell height was lowered on condition that plug type pneumatic system was adopted and fuel fabrication building was downsized by applying rationalized layout design of pellet system to post-vibropacking processes. Reduction of reagent usage at gelation process and rationalization of sintering and O/M controlling processes etc., are foremost tasks. (author)

  20. One year of operation of the Belgonucleaire (Dessel) plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Based on experience with plutonium since 1958, Belgonucleaire has successively launched a pilot plant and then a fuel fabrication plant for mixed uranium and plutonium oxides in 1968 and 1973 respectively. After describing briefly the plants and the most important stages in the planning, construction and operation of the Dessel plant, the present document describes the principal problems which were met during the course of operation of the plant and their direct incidence on the capacity and quality of the production of fuel elements

  1. IAEA physical inventory verification procedures implemented at US and Canadian fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, J.; Wredberg, L.; Zobor, E.; Zuccaro-Labellarte, G.

    1988-01-01

    IAEA has implemented safeguards at three Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants in the USA during the period 1982 to 1987, and it is in the process of safeguarding a fourth plant from 01 January 1988. In Canada IAEA safeguards inspections were implemented at all Natural Uranium (NU) fuel fabrication plants form 1972 onwards, and there are, at present, three plants under safeguards. The direct responsibility for the implementation of safeguards inspections in the USA and Canada lies with the Division of Operations B (SGOB) within the IAEA Department of Safeguards. The senior staff that is at present directly engaged in the implementation activities has accumulated supervising inspection experience at about 50 Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) inspections at the Canadian and US fabrication plants during the period 1978 to 1987. This experience has been gained in close cooperation with the facility operators and with the support of the state authorities. The paper describes the latest PIV inspections at the Westinghouse Columbia plant and the Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. Port Hope plant. Furthermore, the paper describes the initial activities for the 1988 PIV inspection at the General Electric Wilmington plant including computerized book audit activities

  2. Supertoughened Biobased Poly(lactic acid)-Epoxidized Natural Rubber Thermoplastic Vulcanizates: Fabrication, Co-continuous Phase Structure, Interfacial in Situ Compatibilization, and Toughening Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youhong; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2015-09-10

    In the presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP), biobased thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) composed of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were prepared through dynamic vulcanization. Interfacial in situ compatibilization between PLA and ENR phases was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A novel "sea-sea" co-continuous phase in the PLA/ENR TPVs was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differed from the typical "sea-island" morphology that cross-linked rubber particles dispersed in plastic matrix. A sharp, brittle-ductile transition occurred with 40 wt % of ENR, showing a significantly improved impact strength of 47 kJ/m(2), nearly 15 times that of the neat PLA and 2.6 times that of the simple blend with the same PLA/ENR ratio. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results suggested that a certain amount of DCP was consumed in the PLA phase, causing a slight cross-linking or branching of PLA molecules. the effects of various DCP contents on the impact property were investigated. The toughening mechanism under impact testing was researched, and the influence factors for toughening were discussed.

  3. Safety aspects of LWR fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Leichsenring, C.H.; Herrmann, G.W.; Schueller, W.; Hagenberg, W.; Stoll, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is focused on the safety and the control of the consequences of credible accidents in LWR fuel reprocessing plants and in mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Each of these plants serve for many power reactor (about 50.000 Mwel) thus the contribution to the overall risk of nuclear energy is correspondingly low. Because of basic functional differences between reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants and nuclear power reactors, the structure and safety systems of these plants are different in many respects. The most important differences that influence safety systems are: (1) Both fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants do not have the high system pressure that is associated with power reactors. (2) A considerable amount of the radioactivity of the fuel, which is in the form of short-lived radionuclides has decayed. Therefore, fuel reprocessing plants and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants are designed with multiple confinement barriers for control of radioactive materials, but do not require the high-pressure containment systems that are used in LWR plants. The consequences of accidents which may lead to the dispersion of radioactive materials such as chemical explosions, nuclear excursions, fires and failure of cooling systems are considered. A reasonable high reliability of the multiple confinement approach can be assured by design. In fuel reprocessing plants, forced cooling is necessary only in systems where fission products are accumulated. However, the control of radioactive materials can be maintained during normal operation and during the above mentioned accidents, if the dissolver off-gas and vessel off-gas treatment systems provide for effective removal of radioactive iodine, radioactive particulates, nitrogen oxides, tritium and krypton 85. In addition, the following incidents in the dissolver off-gas system itself must be controlled: failures of iodine filters, hydrogen explosion in O 2 - and NOsub(x)-reduction component, decomposition of

  4. Design and fabrication of stainless steel components for long life of spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Ramkumar, P.; Sundararaman, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Baldev Raj; Shanmugam, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels based on the PUREX process is the proven process with many commercial plants operating satisfactorily worldwide. The process medium being nitric acid, austenitic stainless steel is the material of construction as it is the best commercially available material for meeting the conditions in the reprocessing plants. Because of the high radiation fields, contact maintenance of equipment and systems of these plants are very time consuming and costly unlike other chemical process plants. Though the plants constructed in the early years required extensive shut downs for replacement of equipment and systems within the first fifteen years of operation itself, development in the field of stainless steel metallurgy and fabrication techniques have made it possible to design the present day plants for an operating life period of forty years. A review of the operational experience of the PUREX process based aqueous reprocessing plants has been made in this paper and reveals that life limiting failures of equipment and systems are mainly due to corrosion while a few are due to stresses. Presently there are no standards for design specification of materials and fabrication of reprocessing plants like the nuclear power plants, where well laid down ASTM and ASME codes and standards are available which are based on the large scale operational feedbacks on pressure vessels for conventional and nuclear industries. (author)

  5. Fabrication experience with mixed-oxide LWR fuels at the BELGONUCLEAIRE plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhellemont, G.

    1979-01-01

    For nearly 20 years BELGONUCLEAIRE has been involved in a steadily growing effort to increase its production of mixed oxides. This programme has ranged from basic research and process development through a pilot-scale unit to today's mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant at Dessel, which has been in operation for just over 5 years. The reference fabrication flow sheet includes UO 2 , PuO 2 and a scraped powder preparation, sintered ground pellets as well as rod fabrication and assembling. With regard to quality, attention is especially paid to the process monitoring and quality controls at the qualification step and during the routine production. Entirely different types of thermal UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel pellets, rods and assemblies have been manufactured for PWR and BWR operation. For these fabrications, some diagrams of the results with regard to the required technical specifications are presented. Special emphasis is placed on the occasional deviations of some finished products from the specifications and on the solutions applied to avoid such problems. Concerning the actual capacity of the mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant, several limiting factors due to the nature of plutonium itself are discussed. Taking into account all these ambient limitations, a reference PWR mixed-oxide fuel output of nominally 18 t/a is obtained. The industrial feasibility of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel fabrication has been thoroughly demonstrated by the present BELGONUCLEAIRE plant. The experience obtained has led to progressive improvements of the fabrication process and adaptation of the product controls in order to ensure the requested quality levels. (author)

  6. Radiation protection training at uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Soong, A.L.; Bell, J.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides general information and references useful for establishing or operating radiation safety training programs in plants that manufacture nuclear fuels, or process uranium compounds that are used in the manufacture of nuclear fuels. In addition to a brief summary of the principles of effective management of radiation safety training, the report also contains an appendix that provides a comprehensive checklist of scientific, safety, and management topics, from which appropriate topics may be selected in preparing training outlines for various job categories or tasks pertaining to the uranium nuclear fuels industry. The report is designed for use by radiation safety training professionals who have the experience to utilize the report to not only select the appropriate topics, but also to tailor the specific details and depth of coverage of each training session to match both employee and management needs of a particular industrial operation. 26 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  8. Hyundai plans rubber unit despite overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyoungjin Kim.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the oversupply of synthetic rubber in South Korea, the government has granted approval to Hyundai Petrochemical (Seoul) to build the country's second synthetic rubber unit, to be located alongside its petrochemical complex at Daesan. The plant is due for startup during second-half 1995, when the local market is expected to be in better balance. Hyundai will use Goodyear Tire ampersand Rubber technology for the plant, which will have annual capacities for 40,000 m.t. of polybutadiene rubber (BR), 30,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and 12,000 m.t. of nitrile rubber (NBR). Styrene and butadiene requirements will be met from Hyundai's own production at Daesan. The current local producer of synthetic rubber is Korea Kumho Petrochemicals (Seoul), which has annual capacities for 150,000 m.t. of SBR, 95,000 m.t. of BR, and 10,000 m.t. of NBR. Korean SBR demand is about 141,000 m.t./year but is expected to increase to 161,000 m.t./year by 1996 and reach 194,000 m.t./year by the end of the decade

  9. Quantifying Tc-99 contamination in a fuel fabrication plant - 59024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbyshire, Carol; Burgess, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The Springfields facility manufactures nuclear fuel products for the UK's nuclear power stations and for international customers. Fuel manufacture is scheduled to continue into the future. In addition to fuel manufacture, Springfields is also undertaking decommissioning activities. Today it is run and operated by Springfields Fuels Limited, under the management of Westinghouse Electric UK Limited. The site has been operating since 1946 manufacturing nuclear fuel. As part of the decommissioning activities, there was a need was to quantify contamination in a large redundant building. This building had been used to process uranium derived from uranium ore concentrate but had also processed a limited quantity of recycled uranium. The major non-uranic contaminant was Tc-99. The aim was to be able to identify any areas where the bulk activity exceeded 0.4 Bq/g Tc-99 as this would preclude the demolition rubble being sent to the local disposal facility. The problems associated with this project were the presence of significant uranium contamination, the realisation that both the Tc-99 and the uranium had diffused into the brickwork to a significant depth and the relatively low beta energy of Tc-99. The uranium was accompanied by Pa-234m, an energetic beta emitter. The concentration/depth profile was determined for several areas on the plant for Tc-99 and for uranium. The radiochemical analysis was performed locally but the performance of the local laboratory was checked during the initial investigation by splitting samples three ways and having confirmation analyses performed by 2 other laboratories. The results showed surprisingly consistent concentration gradients for Tc-99 and for uranium across the samples. Using that information, the instrument response was calculated for Tc-99 using the observed diffusion gradient and averaged through the full 225 mm of brick wall, as agreed by the regulator. The Tc-99 and uranium contributions to the detector signal were separated

  10. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran,K.; Natchimuthu,N.

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  11. Investigating the tension load of rubber composites by impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work deals with establishing the tension load by impact dynamic testing of rubber composite con- veyor belts. ... top layer ('top cover'), a fabric carcass which provide tensile strength, skim ... components of machines like CBs [20]. CBs of ...

  12. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkakaty, Balaka [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenes to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.

  13. Lessons learned from MELOX plant operation and support to design of new MOX fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, Joel; Gattegno, Robert; Guay, Philippe; Bariteau, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    AREVA is participating in the design of the US MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). To support this project and allow the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) client to reap full benefit from the MELOX operating experience, AREVA, through COGEMA and its engineering subsidiary SGN have implemented a rigorous process to prudently apply MELOX Lessons Learned to the MFFF design. This paper describes the Lessons Learned process, how the process supports the advancement of fuel fabrication technology and, how the results of the process are benefiting the client. (author)

  14. Development of IAEA safeguards at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the nuclear material at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants under IAEA safeguards is studied. The current verification practices of the nuclear material and future improvements are also considered. The problems met during the implementation of the the verification measures of the nuclear material - particularly for the fuel assemblies are discussed. The additional verification activities as proposed for future improvements are also discussed including the physical inventory verification and the verification of receipts and shipments. It is concluded that the future development of the present IAEA verification practices at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants would necessitate the application of quantitative measures of the nuclear material and the implementation of advanced measurement techniques and instruments. 2 fig., 4 tab

  15. Transformation of medical grade silicone rubber under Nd:YAG and excimer laser irradiation: First step towards a new miniaturized nerve electrode fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Robbe, O.; Addad, A.; Turrell, S.; Derozier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used biomaterial. Like for many polymers, its surface can be modified in order to change one or several of its properties which further allow this surface to be functionalized. Laser-induced surface modification of PDMS under ambient conditions is an easy and powerful method for the surface modification of PDMS without altering its bulk properties. In particular, we profit from both UV laser inducing surface modification and of UV laser micromachining to develop a first part of a new process aiming at increasing the number of contacts and tracks within the same electrode surface to improve the nerve selectivity of implantable self sizing spiral cuff electrodes. The second and last part of the process is to further immerse the engraved electrode in an autocatalytic Pt bath leading in a selective Pt metallization of the laser irradiated tracks and contacts and thus to a functionalized PDMS surface. In the present work, we describe the different physical and chemical transformations of a medical grade PDMS as a function of the UV laser and of the irradiation conditions used. We show that the ablation depths, chemical composition, structure and morphology vary with (i) the laser wavelength (using an excimer laser at 248 nm and a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm), (ii) the conditions of irradiation and (iii) the pulse duration. These different modified properties are expected to have a strong influence on the nucleation and growth rates of platinum which govern the adhesion and the thickness of the Pt layer on the electrodes and thus the DC resistance of tracks.

  16. Research Progress in Graphene/Rubber Conducting Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Hui-min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The conductive mechanism of graphene/rubber nanocomposites was introduced.Advances in the synthesis and properties of graphene and its derivatives, modifications of graphene, along with its hybrid fillers, as well as fabrication of related rubber conducting nanocomposites were reviewed.Many factors affecting the electrical properties, such as fabrication method, vulcanization, temperature, pressure, frequency and media etc. were also summarized.It was pointed out that the further research should be focused on multi-component graphene/rubber nanocomposites and its double percolation phenomenon.

  17. Development of Automatic Quality Check Software in Mailbox Declaration For Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsu; Shim, Hye Won; Jo, Seong Yeon; Lee, Kwang Yeol; Ban, Myoung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Short Notice Random Inspection (SNRI) is a new IAEA safeguards inspection regime for bulk handing facility, which utilities random inspection through a mailbox system. Its main objective is to verify 100% of the flow components of the safeguarded nuclear material at such a facility. To achieve the SNRI objective, it is required to provide daily mailbox declaration, by a facility's operator, to the IAEA with regard to information, such as the receipt and shipment of nuclear materials. Mailbox declarations are then later compared with accounting records so as to examine the accuracy and consistency of the facility operator's declaration at the time of the SNRI. The IAEA has emphasized the importance of accurate mailbox declarations and recommended that the ROK initiate its own independent quality control system in order to improve and maintain its mailbox declarations as a part of the SSAC activities. In an effort to improve the transparency of operational activities at fuel fabrication plants and to satisfy IAEA recommendation, an automatic quality check software application has been developed to improve mailbox declarations at fabrication plants in Korea. The ROK and the IAEA have recognized the importance of providing good quality mailbox declaration for an effective and efficient SNRI at fuel fabrication plants in Korea. The SRA developed an automatic quality check software program in order to provide an independent QC system of mailbox declaration, as well as to improve the quality of mailbox declaration. Once the automatic QC system is implemented, it will improve the quality of an operator's mailbox declaration by examining data before sending it to the IAEA. The QC system will be applied to fuel fabrication plants in the first half of 2014

  18. Thermal insulation system design and fabrication specification (nuclear) for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This specification defines the design, analysis, fabrication, testing, shipping, and quality requirements of the Insulation System for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Insulation System includes all supports, convection barriers, jacketing, insulation, penetrations, fasteners, or other insulation support material or devices required to insulate the piping and equipment cryogenic and other special applications excluded. Site storage, handling and installation of the Insulation System are under the cognizance of the Purchaser

  19. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  20. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  1. In-situ chemical analyses of trans-polyisoprene by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in a rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-10-01

    The localization of polyisoprene in young stem tissues of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver was investigated by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The fibrous structures were stained with Oil Red O. FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis proved that the fibrous structures were trans-polyisoprene. Granular structures stained with the dye, and characteristic absorptions at 2,960 cm(-1) and 1,430 cm(-1) in FT-IR suggested that trans-polyisoprene accumulated in the vicinity of the cambium layer. We have thus successfully shown for the first time the localization of trans-polyisoprene in plant tissues, and our histological investigation allowed us to presume the main sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of trans-rubber. Furthermore, a new technical approach, the preparation of sections using an electronic freezing unit and the in situ analysis of polyisoprene using FT-IR microspectroscopy, is demonstrated to be a promising method for determining the accumulation of polyisoprene as well as other metabolites.

  2. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  3. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear materials accountancy in an industrial MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards versus commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canck, H. de; Ingels, R.; Lefevre, R.

    1991-01-01

    In a modern MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, with a large throughput of nuclear materials, computerized real-time accountancy systems are applied. Following regulations and prescriptions imposed by the Inspectorates EURATOM-IAEA, the State and also by internal plant safety rules, the accountancy is kept in plutonium element, uranium element and 235 U for enriched uranium. In practice, Safeguards Authorities are concerned with quantities of the element (U tot , Pu tot ) and to some extent with its fissile content. Custom Authorities are for historical reasons, interested in fissile quantities (U fiss , Pu fiss ) whereas owners wish to recover the energetic value of their material (Pu equivalent). Balancing the accountancy simultaneously in all these related but not proportional units is a new problem in a MOX-plant where pool accountancy is applied. This paper indicates possible ways to solve the balancing problem created by these different units used for expressing nuclear material quantities

  5. Natural rubber: leather composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ravichandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations. Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings, heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  7. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  8. The use of radiotracers in natural rubber research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.F.; Singh, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Five main areas where radiotracers have been used in research on natural rubber are on studies on the uptake of plant nutrients by Hevea brasiliensis using 32 P, 86 Rb and 45 Ca as tracers; biosynthesis of Hevea rubber using 14 C or 3 H labelled intermediates; translocation and metabolism of 14 C. Ethephon in Hevea brasiliensis; use of radiotracers as analytical tools and adsorption of labelled fatty acid soaps on natural rubber lattices. These studies are discussed to show the powerful tool that radiotracers provide in agricultural, biochemical and chemical research on natural rubber. (author)

  9. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  10. Cost update: Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-06-01

    The cost estimates originally developed in NUREG/CR-1266 for commissioning a reference low-enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plant are updated from 1978 to early 1993 dollars. During this time, the costs for labor and materials increased approximately at the rate of inflation, the cost of energy increased more slowly than the rate of inflation, and the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal increased much more rapidly than the rate of inflation. The results of the analysis indicate that the estimated costs for the immediate dismantlement and decontamination for unrestricted facility release (DECON) of the reference plant have increased from the mid-1978 value of $3.57 million to $8.08 million in 1993 with in-compact low-level radioactive waste disposal at the US Ecoloay facility near Richland, Washington. The cost estimate rises to $19.62 million with out-of-compact radioactive waste disposal at the Chem-Nuclear facility near Barnwell, South Carolina. A methodology and a formula are presented for estimating the cost of decommissioning the reference uranium fuel fabrication plant at some future time, based on these early 1993 cost estimates. The formula contains essentially the same elements as the formula given in 10 CFR 50.75 for escalating the decommissioning costs for nuclear power reactors to some future time

  11. Differential responses of two rubber tree clones to chilling stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chilling stress is one of the most important environmental factors that limit the growth, distribution and yield of rubber tree in China. The effects of chilling stress on the grated plants of two rubber trees clones, GT1 and Wenchang217, were studied by physiological methods in controlled light chamber in order to explore the ...

  12. Maintenance of nuclear chemical and fuel fabrication plants [Invited talk no. IT-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Though the objective of the maintenance practices followed in nuclear facilities is to optimise production as in other conventional production plants, the radioactivity associated with nuclear materials is a major constraint in all maintenance jobs on equipment of the nuclear facility. Often non-routine maintenance have to be adopted. Maintenance aspect has to be taken into consideration at the design stage of the nuclear facility. The maintenance concept adopted in a nuclear facility depends on the type of plant and varies from full indirect remote maintenance to direct contact maintenance. This is illustrated by discussing maintenance practices followed in a fuel reprocessing plant, a high level radioactive waste management facility, a fuel fabrication plant, and a heavy water plant. Exposure of maintenance staff to radiation has to be kept within limits governed by safety regulations. Along with planning and scheduling of maintenance, training of manpower with mock-up facilities assumes importance and the maintenance jobs must be carried out under strict supervision. (M.G.B.)

  13. 3D silicone rubber interfaces for individually tailored implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieghorst, Jan; Bondarenkova, Alexandra; Burblies, Niklas; Behrens, Peter; Doll, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For the fabrication of customized silicone rubber based implants, e.g. cochlear implants or electrocortical grid arrays, it is required to develop high speed curing systems, which vulcanize the silicone rubber before it runs due to a heating related viscosity drop. Therefore, we present an infrared radiation based cross-linking approach for the 3D-printing of silicone rubber bulk and carbon nanotube based silicone rubber electrode materials. Composite materials were cured in less than 120 s and material interfaces were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, curing related changes in the mechanical and cell-biological behaviour were investigated with tensile and WST-1 cell biocompatibility tests. The infrared absorption properties of the silicone rubber materials were analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission and attenuated total reflection mode. The heat flux was calculated by using the FTIR data, emissivity data from the infrared source manufacturer and the geometrical view factor of the system.

  14. Study on mechanical properties of laminated rubber bearing with small shape factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Ootori, Y.; Yabana, S.; Hirata, K.; Ishida, K.

    1995-01-01

    Laminated rubber bearings with a small shape factor are regarded as one of the most promising isolation devices to reduce the vertical seismic load of a nuclear power plant. In this study, three types of natural rubber bearings with different aspect ratios (diameter/total thickness of rubber) and one high-damping rubber bearing are tested under varied loading conditions. Basic characteristics and ultimate characteristics of the bearings are made clear, and applicability of estimation formula and analysis method are verified

  15. Biodiversity in rubber agroforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien

    2013-01-01

    Jungle rubber tuinen zijn extensieve rubber agroforests die qua structuur op secundaire bossen lijken, en waarin wilde soorten door de boer worden getolereerd. Met het verdwijnen van het laaglandregenwoud rijst de vraag of de begroeiing die ervoor in de plaats komt een aantal kenmerken en functies

  16. Vulcanization of Rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature 140 -180°C. Sulfur. 2-3 parts per. 100 parts of rubber (phr). Accelerator 0.5-1.0 phr. ZnO ... out an experiment, he spilt a mixture of rubber and sulfur with other ingredients on a hot .... both carbon-sulfur and sulfur-nitrogen bonds -.

  17. Development and application of a safeguards system in a fabrication plant for highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, M.; Stricht, E. van der

    1979-01-01

    This paper gives a general view of the safeguards activities performed at the Nukem Fabrication plant (Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany) during the last seven years. The main safeguards-relevant features of the plant are given and discussed. The importance is stressed of a good working relationship between the three principal partners, viz. the operator, the safeguards authority and the latter's technical support service. The definition, implementation and improvement of safeguards equipment and activities are outlined. The paper describes the internal organization established by the operator to fulfil his responsibilities, the safeguards philosophy, the Non-Destructive Assay equipment permanently installed by Euratom Safeguards, the results obtained, and the evaluation of the material balances. Conclusions are drawn (and specific comments made throughout the paper) from the experience gained over this period of seven years. (author)

  18. Practical application of the dose limitation system in a uranium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auricchio, S.; Cantoro, N.

    1982-01-01

    ICRP Publication 26 was published when the nuclear operators and the different national regulatory bodies were already in a position to understand the proposed dose limitation system and to apply it to nuclear activities. In Italy the basic principle of limiting individual risks and the search for increased protection were already applied in the radiation analysis of nuclear plants. These principles were applied during design (1972-74) and operation (1974-80) of the industrial fuel-element fabrication plant of the company Fabbricazioni Nucleari (F.N.) in Bosco Marengo. The paper reports on the criteria followed in the design stage, the organization and methods adopted for reducing the doses during operation, and the results achieved after a few years of plant activity. In view of the purely technical nature of this paper, the first principle of the dose limitation system (justification), which is more a political issue, is not taken into consideration; however, an assessment of the Italian context as at the end of the 1960s shows that the principle of justification of a practice was adequately taken into account when the construction of the F.N. plant was decided on. (author)

  19. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  20. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  1. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. US rubber markets recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic rubber markets in North America bounced back in no uncertain terms last year, with demand climbing an impressive 9.5%, to 2.97 million m.t.; and, according to the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IIS-RP; Houston) latest five-year forecast, producers can look forward to a 3.3% increase in demand during 1993. This growth rate outpaced out 1992 forecast and demonstrates the resilience of the synthetic rubber industry, says William E. Tessemer, managing director of IISRP. We expect demand in 1993 to surpass 1992 and level off at a 2%/year growth rate for synthetic rubber - 2.5% including thermoplastic elastomers [TPEs]-over the 1993-97 period. The improvement reflects signs of a recovery in North America, especially the pickup in the auto and tire industry. The two major tire rubbers - styrene butadiene and polybutadiene rubber - notched up double-digit gains, and other materials that have autos uses, such as nitrile rubber and many of the specialty elastomers, also advanced strongly

  3. Use of hold-gro erosion control fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A D; Ludeke, K L

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, Kayenta, Arizona in 1977 and 1978 to study the effectiveness of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric (a product from the Gulf States Paper Corporation, Tuscaloosa, Alabama) in the establishment of plants on coal mine soil following the surface mining of coal. Four plant species were planted: (1) spring barley (Horduem vulgare L.), an annual grass (2) crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.), a perennial grass (3) alfalfa (lucerne) (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial legume and (4) fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh.), a perennial shrub. Seeds of each plant species were planted in reclaimed coal mine soil in the spring of the year by both broadcast seeding (conventional culture) and the incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. Average numbers of seedlings established and percent ground cover for all species studied were higher in areas where conventional culture was used than they were in areas where seeds were incorporated in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. The incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil was not an effective cultural practice in the southwestern United States.

  4. Use of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, Kayenta, Arizona in 1977 and 1978 to study the effectiveness of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric (a product from the Gulf States Paper Corporation, Tuscaloosa, Alabama) in the establishment of plants on coal mine soil following the surface mining of coal. Four plant species were planted: spring barley (Horduem vulgare L.), an annual grass; crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.), a perennial grass; alfalfa (lucerne) (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial legume; and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh.), a perennial shrub. Seeds of each plant species were planted in reclaimed coal mine soil in the spring of the year by both broadcast seeding (conventional culture) and the incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. Average numbers of seedlings established and percent ground cover for all species studied were higher in areas where conventional culture was used than they were in areas where seeds were incorporated in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. The incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil was not an effective cultural practice in the southwestern United States. 11 refs.

  5. Criticality Calculations for a Typical Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant with Low Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Hade; Nagy, Mohamed; Agamy, Said; Shaat, Mohmaed

    2013-01-01

    The operations with the fissile materials such as U 235 introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel and can lead the facility to shutdown. Therefore, the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The objectives of criticality safety are to prevent a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and to minimize the consequences. Sixty criticality accidents were occurred in the world. These are accidents divided into two categories, 22 accidents occurred in process facilities and 38 accidents occurred during critical experiments or operations with research reactor. About 21 criticality accidents including Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co. (JCO) accident took place with fuel solution or slurry and only one accident occurred with metal fuel. In this study the nuclear criticality calculations have been performed for a typical nuclear fuel fabrication plant producing nuclear fuel elements for nuclear research reactors with low enriched uranium up to 20%. The calculations were performed for both normal and abnormal operation conditions. The effective multiplication factor (k eff ) during the nuclear fuel fabrication process (Uranium hexafluoride - Ammonium Diuranate conversion process) was determined. Several accident scenarios were postulated and the criticalities of these accidents were evaluated. The computer code MCNP-4B which based on Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations were performed for the cases of, change of moderator to fuel ratio, solution density and concentration of the solute in order to prevent or mitigate criticality accidents during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The calculation results are analyzed and discussed

  6. Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. na fazenda "unidas do sul", em Juquiá Experimental results from a rubber planting at the coast of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira da Cunha

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados do estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Tj-1 x Tj-16, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação dessa planta ao ambiente situado a 24°10' de latitude sul, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, a baixa altitude e próximo da Serra do Mar. A plantação é uma das primeiras da região, tendo demonstrado regular desenvolvimento das árvores. A produção de borracha obtida pelo teste Morris-Mann não foi elevada, presumindo-se que a falta de tratos culturais oportunamente dispensados tivesse exercido influência desfavorável sôbre o crescimento normal das plantas e rendimento na produtividade.This paper reports on the results obtained in an experimental planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 X Tj-16 hybrid at Fazendas Unidas do Sul, Juquiá, São Paulo. This planting was made to test the adaptability of the Hevea plant to a low elevation area near the Serra do Mar range, located at 24°10' south. Growth of the Hevea plants in this experimental planting was fair, but yield data obtained by means of the Morris-Mann test indicated that it was rather low. The unsatisfactory growth as well as the poor yield are attributed to the poor handling of the rubber planting rather than to an unfavorable effect of the environment.

  7. Seismic evaluation of commercial plutonium fabrication plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Coats, D.W.; Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    This report is an overview of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's seismic assessment of six commercial plutonium fabrication plants licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before September 2, 1971. The seismic assessment generally has three parts: (1) documentation of the structural condition of each facility and its critical equipment; (2) characterization of the seismic hazard (i.e., determination of peak ground acceleration vs return period for each site); and (3) evaluation of seismic capacity to determine ground motion levels at which critical structures and equipment fail. The failure evaluation used structural capacities of median-centered strength characteristics of the as-built configurations from (1) and seismic hazard input from (2). Results of the assessment were partial input for an overall natural risks study by the NRC

  8. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, an exemplary application for a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmal, B.; Gaenssmantel, G.; Mayer, G.; Moser, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of complex technical systems, the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in addition to the Deterministic Safety Analysis becomes of increasing interest. Besides nuclear installations this applies to e. g. chemical plants. A PSA is capable of expanding the basis for the risk assessment and of complementing the conventional deterministic analysis, by which means the existing safety standards of that facility can be improved if necessary. In the available paper, the differences between a PSA for a nuclear power plant and a nuclear fuel cycle facility (NFCF) are discussed in shortness and a basic concept for a PSA for a nuclear fuel cycle facility is described. Furthermore, an exemplary PSA for a partial process in a fuel assembly fabrication facility is described. The underlying data are partially taken from an older German facility, other parts are generic. Moreover, a selected set of reported events corresponding to this partial process is taken as auxiliary data. The investigation of this partial process from the fuel fabrication as an example application shows that PSA methods are in principle applicable to nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Here, the focus is on preventing an initiating event, so that the system analysis is directed to the modeling of fault trees for initiating events. The quantitative results of this exemplary study are given as point values for the average occurrence frequencies. They include large uncertainties because of the limited documentation and data basis available, and thus have only methodological character. While quantitative results are given, further detailed information on process components and process flow is strongly required for robust conclusions with respect to the real process. (authors)

  9. Development of rubber gloves by radiation vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Ishigaki, I.; Mogi, M.; Saito, T.

    1990-01-01

    The processes of radiation vulcanization and production of protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination are described. A newly developed sensitizing system consisting of 5 phr 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and 1 phr carbon tetrachloride was used to vulcanize natural rubber latex at 12 kGy. Transparent and soft gloves were obtained from the radiation vulcanized latex by a coagulant dipping process. The mechanical properties of the gloves meet Japanese Industrial Standard specification for protective gloves. Combustion analysis of the gloves revealed that the amount of evolved sulfur dioxide and remaining ashes are less than those from commercially available rubber gloves. A trial usage of the gloves at a nuclear power plant showed that the gloves were easy to use for delicate work without undergoing fatigue. (author)

  10. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial-stress-shear-strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of FBR plants. It also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation. (orig./HP)

  11. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial stress-shear strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The paper also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation

  12. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout scheme drawing, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, outline drawing of operation control panel, operator console of the integrated load pressure control system, operator console of the integrated sequential control system, central control panel, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of cooler control panel of the main transformer, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the equipment cooling water pipe system, diagram of the fire-extinguishing water pipe system, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, common facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of exhaust temperature reducing device, structural drawing of hot air device, system diagram of piping, etc.), safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, front view of auxiliary panel of safety environment equipment, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of gas circuit breaker, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the nitrogen gas pipe system, system diagram of utility equipment, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: state of the construction work, gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities, common facilities. (NEDO)

  14. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  15. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  16. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  17. Implementation of safeguards at the Ulba Joint Stock Company, Fuel Fabrication Plant, UST-Kamenogorsk, Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.; Sprinkle, J.; Kuznetsov, B.; Andosov, V.; Grabelnikov, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Ulba Joint Stock Company Fuel Fabrication Plant (ULBA) produces VVER and RMBK fuel pellets. The facility has an annual capacity in excess of 1,000 metric tons with the pellets sold primarily to facilities in Russia for loading into rods and the production of fuel assemblies. The facility is part of a four plant complex at Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakstan. The Department of Energy (DOE) support for the enhancement of the facility Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) programs started with the initial site survey in September 1994. During 1994 a two-person team for the US provided on-site assistance as part of the facility preparation for the initial physical inventory used to determine the quantities present for the declaration statement by the Republic of Kazakstan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The DOE support program has been funded primarily through the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The management at the ULBA facility has demonstrated a commitment to developing a comprehensive Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Program and has assigned staff and resources to the MC and A program. The facility has developed the structure and framework for the MC and A system and has developed procedures in several key MC and A areas. Initially the facility staff had a limited understanding of the purposes of a MC and A program but, through the continuing work with the DOE technical Team, there are a large number of staff throughout the facility who understand MC and A requirements and are committed to implementation of the MC and A system

  18. Assessment of radioactive material released from a fuel fabrication plant under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the amounts of fissile material released both inside and outside a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (MOFFP) for light water reactors. The first section begins with a descriptive study of fissile material containment systems, and the methods available for quantifying accident occurrence probabilities. In addition to accidents common to all industrial facilities, other much rarer accidents were considered, such as aircraft crashes. The minimum occurrence probability limit for consideration in this study was set at 10 -6 per annum. The second part of this report attempts to assess the consequences of the accidents considered (i.e. with occurrence probabilities exceeding 10 -6 per annum) by determining maximum values for such accidents. Acts of sabotage and other accidents of this type are beyond the scope of this study and were not taken into consideration. The most serious potential accident would be a fire involving all of the glove boxes in the PuO 2 powder calcination and preparation cell, which could release 76.5 mg of PuO 2 powder into the atmosphere; the occurrence probability of such an accident, however, is slight (less than 10 -5 per annum). The second possibility, is a specially nuclear hazard that would release fission products into the atmosphere. The occurrence probability of such an accident is currently evaluated at 10 -3 per annum

  19. Evaluation of uncertainties in MUF for a LWR fuel fabrication plant. Pt.2 - Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    1984-09-01

    MUF (Material Unaccounted For) is a parameter defined as the estimated loss of materials during a certain period of time. A suitable method for uncertainty and bias estimations has been developed. The method was specifically adjusted for a facility like the ASEA-ATOM fuel fabrication plant. Operations that are expected to contribute to the uncertainties have been compiled. Information that is required for the application of the developed method is described. Proposals for simplification of the required information without losing the accuracy are suggested. ASEA-ATOM had earlier determined uncertainty data for the scales that are used for nuclear materials. The statistical uncertainties included random errors, short-term and long-term systematic errors. Information for the determination of biases was also determined (constants and formulas). The method proposed by ASEA-ATOM for the determination of uncertainties due to the scales is compatible with the method proposed in this report. For other operations than weighing, the information from ASEA-ATOM is limited. Such operations are completely dominating the total uncertainty in MUF. Examples of calculations of uncertainties and bias are given for uranium oxide powders in large containers. Examples emphasize the differences between various statistical errors (random and systematic errors) and biases (known errors). The importance of correlations between different items in the inventories is explained. A specific correlation of great importance is the use of nominal factors (uranium concentration). A portable personal computer can be used to determine uncertainties in MUF. (author)

  20. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  1. Verification of nuclear material balances: General theory and application to a highly enriched uranium fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Beedgen, R.; Neu, H.

    1980-08-01

    In the theoretical part it is shown that under the assumption, that in case of diversion the operator falsifies all data by a class specific amount, it is optimal in the sense of the probability of detection to use the difference MUF-D as the test statistics. However, as there are arguments for keeping the two tests separately, and furthermore, as it is not clear that the combined test statistics is optimal for any diversion strategy, the overall guaranteed probability of detection for the bivariate test is determined. A numerical example is given applying the theoretical part. Using the material balance data of a Highly Enriched Uranium fabrication plant the variances of MUF, D (no diversion) and MUF-D are calculated with the help of the standard deviations of operator and inspector measurements. The two inventories of the material balance are stratified. The samples sizes of the strata and the total inspection effort for data verification are determined by game theoretical methods (attribute sampling). On the basis of these results the overall detection probability of the combined system (data verification and material accountancy) is determined both for the MUF-D test and the bivariate (D,MUF) test as a function of the goal quantity. The results of both tests are evaluated for different diversion strategies. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  3. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J.

    2015-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  4. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  5. Radiation doses and cause-specific mortality among workers at a nuclear materials fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checkoway, H.; Pearce, N.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Cragle, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 6781 white male employees from a nuclear weapons materials fabrication plant for the years 1947-1979. Exposures of greatest concern are alpha and gamma radiation emanating primarily from insoluble uranium compounds. Among monitored workers, the mean cumulative alpha radiation dose to the lung was 8.21 rem, and the mean cumulative external whole body penetrating dose from gamma radiation was 0.96 rem. Relative to US white males, the cohort experienced mortality deficits from all causes combined, cardiovascular diseases, and from most site-specific cancers. Mortality excesses of lung and brain and central nervous system cancers were seen from comparisons with national and state rates. Dose-response trends were detected for lung cancer mortality with respect to cumulative alpha and gamma radiation, with the most pronounced trend occurring for gamma radiation among workers who received greater than or equal to 5 rem of alpha radiation. These trends diminished in magnitude when a 10-year latency assumption was applied. Under a zero-year latency assumption, the rate ratio for lung cancer mortality associated with joint exposure of greater than or equal to 5 versus less than 1 rem of both types of radiation is 4.60 (95% confidence limits (CL) 0.91, 23.35), while the corresponding result, assuming a 10-year latency, is 3.05 (95% CL 0.37, 24.83). While these rate ratios, which are based on three and one death, respectively, lack statistical precision, the observed dose-response trends indicate potential carcinogenic effects to the lung of relatively low-dose radiation. There are no dose-response trends for mortality from brain and central nervous system cancers

  6. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1989 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (assembly drawing of the pressure part of gasifier, drawing of machinery arrangement of gasifier facilities, system diagram of raw coal receiving device, system diagram of pulverized coal feed equipment, system diagram of char feed equipment, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry desulfurizer (assembly drawing of desulfurizing agent carrying filter, assembly drawing of regeneration tower filter, structural drawing of SO{sub 2} reduction tower filter, assembly drawing of start-up heater, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry dust removal system (assembly drawing of No.1 dust separation filter, installation drawing of elevator, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural cross section of gas turbogenerator, etc.), actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of test stand, structural drawing of exhaust temperature reduction device, assembly/sectioned drawing of low-pressure air compressor, etc.) (NEDO)

  7. Analysis of N and K in the sap of petioles and in foliage fabrics of tomato plants under hydropony conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cordero, O. F.

    2001-01-01

    The foliage analyses give information about the nutritional state of the plant in the past, this is that it should have lapsed time enough so that the changes are manifested in the composition of fabrics of the foliage. A nutritional pursuit, based on variations in the concentration of elements in the sap of the plant could indicate that this is nutritionally happening in the plant in the moment. This can be a tool to predict symptoms caused by nutritional anomalies in an immediate form, being able to correct more quickly the problem and to reduce the time of exhibition from the plant to the nutritional tension. The nitrogen (N) and the potassium (K) are two elements that the tomato plants require in big quantities, therefore in search of validating new methodologies, this work had as objectives: 1) To determine the utility of the levels of N and K obtained in sap analysis as a tool for the detection of nutritional lacks and as an indicator of the concentration of N and K in the nutritious solution. 2) To compare the results of analysis of sap of petioles with the routine analyses of fabric to foliate. (Author) [es

  8. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  9. Microclimate and development of 'Conilon' coffee intercropped with rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of intercropping 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora with rubber trees on coffee tree microclimate, nutrition, growth, and yield. Rubber trees were planted in two double rows 33 m apart, with 4x2.3 m spacing between plants. Treatments consisted of the distances from the coffee plants to the rubber trees: 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m. Measurements of atmospheric variables (temperature, irradiance, and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentration, internode length of plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, individual leaf area, chlorophyll content, and yield were performed. Intercropping promotes changes in the microclimatic conditions of coffee plants close to rubber trees, with reduction of temperature and irradiance level and increase in air relative humidity. The proximity of the coffee tree to the rubber trees promotes the elongation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches and increases the individual leaf area; however, it does not affect leaf concentrations of N, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and B in 'Conilon' coffee and does not have a negative impact on yield.

  10. Development of inspection data collection and evaluation system for large scale MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Masuda, Shoichiro; Iso, Shoko; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori; Kurobe, Hiroko; Nakajima, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Inspection Data Collection and Evaluation System is the system to store inspection data and operator declaration data collected from various measurement equipment, which is installed in fuel fabrication processes of the large-scale MOX fuel fabrication plant, and to make safeguards evaluation based on Near Real Time Accountancy (NRTA) using these data. Nuclear Material Control Center developed the simulator to simulate fuel fabrication process, in-process material inventory/flow data and the measurement data and the adequacy/impact to the uncertainty of the material balance using the simulation results, such as the facility operation and the operational status, has been reviewed. Following the 34th INMM Japan chapter presentation, the model similar to the real nuclear material accountancy during the fuel fabrication process was simulated and the nuclear material accountancy and its uncertainty (Sigma MUF) have been reviewed. Some findings have been obtained, such as regarding evaluation related indicators for verification under a more realistic accountancy which could be applied by operator. (author)

  11. Ecosystem Fabrication (EcoFAB) Protocols for The Construction of Laboratory Ecosystems Designed to Study Plant-microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sasse, Joelle; Lewald, Kyle M; Zhalnina, Kateryna; Cornmesser, Lloyd T; Duncombe, Todd A; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Vogel, John P; Firestone, Mary K; Northen, Trent R

    2018-04-10

    Beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer a sustainable biological solution with the potential to boost low-input food and bioenergy production. A better mechanistic understanding of these complex plant-microbe interactions will be crucial to improving plant production as well as performing basic ecological studies investigating plant-soil-microbe interactions. Here, a detailed description for ecosystem fabrication is presented, using widely available 3D printing technologies, to create controlled laboratory habitats (EcoFABs) for mechanistic studies of plant-microbe interactions within specific environmental conditions. Two sizes of EcoFABs are described that are suited for the investigation of microbial interactions with various plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, and Panicum virgatum. These flow-through devices allow for controlled manipulation and sampling of root microbiomes, root chemistry as well as imaging of root morphology and microbial localization. This protocol includes the details for maintaining sterile conditions inside EcoFABs and mounting independent LED light systems onto EcoFABs. Detailed methods for addition of different forms of media, including soils, sand, and liquid growth media coupled to the characterization of these systems using imaging and metabolomics are described. Together, these systems enable dynamic and detailed investigation of plant and plant-microbial consortia including the manipulation of microbiome composition (including mutants), the monitoring of plant growth, root morphology, exudate composition, and microbial localization under controlled environmental conditions. We anticipate that these detailed protocols will serve as an important starting point for other researchers, ideally helping create standardized experimental systems for investigating plant-microbe interactions.

  12. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  13. The Effect of Rubber Effluent on some Chemical Properties of Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary pot trial was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effects of rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties as well as early growth and nutrient uptake by maize plant. The levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was arranged in a completely randomized ...

  14. The Effects of Rubber Effluent on Some Chemical Properties of Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary pot trial was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effects of rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties as well as growth and nutrient uptake by maize plant. The levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was organized in a completely randomized ...

  15. Study on the properties of blend rubber prepared with grafted rubber and irradiated rubber by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafader, N. C.; Haque, M. E.; Islam, K. A.

    2004-05-01

    The blend rubbers were prepared by mixing γ-rays irradiated and monomer grafted rubbers. The monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene were used separately to prepare grafted rubber by exposure to radiation. The physico-chemical properties of the blend rubbers were evaluated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the blend rubbers decrease whereas modulus at 500% elongation, swelling ratio and permanent set increase with the increased proportion of grafted rubber in the blend. The tear strength of the blend between irradiated and styrene grafted rubbers increases with the increased proportion of grafted rubber but that of the blend of irradiated and MMA grafted rubbers remains almost constant. The blend rubber could be used for special type of application like rubber thread, tube, catheter etc

  16. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nunes Linhares

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. This paper aimed to assess the resistance of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR with 28% of acrylonitrile content to soybean biodiesel in comparison with non-carboxylated nitrile rubber samples, with high and medium acrylonitrile content (33 and 45%. NBR with medium acrylonitrile content showed little resistance to biodiesel. However, carboxylated nitrile rubber even with low acrylonitrile content had similar performance to NBR with high acrylonitrile content.

  17. Using existing European MOX fabrication plants for the disposal of plutonium from dismantled Russian warheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the disposition options for excess weapons plutonium which is favored by the study of the American National Academy of Sciences is the fabrication and use as fuel, without reprocessing, in existing or modified nuclear reactors. An important criterion for reducing the proliferation risks is minimizing the time during which the plutonium is stored in forms readily usable for nuclear weapons. The study recommends to either modify an almost completed facility for experimental fast reactors or to construct a new fuel fabrication capability. The estimated time for siting, building, and licensing is a decade or more

  18. Fracture behavior of rubber powder modified rubber blends applied for conveying belt top covers

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Stocek, Radek; Gehde, Michael; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is concentrated on the experimental investigation of wear resistance of rubber powder modified rubber blends. Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) blends applied for conveying belt top covers have been modified by ground rubber (rubber powder) based on SBR. We theoretically described the rubber wear mechanism due to loading conditions occurring at conveyor belts in the field, to simulate wear behavior of top cover rubber materials. An own developed testing equipment based on g...

  19. PROPERTIES TYRE TREAD RUBBERS DEPENDING ON PARTICULARITY OF RUBBER COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of studies of the elastomeric compositions based on natural rubber containing curatives different ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" listed in this article. Influence of the composition of the vulcanizing group on stress-strain and elastic- deformation properties of tire tread rubber was installed. It has been shown that a significant effect on thermo-oxidative aging of vulcanizates was the composition of the vulcanizing group. Results of studies resistance tread rubber to exposure to elevated temperatures were presented . Vulcanizates differing type and density by varying the cross-linking ratio of "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" were obtained . Research results in the formation of rubber resistance and crack growth at different temperatures were presented. Revealed that the best education and resistance to tear propagation under normal conditions characterized by rubber ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" equal to 1.5:1. It has been established that a dynamic endurance study rubbers depends largely on the nature and concentration of the cross-linking cross-links and movable promote increase efficiency due to the grid and reduce the sulfidity rearrangement. During loading mode alternating deformations at elevated temperatures lability of polysulfide bonds negatively affects the performance of rubber, and the decisive role of providing strength and thermal cross-linking. It is shown that the performance of the spatial grid rubbers allow indirectly judge the dynamic vulcanizates endurance and predict performance rubbers at elevated temperatures under conditions of repeated cyclic deformation. Revealed that the vulcanizing system containing sulfur and vulcanization accelerator TBBS 1:2, promotes the formation of the optimal structure of vulcanized rubber , which provides the best resistance to repeated cyclic deformations in the operating temperatures of the tire.

  20. Research and development projects, new processes binded at the stop of a fuel fabrication plant (Nukem-A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, E.; Sohnius, B.

    1992-01-01

    This research work is aimed at the assessment of new procedures in the framework of the decommissioning of the NUKEM-A facility, a plant used for over 30 years for the fabrication of Material Test Reactor (MTR) and Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) fuel elements. Important issues in this work are the preparation of detailed uranium and thorium contamination distribution maps in walls and floors, the execution of various dismantling and decontamination operations under health physics control, the large-scale treatment of arising primary waste and the minimization of secondary waste

  1. Development of uranium reduction system for incineration residue generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampei, T.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, N.; Kai, H.; Hirata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The major portion of combustible solid wastes generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan is incinerated and stored in a warehouse. The uranium content in the incineration residue is higher compared with other categories of wastes, although only a small amount of incineration residue is generated. Hence, in the future uranium should be removed from incineration residues before they are reduced to a level appropriate for the final disposal. A system for processing the incineration residue for uranium removal has been developed and tested based on the information obtained through laboratory experiments and engineering scale tests

  2. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber (NR) is a naturally occurring elastomeric polymer of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). It can be extracted from latex of only one kind of tree, the Hevea braziliensis. Hevea rubber is produced in many tropical regions of Southeast...

  3. Crack Velocities in Natural Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    vulcanized natural rubber (3). The surprisingly low value for natural rubber was attributed to highly anisotropic elastic behavior at high strains...Dr. R.L. Rabie Hercules Incorporated WX-2, MS-952 Alleghany Ballistic Lab Los Alamos National Lab. P.O. Box 210 P.O. Box 1663 Washington, D.C. 21502

  4. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  5. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer; Nueva planta e cogeneración para un fabricante de productos de hule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-07-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  6. Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard Composites Material Using Recycled Rubber and Coconut Coir

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahzan; A.M. Ahmad Zaidi; M.I. Ghazali; N. Arsat; M.N. M. Hatta

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibre reinforced composite has emerged as highly potential replacement for synthetic fibres. Various natural waste fibres have been adopted for various engineering applications. This paper investigates the mechanical properties of medium density fibreboard composites material fabricated using recycled rubber and coconut coir. The suitability of using recycled rubber and coconut coir as a raw material and polyurethane as a resin in the manufacturer of medium density fibreboard was also...

  7. Nano-reinforcement of tire rubbers: silica-technology for natural rubber : exploring the infuence of non-rubber constituents on the natural rubber-silica system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber is a renewable resource material with outstanding properties which offers significant advantages over its counterparts, the fossil-resource synthetic rubbers. In fact, a natural rubber tree is an efficient carbon dioxide sequester. Since natural rubber is a natural product, it is

  8. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  9. Green Composites Reinforced with Plant-Based Fabrics: Cost and Eco-Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koronis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a green composite under a twofold assessment; evaluating its process-based cost and environmental footprint profile. The initial objective was to project the manufacturing cost and allow for an additional material comparison of alternative scenarios in the resin transfer molding processes. The additional aim is to have an intermediate environmental assessment to assist in selecting materials and adjust manufacturing parameters which would minimize the energy spent and the CO2 emissions. As it has been noted in numerous applications, the incorporation of natural fiber fabrics, as opposed to glass fabrics, bring together weight savings and consequently cost savings. However, the economic analysis suggests that a glass reinforced composite is marginally cheaper at the production volume of 300 parts (1.9% lower cost in contrast to a possible green solution (ramie. Considering jute instead of ramie as a reinforcement, the cost gets immediately lower, and further decreases with proposed improvements to the manufacturing process. Additional reduction of up to 10% in the production cost can be achieved by process upgrade. As indicated by the Eco-Audit analysis, 36% less energy and 44% CO2 per kilo will be generated, respectively when swapping from glass to ramie fabrics in the production of the automotive hood.

  10. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Chen

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution. The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1 the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2 rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3 the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4 nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable

  11. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitz J Dustin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours, require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings

  12. Endurance test report of rubber sealing materials for the containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Watanabe, K.; Hanashima, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear power plant accident such as a core meltdown and a cooling system failure, the containment contains radioactive materials released from the reactor pressure vessel to reduce the activity of the radioactive materials and the effects of radiation in the vicinity of the plant. Since high sealing performance and high pressure resistance are required of the containment, a silicone or EPDM rubber gasket with high heat and radiation resistance is used for the sealing of the sealing boundary of the containment. In recent years, it has been shown that a large amount of steam is released into the containment in the case of a severe accident. Consequently, radiation resistance at high temperature as well as steam resistance is required of the rubber gasket placed at the sealing boundary. However, the steam resistance of silicone rubber is not necessarily as good as that of EPDM rubber. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sealing characteristics of rubber gaskets in such a degrading environment in a severe accident. O. Kato et al. [1] conducted a study on the degradation status of rubber gaskets and their application limits at high temperature. However, few studies have evaluated rubber gaskets in high-temperature radiation and steam environments. In this study, we degraded silicone rubber and EPDM rubber used for the containment in the high-temperature radiation and steam environments expected to occur in a severe accident and evaluated the useful life of the rubber as a sealing material by estimating the change in its performance as a sealing material from the change in permanent compressive strain in the rubber. (author)

  13. Safeguards instrumentation for continuous unattended monitoring in plutonium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the NDA systems are described. The data related to reliability, precision, and accuracy are presented

  14. Cercosporiose progression in the agroforestry consortium coffee-rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Godoy Androcioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora coffeicola is one of the primary diseases that affect coffee plants. Studies indicate that shaded coffee plants reduce the incidence of this disease and that the management of trees and coffee plants arrangement influence in the dissemination of cercospora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of C. coffeicola at different distances from double rows of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell. arg. at two different sunlight exposures (north and south. This study was conducted in Londrina, Parana, between 2008 and 2010, with adult plants of the IAPAR 59 cultivar (Coffea arabica L. grown at a spacing of 2.5 m x 1.0 m. The distances between the double rows of rubber trees were 13, 16 and 22 m, compared to plants grown under full sun. The disease incidence was assessed monthly by using a non-destructive method. This analysis was conducted on coffee leaves from the third and fourth pairs of two plagiotropic branches, on eight plants per plot, with five replications. These data were used to calculate the area under the curve for the incidence of the brown eye spot. The highest disease incidence occurred in the coffee plants grown under full sun, whereas lowest disease occurred on plants located at up to two meters away from double rows of rubber trees. The incidence of Cercospora leaf spot increased with the distance from the double rows of rubber trees. The results demonstrate that the mapping of cercospora incidence in shaded coffee plants is essential to determinate the best spacing and plants arrangement.

  15. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Nunes Linhares; Cléverson Fernandes Senra Gabriel; Ana Maria Furtado de Sousa; Marcia Christina Amorim Moreira Leite; Cristina Russi Guimarães Furtado

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR) is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. T...

  16. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  17. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  18. Study of internal exposure to uranium compounds in fuel fabrication plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela Souza

    2006-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 and Supporting Guidance 3) strongly recommends that specific information on lung retention parameters should be used in preference to default values wherever appropriate, for the derivation of effective doses and for bioassay interpretation of monitoring data. A group of 81 workers exposed to UO 2 at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was selected to evaluate the committed effective dose. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the urinary and faecal excretion. The contribution of intakes by ingestion and inhalation were assessed on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. For the selected workers it was concluded that inhalation dominated intake. According to ICRP 66, uranium oxide is classified as insoluble Type S compound. The ICRP Supporting Guidance 3 and some recent studies have recommended specific lung retention parameters to UO 2 . The solubility parameters of the uranium oxide compound handled by the workers at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was evaluated on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. Excretion data were corrected for dietary intakes. This paper will discuss the application of lung retention parameters recommended by the ICRP models to these data and also the dependence of the effective committed dose on the lung retention parameters. It will also discuss the problems in the interpretation of monitoring results, when the worker is exposed to several uranium compounds of different solubilities. (author)

  19. Some fabrication problems in nuclear power plants heat exchanges, its detectability and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condessa, N.C.; Oliveira, R.

    1988-01-01

    On the design and manufacturing follow-up of heat-exchangers of nuclear power plants some care are took into account in order to assure a high degree of confiability allowing the heat-exchanger in operation under severe and aggressive conditions be operating during the useful life of the nuclear power plant. However, despite the care, some problems can ocurr as the ones described on this job; that, if not detected in due time could bring umpleasant problems to the component or to the system in which it is working during operation. (author) [pt

  20. The Cyclization of natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzataheri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of solvent, temperature, time, weight percent of catalyst on the rate and mechanism of cyclization of natural rubber was studied in toluene and xylene solutions having tin tetra chloride catalyst (SnCl 4 ). Iodo metric titration show, with 8% SnCl 4 (based on polymer weight) cyclization occurs, leaving 27.4% of the total unsaturation. Infrared spectra of cyclized natural rubber show decreased absorption intensity at 840 and 780 cm -1 which are characteristic bands of the linear polymer and the appearance of absorption band at 890 cm -1 as cycles were formed. By using this chemical modification, natural rubber is transformed into a resinous thermoplastic, hard, non rubbery cyclized material with much less unsaturation than the original rubber, which could find commercial applications ad adhesives, printing inks, industrial and ship paints

  1. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Geum-Taek Jin

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies

  2. Cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers and its application in monitoring of carnivorous plant response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgar, V.; Penhaker, M.; Martinková, L.; Pavlovič, A.; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), 498_1-498_12 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * plant neurobiology * polyaniline Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  3. Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of ±-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, α-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging α-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

  4. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  5. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-04-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research on plant of metal fuel fabrication using casting process (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Yasuhide; Yamada, Seiya

    2005-02-01

    In this research work for the metal fuel fabrication system (38 tHM/y), the studies of the concept of the main process equipments were performed based on the previous studies on the process design and the quality control system design. In this study the handling equipment of the products were also designed, according to these designs the handling periods were evaluated. Consequently the numbers of the equipments were assessed taking into account for the method of the blending the fuel composition. (1) Structural concept design of the major equipments, the fuel handling machine and the gravimetries in the main fabrication process. The structural concept were designed for the fuel composition blending equipment, the fuel pin assembling equipment, the sodium bonding equipment, the handling equipment for fuel slug palettes, the handling equipment for fuel pins and the gravimetries. (2) Re-assessment of the numbers of the equipments taking account of the handling periods. Based on the results of item (1) the periods were evaluated for the fuel slug and pin handling. Processing time of demolder is short, then the number of it is increased to two. Three vehicles are also added to transfer the slugs and a heel smoothly. (3) Design of the buffer storages. The buffer storages among the equipments were designed through the comparison of the process speed between the equipments taking into account for the handling periods. The required amount of the structural parts (for example cladding materials) was assessed for the buffer in the same manner and the amount of the buffer facilities were optimized. (author)

  7. Independent verification of a material balance at a LEU fuel fabrication plant. Program for technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; McSweeney, T.I.; Hartman, M.G.; Brouns, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Granquist, D.P.

    1977-11-01

    This report describes the application of methodology for planning an inspection according to the procedures of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and an example evaluation of data representative of low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Included are the inspection plan test criteria, the inspection sampling plans, the sample data collected during the inspection, acceptance testing of physical inventories with test equipment, material unaccounted for (MUF) evaluation, and quantitative statements of the results and conclusions that could be derived from the inspection. The analysis in this report demonstrates the application of inspection strategies which produce quantitative results. A facility model was used that is representative of large low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plants with material flows, inventory sizes, and compositions of material representative of operating commercial facilities. The principal objective was to determine and illustrate the degree of assurance against a diversion of special nuclear materials (SNM) that can be achieved by an inspection and the verification of material flows and inventories. This work was performed as part of the USA program for technical assistance to the IAEA. 10 figs, 14 tables

  8. Design of and experience with the gamma-detecting criticality accident alarm system at ALKEM MOX fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindleben, G.

    1988-01-01

    At ALKEM mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant there are two criticality accident alarm systems in operation and another one is planned for different buildings. They use ionization chambers for gamma-measuring. The measuring channels are self controlled with implemented test sources. The order of limit transgression at the detectors is registrated. The interpretation indicates the room of the radiation source, which is signaled by flash lights. Extensive radiation protection shieldings make detector-placing a complex problem with secondary gamma-radiation to be taken into account. Most of the appearing defects can easily be repaired by exchange of components. Some of them have been eliminated by technical modification. Redundancy prevents total system failure. Some false alarms occurred during the operation time of the alarm systems. The main reason is pulse induction, resulting from lightning strike. Measures to prevent such events have been taken, while further measures are being considered

  9. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  10. Dynamic Performance Characteristic Tests of Real Scale Lead Rubber Bearing for the Evaluation of Performance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung-Han; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristic tests of full scale lead rubber bearing were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system for nuclear power plants. For the dynamic test for a full scale rubber bearing, two 1500mm diameter lead rubber bearings were manufactured. The viewpoints of this dynamic test are determination of an ultimate shear strain level of lead rubber bearing, behavior of rubber bearing according to static and dynamic input motion, sinusoidal and random (earthquake) motion, and 1-dimentional and 2-dimensional input motion. In this study, seismic isolation device tests were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system. Through this test, it can be recognized that in the case of considering a mechanical property test, dynamic and multi degree of loading conditions should be determined. But these differences should be examined how much affect to the global structural behavior

  11. Factors affecting Thai rubber farmer production and marketing in the western province of Kanchanaburi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisa Thongtrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers in the western Thai province of Kanchanaburi. The sample group included 30 farmers involved in rubber production. From the questionnaire and statistical analysis by SPSS, 15 observed variables were determined to be factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers. The conclusion from the researchers determined that 1 The area planted is not appropriate and is still expanding plantations without any control was found that the rubber plantations are expanding at high plains area flooding. 2 Farmers of rubber technology farmers are not valid and do not conform to the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute study found that the cause is the opportunity to access technology and lack of knowledge regarding the management, production, and marketing. 3 Use rubber tree tapping of the system to high frequency screaming systems correctly. Does not comply with the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute found that of rubber farmers and farmers opening tapped the tire rubber accelerator before opening a huge size tapped that affect productivity and the income of farmers depressed farmers. 4 Problems with the labor of producing rubber of the household. It was found that labor households in the production system are lower 5 Farmers of Thailand are not yet aware of the concept of livelihood along the sufficiency economy as should farmers be life according to the way of life that is not adjusted to prepare 6 Group integration it was found that is not yet strong.

  12. Monitoring rubber plantation expansion using Landsat data time series and a Shapelet-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Su; Rogan, John; Sangermano, Florencia

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of tree plantations in tropical forests for commercial rubber cultivation threatens biodiversity which may affect ecosystem services, and hinders ecosystem productivity, causing net carbon emission. Numerous studies refer to the challenge of reliably distinguishing rubber plantations from natural forest, using satellite data, due to their similar spectral signatures, even when phenology is incorporated into an analysis. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring the establishment and expansion of rubber plantations in Seima Protection Forest (SPF), Cambodia (1995-2015), by detecting and analyzing the 'shapelet' structure in a Landsat-NDVI time series. This paper introduces a new classification procedure consisting of two steps: (1) an exhaustive-searching algorithm to detect shapelets that represent a period for relatively low NDVI values within an image time series; and (2) a t-test used to determine if NDVI values of detected shapelets are significantly different than their non-shapelet trend, thereby indicating the presence of rubber plantations. Using this approach, historical rubber plantation events were mapped over the twenty-year timespan. The shapelet algorithm produced two types of information: (1) year of rubber plantation establishment; and (2) pre-conversion land-cover type (i.e., agriculture, or natural forest). The overall accuracy of the rubber plantation map for the year of 2015 was 89%. The multi-temporal map products reveal that more than half of the rubber planting activity (57%) took place in 2010 and 2011, following the granting of numerous rubber concessions two years prior. Seventy-three percent of the rubber plantations were converted from natural forest and twenty-three percent were established on non-forest land-cover. The shapelet approach developed here can be used reliably to improve our understanding of the expansion of rubber production beyond Seima Protection Forest of Cambodia, and likely elsewhere in the

  13. [The criterion prognostic significance of examinations of chemiluminescence of oral fluid under impact of chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiullina, E F; Valiev, A v; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F; Buliakov, P T

    2013-12-01

    The article presents the results of studies concerning the effect of unfavorable factors of chemical nature on fluid of oral cavity among workers of the Ufa plant of elastomer materials, articles and structures. It is established that in persons contacting with chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production the indicators of chemiluminescence of saliva fluid are significantly expressed and depend on professional standing.

  14. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Premiere partie: l'atelier de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y; Bataller, S; Ganivet, M; Guillet, H; Robillard, A; Stosskopf, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le premier d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides Rapsodie. Il comporte une etude detaillee des procedes de fabrication (pastilles, aiguilles, assemblages combustibles) et des methodes de controle associees (matieres premieres, pastilles et aiguilles en cours de fabrication, assemblages fissiles avant livraison), ainsi qu'une decription complete des installations de l'atelier de fabrication et les modifications apportees pour une deuxieme campagne. (auteur)

  15. Automatic TIG-welding in fabrication and repair of power plant. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromwich, R.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the power plant industry many of the tube-to-tubeplate (or tube-to-header) welds and many tube-to-tube welds require the TIG process. This welding process and the associated technology have been developed for a wide range of applications covering both production and repair of power plant and ancillary equipment. It is often necessary, and usually preferred, to automate the process. The application of pulsing extends the range to more difficult materials and marginal thicknesses. The development and application of the process over the past few years is described. The mechanised equipment may be divided into four main categories: bore welding, seal welding, orbital welding, and special equipment. (U.K.)

  16. Economic analysis to compare fabrication of nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants at Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouliye Koohi, Mojtaba

    1997-01-01

    Electric power due to its many advantages over other forms of energies covers most of the world's energy demands.The electric power can be produced by various energy converting systems fed by different energy resources like fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro and renewable energies, each having their own appropriate technologies. The fossil fuel not only consumes the deplete and precious sources of non conventional energies but they add pollution to environment too. The nuclear power plants has its own share of radioactive pollutions which, of course can be controlled by taking precautionary measures. The investing cost of each generated unit (KWh) in the nuclear power plants, comparing with its equivalent production by fossil fuels is investigated. The various issues of economical analysis, technical, political and environmental are the different aspects, which individually can influence the decisions for kind of power plant to be installed. Finally, it is concluded that the fossil and nuclear power generations both has its own advantages and disadvantages. Hence, from a specializing point of view, it may not be proper to prefer one over the others

  17. Rubber mixing process and its relationship with bound rubber and crosslink density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A.; Rochmadi; Sulistyo, H.; Honggokusumo, S.

    2017-06-01

    This research studied the relationship between bound rubber and crosslink density based on rubber mixing process. Bound rubber was obtained after natural rubber was masticated and mixed with rubber chemicals and filler while crosslink density was collected after rubber compound was vulcanized. Four methods are used and each method refers to four ways of incorporating carbon black during mixing. The first method, after rubber was masticated for 5 minutes, the addition of rubber chemicals and filler was done simultaneously. Rubber was masticated for 1 minute and continued mixing of rubber chemicals and filler where mixing was different from first method. This was the second method. The third method was the same as the second method but the filler used N 660 while in the second method N 330. The last method is not the same as the first and second, the rubber is only masticated for 3 minutes and then mixed with filler and followed by rubber chemicals sequentially. The results showed that bound rubber and crosslink density were influenced by mixing and mastication process. Bound rubber dropped and crosslink density was relatively stable in the first three mixing methods for increasing carbon black at the beginning of the mixing process. Bound rubber and crosslink density stated opposite results in the fourth mixing method. The higher the bound rubber the lower the crosslink density. Without regard to mixing methods, there is a non-linear relationship between bound rubber formation and crosslink density determination

  18. Radiological and environmental safety aspects of uranium fuel fabrication plants at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, S.; Surya Rao, B.; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Krishna Rao, T.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad manufactures uranium dioxide fuel assemblies for PHWRs and BWRs operating in India. Starting materials are magnesium diuranate received from UCIL, Jaduguda and imported UF. Both of these are converted to UO 2 pellets by identical chemical processes and mechanical compacting. Since the uranium handled here is free of daughter product activities, external radiation is not a problem. Inhalation of airborne U compounds is one of the main source of exposure. Engineered protective measures like enclosures around U bearing powder handling equipment and local exhausts reduce worker's exposure. Installation of pre-filters, wet rotoclones and electrostatic precipitators in the ventillation system reduces the release of U into the environment. The criticality hazard in handling slightly enriched uranium is very low due to the built-in control based on geometry and inventory. Where airborne uranium is significant, workers are provided with protective respirators. The workers are regularly monitored for external exposure and also for internal exposure. The environmental releases from the NFC facility is well controlled. Soil, water and air from the NFC environment are routinely collected and analysed for all the possible pollutants. The paper describes the Health Physics experience during the last five years on occupational exposures and on environmental surveillance which reveals the high quality of safety observed in our nuclear fuel fabricating installations. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Feasibility study for the implementation of NRTMA system for an industrial nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Dionisi, M.; Graziani, M.; Remetti, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the frame of the problems arising from the fissile materials safeguards into the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle, the International Safeguards devoted, in the recent years, R and D efforts on a new Dynamic Accountability procedures (Near Real Time Material Accountancy) appealing to the needs of timeliness in detecting diversion. This paper deals with a feasibility study of a NRTMA system to be applied to a nuclear fuel fabbrication plant for light water reactor. Such a feasibility study was performed by developing a dynamic model and a computer program, written in FORTRAN 77, in order to simulate all the processes and measurement procedures involved in the nuclear material accountancy

  20. Air-cleaning philosophy in a nuclear-materials fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.Y.; Yoder, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant there is a major ventilation improvement project underway. To achieve the desired goals of ALARA regarding radioactivity and toxic material releases and natural phenomena insults, a comprehensive air-cleaning philosophy and policy statement was developed. Design of the upgraded systems were evaluated against these statements and we believe that upon completion of the projects that an efficient system will be demonstrated. the design permits reuse and heat recovery of ventilation air, the optimization of sampling points to reduce analytical laboratory services. This paper discusses the basis of the philosophy and the engineering features incorporated to meet this stated objective. Points of compromise are noted

  1. Computerized information system for inventory-taking and verification at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant with closed production lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Brueckner, C.; Hartmann, G.

    1976-01-01

    By means of a model the use of electronic data processing is studied for preparing inventory listings and for inventory verification in a fabrication plant for Pu-U mixed-oxide fuel pins. It is postulated that interruptions in operation should be avoided as much as possible. Closed-Line production is assumed so that access to nuclear material calls for special withdrawal via locks. The production line is subdivided into sections with measuring points placed in between to record the nuclear material flow. The measured results are fed to a central data acquisition and reporting system capable of calculating on-line from these results the book inventories present in the individual sections. Inventory-taking and verification are carried out simultaneously in the sections of the production line using the EDP system. The production is not interrupted for this purpose. The production stream is tagged prior to reaching a section to be measured and is subsequently measured when entering the respective section until the tag has reached the end of the section. The measurement can be verified by inspectors. Movements of nuclear materials in and from other plant areas such as the storage area are likewise fed into the central data processing system so that inventory lists can be recalled at any moment. By this means the inventory can be taken quickly and at any time. The inventory is verified in the conventional way. (author)

  2. Control of nuclear material hold-up: The key factors for design and operation of MOX fuel fabrication plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, M.; Beckers, J.; Boella, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Some protagonists of the nuclear industry suggest that MOX fuel fabrication plants are awash with nuclear materials which cannot be adequately safeguarded and that materials 'stuck in the plant' could conceal clandestine diversion of plutonium. In Europe the real situation is quite different: nuclear operators have gone to considerable efforts to deploy effective systems for safety, security, quality and nuclear materials control and accountancy which provide detailed information. The safeguards authorities use this information as part of the safeguards measures enabling them to give safeguards assurances for MOX fuel fabrication plants. This paper focuses on the issue of hold-up: definition of the hold-up and of the so-called 'hidden inventory'; measures implemented by the plant operators, from design to day to day operations, for minimising hold-up and 'hidden inventory'; plant operators' actions to manage the hold-up during production activities but also at PIT/PIV time; monitoring and management of the 'hidden inventory'; measures implemented by the safeguards authorities and inspectorate for verification and control of both hold-up and 'hidden inventory'. The examples of the different plant specific experiences related in this paper reveal the extensive experience gained in european MOX fuel fabrication plants by the plant operators and the safeguards authorities for the minimising and the control of both hold-up and 'hidden inventory'. MOX fuel has been fabricated in Europe, with an actual combined capacity of 2501. HM/year subject, without any discrimination, to EURATOM Safeguards, for more than 30 years and the total output is, to date, some 1000 t.HM. (author)

  3. Generation of floor response spectra for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.F.; Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    Floor or amplified response spectra are generally used as input motion for seismic analysis of critical equipment and piping in nuclear power plants and related facilities. The floor spectra are normally the result of a time-history calculation of building response to ground shaking. However, alternate approximate methods have been suggested by both Kapur and Biggs. As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission horizontal floor response spectra were generated and compared by all three methods. The dynamic analyses were performed on a model of the Westinghouse Recycle Fuels Plant Manufacturing Building (MOFFP). Input to the time-history calculations was a synthesized accelerogram whose response spectrum is similar to that in Regulatory Guide 1.60. The response spectrum of the synthetic ground motion was used as input to the Kapur and Biggs methods. Calculations were performed for both hard (3500 fps) and soft (1500 fps) foundation soils. Results of comparison of the three methods indicate that although the approximate methods could easily be made acceptable from a safety standpoint, they would be overly conservative. The time-history method will yield floor spectra which are less uncertain and less conservative for a relatively modest additional effort. (auth)

  4. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claramma, N.M.; Mathew, N.M.; Thomas, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    Acrylonitrile graft natural rubber was prepared by initiating the polymerization of acrylonitrile in natural rubber field latex using γ-rays. The reaction was carried out at different rubber-monomer concentrations and the properties of the modified rubbers were compared with those of natural rubber and nitrile rubber. (author)

  5. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Yasuoka, Masahiro; Nanao, Teruaki.

    1979-01-01

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Modalities of exploitation of the AP2 fuel fabrication plant at the FBFC facility of Romans-sur-Isere (INB98)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) aims at establishing a normal framework to the effluents management and waste storage activities that are carried out inside the 'south storage shed' of the AP2 fuel fabrication plant of the FBFC facility of Romans-sur-Isere (France). (J.S.)

  7. A pilot plant for solar-cell manufacture; Ligne pilote de fabrication de cellules solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Ziegler, Y.; Closset, A. [VHF - Technologies SA, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    A pilot plant for the manufacture of amorphous silicon solar cells on plastic film substrate was built allowing the annual production of 40 kW peak power. The production steps comprise: a) the continuous coating of n-i-p solar cells by VHF-PECVD with a capacity of 28.5 meters in 8.5 hours; b) transparent-conducting-oxide (TCO) top contact structuring using a continuous process; c) series connection step (scribing and Ag-paste) with a capacity of 28 meters in 6 hours; d) back and top contact sputtering with 3 parallel magnetrons; e) integration of a large-area vacuum laminator enabling the simultaneous lamination of 4 products of 4 Wp. In parallel with this project, a complete cost model was established enabling a more quantitative approach of the future technological and industrial strategy of the company. An increase of the capacity to 100 kWp has been planned for summer 2005.

  8. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  10. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Butyl Rubber: Compound Development and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James

    2000-01-01

    ...), to develop the standard butyl rubber compound. The strategy of this work was to compound- and compression-mold high-quality, uniform butyl rubber experimental sheets and to evaluate their cure properties, mechanical properties...

  12. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Mohamed, Mahathir; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber's mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  13. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber

  14. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Mahathir [Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  15. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex with low energy accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Emdadul; Makuuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) with the recently installed electron beam (EB) pilot plant at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Takasaki, Japan has been discussed. The accelerating voltage and beam current of the plant are 250 kV and 10 mA respectively. The plant has a reaction vessel with the capacity of 18 liters latex to irradiate at a time. In order to obtain a suitable setting of experimental for RVNRL under EB of the plant the parameters such as irradiation time, defoamer concentration, volume of latex, beam current etc. are being optimized by varying the individual parameter at a constant set of the other variables. (author)

  16. The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P.

    2002-01-01

    We present an introductory organic chemistry lab in which students isolate rubber from the leaves of milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca). Students isolated rubber with a recovery of 2.4 ± 1.8% and 1.8 ± 0.7% for the microscale and macroscale procedures, respectively. Infrared spectra of their products were compared with the spectrum of synthetic rubber, cis-polyisoprene. Students tested for elasticity of their product by twisting it on a spatula and pulling; all students found some degree of elasticity.

  17. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  18. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  19. Some problems on domestic technology development from a point of fabricator of nuclear power plant. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watamori, T [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-06-01

    During past 20 years, the nuclear power industry in Japan has introduced foreign technology, digested it in a short period, and continued to research and develop domestic technology. Now, 95% of the machinery and equipments for nuclear power generation with light water reactors can be produced domestically, and some technologies are going to be exported. However, the nuclear power industry is still in a severe environment. The progress of the development of nuclear power plants passed the periods of organizational preparation, the construction of research reactors, the import of foreign technologies and reactors for practical use, and the construction of domestically produced reactors for practical use. The supplying capacity of the nuclear power industry in Japan reached 6 units of 1,000 MW yearly, but in order to meet the long term plan of nuclear power generation, this capacity must be further enhanced. The problems in the promotion of domestic production are the establishment of independent technologies, the promotion of standardization, the strengthening of business basis, the upbringing of relating enterprises, and the acceleration of national projects. Since the energy crisis, the trend of filling up energy demand with nuclear power generation became conspicuous, but for the expansion of export, the problems of safety guarantee, nuclear fuel cycle, and financial measures must be solved with government aid.

  20. Some problems on domestic technology development from a point of fabricator of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watamori, Tsutomu

    1976-01-01

    During past 20 years, the nuclear power industry in Japan has introduced foreign technology, digested them in short period, and continued to research and develop domestic technology. Now, 95% of the machinery and equipments for nuclear power generation with light water reactors can be produced domestically, and some technologies are going to be exported. However, the nuclear power industry is still in severe environment. The progress of the development of nuclear power plants passed the periods of organizational preparation, the construction of research reactors, the import of foreign technologies and reactors for practical use, and the construction of domestically produced reactors for practical use. The supplying capacity of the nuclear power industry in Japan reached 6 units of 1,000 MW yearly, but in order to meet the long term plan of nuclear power generation, this capacity must be further enhanced. The problems in the promotion of domestic production are the establishment of independent technologies, the promotion of standardization, the strengthening of business basis, the upbringing of relating enterprises, and the acceleration of national projects. Since the energy crisis, the trend of filling up energy demand with nuclear power generation became conspicuous, but for the expansion of export, the problems of safety guarantee, nuclear fuel cycle, and financial measures must be solved with government aid. (Kako, I.)

  1. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  2. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  3. Aging Depth Test of Rubber Blocks by Accelerated Thermal Oxidation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junhee; Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the accelerated thermal oxidation tests of rubber block were performed to investigate the aging depth of rubber bearing. From the tests, it was found the critical aging depth in rubber block. Also the property variation of rubber was investigated along the depth. The deterioration pattern from the aging depth tests was found from surface to inside and the critical aging depth was to be about 10 mm. The analytical model for rubber bearing with aging can be developed based on the relationship between the property variation and aging depth investigated from this study. The mechanical properties of rubber bearings were changed with time. Because the aging effect of rubber material was generally higher than that of other structure materials it is needed that the aging properties of seismically isolators should be evaluated to ensure the safety of seismically isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) over the lifetime. NRC and ASCE required the tests of seismically isolators for investigating the aging properties. JNES also required the seismic response analysis for the seismically isolated NPPs when the properties of seismically isolators were extremely changed. If the aging properties of seismically isolators such as rubber bearings are evaluated by analysis the analytical model of seismically isolators should be developed considering aging effect of rubber material. From the previous research, it was reported that the behavior of aged rubber material mainly affected by temperature and oxidation. The material properties between surface and inside can be different by the oxidation of rubber. Therefore, the aging depth should be investigated for exactly evaluating the seismic behavior of aged rubber bearing. The aging depth of rubber baring was not influenced by the size of seismically isolators but environment condition. Therefore, the detail analysis considering aging depth was not required for NPPs with large seismically isolators. But the seismic response

  4. Interfacial Adhesion and Damping Characteristics of Laminated Veneer Lumber Intercalated with Rubber Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingquan Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laminated wood veneer lumber intercalated with rubber sheets (LLVR was fabricated using a layered adhesive system composed of polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI for wood-rubber inter-bonding and phenol formaldehyde (PF resin to glue the wood veneers. The optimized manufacturing process (chloroprene rubber: CR; PAPI: 80 g/m2; PF: 200 g/m2; and silane: 9.0 wt.% was determined. The process as developed was then utilized to fabricate nine-ply LLVRs of five balanced constructions with two or three CR laminates used as various layers. The physico-mechanical properties of the LLVRs were evaluated, and the results showed that LLVRs had strong shear strength, sound dimensional stability, decent bending strength, and favorable toughening and buffering performances. The newly developed product is an interesting potential alternative to traditional laminated veneer lumber or plywood.

  5. Development and performance evaluation of a locally fabricated portable solar tunnel dryer for drying of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Sultan, U.; Iqbal, M.

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted to fabricate and develop a portable solar tunnel dryer (STD) for the drying of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. The system was designed as a portable system for decentralized applications at various sites to satisfy the drying requirements of small farmers and co-operatives. The cross sectional area of the solar tunnel dryer was trapezoidal in shape having 0.254 m/sup 2/ face area, with length and width of three meters and one meter respectively. It comprises a collector section (1.35 m) long and a drying section (1.65 m long) and two PV powered DC fans to provide the required air flow rate over the perishable agricultural products to be dried. Transparent polythene cover was used to close the dryer on top side to maintain the steady state air flow within the dryer. It has been observed that the drying air temperature was easily raised by some 8-14 degree C above the ambient temperature at air velocity ranges 0-1 m s/sup -1/. The efficiency of the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 40-45%. Psychrometric analysis was also carried out within the dryer and the process curves were drawn. The process curves were found similar to a conventional dryer showing that this dryer can be successfully utilized for the drying of agricultural products using solar energy. (author)

  6. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  7. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  8. Cryogenic Deflashing for Rubber Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deflashing is the process of removal of excess flashes from the rubber products. Initially deflashing was a manual operation where dozen of workers, seated at small work stations would take each part and trim the excess rubber off with scissors, knives or by grinding. Still the same method is employed in most of the rubber industry. The drawbacks of this method are demand inconsistent and repeatable quality. Work done by hand is often inconsistent. There are commercially available cryogenic deflashing machine but they are too expensive hence cost effectiveness is also a prime factor. The objective of this paper is to develop a technique, to identify the media through which the flashes can be removed easily and effectively. Based on the test results obtained from testing of five different types of media, ABCUT Steel media gave best results. The testing of the ABCUT Steel media on rubber samples like O-rings, grommet tail door, bottom bush etc. shows good results.

  9. The computer-aided design of rubber-metal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo S. Shvets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem in design of rubber-metal products is the optimization of their mass without sacrificing of proportionality factor is in the limits of standard. Aim: The aim of this work is to improve the computer-aided systems by development and implementation of improved optimization method in rubber-metal CAD systems for designers based on the reverse optimization. Materials and Methods: The paper studies the matters of computer-aided structural design of technical composite products composed of anisotropic materials that are essentially different in properties. Results: The structure of CAD systems for designers solving the problems of such design is offered and the work principles of its subsystems are described. It is shown that complicated systems optimization in CAD systems must consider as restrictions the entitative connection between separate elements of these systems within the area of the optimizing arguments. Conclusions: The problem of the “reverse” optimization when objective functions are the connectivity area parameters is considered. In many cases, this allows receiving solutions that are more effective during the computer-aided design process. The developed CAD system for designers was used during the production of rubber-metal shock absorbers at the Odessa Rubber Technical Articles Plant. The positive technical and economic effect was obtained.

  10. Toward 3D Printing of Medical Implants: Reduced Lateral Droplet Spreading of Silicone Rubber under Intense IR Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieghorst, Jan; Majaura, Daniel; Wevering, Hendrik; Doll, Theodor

    2016-03-01

    The direct fabrication of silicone-rubber-based individually shaped active neural implants requires high-speed-curing systems in order to prevent extensive spreading of the viscous silicone rubber materials during vulcanization. Therefore, an infrared-laser-based test setup was developed to cure the silicone rubber materials rapidly and to evaluate the resulting spreading in relation to its initial viscosity, the absorbed infrared radiation, and the surface tensions of the fabrication bed's material. Different low-adhesion materials (polyimide, Parylene-C, polytetrafluoroethylene, and fluorinated ethylenepropylene) were used as bed materials to reduce the spreading of the silicone rubber materials by means of their well-known weak surface tensions. Further, O2-plasma treatment was performed on the bed materials to reduce the surface tensions. To calculate the absorbed radiation, the emittance of the laser was measured, and the absorptances of the materials were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode. A minimum silicone rubber spreading of 3.24% was achieved after 2 s curing time, indicating the potential usability of the presented high-speed-curing process for the direct fabrication of thermal-curing silicone rubbers.

  11. The Study of Government’s Role for Welfaring Rubber Farmer in The Globalization Vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahrudin HM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a type of plant that has been cultivated by the people of Indonesia for long a time. Until now, farmers have become the largest party to cultivate rubber in Indonesia (85.10% and contribute greatly to the nation’s economy, but are still far from prosperous. Rubber products produced by farmers are priced cheap so that they incomes are very small and create income inequality. As an export commodity, rubber is highly dependent with overseas which determines the price. In this context, the government through the bureaucratic system serves to produce a series of innovative-solutive development program in order to keep the people from the negative impacts of globalization. This effort can be run by the government with adopting The New Public Service Paradigm as part of efforts to better public services for the people. It is implementation in the form of domestic rubber needs priorities, bringing the industry to the center of rubber, training of rubber farmers, and improvement of transportation infrastructures.

  12. Mechanical property test of natural rubber bearing for the evaluation of uncertainty value of seismic isolation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    Seismic safety of NPP is one of the most important issues in a nuclear field after great east Japan earthquake in 2011. For the improvement of seismic safety of nuclear power plant, seismic isolation is the easiest solution for increasing the seismic safety. Otherwise, the application of seismic isolation devices for nuclear power plants doesn't make the seismic risk of NPP increases always. The rubber bearing have many uncertainties of material properties and large displacement should absorb according to the application of isolation devices. In this study, for the evaluation of uncertainty of the material properties of rubber bearing, material tests for rubber and mechanical properties test for natural rubber bearing were performed. For the evaluation of effect of hardness of rubber, 4 kinds of rubber hardness for material property tests and 2 kinds of rubber hardness for mechanical property test were considered. As a result, the variation of material properties is higher than that of mechanical properties of natural rubber bearings

  13. Electromechanical responses of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, P3TAA/NBR, were fabricated, and the electrorheological properties, dielectric, and electrical conductivities were investigated . The electrorheological properties were determined under an oscillatory shear mode in a frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s at various electric field strengths, from 0 to 2 kV/mm, at a fixed 27°C to observe the effects of acrylonitrile content (ACN in the rubber systems and the conductive particle concentration in the blends. For the pure rubber systems, the storage modulus response (ΔG′ is linearly dependent on its dielectric constant (ε′, and increases with the ACN content. For the NBR/P3TAA blends, the storage modulus response varies nonlinearly with the dielectric constant. The bending responses of the rubbers and the blends were investigated in a vertical cantilever fixture. For the pure rubber system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary linearly with electric field strength. For the blend system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary nonlinearly with electric field strength.

  14. Effects of natural phenomena on the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Plutonium Fabrication Plant at the Parks Township site, Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Docket No. 70-364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The proposed action is to issue a renewal to the full-term Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-414 (Docket No. 70-364) authorizing the Nuclear Material Division of the Babcock and Wilcox Company (BandW) to operate nuclear-fuel-fabrication facilities located in Leechburg, Pennsylvania. The plutonium fuel facility is presently being used to fabricate fuel for the fast test reactor under construction at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Implicit in Sections 70.22 and 70.23 of 10CFR70 is a requirement that existing plutonium fabrication plants be examined with the objective of improving, to the extent practicable, their abilities to withstand adverse natural phenomena without loss of capability to protect the public. In accordance with these regulations, an analysis was initiated of the effects of natural phenomena on the BandW Plutonium Fabrication Plant. Following completion of the analysis, a condensation was prepared of the effects of natural phenomena on the facility

  15. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  16. A Study for Shelf Life Evaluation of Rubber O-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sun Chul; Kim, Jong Seog

    2005-01-01

    Non-metallic materials stored in warehouses in nuclear power plants have shelf life. The shelf life means the maximum storage time allowable such that the install life of the material is not affected. Materials whose shelf lives expire are generally discarded. unless the shelf lives of these materials can be extended by reducing the install life. Examples of this case are rubber materials. Rubber materials are widely used for sealing of various machines. There are various life evaluation methods for rubber material. For example, the compression set is generally used for evaluation the aging condition of rubber materials used for sealing. A compression set value can be calculated according to the ASTM D395. We have tried the compression set test by using specimens with 6.99mm diameter O-ring even when ASTM D 395 recommends the use of bar specimen. Test results and comparison between O-ring and reference data of EPRI NP-6608 are presented below

  17. Application of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soebianto, Y.S.; Wiwik Sofiarti; Razzak, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The center has carried out R and D of Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) technology and introduced it to the industries since the inauguration and operation of the latex pilot plant in 1983. After years of experiences and the environmental consideration, n-butylacrylate (n-BA) has replaced CCI, as the sensitizer. Until now the introduction program shows that radiation vulcanized latex is more suitable for home industries than large industries. The obstacle of the program is the marketing of the dipped products. In spite of these problems, the introduction of this technology to the people in some undeveloped area of Java has supported the national program to improve their living standard. The problems of nitrosamine and protein allergic have turn up RVNRL to be the substitute of sulfur vulcanized latex in the future. The cooperation with a national condom manufacturer (PT Mitra Banjaran) has applied RVNRL for condom production in the large scale. Soft condoms with less probability of pinhole are obtained, but the technical problem is stickiness after pilling. Supply to a baby teat and a rubber thread manufacturer offers great advantages by not using any chemicals. In spite of the advantages, the problem of latex viscosity for dipping and the low modulus of elasticity of the threads arise. Through those input CAIR-BATAN is conducting the research and development in improving the crosslinking among the rubber particles that are supposed to be the reason of the stickiness and low modulus of elasticity. This effort is expected to be able to broaden the application of RVNRL, and it will be achieved only by the involvement of rubber chemist, rubber technologist, and radiation chemist

  18. Rubber membrane liner confines low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    One of the most sophisticated membrane lining projects in the world was undertaken in 1979 by the Cotter Corporation, Canon City, Colorado, producers of vanadium and uranium, when a new tailings pond was built to handle mill tailings and effluents. To comply with local, state and federal regulations, Cotter sought maximum protection for downstream residents. The lining was designed to keep leakage near zero and withstand tailings and water pressure at the deepest part of the pond. Other considerations were compatibility with alkalis and acids and durability and effectiveness of the lining beyond the life of the mill. ''We had to be sure the impoundment would outlast the mill because of the need for long-term isolation of the tailings,'' said Joseph McCluskey, Cotter's executive vice presient. Gotter chose an industrial grade sheeting made of Hypalon synthetic rubber, a chlorosulfonated polyethylene, that has an exposed life expectancy of 40 years; however, once covered with earth and tailings, it will last much longer. The sheeting consists of a reinforced scrim sandwiched between two sheets of Hypalon. The rubber comprises nearly 50 percent of the total linear weight, and the reinforcement is a 10' x 10' 1000D polyester scrim whose open weave allows the rubber to penetrate the fabric and create excellent adhesion between the layers. After two years, the impoundment contains approximately 1400 acre feet of liquid. Currently, about one half of the pond consists of run-off with tailings and liquids from the new mill making up the difference

  19. The role of linked phospholipids in the rubber-filler interaction in carbon nanotube (CNT) filler natural rubber (NR) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, H.H.; Abhijeet, S.; Ilish, S.; Klehm, J.; Henning, S.; Beiner, M.; Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Das, A.; Fischer, D.; Stöckelhuber, K.-W.; Wiessner, S.; Khatiwada, S.P.; Adhikari, R.; Pham, T.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to evidence the role of the linked phospholipids of natural rubber (NR) in the rubber-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions in rubber composites. Three rubbers namely NR, deproteinized NR (DPNR) and a synthetic rubber isoprene (IR) were used as matrix for CNTs. The

  20. Detection of Interfacial Debonding in a Rubber-Steel-Layered Structure Using Active Sensing Enabled by Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Kong, Qingzhao; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Yabin; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    Rubber-steel-layered structures are used in many engineering applications. Laminated rubber-steel bearing, as a type of seismic isolation device, is one of the most important applications of the rubber-steel-layered structures. Interfacial debonding in rubber-steel-layered structures is a typical failure mode, which can severely reduce their load-bearing capacity. In this paper, the authors developed a simple but effective active sensing approach using embedded piezoceramic transducers to provide an in-situ detection of the interfacial debonding between the rubber layers and steel plates. A sandwiched rubber-steel-layered specimen, consisting of one rubber layer and two steel plates, was fabricated as the test specimen. A novel installation technique, which allows the piezoceramic transducers to be fully embedded into the steel plates without changing the geometry and the surface conditions of the plates, was also developed in this research. The active sensing approach, in which designed stress waves can propagate between a pair of the embedded piezoceramic transducers (one as an actuator and the other one as a sensor), was employed to detect the steel-rubber debonding. When the rubber-steel debonding occurs, the debonded interfaces will attenuate the propagating stress wave, so that the amplitude of the received signal will decrease. The rubber-steel debonding was generated by pulling the two steel plates in opposite directions in a material-testing machine. The changes of the received signal before and after the debonding were characterized in a time domain and further quantified by using a wavelet packet-based energy index. Experiments on the healthy rubber-steel-layered specimen reveal that the piezoceramic-induced stress wave can propagate through the rubber layer. The destructive test on the specimen demonstrates that the piezoceramic-based active sensing approach can effectively detect the rubber-steel debonding failure in real time. The active sensing

  1. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  2. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  3. Rubber and Land-Cover Land-Use Change in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. M.; Hurni, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past half century, the five countries of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) - Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam - have witnessed major shifts from predominantly subsistence agrarian economies to increasingly commercialized agriculture. Major drivers of change include policy initiatives that fostered regional economic integration and promoted among other changes rapid expansion of boom-crop plantations. Among the many types of commercial boom crops promoted and grown in MSEA are numerous tree-based products such as rubber, coffee, tree species for pulp and paper (particularly eucalyptus and acacia), cashews, and fruits such as oranges, lychees, and longans. The project proposal hypothesized that most (but not all) tree crops replaced swidden cultivation fields and hence are not necessarily accompanied by deforestation. We used MODIS EVI and SWIR time-series from 2001-2014 to classify changes in tree cover across MSEA; a total of 6849 sample points were used to train the classifier (75%) and verification (25%). The classification consists of 24 classes and 17 classes represent tree crops. Project results suggest that 4.4 m ha of rubber have been planted since 2003; 50% of rubber is planted on former evergreen forest land, 18% on deciduous forest land, and 32% on low vegetation area (former crop lands, bushes, scrub). Tree crops occupy about 8% of the landscape (half of that is rubber). Due to the differences in their political and economic histories these countries display different LCLUCs. In northern Laos, smallholder rubber plantations dominate and shifting cultivation is common in the upland. In southern Laos, large-scale plantations of rubber, coffee, eucalyptus, and sugarcane are widespread. In Thailand, vast areas are covered by annual agriculture; fruit trees and rubber are the prevailing tree crops and are mostly planted by smallholders. In Cambodia, large-scale rubber plantations have expanded in recent years on forest lands; smallholder

  4. Radiation cured silicone rubber articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed

  5. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  6. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  7. Study on the Performance Diagram of Multi-Lead Core Rubber Bearing for NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong-Pyo; Cho, Myung-Sug [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kwang-Seok [UNISON e-Tech, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The application of lead rubber bearing (LRB) system is able to secure the large shear deformation and high axial load’s stability for nuclear power plants. Typically LRB is having a large shear displacement performance. But when the general LRB applied for nuclear power plants, it was increase the quantity of device and a spaced arrangement get narrow. In this paper, a manufacture full-scale specimen and evaluated the performance testing in variable axial load and shear displacement with the LRB in previous use for architecture. This LRB is applied to the improved rubber material and applied the multi-lead core. In this paper, it was evaluated the performance testing in variable axial load and shear displacement with the full-scale multi-lead rubber bearing for the application of nuclear power plants. From the test results, the design of bearing performed properly and appeared the excellent stability under the more than design value.

  8. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  9. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  10. Progress in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Vulcanization dose defined as the radiation dose at which cross-linked natural rubber in latex has the maximum tensile strength can be reduced by adding carbon tetrachloride as a reaction accelerator. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex was selected as one of regional projects of IAEA in 1989 and a pilot plant was built in Jakarta. The products from it were evaluated during 1983-1985, followed by IAEA decision to support the continued R and D study at Takasaki, JAERI. Various factors to improve the properties of the products have been studied. Several advantages of the process over conventional method, such as absence of N-nitrosoamines, low cytotoxicity, decomposability in the environment, transparency and softness, were confirmed. The technology has been transferred toward commercial application in Thailand, and pilot plants being set up in Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Moreover, the process was found to be effective in reducing protein remaining in natural rubber latex products and the initial investment and irradiation cost was found to be greatly reduced by employing low energy electron accelerator. This paper reviews such progress. (S. Ohno)

  11. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the gasifier equipment, fabrication of a considerable number of the main equipment was finished. And, the equipment was sent into the coal gasification power plant and the installation work was done. Concerning gas refining facilities, fabrication of most of the components of the dry desulfurization system was finished, and further, fabrication of part of the piping prefabrication, disk and part of the disk fitting instrument was finished. The partial equipment of the dry dust removal system was also fabricated. About gas turbine facilities, the drawings necessary for each of the equipment fabricated/installed in this fiscal year were made, and at the same time a part of the technical data prepared so far was reviewed according to the progress of design. As to safety environmental facilities, installation work was done of gas treatment furnace, gas cooling system, buffer tank, desulfurizing tower, etc. Besides, design/technical study were made of the total control system, equipment of the indoor switching station, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  13. The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wangpimool

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.

  14. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  15. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... vegetable for the people or to enrich biodiversity of rubber plantations in the area of hundred-miles rubber ..... Influence of rubber canopy on intercrop productivity. Trans. Malaysian Soc. Plant Physiol. 2: 75-79. Lin Weifu, Zhou Zhongyu, Huang Shoufeng (1999). A review and prospect of intercropping in ...

  16. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  17. Comparison of analysis results with experimental results for ENEA and CRIEPI rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.; Lee, J.H.; Koo, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the preliminary structural analyses of ENEA HDRB and CRIEPI NRB were performed by using computer code ABAQUS, and the analysis results were compared with the test results provided by Italy and Japan thru IAEA. The test data for the rubbers used for the fabrication of bearings were also provided thru IAEA, and were utilized for the formulation of the rubber models for the analyses. The analyses performed for the rubber bearings are for the combined compression and shear and for the compression. The analysis results show a good agreement in shear strains when compared with the test results of HDRB and NRB for the combined compression and shear and for the compression benchmarks, but show relatively smaller responses in displacements for the compression with offsets benchmarks. (author)

  18. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  19. Natural Rubber Modification For Upper Layer Of Rubberized Asphalt Paving Block AS Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin, Nasruddin

    2017-01-01

    The research of rubber compounding modification for upper layer of rubberized asphalt paving block as shock absorber using natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as synthetic rubber, fly ash as filler and also vegetable oil as plasticizer has been conducted. The research design was varying the filler Si-69, fly ash and palm oil. The five formulas A, B, C, D, and E designed by varying the amount of Si-69 (48.5; 50.75; 53.00; 55.25; and 57.50) phr; coal fly ash (4.75, 7.00, 9.25, 11.50 ...

  20. Prediction of heat generation in rubber or rubber-metal springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banić Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of rubber or rubber-metal springs increases under cyclic loading, due to hysteresis losses and low rubber thermal conductivity. Hysteresis losses correspond to energy dissipation from the rubber, which is primarily converted into heat. This well-known phenomenon, called heat build-up, is the primary reason for rubber aging. Increase in temperature within the rubber compound leads to degradation of its physical and chemical properties, increase in stiffness and loss of damping capability. This paper presents a novel procedure of heat generation prediction in rubber or rubber-metal springs. The procedure encompasses the prediction of hysteresis loss, i. e. dissipated energy within the rubber, by finite element analysis and application of a modern visco-plastic rubber constitutive model. The obtained dissipated energy was used as an input for transient thermal analysis. Verification of the proposed procedure was performed by comparison of simulation results with experimentally obtained data during the dynamic loading of the rubber specimen. The proposed procedure is highly computationally efficient and it enables time integration, which can be problematic in coupled mechanical thermal analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005: Research and Development of New Generation of Wind Turbines of High Energy Efficiency

  1. Effect of Recycled Rubber Particles and Silica on Tensile and Tear Properties of Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu CHANDRAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of scrap rubber and worn out tires in natural rubber compounds has been studied. The scrap rubber can, however, be recycled and compounded with natural rubber and thus can be generated as a rubber composite. In this work, recycled rubber particles (RRP were prepared using pulverization process. Then, RRP was blended with natural rubber and silica compounds, and it was synthesized by two- roll mill and hydraulic press at specified operating conditions. The samples ranging from 0 to 40 phr of RRP loaded with silica were used as constant filler. The mechanical properties and morphological analysis were carried out. The results showed that tensile strength and elongation at break gradually decreased with increasing RRP loading in natural rubber and silica compounds. Tensile modulus went down at 10 phr of RRP and then showed an increasing trend. Hardness increased up to 30 phr of RRP and tear strength increased up to 20 phr of RRP. A comparative study was also carried out with virgin natural rubber vulcanizates. The incorporation of RRP and silica up to 20 phr in natural rubber did not lower the performance of rubber articles. Morphological studies revealed that better filler dispersion, interfacial adhesion, and cross link density could increase the tensile and tear strengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7330

  2. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  3. Carbon Stocks across a Fifty Year Chronosequence of Rubber Plantations in Tropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C sequestration remains unclear. The biomass C accumulation including latex C and C distribution in soil of five different-aged stands (7, 13, 19, 25 and 47 years old were examined. The total biomass C stock (TBC and total net primary productivity (NPPtotal, whether with or without latex C, had a close quadratic relationship with stand age. Regardless of stand age, around 68% of the C was stored in aboveground biomass, and NPPlatex contributed to approximately 18% of C sequestration. Soil organic carbon stock in the 100-cm depth remained relatively stable, but it lost about 16.8 Mg ha−1 with stand age. The total ecosystem C stock (TEC across stands averaged 159.6, 174.4, 229.6, 238.1 and 291.9 Mg ha−1, respectively, of which more than 45% was stored in the soil. However, biomass would become the major C sink rather than soil over a maximal rubber life expectancy. Regression analysis showed that TEC for rubber plantation at 22 years is comparable to a baseline of 230.4 Mg ha−1 for tropical forest in China, and would reach the maximum value at around 54 years. Therefore, rubber plantation can be considered as alternative land use without affecting net forest ecosystem C storage. In addition to the potential C gains, a full set of ecosystem and economic properties have to be quantified in order to assess the trade-offs associated with forest-to-rubber transition.

  4. Energy usage in the rubber industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, M.

    1980-01-01

    The rubber industry has several energy-intensive steps, such as mastication of natural rubber, mixing and extrusion, and vulcanization. Opportunities for energy savings would be available with a continuous mixing process, heat recovery from cooling waters, and abandonment of thermal conduction in vulcanization. 6 figures. (DCK)

  5. UTILISATION OF RUBBER SEED OL IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal degradation studies on polyvinyl chloride in the presence of rubber seed oil, epoxidized rubber seed oil and metal ... Epoxidation of RSO was carried out at 29°C using peractic acid ..... impurities such as pigments, Vitamins, sterols ...

  6. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  7. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available used to analyse crumb rubber modified (CRM) bitumen is that the specified gap setting in the configuration of the DSR between the upper and lower test platens is too small to accommodate crumb rubber particles. DSR testing of CRM bitumen therefore...

  8. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  9. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant: Preliminary summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.; Ikonomou, P.; Hosoya, M.; Scott, P.; Fager, J.; Sanders, C.; Colwell, D.; Joyner, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. This report details a six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs which took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ''mailbox''. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by means of nondestructive assay equipment. The field test demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of key elements of the SNRI approach for a large LEU fuel fabrication plant

  10. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  11. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series; Caracterizacao da borracha natural dos novos clones de seringueira da serie PB 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: maria-alice.martins@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao/LNNA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Centro de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais; Goncalves, Paulo de S. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  12. Genetic parameters and estimated genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic parameters and to estimate genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies. The experiments were carried out during three years, in a randomized block design, with six replicates and ten plants per plot, in three representative Hevea crop regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-two progenies were evaluated, from three to five years old, for rubber yield and annual girth growth. Genetic gain was estimated with the multi-effect index (MEI. Selection by progenies means provided greater estimated genetic gain than selection based on individuals, since heritability values of progeny means were greater than the ones of individual heritability, for both evaluated variables, in all the assessment years. The selection of the three best progenies for rubber yield provided a selection gain of 1.28 g per plant. The genetic gains estimated with MEI using data from early assessments (from 3 to 5-year-old were generally high for annual girth growth and rubber yield. The high genetic gains for annual girth growth in the first year of assessment indicate that progenies can be selected at the beginning of the breeding program. Population effective size was consistent with the three progenies selected, showing that they were not related and that the population genetic variability is ensured. Early selection with the genetic gains estimated by MEI can be made on rubber tree progenies.

  13. The Effect of Rubber Mixing Process on The Curing Characteristics of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying the relationship between rubber mixing processes and curing characteristics of natural rubber. The curing characteristic analysis was carried out through a natural rubber formula having been masticated and mixed, followed by curing. As many as four mastication methods were finely applied; each respected four sequences of rubber mixing process. In the first method, rubber was masticated for 5 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were  simultaneously added. In the second and the third methods, rubber was masticated for 1 minute and then carbon blacks and rubber chemicals were also simultaneously added but using different type of fillers. In the fourth method, rubber was masticated for 3 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black were subsequently added. The additions of rubber chemicals and carbon blacks to the masticated rubber were distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. The carbon blacks were added in two stages by which 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In another method, ratios of the carbon blacks addition (as done in the first  and the second stages were 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The examination results showed that rubber mixing process gave an impact on the changes of curing characteristics. They were much affected by the method of carbon black addition. The mixing temperature also had an effect on both curing time and curing rate in which the higher the mixing temperature, the lower the curing time and curing rate. Vulcanization temperature also affected the curing time and curing rate in which the higher the vulcanization temperature, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate. Lastly, particle size of carbon black also gave an impact on the curing time and curing rate in which the smaller the particle size, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate.

  14. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  15. Performance of self-compacting rubberized concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Used tyre rubber wastes present a serious environmental problem of pollution and storage. The recycling of this waste in the industry of construction could be an appropriate solution to produce an eco-concrete and could contribute to the improvement of some of its properties. This paper aims to study the possibility of using tyre rubber waste as fine aggregate replacement in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Fines rubber particles of 0-2 mm of waste tyres were added SCC mixtures as a partial substitution of the total volume of sand at different percentages (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The influence of fines rubber of used tyres on fresh and hardened properties of the SCC was investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were performed by using slump-flow, T50 flow time, L-box, V-funnel and segregation resistance tests. Characteristics of the hardened state were obtained by compressive strength and thermal conductivity. The experimental results showed that the inclusion of fines rubber in SCC decreases the workability, reduced its passing capacity and increases the possibility of blocking. A decrease in compressive strength is observed with the increase in rubber content. On the other hand, the incorporation of the rubber fines aggregates enhances in a remarkably way the thermal conductivity.

  16. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10 -2 m s -1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s -1 . This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems

  17. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya; Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi.

    1982-01-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  19. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  20. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  1. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, B. H. [Dongguk Universty, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Chungbuk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break.

  2. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K.; Ryu, B. H.; Lee, C.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break

  3. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden.... Electronically: By logging onto the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) Web site at http://www.regulations...

  4. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  5. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion

  6. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  7. Life assessment of rubber articles in fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Selldén, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    The choice of rubber material for use in sealings and hoses in the fuel system is of great importance. If a wrong type of rubber is used, premature failure during service may occur. This impacts the environmental performance, the safety during driving, uptime and economy of the transport. In this diploma work, rubbers for use in sealing and hoses in the fuel system have been evaluated to assess which materials have the potential to be used under long-term use in contact with commercial fuels....

  8. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  9. Rubber seed oil: A potential renewable source of biodiesel for sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoji, Samuel E.; Iyuke, Sunny E.; Igbafe, Anselm I.; Nkazi, Diakanua B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-Saharan Africa countries have about 251 million rubber trees with the capacity to produce over 16 kilo ton of biodiesel. • Rubber seed oil has wider industrial applications and its biodiesel properties compete favorably with other non-edible oils. • Rubber seed oil is a sustainable and affordable source of biodiesel for sub-Saharan Africa development. • Plantain peels that are in abundance in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of base catalyst for the transesterification of rubber seed oil. • This is no regulatory framework and bioenergy policy in sub-Saharan Africa on the use of waste rubber seeds. - Abstract: The global energy demand is currently met by the use of non-renewable fossil fuels. The challenges of non-availability of these fuels in the future, instability in prices of crude oil and its negative environmental impacts, stimulated researchers in the global community in search of renewable energies for replacement of fossil fuels in future. Biodiesel has been identified as a good complement and plausible replacement of fossil diesel because of the overwhelming characteristic properties similar to fossil diesel in addition to its good lubricity, biodegradability, non-toxicity and eco-friendliness when used in diesel engines. The production of biodiesel from edible vegetable oils competes with food consumption and consequently high cost of food and biodiesel. Studies have shown that rubber seed contains 35–45 wt.% oil which portrays a better competitor to other non-edible oil bearing plants in biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) is an attractive option for the sustainable development of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries that depend heavily on fossil diesel. The application of abundant plantain (Musa paradisiacal) peels considered as waste in SSA countries as heterogeneous base catalyst in RSO biodiesel production will further reduce the cost of biodiesel. Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis

  10. Hardness measurements of silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the hardness of both silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation. Shore A Hardness is used to characterize the subject elastomers in relation to the crosslinking process. Various formulations of both materials have been investigated in order to achieve the optimum cure conditions desired. A small amount of the curing agent has been incorporated in some formulations in order to reduce the required dose to achieve full cure conditions. Silicon rubber has shown improvements in hardness as absorbed dose is increased, whereas hardness remained constant over a range of absorbed doses for polyurethane rubber

  11. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticif...

  12. STUDI PENENTUAN JENIS OUTLET LIMBAH CAIR KARET REMAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN MIKROALGA DENGAN SISTEM OPEN PONDS [Study of determination the type of crumb rubber waste water outlet for the growth of microalgae with open ponds system

    OpenAIRE

    Tanto Pratondo Utomo; Otik Nawansih; Anggun KOmalasari

    2015-01-01

    Waste water of crumb rubber industry is originated from coagulation, milling and leaching stage contains organic material that is derived from serum and rubber particles which haven’t been coagulated yet. The materials are potential to pollute the water therefore the crumb rubber industry must be treated through the wastewater plant. However, the characteristics of waste water are predicted suitable for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. media a biofuel feedstock, especially biodiesel tha...

  13. Energy use in the rubber, and linoleum and plastics floor-covering sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Visits were made to 77 establishments producing linoleum and 16 establishments producing coated substrates to gather information on energy consumption, fuel types, and attitudes to energy management. Data are presented on percentages of electricity, wastes, fuel oil, gas, and coal consumed totally for plants visited and percentages consumed for establishments grouped under the following categories: new tires, remolded tires, solid rubber base, latex rubber base, and coated substrate industries. Data on energy consumed per employee and by size of buildings were determined. About 760 opportunities for saving energy within the 93 sites visited were identified with the greatest potential for saving energy identified as recovery of waste heat. (MCW)

  14. Gamma irradiator design concepts for radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.S.; Muralidharan, P.; Apte, M.G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Shah, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex (NRL) is a new and yet unproven technology and one which involves undefined problems of consumer acceptance and high degree of radiation risk. Therefore, the designer should take care that the initial capital cost of the plant is as low as possible to keep the unit processing cost low during the initial lean period of the product requirement by the market. Three irradiators to process natural rubber latex have been designed as per capacity requirement of the user. Their salient features are described. (author). 2 tabs., 24 figs

  15. Radiation stability of plastics and rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchon, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Physical radiation effects of #betta# particles, #betta#-radiation, x rays and accelerated electrons on thermosets, thermoplastics and rubbers are charted. Modifications to the information due to composition, shape and environment are noted. (U.K.)

  16. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  17. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch...... test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  18. Respiratory tract disease from thermosetting resins. Study of an outbreak in rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    doPico, G A; Rankin, J; Chosy, L W; Reddan, W G; Barbee, R A; Gee, B; Dickie, H A

    1975-08-01

    An outbreak of upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory disease and conjunctivitis among synthetic rubber tire workers occurred. The outbreak began after the introduction of a new thermosetting resin, containing resorcinol and a trimere of methylene aminoacetronitrile, into the rubber tire carcass stock formulation. Two hundred ten workers were affected. Characteristically, symptoms improved during periods of sick leave or vacation, recurring upon the workers' return to the plant. Chest radiograms disclosed pneumonic infiltrates in about one fourth of the cases. Pulmonary function studies detected abnormal airways dynamics as well as abnormal diffusing capacity in more than one third of the workers tested. Lung biopsy showed evidence of focal interstitial fibrosis and peribronchiolar and perivascular chronic inflammatory reaction. The illness was ascribed to volatile products released during the manufacture of synthetic rubber tires. The exact chemical nature of these products is unknown.

  19. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  20. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  1. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.

    1995-01-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. Then a statistical inference can be made from verification results for items verified during SNRIs to the entire populations, i.e. the entire strata, even if inspectors were not present when many items were received or produced. A six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division during 1993. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ''mailbox''. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. They arrived unannounced at the plant, in most cases immediately after travel from Canada, where the IAEA maintains a regional office. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by meant of nondestructive assay equipment

  2. High macro rubber band ligature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Reis Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of a rubber band ligature is to promote fibrosis of the submucosa with subsequent fixation of the anal epithelium to the underlying sphincter. Following this principle, a new technique of ligature was developed based on two aspects: 1. macro banding: to have a better fibrosis and fixation by banding a bigger volume of mucosa and 2. higher ligature: to have this fixation at the origin of the hemorrhoidal cushion displacement. Methods: 1634 patients with internal hemorrhoidal disease grade II or III were treated by the technique called high macro rubber band. There was no distinction as to age, gender or race. To perform this technique a new hemorrhoidal device was specially designed with a larger diameter and a bigger capacity for mucosal volume aspiration. It is recommended to utilize a longer and wider anoscope to obtain a better view of the anal canal, which will facilitate the injection of submucosa higher in the anal canal and the insertion of the rubber band device. The hemorrhoidal cushion must be banded higher in the anal canal (4 cm above the pectinate line. It is preferable to treat all the hemorrhoids in one single session (maximum of three areas banded. Results: The analysis was retrospective without any comparison with conventional banding. The period of evaluation extended from one to twelve years. The analysis of the results showed perianal edema in 1.6% of the patients, immediate tenesmus in 0.8%, intense pain (need for parenteral analgesia in 1.6%, urinary retention in 0.1% of the patients and a symptomatic recurrence rate of 4.2%. All patients with symptomatic recurrence were treated with a new session of macro rubber banding. None of the patients developed anal or rectal sepsis. Small post-ligature bleeding was observed only in 0.8% of the patients. Conclusions: The high macro rubber banding technique represents an alternative method for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease grades II or III, with good

  3. Development of rubber-enriched dandelion varieties by metabolic engineering of the inulin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Anna; Wanke, Alan; van Deenen, Nicole; Geyer, Roland; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is an important raw material for a large number of industrial products. The primary source of NR is the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, but increased worldwide demand means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin) is such an alternative because large amounts of NR are produced in its root system. However, rubber biosynthesis must be improved to develop T. koksaghyz into a commercially feasible crop. In addition to NR, T. koksaghyz also produces large amounts of the reserve carbohydrate inulin, which is stored in parenchymal root cell vacuoles near the phloem, adjacent to apoplastically separated laticifers. In contrast to NR, which accumulates throughout the year even during dormancy, inulin is synthesized during the summer and is degraded from the autumn onwards when root tissues undergo a sink-to-source transition. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of inulin and NR metabolism in T. koksaghyz and its close relative T. brevicorniculatum and functionally characterized the key enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH), which catalyses the degradation of inulin to fructose and sucrose. The constitutive overexpression of Tk1-FEH almost doubled the rubber content in the roots of two dandelion species without any trade-offs in terms of plant fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that energy supplied by the reserve carbohydrate inulin can be used to promote the synthesis of NR in dandelions, providing a basis for the breeding of rubber-enriched varieties for industrial rubber production. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromiec, J.P.; Wesolowski, W.; Brzeznicki, S.; Wroblewska-Jakubowska, K.; Kucharska, M. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C{sub 12}, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, and PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  5. Nano-lignin filled natural rubber composites: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel strategy to prepare nano-lignin and its composites with natural rubber. The nanolignin was ontained by fabricating colloidal lignin-Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC complexes (LPCs via self-assembly technology. The characteristics of LPCs were investigated by zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet – visible (UV-vis absorption measurements. The results indicated that PDADMAC intensively interacted with lignin by cation-π and π-π interactions, and lignin particles were stable in aqueous solution with an average particle size less than 100 nm. LPCs accelerated the vulcanization of NR/LPCs nanocomposites. Morphological studies and Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed the homogeneous dispersion of LPCs in the NR matrix and the strong interfacial adhesion between them. The nanoscale dispersion of LPCs significantly enhanced the thermal stability and mechanical properties of NR/LPCs nanocomposites.

  6. Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR

  7. Static friction in rubber-metal contacts with application to rubber pad forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A static friction model suitable for rubber-metal contact is presented in this dissertation. In introduction, the motivation and the aims of the research are introduced together with the background regarding the related industrial application, which is the rubber pad forming process.

  8. Biological Reclaiming of Recycled Rubber and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of New Rubber Vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mansourirad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, there has been great attention to recycling and reclaiming of tires. Different methods have been used for reclaiming or desulfurization of rubber. One of these methods, in which desulfurization of rubber happens with no damage to the polymer structure, is desulfurization by biological microorganisms. In this research the application and performance of thermophilic and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, Acidianus brierleyi for this purpose was investigated. Ground tire rubber was detoxified with organic solvents, and the optimum conditions for growing microorganisms in the existence of rubber powder in the shaker flasks were determined. In order to accelerate the process, the suitable conditions for growth of bacteria and desulfurization in the bioreactor were adopted. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize desulfurization of bio-treated powder from bioreactor. The results indicated that morphological changes on powder surface and reduction of sulfur bonds have occurred. Samples from bioreactors, with and without bacteria and also untreated rubber powder were compounded with virgin styrene butadiene rubber. Tensile and dynamic properties were investigated using uni-direction tensile test and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis, respectively. Although some differences in dynamic-mechanical-thermal properties of samples pointed to stronger interaction between rubber matrix and treated rubber powder, no significant improvements in the mechanical properties of vulcanizates containing A.brierleyi-treated powder were observed. Low concentration of sulfur in rubber vulcanizates, chemical bonds of sulfur, and low efficiency of A. brierleyi in breaking sulfur bonds and reclaiming rubber were considered as the reasons for low efficiency of this treatment process.

  9. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  10. Gas turbines for the rubber industry: Retrofit feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, F.; Pautasso, F.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration is becoming industry's choice to satisfy process requirements characterized by high energy demand and fairly steady thermal and electrical loads. This paper illustrated the suitability of cogeneration for the production of rubber and PVC floor tiles. The example studied here consists of a gas fuelled turboalternator set capable of producing 1,050 kW of electric power. The energy plant is equipped with a heat recovery system and a post-combustor for the production of a diathermic fluid used by the process equipment. The paper points out how engineers overcame the installation problems due to the presence of existing process equipment and the necessity for continuous plant operation during retrofitting. Attention is given to the energy and cost feasibility aspects of this intervention

  11. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P; Teisseire, D

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  12. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  13. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  14. New rubber qualification for the igniter adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Kirkhill Rubber Company (KRC) has informed Thiokol Corporation that two raw materials used in the asbestos and silica filled acrylonitrile butadience rubber (NBR) formulation per STW 2621 are no longer available from their vendors. Agerite White (Di-beta-naphthyl-paraphenylene diamine), manufactured by B. F. Goodrich, is an antioxidant used in NBR. This raw material makes up roughly 1-2 percent of the finished product. KRC proposed that this raw material be replaced by Agerite Stalite S (mixture of octylated diphenylamines) distributed by R. T. Vanderbilt Co. Protox-166 zinc oxide, manufactured by Zinc Corporation of America, is an activator currently used in NBR. This material also makes up about 1-2 percent of the finished material. Protox-166 is an American process grade zinc oxide. It is proposed by KRC to replace Protox-166 with Kadox-930C, a French process grade zinc oxide. American process grades have an ASTM minimum purity of 99.0 percent; the French process grades have a minimum purity of 99.5 percent. Previous testing per WTP-0270 has demonstrated that the mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber with the new ingredients are comparable to the 'old' rubber. The test results are reported in TWR-61790. One igniter adapter, Part no. 7U77562-02 serial no. 2 was insulated per ETP-1206 using the new rubber formulation and a modified lay up and cure method to demonstrate that there is no impact on this process. The results of this demonstration are reported.

  15. Optimization of invertase assay conditions in rubber tree plants (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Otimização das condiçõess do ensaio da invertase em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pimenta de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define the optimal conditions for invertase assay, seeking to determine the ideal parameters for the different isoenzymes of leaf and bark tissues in adult rubber trees. Assays of varying pH, sucrose concentration and temperature of the reaction medium were conducted for the two investigated isoenzymes. The results pointed out the existence of two different pH related isoforms for the two analyzed tissues, with an isoenzyme being more active at pH 5,5 and the other at neutral/alkaline pH. Leaf blade isoenzymes presented similar values for substrate concentration, whereas the bark isoenzyme presented maximum values below those previously reported. The assays at different temperatures presented similar values for leaf isoenzymes, though they have differed significantly among the obtained values.O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as condições ótimas para a realização do ensaio enzimático da invertase, procurando-se determinar os parâmetros ideais para as diferentes isoenzimas de tecidos foliares e da casca de plantas adultas de seringueira. Foram realizados ensaios variando-se o pH, a concentração da sacarose e a temperatura do meio de reação para as duas isoenzimas estudadas. Os resultados indicaram a existência de duas isoformas diferentes em relação ao pH nos dois tecidos analisados, sendo uma isoenzima mais ativa a pH 5,5 e outra em pH neutro/alcalino. Com relação à concentração do substrato, as isoenzimas da lâmina foliar apresentaram valores semelhantes, enquanto a isoenzima da casca, valores máximos inferiores aos observados anteriormente. Os ensaios conduzidos em diferentes temperaturas tiveram valores semelhantes nas isoenzimas da folha, embora tenham diferido significativamente entre dos valores obtidos.

  16. Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Caio D; Carvalho, Leonardo B de; Giancotti, Paulo R F; Alves, Pedro L C A; Gonçalves, Elaine C P; Martins, José V F

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tree production is reduced by weeds that compete for environmental resources; therefore, the timing and duration of weed control influences weed interference. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plants, to determine the critical period for weed control, and to evaluate the growth recovery of rubber trees that coexisted with weeds for different periods of time after planting. Two groups of treatments were established under field conditions in the first year of the investigation: one group contained crescent periods of weed infestation, while the other contained crescent periods of weed control, also including a weed-free check and a total weedy check. In the second year of the investigation, the weeds were totally controlled. Urochloa decumbens was the dominant weed (over 90% groundcover). Crop growth was greatly reduced due to the weed interference. Plant height decreased more rapidly than did any other characteristic. Plant height, leaf dry mass, and leaf area decreased by 99%, 97% and 96%, respectively, and were the most reduced characteristics. Plant height also recovered more rapidly than did any characteristic when the period of weed control was lengthened. However, stem dry mass increased by 750%, making it the most recovered characteristic. The critical period for weed control was between 4 and 9½ months after planting in the first year; however, the rubber trees showed an expressive growth recovery when the weeds were controlled throughout the second year.

  17. Minimization of the volume and Pu content of the waste generated at a plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, H.

    1992-01-01

    The amounts of waste generated during 1987, 1989 and a past reference period have been reported in great detail. The main conclusions which can be drawn from these figures are: (i) for all kinds of waste, the waste-to-product ratio has decreased very substantially during the past few years. This reduction results partly from a scale effect, i.e. the better load factor of the plant, and partly from Belgonucleare's continuous effort to minimize the radioactive waste arisings; (ii) the ratio of the Pu content of the waste to the total Pu throughput of the plant has also decreased substantially; (iii) the mean Pu content of the solid Pu contaminated waste equals 1.39 g Pu per unit volume of 25 l. Only for a small fraction of this waste (<5% by volume) does the Pu content exceed 5 g per unit volume of 25 l; (iv) even after the implementation of waste reducing measures, some 45% of the solid Pu contaminated waste is generated by operations which involve the handling and transfer of powders. Finally, some 63% of the total amount of Pu in the waste can be imputed to these operations

  18. Fate and effect of tire rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir; Karimzadeh, Fatholah; Chaney, Rufus

    2015-05-01

    There are growing interests on effects of nano-materials on living organisms including higher plants. No report is available on positive and negative effects of rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) on edible plants. Recently, we reported the possibility of using waste tire rubber and rubber ash as zinc (Zn) fertilizer for plants. In this nutrient solution culture study, for the first time, root uptake and the effects of RANPs on growth and Zn, cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentration in cucumber was investigated. Various Zn levels (0, 1, 5, 25, 125mgL(-1)) were applied in the form of RANPs or ZnSO4. The root RANPs uptake was visualized by light (LA), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron microcopies (TEM). At all Zn levels, cucumber plants supplied with RANPs produced higher shoot and root biomass compared with those supplied with ZnSO4. In addition, the RANPs resulted in higher accumulation of Zn in cucumber tissues in comparison with ZnSO4; although phytotoxicity of Zn from ZnSO4 was greater than that from RANPs. Clear evidence of the RANPs penetration into the root cells was obtained by using SEM and TEM. Filaments of RANPs were also observed at the end of roots by LM and TEM. Further research is needed to clarify the fate of the RANPs in plant cells and their possible risks for food chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A flexible piezoresistive carbon black network in silicone rubber for wide range deformation and strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Wang, Hai; Zhu, Yali

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and measurement of a piezoresistive device with a carbon black (CB) particle network in a highly flexible silicone rubber for large deformation and wide range strain sensing. The piezoresistive composite film was fabricated with a mixture of silicone rubber and CB filler particles. The test results showed that the CB particle network in the silicone rubber strongly affected the resistance of the device during the process of drawing and its recovery. We found that the 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles showed a lower relative resistance than the 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, but with an advantage of good resistance recovery stability and a smaller perturbation error (smaller changed resistance) during the periodic back and forth linear motor test. With both having a 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles and a 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, one can reach up to 200% strain with resistances 18 kΩ and 110 kΩ, respectively. We also found that the relative resistance increased in an approximately linear relationship corresponding to the value of step-increased instantaneous length for the reported device. Moreover, an application test through hand drawing was used to demonstrate the piezoresistive performance of the device, which showed that the reported device was capable of measuring the instantaneous length with large deformation.

  20. Moisture Sensitivity of Crumb Rubber Modified Modifier Warm Mix Asphalt Additive for Two Different Compaction Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilema, Munder A.; Aman, Mohamad Y.; Hassan, Norhidayah A.; Ahmad, Kabiru A.; Elghatas, Hamza M.; Radwan, Ashraf A.; Shyaa, Ahmed S.

    2018-04-01

    Crumb rubber obtained from scrap tires has been incorporated with asphalt binder to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures in the past decades. Pavements containing crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders present one major drawback: larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are produced as there is rise in the energy consumption at the asphalt plant due to the higher viscosity of these type of binders compared with a conventional mixture. The objective of this paper is to calculate the optimum bitumen content for each percentage and evaluate the moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified asphalt at two different compacting temperatures. In this study, crumb rubber modified percentages was 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from the binder weight, with adding 1.5% warm mix asphalt additive (Sasobit) and crush granite aggregate of 9.5mm Nominal maximum size was used after assessing its properties. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used by 2% from fine aggregate. The wet method was using to mix the CRM with bitumen, the CRM conducted at 177°C for 30 min with 700rpm and Sasobit conducted at 120°C for 10 min with 1000rpm. As a result, from this study the optimum bitumen content (OBC) was increased with increased crumb rubber content. For performance test, it was conducted using the AASHTO T283 (2007): Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture-Induced Damage. The result was as expected and it was within the specification of the test, the result show that the moisture damage increased with increased the crumb rubber content but it is not exceeding the limit of specification 80% for indirect tension strength ratio (ITSR). For the temperature was with lowing the temperature the moisture damage increased.

  1. Development of natural rubber membranes for separation of methyl tert-butyl ether and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Azrini Ramlee; Ghazali Mohd Nawawi; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    As a new commercial process, membrane separation raises significant expectations in the process plant of the future and therefore this research was being initiated to develop and characterize pervaporation membrane based on natural rubber (NR). Natural Rubber SMR-L grade which was supplied by Malaysia Rubber Research Institute (MRRI) was used for the development of the membranes via interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) techniques. Polystyrene (PS) was used to modify the natural rubber to further improve their mechanical and chemical properties. The membranes were prepared with various blend ratios of natural rubber, polystyrene and divinyl benzene as cross linker with constant 1 % of dicumyl peroxide as the initiator. The developed membranes were then characterized to study the functional group presence, membranes morphology, crosslink density, tear strength, adsorption of the membranes and pervaporation separation of Methyl-Tert-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) and Methanol. Pervaporation process was conducted by using varies of MTBE concentration 10, 30, 50 and 70 wt % and at differ operation temperature, 25 degree Celsius and 55 degree Celsius. Separation performance of IPN NR/ PS membranes were based on the presented permeation flux and separation factor. Examination through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), determined crosslink density and tear strength, 6 series of IPN NR/ PS membranes were successfully developed using natural rubber. Observation from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the membranes were dense and appropriated for the pervaporation process application. From the pervaporation of MTBE and Methanol, IPN NR/ PS membranes of series D4N30 shown low permeation flux of MTBE but high separation factor while D2N70 membranes was vice versa for both temperature of 25 degree Celsius and 55 degree Celsius. (author)

  2. Physico-mecha-nical properties of rubber seed shell carbon – filled natural rubber compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Ekebafe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rubber seed shells were carbonized at varying temperatures (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C for three hours each and sieved through a 150 μm screen. The portion of the rubber seed shell carbon that passed through the screen was characterized in terms of loss on ignition, surface area, moisture content, pH, bulk density, and metal content and used in compounding natural rubber. The characterization shows that the pH, conductivity, loss on ignition and the surface area increases with the increases of the heating temperature, unlike the bulk density which decreases. The compound mixes were cured using the efficient vulcanization system. Cure characteristics of compounds and physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanisates were measured as a function of filler loading along with that of N330 carbon-black filled natural rubbers. The results showed that the cure times, scorch times and the torque gradually increased, with increasing the filler content for rubber seed shell carbon-filled natural rubber, with the filler obtained at carbonizing temperature of 600 °C tending to show optimum cure indices. The physicomechanical properties of the vulcanisates increase with filler loading. The reinforcing potential of the carbonized rubber seed shell carbon was found to increase markedly for the filler obtained at the temperature range of 500-600 °C and then decreases with further increase in temperature.

  3. Lifetime Analysis of Rubber Gasket Composed of Methyl Vinyl Silicone Rubber with Low-Temperature Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most machines and instruments constantly require elastomeric materials like rubber for the purposes of shock absorption, noise attenuation, and sealing. The material properties and accurate lifetime prediction of rubber are closely related to the quality of machines, especially their durability and reliability. The properties of rubber-like elastomers are influenced by ambient conditions, such as temperature, environment, and mechanical load. Moreover, the initial properties of rubber gaskets must be sustained under working conditions to satisfy their required function. Because of its technical merits, as well as its low cost, the highly accelerated life test (HALT is used by many researchers to predict the long-term lifetime of rubber materials. Methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ has recently been adopted to improve the lifetime of automobile radiator gaskets. A four-parameter method of determining the recovery ability of the gaskets was recently published, and two revised methods of obtaining the recovery were proposed for polyacrylate (ACM rubber. The recovery rate curves for VMQ were acquired using the successive zooming genetic algorithm (SZGA. The gasket lifetime for the target recovery (60% of a compressed gasket was computed somewhat differently depending on the selected regression model.

  4. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  5. Review of food toxicological issues associated in rubber products

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Mei Xiang; Ong, S.P.; Hii, C.L.; Chuah, L.A.; Law, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the centuries, rubber latex gained its popularity in machinery application due to its unique thermal properties, high elasticity and excellent impact resistance. It is widely accepted in food industry as rubber has good resistance to chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts. For instance, rubber components comprise of couplings, shields, dust covers, gaskets and seals exist as group or standalone component in food manufacturing equipments or machinery. Even though most of the rubber...

  6. Modular nuclear reactor for a land-based power plant and method for the fabrication installation and operation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, E. R.; Blumberg, B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A self-contained modular nuclear reactor which can be prefabricated at a factory location, nuclear-certified at the factory, transported to a field location for final assembly and connection to a large-scale electric-power generating facility. The modular reactor includes a prefabricated nuclear heat supply module and a plurality of shell segments which can be assembled about the heat supply module and which provide a form for the pouring and curing of a cementatious biological shield about the heat supply module. The modular reactor includes passive shutdown heat removal systems sufficient to render the reactor safe in an emergency. A large-scale power plant arrangement is disclosed which incorporates a plurality of the modular reactors

  7. Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhar, N. A. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Aziz, A. A.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Danial, N. S.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This research focused on development of wearable sensor device by using Prevulcanized Natural Rubber (PV) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR 50) latex incorporated with graphene oxide (GO), graphene paste, graphene powder and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) powder. The compounding formulation and calculation were based on phr (parts per hundred rubber) and all the samples were then tested for mechanical properties using Instron 5565 machine. It was found that the sonication effects on tensile strength may have better quality of tensile strength compared to non-sonicated GO. For PV incorporate GO, the optimum loading was best determined at loading 1.5 phr with or without sonication and similar result was recorded for PV/G. For ENR 50 incorporate graphene paste and rGO powder nanocomposite shows the best optimum was at 3.0 phr with 24 hours’ sonication.

  8. Recycling of pneumatic scrap tyre into nano-crumb rubber by pulsed laser ablation in different pH media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaan Khamsan, Nur; Bidin, Noriah; Islam, Shumaila; Daud, Suzairi; Krishnan, Ganesan; Bakar, Mohamad Aizat A.; Naqiuddin Razali, Muhamad; Khamis, Jamil

    2018-05-01

    Nano crumb rubber from scrap tyre is synthesized via 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in three different pH media i.e. DI-water (pH∼6.45), D-limonene (pH∼3.47) and NaOH solution (pH∼13.41). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) results show spherical morphology of crumb rubber with high degree of aggregation in DI-water and in D-limonene. However, dispersion of crumb rubbers is observed in NaOH solution. The smallest particles size is obtained in NaOH solution within the range of 10.9 nm – 74.3 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and FTIR analysis confirmed the elements distribution and chemical bonding of rubber with DI-water, D-limonene and NaOH solution. The experimental findings shows that pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation has potential for fabricating nano-crumb rubber in liquid media.

  9. Synergistic effect of plasma-modified halloysite nanotubes and carbon black in natural rubber-butadiene rubber blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated concerning their suitability for rubber reinforcement. As they have geometrical similarity with carbon nanotubes, they were expected to impart a significant reinforcement effect on the rubber compounds but the dispersion of the nanofillers is difficult.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  11. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...

  12. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  13. Techniques for Continuous Monitoring of Airborne Plutonium Activity and Experience of their Use in a Fuel-Element Fabrication Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D. C.; Perry, K. E.G. [Atomic Energy Establishment. Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom); Loosemore, W. R.; Sparke, W. G. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1967-12-15

    The development of installed plutonium-in-air monitoring techniques in the U.K.A.E.A. is described together with operational experience in a fuel-element fabrication facility at Winfrith where mixed PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} fuels are manufactured on a tonne scale in freestanding glove boxes for use in reactor physics experiments. Transportable single-point sampling instruments have been designed in which alpha activity collected on a fixed filter paper of area 20 cm{sup 2} is continuously viewed by scintillation or silicon surface barrier detectors. Discrimination against natural alpha activity, typically 10{sup -4}{mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, is achieved by energy analysis: preset alarms operate if an exposure exceeds 5 to 80 maximum permissible concentration hours for plutonium. Evidence is presented which shows that there is no significant chronic exposure to plutonium: inhalation exposure of the workers in this facility results from highly localized releases of airborne activity caused by occasional, minor, often unnoticed damage to box gloves or posting bags. Personal air samplers have been used which show that, in a particular incident, the exposure of an individual may be several orders of magnitude greater than that shown by a continuous monitor only a few metres away, even when many radioactive particles are released. Undesirably large exposures to individuals can occur therefore without an alarm being given by one of the indicating air samplers. In this situation reliance has had to be placed on the early detection of glove damage by frequent surface contamination monitoring. A new monitoring system is now being used to detect localized exposures. Air is monitored at up to 20 positions each near die face of a glove box. Alpha activity on each fixed-filter paper is viewed continuously by silicon surface barrier detectors. An immediate local alarm operates at a count rate equivalent to 80 mpc hours of plutonium. Additionally, each detector is scanned in sequence by a

  14. STUDY ON HEAT DYNAMIC LOADING OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodifiers (fulleren technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physico-chemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinz-Petrikeev, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  15. Enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blend by the usage of graphene oxide with diverse oxidation degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaodong; Yin, Qing; Jia, Hongbing; Zhang, Xuming; Wen, Yanwei; Ji, Qingmin; Xu, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) with various oxidation degrees were prepared through a modified Hummer's method by varying the dosage of oxidizing agent. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)/GO nanocomposites were fabricated by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloidal dispersion with SBR latex and a small loading of XNBR latex, followed by co-coagulation. Effects of GO oxidation degree on the morphology, structure, mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposites were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the mechanical strength of nanocomposites were enhanced with the increase of oxidation degree of GO. Especially, when the weight ratio of KMnO4 to graphite was 15/5, the tensile strength, tear strength and thermal conductivity of SBR/XNBR/GO filled with 3 phr (parts per hundred rubber) GO increased by 255.3%, 141.5% and 22.8%, respectively, compared to those of neat SBR/XNBR blend. In addition, the thermal stability and the solvent resistance of the nanocomposites were also improved significantly. This work suggested that GO with higher oxidation degree could effectively improve the properties of SBR/XNBR blend.

  16. Mechanical properties of irradiated rubber-blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.M.; Madani, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made on blend ratios of natural rubber (NR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) that are loaded with general purpose furnace (GPE) carbon black and irradiated at different gamma radiation doses. It was fount that the mechanical properties of such blend are highly affected by γ- irradiation dose and the composition ratios of its constituents. The elongation at break for blends was found to increase slightly with increasing NBR loafing which is mainly due to the stiffness of blending matrix formation between NR and GPF carbon black particles. The hysteresis loss, extension ratio and shape factor have been calculated for the different un-irradiated and irradiated samples

  17. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  18. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  19. Studies on the increased heat effect within the rubber tree rows of man-made rubber-tea community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youxin

    1994-01-01

    Differences in the various components of thermal balance and the microclimatic factors within lower layers of rubber tree rows between a man-made rubber-tea community(RTC)and a pure rubber garden(PRG)in the coldest month were studied in Xishuangbanna,Yun-nan province

  20. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  1. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of vulcanized Natural Rubber and Natural Rubber-Polyethylene Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudradjat Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the quality of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends, gamma irradiation has been done. The compound of natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends made by using roll mill machine. The mixed materials were antioxidant, anti ozon, plasticizer and vulcanisator. The natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends compound were vulcanizer and made a slab (film of sample) using hot and could press machine. The slabs produced were then gamma irradiated at irradiation dose of 75, 150 and 300 kGy. Before and after irradiation, the slab were characterized using strograph R1 machine. The results showed that the modulus 300 and hardness of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends were increasing; the tensile strength and tear strength were increasing to maximum level then decreasing with gamma irradiation, while the elongation at break was decreasing. The maximum tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends were found at irradiation dose of 75 kGy. At the irradiation dose of 75 kGy, the tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber increased from 17.6 MN/m 2 to 21.2 MN/m 2 , while the tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber-polyethylene blends increased slightly from 18.7 MN/m 2 to 19.4 MN/m 2 . (author)

  2. Radiation-induced deterioration of natural rubber and isoprene rubber vulcanizates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohjiya, Shinzo; Matsumura, Yasushige; Yamashita, Shinzo; Matsuyama, Tomochika; Yamaoka, Hitoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and isoprene rubber (IR) were cured by sulfur and accelerator to give rubber vulcanizates. Both vulcanizates were subject to solvent extraction to purify them, followed by the γ-ray irradiation in air at room temperature. The deterioration by γ-ray (0-20 Mrad) was investigated by the changes of tensile properties, hardness, swelling, and ATR-IR spectra. The tensile strength decreased much by a few Mrad irradiation, which is elucidated due to the difficulty of stretch-induced crystallization of polyisoprene after the irradiation. Modulus at 50 % elongation, network-chain density, and hardness did not show significant variation with the γ-ray dose. These irradiation results suggest both degradation and crosslinking occur comparably in the rubber vulcanizates and the regularity of polyisoprene chains may be somewhat randomized to prevent them from crystallizing on stretching. (author)

  3. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  4. Simulation work of fatigue life prediction of rubber automotive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M S A; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    The usage of rubbers has always been so important, especially in automotive industries. Rubbers have a hyper elastic behaviour which is the ability to withstand very large strain without failure. The normal applications for rubbers are used for shock absorption, sound isolation and mounting. In this study, the predictions of fatigue life of an engine mount of rubber automotive components were presented. The finite element analysis was performed to predict the critical part and the strain output were incorporated into fatigue model for prediction. The predicted result shows agreement in term of failure location of rubber mount.

  5. Performance Study of the Natural Rubber Composite with Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyo Nyo Myint; Tin Tin Aye; Kyaw Myo Naing; Nyunt Wynn

    2008-03-01

    The preparation, characterization and some applications of natural rubber clay composite have been studied. This study investigated the possibility of natural rubber latex to replace some part of natural clays. In formulation of rubber clay composite from natural rubber latex and various clay minerals, three main steps were involved (i) preparation of latex cream (ii) prevulcanization of latex cream (iii) mixing vulcanized latex compound, with other ingredients. In each step, several parameters have been carefully investigated to optimize the performance of natural rubber clay composite production. The composite products were of better quality and can be considered to be more cost effective.

  6. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, F.; Hu, S.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Light and Dennis purified serum soluble rubber transferase from Hevea latex to homogeneity. Prenyl transferase co-purified with rubber transferase. In the absence of washed rubber particles (WRP) the prenyl transferase catalyzed the formation of trans FPP from DMAPP and IPP. In the presence of WRP the transferase catalyzed cis additions of IPP to pre-existing rubber chains. Control mixtures of WRP, Mg{sup 2+} and FPP were not included to test for the contributions of the bound rubber transferase on WRP to the incorporation of IPP into polyisoprene. Bound rubber transferase catalyzes the repetitive addition of IPP to allylic-PP starter molecules to form polyisoprene. The order of utilization of allylic-PP starters was GGPP > FPP > GPP > DMAPP. The authors have shown that the polyisoprene enzymatically synthesized on WRP is a bimodal polymer consisting of different mol wt rubber chains similar to the polymeric characteristics of natural rubber. The bound rubber transferase was solubilized with Chaps and purified on DEAE-cellulose. The polymerization reaction catalyzed by the purified preparation showed a 98% requirement for pre-existing rubber chains. Results suggest that the prenyl transferase from Hevea serum may be part of the polymer starter system furnishing allylic-PP for the bound rubber transferase.

  8. Preparation of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers from natural rubber vulcanizates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Worapong; Poompradub, Sirilux; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a series of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers were prepared by aqueous phase oxidation of natural rubber vulcanizates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH). The starting vulcanizates were neatly prepared via an efficient vulcanization (EV) system by varying mass ratio of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), as an accelerator, to sulfur. The oxidation conditions were controlled at the molar ratio of H2O2: HCOOH = 1:1, the concentration of H2O2 = 15 wt.%, the temperature = 50 °C, and the reaction time = 3 h. The rubber materials before and after the oxidation were characterized for their physicochemical properties by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, acid-base titration and swelling measurements. The results indicated the presence of sulfonic acid group in the oxidized rubbers, generated by the oxidative cleaves of sulfide crosslinks in the rubber vulcanizates. The oxidation decreased the sulfur content of the rubber in which the level of sulfur loss was determined by the CBS/sulfur ratio. Moreover, the acidity of the oxidized products was correlated with the amount of sulfur remaining.

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  10. Carboxy terminated rubber based on natural rubber grafted with acid anhydrides and its adhesion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinpituksa, P; Kongkalai, P; Kaesaman, A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical modification of natural rubber by grafting of various polar functional molecules is an essential method, improving the versatility of rubber in applications. This research investigated the preparation of natural rubber-graft-citraconic anhydride (NR-g-CCA), natural rubber-graft-itaconic anhydride (NR-g-ICA), and natural rubber-graft-maleic anhydride (NR-g-MA), with the anhydrides grafted to natural rubber in toluene using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. Variations of monomer content, initiator content, temperature and reaction time of the grafting copolymerization were investigated. The maximum degrees of grafting were 1.06% for NR-g-CCA, 4.66% for NR-g-ICA, and 5.03% for NR-g-MA, reached using 10 phr citraconic anhydride, 10 phr of itaconic anhydride, or 8 phr of maleic anhydride, 3 phr benzoyl peroxide, at 85, 80 and 80°C for 2, 2 and 3 hrs, respectively. Solvent-based wood adhesives were formulated from these copolymers with various contents of wood resin in the range 10-40 phr. The maximal 289 N/in cleavage peel and 245.7 KPa shear strength for NR-g-MA (5.03% grafting) were obtained at 40 phr wood resin

  11. Radiation modification of silicone rubber with glycidylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Tania; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-01-01

    The grafting of glycidilmethacrylate(GMA) was grafted onto silicone rubber (SR) by using the γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method under different conditions. The effect of reaction time, total dose, reaction temperature and monomer concentration on the graft yield was studied. It was found that the degree of grafting can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. The chemical structure of SR before and after grafting was characterized using FTIR-ATR and SEM–EDS. The analysis revealed that the surface of the SR was uniformly covered by GMA and the cross-section analysis indicated that the grafting occurred in the bulk. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the graft copolymer was more thermally stable than polyglycidylmethacrylate but less stable than SR, and the DSC confirmed that the GMA was grafting onto silicone rubber. - Highlights: • A graft copolymer with silicone rubber was synthesized by gamma pre-irradiation method. • SEM–EDS analysis showed that the surface and the bulk of the new copolymer were grafted. • The thermal properties of the silicone rubber used were modified with grafting. • The new copolymer could be used to immobilize nucleophilic biomolecules

  12. Reassessment of anoxic storage of ethnographic rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Dyer, Joanne; Ward, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the 1991–1995 British Museum field trial on anoxic storage, where 23 registered ethnographic rubber objects were enclosed in oxygen barrier film Cryovac BDF200 with sachets of the oxygen absorbent Ageless Z. A unique opportunity for study was presented since most of the enclos...

  13. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  14. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  15. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  16. Rubber hand illusion under delayed visual feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rubber hand illusion (RHI is a subject's illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that was touched synchronously with their own hand. Although previous studies have confirmed that this illusion disappears when the rubber hand was touched asynchronously with the subject's hand, the minimum temporal discrepancy of these two events for attenuation of RHI has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, various temporal discrepancies between visual and tactile stimulations were introduced by using a visual feedback delay experimental setup, and RHI effects in each temporal discrepancy condition were systematically tested. The results showed that subjects felt significantly greater RHI effects with temporal discrepancies of less than 300 ms compared with longer temporal discrepancies. The RHI effects on reaching performance (proprioceptive drift showed similar conditional differences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results first demonstrated that a temporal discrepancy of less than 300 ms between visual stimulation of the rubber hand and tactile stimulation to the subject's own hand is preferable to induce strong sensation of RHI. We suggest that the time window of less than 300 ms is critical for multi-sensory integration processes constituting the self-body image.

  17. Valorisation of Proteins from Rubber Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani,; Coulen, Stef C.W.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the availability, possible applications, and economic potential of proteins that are present in different parts of the rubber tree. Proteins from non-food sources can be used in e.g. animal feed or biochemicals production with no or little

  18. Boundary lubrication of glass: rubber sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Lossie, C.M.; Bommel, K.J.C. van; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer brush coatings represent a promising class of coatings for friction control [1], especially in a humid environment [2]. A study on the feasibility of a specific class of polymer brush coatings [5] was done for a sliding system that involves ‘silicon skin L7350’: a silicon rubber used by FIFA

  19. Chlorinated rubbers with advanced properties for tire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates the production and processing of halide-modified chlorinated rubbers, such as isobutylene isoprene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber (IIR and EPDM), which are perspective in terms of application in rubber industry. Prospects for their production and application are determined by the specific properties of these rubbers (low gas permeability of IIR, high heat and ozone resistance of EPDM). These properties are governed by the structure of both initial IIR and EPDM and chlorinated rubbers (ChIIR and ChEPDM). A new alternative technology of obtaining chlorinated elastomers based on solid-phase mechanochemical halide modification is proposed. Novel chlorinated polyolefin rubbers obtained by the developed technology show good technological properties under industrial production conditions due to enhanced covulcanization.

  20. Prediction of direct and indirect genetic gains and genotypic correlations in rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters, genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and direct and indirect genetic gains among and within rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis progenies. The experiment was set up at the Municipality of Jaú, SP, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, with 22 treatments (progenies, 6 replicates, and 10 plants per plot at a spacing of 3x3 m. Three‑year‑old progenies were assessed for girth, rubber yield, and bark thickness by direct and indirect gains and genotypic correlations. The number of latex vessel rings showed the best correlations, correlating positively and significantly with girth and bark thickness. Selection gains among progenies were greater than within progeny for all the variables analyzed. Total gains obtained were high, especially for girth increase and rubber yield, which were 93.38 and 105.95%, respectively. Young progeny selection can maximize the expected genetic gains, reducing the rubber tree selection cycle.

  1. The development of in-process inventory walk-through examination system in the process at borrowing inspection between LEU fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norihito; Namekawa, Masaru; Owada, Isao; Kikuchi, Masaru; Kodani, Yoshiki; Nozawa, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Since the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) was designed the safeguards inspection organization by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in December 1999, the NMCC has been performing safeguards inspection for the Nuclear Facilities in Japan. The NMCC has carried out the safeguards inspections to LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants (FFPs) and the NMCC has improved the method of safeguards inspection as it has changed over to the integrated safeguards from the year of 2005. Concerning the Borrowing inspection between LEU FFPs, which is the precondition to change over to the integrated safeguards, it is needed to estimate the entire inventory in the facility within the limited time. Therefore, the NMCC has developed the system called IWES (In-process inventory Walk-through Examination System) to examine the inventory in process smoothly, quickly and correctly at borrowing inspection, check the entire inventory quantity and evaluate them. This report describes how IWES aiming at effective/efficient confirmation of in-process inventory has been developed and how it is applied to the borrowing inspection activities. (author)

  2. Assay of uranium in fused salt cake generated at the natural uranium metal fuel fabrication plants by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.; Bhanu, A.U.; Sahoo, S.; Iyer, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    A passive gamma-ray spectroscopic method is employed for the assay of uranium in fused salt cake, a scrap produced at the natural uranium metal fuel fabrication plants. The method makes use of NaI(TI) detector coupled with a multichannel analyser. The 1 MeV gamma-ray of 238 U was used for the calibration. The calibration curve was made by counting synthetic mixtures made of U 3 O 8 powder, the heat treatment salt and iron in the form of fine powder. The uranium content in these synthetic mixtures was kept in the range of 1-11 per cent. 23 lots of the fused salt cake taken from three different batches of the salt cake were then analysed by this method. The uranium content of fused salt cake was found to be in the range of 1.70-11.43 per cent. To compare the gamma spectrometric results with a completely independent method, chemical analysis of all the fused salt cakes were also carried out. The NDA results were found to agree within ± 17 per cent with the chemical analysis results. (author)

  3. A study on creep properties of laminated rubber bearings. Pt. 1. Creep properties and numerical simulations of thick rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi

    2000-01-01

    In this report, to evaluate creep properties and effects of creep deformation on mechanical properties of thick rubber bearings for three-dimensional isolation system, we show results of compression creep test for rubber bearings of various rubber materials and shapes and development of numerical simulation method. Creep properties of thick rubber bearings were obtained from compression creep tests. The creep strain shows steady creep that have logarithmic relationships between strain and time and accelerated creep that have linear relationships. We make numerical model of a rubber material with nonlinear viscoelastic constitutional equations. Mechanical properties after creep loading test are simulated with enough accuracy. (author)

  4. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  6. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vocht, F.; Sobala, W.; Wilczynska, U.; Kromhout, H.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Peplonska, B.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a 60 Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation

  8. Advanced fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Plant is a multipurpose nuclear facility located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. The facility is part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. The Fuel Cycle Plant is currently being prepared to support the Liquid Metal Reactors Program with fuel fabrication services for the Fast Flux Test Facility and other LMR programs. This report describes the technical innovations to be utilized in the operation of this plant

  9. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondal Rao, N

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power program in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned.

  10. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondal Rao, N.

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power programme in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  12. Crescimento, parâmetros biofísicos e aspectos anatômicos de plantas jovens de seringueira inoculadas com fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum Growth, biophysical parameters and anatomical aspects of young rubber tree plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus clarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fabian de Araújo Diniz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos são reconhecidamente benéficos quando em associação às plantas por favorecerem seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Apesar de pouco comum para a seringueira, a inoculação artificial de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs tem se mostrado uma alternativa para a redução no uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas nas culturas, bem como para a formação de mudas, visando obtenção de porta-enxertos precoces e bem nutridos. O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da inoculação do FMA Glomus clarum no crescimento e características biofísicas e anatômicas de plantas jovens de seringueira. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas inoculadas com o fungo Glomus clarum adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (mic+50P, plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+50P e plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 500 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+500P. Constatou-se que as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram altura e diâmetro dos caules, matéria seca da parte aérea, densidade estomática e área foliar, semelhantes às plantas s/mic+500P. Maior acúmulo de matéria seca de raiz, maior taxa de transpiração, menor resistência estomática e menor temperatura foliar foram observadas para as plantas micorrizadas. As análises anatômicas das raízes evidenciam a ocorrência de alterações no tecido vascular, com aumento no número de pólos de xilema das raízes das plantas micorrizadas.Mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial when associated with plants because they favor growth and develop. Although infrequent, artificial inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF has become an alternative to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides in crops, as well as for the formation of seedlings, to obtain precocious and well fed rootstocks. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation of AMF Glomus clarum on growth and biophysical and anatomical characteristics of young rubber trees. The treatments consist of plants

  13. Molecular identification and characterization of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene family associated with latex regeneration and stress response in rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-02-01

    In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  15. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered

  16. Assessment of an action against environmental noise: Acoustic durability of a pavement surface with crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, V F; Luong, J; Bueno, M; Terán, F; Paje, S E

    2016-01-15

    Environmental noise is a worldwide problem that has an adverse effect in the quality of life of urban population. Some work has shown that there is a correlation between environmental noise and health issues as sleep disturbance or annoyance. This study presents the time evolution of a test track fabricated with an asphalt mixture with 20% of crumb rubber by weight of bitumen, added by the wet process. A complete surface characterization has been performed by determining tire/pavement sound levels, road texture profiles, in-situ dynamic stiffness and sound absorption of compacted and extracted sample cores. Two measurement campaigns were performed: just after mixture laying and after 3 years in service. This study confirms that the use of crumb rubber as a modifier of bituminous binders (CRMB) can improve the pavement characteristics: gap-graded mixtures with crumb rubber can be used in the action plans as urban rehabilitation measure to fight noise pollution. However, this noise reduction seems to decrease with age at a rate of approximately 0.15 dB(A) per year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51 was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups of lignin during the curing process of rubber compounds, as was particularly evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies and maximum torque of the curing analysis. The existence of lignin-F51 networks were also detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The structure of the SBR/lignin/F51 was also characterized by rubber process analyzer (RPA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and determination of crosslinking density. Due to rigid lignin-F51 networks achieved in SBR/lignin/F51 composites, it was found that the hardness, modulus, tear strength, crosslinking density, the temperature of 5 and 10% weight-loss were significantly enhanced with the loading of F51.

  18. Self-Healing Natural Rubber with Tailorable Mechanical Properties Based on Ionic Supramolecular Hybrid Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Huang, Xunhui; Chen, Yukun; Lin, Baofeng; Fu, Lihua

    2017-08-30

    In most cases, the strength of self-healing supramolecular rubber based on noncovalent bonds is in the order of KPa, which is a challenge for their further applications. Incorporation of conventional fillers can effectively enhance the strength of rubbers, but usually accompanied by a sacrifice of self-healing capability due to that the filler system is independent of the reversible supramolecular network. In the present work, in situ reaction of methacrylic acid (MAA) and excess zinc oxide (ZnO) was realized in natural rubber (NR). Ionic cross-links in NR matrix were obtained by limiting the covalent cross-linking of NR molecules and allowing the in situ polymerization of MAA/ZnO. Because of the natural affinity between Zn 2+ ion-rich domains and ZnO, the residual nano ZnO participated in formation of a reversible ionic supramolecular hybrid network, thus having little obstructions on the reconstruction of ionic cross-links. Meanwhile, the well dispersed residual ZnO could tailor the mechanical properties of NR by changing the MAA/ZnO molar ratios. The present study thus provides a simple method to fabricate a new self-healing NR with tailorable mechanical properties that may have more potential applications.

  19. Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

  20. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  1. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2013-09-01

    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry.

  2. Silicone rubber band for laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A H; Sealey, R M; Gay, J W; Kang, I

    1977-12-01

    In 1974, Yoon and associates (Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:132, 1974) described a new approach in which laparoscopic tubal occlusion was accomplished by utilizing the silicone rubber band technique. Recognizing the great advantages of the new technique in eliminating potential thermal injury associated with electrocoagulation, the authors have utilized the Yoon silicone rubber band technique in these institutions over the past 20 months. Thus far the procedure has been performed in 304 patients without any major complications. In the hope of eliminating and/or reducing possible pregnancy-failure rates, in 110 cases. In addition to application of the silicone band, the tube within the band was transected with non-electrical Seigler biopsy forceps. This, we believe, should provide an interesting long-term comparative study.

  3. Rubber acid damage in fire hoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaysen, A C; Bunker, H J; Adams, M E

    1945-03-17

    Hose failure observed in rubber-lined fire hoses may be due to sulfuric acid formed from sulfur present in hoses when they are not properly dried. Microorganisms were observed in numerous samples of hose liquid and as a result of the experiments which were carried it was concluded that: the production of rubber acid in hose is due to the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the Thiobacterium thiooxidans group. Such acid will invariably be formed when the hoses are stored with the linings wet, when the responsible bacteria are present and when the free sulfur content of the hoses exceeds 0.1 precent. The alternative of preventing the introduction of the causal bacteria does not appear practical since the water used in fire-fighting in the London district is taken from static supplies.

  4. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  5. Use of waste materials in rubber matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtášová Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the use of waste materials as ecological fillers into rubber matrix. Waste materials were used as partial replacement of the commercial filler – carbon black, designated as N339. These prepared rubber compounds were characterized on the basis of the rheology and vulcanization characteristics – minimum torque (ML, maximum torque (MH, optimum time of vulcanization (t(c90, processing safety of compound (ts, rate coefficient of vulcanization (Rv. In the case of the prepared vulcanizates, physical-mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensibility and hardness and dynamic-mechanical properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, loss angle tan δ were investigated. Using the dependency of loss angle on temperature, the selected properties for tyre tread vulcanizates were evaluated, including traction on snow and ice, traction on the wet surface and rolling resistance.

  6. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  7. Raman technique application for rubber blends characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitthipong, W.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has been employed in a number of studies to examine the morphological changes in a variety of materials. It is a non-destructive analysis method and an equally useful method for the investigation of material structure. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been developed to employ as an imaging instrumentation. Sample surface scanning in X- and Y-axis and sample depth (Z-axis can be carried out by modifying the focus of the laser beam from the Raman microscope. Therefore, three-dimensional images can be thus built by using special software. The surface and bulk properties of immiscible rubber blend were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy were in good agreement with those of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The combination of Raman spectrometry and SEM clearly elucidates the identification of phases between the dispersed phase and the matrix (continuous phase of the immiscible rubber blends.

  8. Center for emergency response at the ENUSA fuel fabrication plant in Juzbado; El centro de gestion de las emergencias de la fabrica de combustible nuclear de ENUSA en Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Perez, C.; Romano, A.

    2016-08-01

    Effective emergency preparedness and management is critical for a safe exploitation of nuclear installations like the Enusa fuel fabrication plant. In 2012, an important project was carried out at the plant which enlarged and remodeled the Emergency Room used until then to give response to the Internal Emergency Plan postulated scenarios. This project was motivated after carefully analyzing the results of audits, inspections and operation experience as well as after studying the conclusions of the Fukushima accident emergency management weaknesses. The new Center for Emergency Response, which hosts the plant control room, devoted to monitoring the plant safety systems on a constant basis, greatly improves both technical means available and operative procedures as well as human interactions during an emergency. This paper describes the most relevant technical features of this Center, the safety systems which support its operation and the emergency management process that takes place in it. (Author)

  9. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory, E-mail: sfaldini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mauroterence@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  10. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  11. Development of rubber material for high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Sadayoshi; Tabasaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Generally flexible polymeric materials exposed to radiation can't be used because they soften or harden remarkably in high radiation environment. Aromatic polymers such as PEEK, PI, and PES are also known as radiation-proof polymeric materials. Aromatic polymers are very hard, they can't be used for products like a packing where flexibility is required. We developed a new vulcanized rubber compound by the use of various additives and polymer blend. This developed rubber compound has a high radiation-proof performance by reaction balance of cross-linking and decomposition in this rubber. This rubber compound has a rubber elasticity even if exposed to radiation of MGy level, and its radiation proof is more than 5 times as high as conventional polymeric materials. This rubber compound is much more flexible than the aromatic polymers which are the used as conventional radiation-proof polymers. (author)

  12. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations

  13. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science Fukushima University, 1 Kanayakawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)], E-mail: tei@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shimadakun@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-21

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  14. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  16. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  17. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Sta.Ana-Relleve, L.P.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.O.; Pascual, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to irradiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated latices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI 60 Co irradiation facility at a dose rate of 2.57 kGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strengths which varied from 2-11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 o -377 o C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose was increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubbe latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 1000 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% , and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the INRL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL films were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry, TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization

  18. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  19. The enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Parthenium argentatum Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, C.R.; Madhavan, S.; Greenblatt, G.A.; Venkatachalam, K.V.; Foster, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Washed rubber particles isolated from stem homogenates of Parthenium argentatum Gray by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on columns of LKB Ultrogel AcA34 contain rubber transferase which catalyzes the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer. The polymerization reaction requires Mg 2+ isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and an allylic pyrophosphate. The K m values for Mg 2+ , isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate were 5.2 x 10 -4 molar, 8.3 x 10 -5 molar, and 9.6 x 10 -5 molar, respectively. The molecular characteristics of the rubber polymer synthesized from [ 14 C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate were examined by gel permeation chromatography. The peak molecular weight of the radioactive polymer increased from 70,000 in 15 minutes to 750,000 in 3 hours. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer synthesized over a 3 hour period was 1.17 x 10 6 compared to 1.49 x 10 6 for the natural rubber polymer extracted from the rubber particles. Over 90% of the in vitro formation of the rubber polymer was de novo from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of the washed rubber particles with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate solubilized the rubber transferase. The solubilized enzyme(s) catalyzed the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer with a peak molecular weight of 1 x 10 5 after 3 hours of incubation with Mg 2+ and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. The data support the conclusion that the soluble preparation of rubber transferase is capable of catalyzing the formation of a high molecular weight rubber polymer from an allylic pyrophosphate initiator and isopentenyl pyrophosphate monomer

  20. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  1. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  2. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  3. Modification of rubber surface by UV surface grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Kim, Jin Kuk; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2006-01-01

    Rubber surface is subjected to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the presence of allylamine and radiation sensitizer benzophenone (BP). Fourier transform infrared spectral studies reveal the presence of allylamine on the surface. The presence of irregular needle shapes on the surface as observed in scanning electron micrographs also confirms the polymerized allylamine on the surface. Allylamine coatings have been further confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that allylamine coating on the rubber surface lowers the thermal degradation rate. The contact angle between the water and rubber surface decreases for the modified rubber surface confirming the surface modification due to UV surface grafting

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  5. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  6. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  7. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  8. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  9. Evaluation of diagnostic technique for degradation of low-voltage electric cables with silicone rubber insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Masao

    2005-01-01

    As a part of countermeasures against ageing problems of nuclear power plants, it is requested to establish non-destructive diagnostic technique for their degradation of low voltage electric cables and assessment standard of their life. Having aimed at investigating the degradation of low-voltage electric cable with silicone rubber insulator, change of its surface hardness at elevated temperature were measured by indenter modules. Moreover, we also measured the elongation at break, which is regarded as general degradation index of electric cables, and the surface hardness with a micro hardness meter. Consequently, it is seen that the indenter modulus measurement is (1) capable to obtain general feature of the thermal degradation of silicone rubber insulator, (2) applicable to diagnose the degree of degradation of the electric cable by converting the result to elongation at break, (3) well correlated with the hardness measurement of the electric cable with the micro hardness meter. (author)

  10. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  11. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Alloza, A.M.; Gallego, J.

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR) mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability. [es

  12. A study on the design method of the laminated rubber bearing for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Ishida, K.; Ikeuchi, K.; Yashiro, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan) has been carrying out the Demonstration Test and Research Program of the Seismic Isolation System for the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) under contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (FY1987--FY1993). In this research program, development of the seismic isolation element, reliability evaluation of the seismic isolation system, and examination of a design-based earthquake have been conducted in order to develop and propose design guidelines of seismic isolation system for FBR plant. The purpose of this paper is to describe the test results concerned with structural design of the laminated rubber bearing, and to explain the construction of the design method for the laminated rubber bearing, which is one of the most important factors in the design guidelines of the seismic isolation system

  13. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  14. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Abad, Lucille V.; Sta, Lorna P.; Ana-Relleve; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito O.; Pascual, Cristina L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to radiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated lattices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao Island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI sup 60 Co irradiation facility at dose rate of 2.57 KGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strength which varied from 2 - 11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25 - 32 MPa at a radiation dose of 15 kGy. Higher tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 degree C - 377 degree C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubber latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 100 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the IRNL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL film were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry. TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex

  15. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  16. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    OpenAIRE

    Kannikar Kwanming; Pairote Klinpituksa; Wae-asae Waehamad

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR) was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR) prior obtained from LNR with formic...

  17. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions.

  18. Wave bandgap formation and its evolution in two-dimensional phononic crystals composed of rubber matrix with periodic steel quarter-cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Guan; Luo, Dong; Cao, Xiaoshan

    2018-02-01

    The band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal, which is composed of four homogenous steel quarter-cylinders immersed in rubber matrix, is investigated and compared with the traditional steel/rubber crystal by the finite element method (FEM). It is revealed that the frequency can then be tuned by changing the distance between adjacent quarter-cylinders. When the distance is relatively small, the integrality of scatterers makes the inner region inside them almost motionless, so that they can be viewed as a whole at high-frequencies. In the case of relatively larger distance, the interaction between each quarter-cylinder and rubber will introduce some new bandgaps at relatively low-frequencies. Lastly, the point defect states induced by the four quarter-cylinders are revealed. These results will be helpful in fabricating devices, such as vibration insulators and acoustic/elastic filters, whose band frequencies can be manipulated artificially.

  19. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea.

  20. Effect of maleated natural rubber on tensile strength and compatibility of natural rubber/coconut coir composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Noviyanti, R.; Wijaya, R.; Ramadhoni, B.

    2017-07-01

    Natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CF) composites were fabricated using co-rotating twin screw extruder with maleated NR (MNR) used as compatibilizer. The MNR was produced at three level of maleic anhydride (MA), and analyzed qualitative and quantitatively using FTIR and titration technique. Analysis on MNR using FTIR and titration methods showed that MA was grafted on NR chain at different percentage (0.76, 2.23, 4.79%) depended on MA concentration. Tensile strength data showed the best tensile strength was produced at 7 phr of MNR with 1 phr of MA level in MNR resulting 16.4 MPa. The improvement of compatibilized samples were more than 300% compare to uncompatibilized composite attributed to better interfacial bonding. The improvement on tensile strength was significantly influenced by MNR level and amount of MA added to produce MNR, as well as their interaction. The optimum conditions for producing NR-CF composite were predicted at 6.5 phr of MNR level with 1 phr of MA concentration added in MNR production, regardless screw rotation settings. Results from verification experiments confirm that developed model was capable of describing phenomena during composite preparation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy shows smooth covered fiber in compatibilized samples than that of without MNR. The morphology also showed less voids on compatibilized samples attributed to better interfacial bonding leading to tensile strength improvement.

  1. Optimization of mechanical performance of oxidative nano-particle electrode nitrile butadiene rubber conducting polymer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Park, S J; Cho, M S; Lee, Y; Nam, J D; Choi, H R; Koo, J C

    2009-12-01

    Present work delivers a systematical evaluation of actuation efficiency of a nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator fabricated based on Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Attempts are made for maximizing mechanical functionality of the nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator that can be driven in the air. As the conducting polymer polypyrrole of the actuator is to be fabricated through a chemical oxidation polymerization process that may impose certain limitations on both electrical and mechanical functionality of the actuator, a coordinated study for optimization process of the actuator is necessary for maximizing its performance. In this article actuation behaviors of the nano-particle electrode polypyrrole conducting polymer is studied and an optimization process for the mechanical performance maximization is performed.

  2. Proceedings of the Rubber Association of Canada's 7. biennial 2006 rubber recycling symposium : changing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Rising energy costs and concerns over the environment have contributed to a renewed focus on recycling for many governments and industries. This conference examined recent trends affecting rubber recycling activities as well as the legislative environment and its impacts on future recycling activities. Major rubber recycling markets were reviewed, and emerging product ideas were evaluated. Industry stewardship model and governance models were discussed. The impacts of new advances in tire technology and manufacturing on the rubber recycling industry were also investigated. Issues concerning fixed tipping fees and incentive structures were discussed, and effective management strategies for the recycling of large off-the-road tires were evaluated. Tire-derived fuel (TDF) is the largest market in North America for scrap tires, and TDF may continue to grow as a result of rising fossil fuel costs. Issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF to new communities were discussed. New developments in tire derived aggregates (TDA) and ground rubber were also reviewed. Twenty-eight presentations were given at this conference, 3 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.

  4. Secure Automated Fabrication: an overview of remote breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is an automated, remotely controlled breeder fuel pin fabrication process which is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at Hanford and is scheduled for completion in 1984. The SAF line is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium-plutonium fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The fabrication line and support systems are described

  5. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping rubber trees for valuable proteins will be more profitable compared to other options. The technologies have been developed and only needs to be adapted to our local conditions. It is hoped that this paper will be instructive to rubber farmers, policy makers, executors of policies or citizens wishing to join the Nigerian ...

  6. Research and Application Progress of Silicone Rubber Materials in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of heat resistance, cold resistance, electrical conductivity and damping properties of aviation silicone rubber were reviewed in this article. The heat resistance properties of silicone rubber can be enhanced by changing the molecular structure (main chain, end-group, side chain and molecular weight of the gum and adding special heat-resistance filler. The cold resistance of aviation silicone rubber can be enhanced by adjusting the side chain molecular structure of the gum and the content of different gum chain. The electrical conductivity of silicone rubber can be improved by optimizing, blending and dispersing of conductive particles. The damping property of silicone rubber can be improved by designing and synthesizing of high-molecular polysiloxane damping agent. Furthermore, the application of aviation silicone rubber used in high-low temperature seal, electrical conduction and vibration damping technology are also summarized, and the high performance (for example long-term high temperature resistance, ultralow temperature resistance, high electromagnetic shelding, long-term fatigue resistance vibration damping, quasi constant modulus and so on of special silicone rubber is the future direction of aviation silicone rubber.

  7. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  8. Influence of Plasma Treatments on the Frictional Performance of Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuizen, D.J.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    The frictional performance of several rubbers after pulsed-DC plasma treatments has been examined. In all cases, the treated rubbers showed better performance than the corresponding untreated ones. Stronger treatments, in terms of longer process time and/or higher substrate bias voltage, led to

  9. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  10. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  11. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  12. Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in South African dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen latex examination gloves (powdered and non-powdered) and five dental rubber dams, representing 6 brands, from five dental academic institutions were analysed for latex allergens and total protein. Total protein content was determined using the BioRad DC protein assay kit and natural rubber allergen levels ...

  13. Flexible diamond-like carbon film coated on rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Pal, J.P. van der; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  14. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  15. Acceptable knowledge summary report for combustible/noncombustible, metallic, and HEPA filter waste resulting from 238Pu fabrication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Foxx, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste must be sufficiently characterized and certified before it is shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization. EPA uses the term AK in its guidance document and defines AK and provides guidelines on how acceptable knowledge should be obtained and documented. This AK package has been prepared in accordance with Acceptable Knowledge Documentation (TWCP-QP-1.1-021,R.2). This report covers acceptable knowledge information for five waste streams generated at TA-55 during operations to fabricate various heat sources using feedstock 238 Pu supplied by the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 238 Pu feedstock itself does not contain quantities of RCRA-regulated constituents above regulatory threshold limits, as known from process knowledge at SRS and as confirmed by chemical analysis. No RCRA-regulated chemicals were used during 238 Pu fabrication activities at TA-55, and all 238 Pu activities were physically separated from other plutonium processing activities. Most of the waste generated from the 238 Pu fabrication activities is thus nonmixed waste, including waste streams TA-55-43, 45, and 47. The exceptions are waste streams TA-55-44, which contains discarded lead-lined rubber gloves used in the gloveboxes that contained the 238 Pu material, and TA-55-46, which may contain pieces of discarded lead. These waste streams have been denoted as mixed because of the presence of the lead-containing material

  16. Radiation response of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Ana-Relleve, L.S.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.; Pascual, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Our earlier work has shown that the natural rubber latex (NRL) produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization. The cast films from NRL with 50% TSC exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25-32 MPa at 15 kGy, which is the vulcanization dose or Dv. In the manufacture of dipped NRL products, certain specifications such as %TSC, protein content and tensile properties, must be met to ensure an acceptable product. For radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) to be accepted as an alternative process, it must also meet the requirements. Thus, this paper presents additional data on the radiation response of local NRL at different total solids contents (TSC), leachable proteins from NRL films as a function of dose, and the thermal activities of irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL). Different formulations of NRL showed varying tolerances to nBA. Data showed that as %TSC increases, the maximum concentration of nBA that can be added without affecting the stability of the latex decreases. The Dv increases as the %TSC increases and the nBA content decreases. This difference in response may be attributed to a lower concentration of nBA in formulations with higher %TSC. These data indicate that the parameters in the radiation treatment will be dictated by the intended applications of INRL. The thermogravimetric data showed greater stability of INRL to thermal oxidation relative to the unirradiated NRL, which correlates directly with the tensile properties of the INRL. A radiation dose of 10 kGy increased the amount of proteins leached from cast latex films. The amount of extractable proteins did not increase significantly at higher doses. The SDS PAGE analysis of the extractable proteins from unirradiated latex film showed distinct bands. An additional band at 60 Kda appeared at 10 kGy. All these bands became diffuse at higher doses, indicating the radiolysis of the proteins

  17. Hacking Experiment Using USB Rubber Ducky Scripting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cannoles

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available By leaving your computer unlocked while you are away for seconds can give hackers all the time they need to obtain your personal information from your computer. This paper aims to detail the necessary research and development of a USB Rubber Ducky script, to obtain clear text logon id and passwords from a Windows machine, in mere seconds. Each stage is laid out in sections discussing Ducky script, powershell, Mimikatz, and reenabling the vulnerability by breaking down the attack into two parts for Windows 7 and up operating systems.

  18. Filled liquid silicone rubbers: Possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    2014-01-01

    to ensure better particle dispersion as well as folllowing for film formation properties. We show that the mechanical properties of the films as well as the electrical breakdown strength can be affected, and that the control of the amount of solvent throughout the coating process is essential for solvent......Liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs) have been shown to possess very favorable properties as dielectric electroactive polymers due to their very high breakdown strengths (up to 170 V/μm) combined with their fast response, relatively high tear strength, acceptable Young’s modulus as well as they can...

  19. Radiation stability of plastics and rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchon, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    The accompanying bar charts have been prepared from several sources in response to many requests for information on the effect of ionising radiation on organic polymers. The bar charts give some indications of the radiation life of the three main divisions of useful organic polymers; in descending order of radiation stability, thermosets, thermoplastics and rubbers. They are based on change in mechanical properties when the materials are irradiated at room temperature in air and are applicable to #betta#, #betta#-radiation, x-rays and accelerated electrons. (author)

  20. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol bin Wan Zin; Norjanah binti Mohid

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental techniques and the results of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex carried out on several high ammonia latices available in the country. The efficiency of various sensitisers and stabilisers used were evaluated in terms of the gamma radiation dose required to produce the maximum tensile strengths. The extent of crosslinking of RVNRL sample films were estimated by equilibrium swelling ratio measurements. The stability of pre-irradiated and post-irradiated samples were monitored using viscosity measurements as the parameter

  1. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  2. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  3. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  4. New type of liquid rubber and compositions based on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semikolenov, S V; Nartova, A V; Voronchikhin, V D; Dubkov, K A

    2014-11-01

    The new method for producing the functionalized polymers and oligomers containing carbonyl C=O groups is developed. The method is based on the noncatalytic oxidation of unsaturated rubbers by nitrous oxide (N2O) at 180-230 °С. The proposed method allows obtaining the new type of functionalized rubbers-liquid unsaturated polyketones with regulated molecular weight and concentration of C=O groups. The influence of the liquid polyketone addition on properties of rubber-based composites is investigated. The study indicates good prospects of using the liquid polyketones for the improvement of properties and operating characteristics of the various types of rubbers and the rubber-cord systems.

  5. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  6. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  7. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  8. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  9. Reinforcing effect of plasma modified halloysite nanotubes in a carbon black filled natural rubber-butadien rubber matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    Rubber composites are generally produced by the direct incorporation of fillers like carbon black and/or silica into the rubber matrix. The incorporation of different types of nanofillers is the subject of recent research with the aim of preparing composites with special compositions and properties.

  10. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Nylon-6/rubber blends: 6. Notched tensile impact testing of nylon-6(ethylene-propylene rubber) blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Krijn; Dijkstra, K.; ter Laak, J.A.; ter Laak, J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviour of nylon-6/EPR (ethylene-propylene rubber) blends is studied as a function of strain rate and rubber content. Therefore, tensile experiments are conducted on notched specimens over a broad range of draw speeds (including strain rates as encountered in normal

  12. The data acquisition system for the management of nuclear materials involved in the fabrication of MOX fuel at the Cogema plant in Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crousilles, M.; Beche, M.; Dalverny, G.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the follow-up system of all the nuclear materials that are involved in the industrial process of MOX fuel fabrication. This system, called Concerto, allows the management of MOX fabrication but also of any nuclear material transfer and of the stockpile of nuclear materials with taking into account their own specificity such as the risk of criticality. Operators that intervene on the different steps of the fabrication process, supply Concerto with information so Concerto can be considered as a near real-time system providing and recording the localization, the composition, the weight, the container,... of any batch of nuclear materials. Concerto complies with the requirements of quality assurance but also of nuclear safety by forbidding any transfer whenever the maximal authorized quantity would be exceeded. (A.C.)

  13. Shaking table test and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer rubber bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fujimoto, Shigeru [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated under various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the results of the shaking table tests and dynamic response analysis. (author)

  14. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  15. Evaluation of polybutadiene rubbers using FTIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.N.; Schimidt, F., E-mail: lucas@ifg.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (IFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Antonio, P.L.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vieira, S.L. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-09-01

    Radiation dosimetry for medical and industrial purposes has increasingly evolved over the last few decades with the introduction of various new detectors. Depending on the properties exhibited for radiation dosimetry, some detectors present their applications in a specific area. From a physics point of view, an ideal dosimeter should be able to measure absorbed dose. In this work, synthetic materials based on polybutadiene rubbers (PBR) were proposed as a new class of radiation detectors. The influence of radiation dose on their properties has been investigated for application in radiation dosimetry. The rubber samples were exposed to absorbed doses from 10 Gy up to 250 Gy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system. Their responses were carried out with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer to investigate the presence of absorbance peaks. The results suggested the existence of a relationship between the absorbed doses and the absorbance peaks associated with stretching (1300-1200 cm{sup -1}), deformation (1450-1340 cm{sup -1}) and vibration (1500-1400 cm{sup -1}) processes in the material. (author)

  16. Evaluation of polybutadiene rubbers using FTIR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.N.; Schimidt, F.; Antonio, P.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Vieira, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for medical and industrial purposes has increasingly evolved over the last few decades with the introduction of various new detectors. Depending on the properties exhibited for radiation dosimetry, some detectors present their applications in a specific area. From a physics point of view, an ideal dosimeter should be able to measure absorbed dose. In this work, synthetic materials based on polybutadiene rubbers (PBR) were proposed as a new class of radiation detectors. The influence of radiation dose on their properties has been investigated for application in radiation dosimetry. The rubber samples were exposed to absorbed doses from 10 Gy up to 250 Gy, using a "6"0Co Gamma Cell-220 system. Their responses were carried out with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer to investigate the presence of absorbance peaks. The results suggested the existence of a relationship between the absorbed doses and the absorbance peaks associated with stretching (1300-1200 cm"-"1), deformation (1450-1340 cm"-"1) and vibration (1500-1400 cm"-"1) processes in the material. (author)

  17. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  18. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  19. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  20. Laterality in the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Rüther, Naima; Peterburs, Jutta; Pinnow, Marlies; Güntürkün, Onur

    2011-03-01

    In patient studies, impairments of sense of body ownership have repeatedly been linked to right-hemispheric brain damage. To test whether a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership could also be observed in healthy adults, the rubber hand illusion was elicited on both hands of 21 left-handers and 22 right-handers. In this illusion, a participant's real hand is stroked while hidden from view behind an occluder, and a nearby visible hand prosthesis is repeatedly stroked in synchrony. Most participants experience the illusionary perception of touch sensations arising from the prosthesis. The vividness of the illusion was measured by subjective self-reports as well as by skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed. Handedness did not affect the vividness of the illusion, but a stronger skin conductance response was observed, when the illusion was elicited on the left hand. These findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership in healthy adults.

  1. Fabrication technology of spherical fuel element for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun; Zou Yanwen; Liang Tongxiang; Qiu Xueliang

    2002-01-01

    R and D on the fabrication technology of the spherical fuel elements for the 10 MW HTR Test Module (HTR-10) began from 1986. Cold quasi-isostatic molding with a silicon rubber die is used for manufacturing the spherical fuel elements.The fabrication technology and the graphite matrix materials were investigated and optimized. Twenty five batches of fuel elements, about 11000 of the fuel elements, have been produced. The cold properties of the graphite matrix materials satisfied the design specifications. The mean free uranium fraction of 25 batches was 5 x 10 -5

  2. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  3. FY 1979 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Fabrication designs for a solar thermal power pilot plant with curved-surface type light-collecting system (Part 1); 1979 nendo taiyonetsu hatsuden (kyokumen shuko hoshiki) seika hokokusho. 1. Pilot plant no seisaku ksekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This report describes basic and fabrication design specifications for operation and control of a solar thermal power pilot plant with curved-surface type light-collecting system, centered by computer for the plant control. Chapter I, basic fabrication design specifications, describes the general, design specifications and design scope. Chapter II, system design specifications, describes plant operating manuals, computer-aided plant control, computer-aided data processing for plant control, and analysis of system characteristics. Chapter III, hardware specifications, describes the specifications of central processing unit (CPU), fixed head disc device (M DISC), console inputting/outputting device, process inputting/outputting device, logging typewriter, process display (CRT), cassette magnetic tape device, operator console, relay cubicle, power source panel for computer, and hardware lists. Chapter IV, attachments, contains the following documents: plant operating manuals, operation procedure flow charts, control processing specifications, control function specifications, APS console function specifications, computer inputting/outputting point list, and data processing function instructions. The attachment documents are also contained in Part 2 of JN0040512. (NEDO)

  4. Verification of Interactions between Silica and Epoxidized Squalene as a Model for Epoxidized Natural Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, Wisut; Sahakaro, Kannika; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmodified squalene (Sq) and epoxidised squalene (ESq), as models for natural rubber and epoxidised natural rubber, were mixed with silica in a reactor at 140 – 145ºC, which corresponds to the optimal mixing dump temperature of silica-filled natural rubber or epoxidised natural rubber compounds. The

  5. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  6. The Rubber Hand Illusion Revisited: Visuotactile Integration and Self-Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked, while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, may cause the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body, to "feel like it's my hand." A behavioral measure of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a drift of the perceived position of one's own hand toward the rubber hand. The authors investigated (a) the…

  7. Pemanfaatan Silika Abu Sekam Padi sebagai Bahan Pengisi Rubber Membrane Filter Press untuk Memisahkan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to obtain rubber membrane filter press (RMFP) from natural rubber (NR) as well as synthetic rubber (chloroprene rubber and nytrike butadiene rubber). The research method was done my vulcanizing natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and filler to shape RMFP. Research formulation was done with 8 units of experiments using variations of mixers that have been pre-determined. The examination to the RMFP was done with ASTM test methods that cover parameters such as viscometer mo...

  8. Elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of carbon nanotubes: a novel way of fabricating high performance elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Siwu; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art processes cannot achieve rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with satisfactory performance by using pristine MWCNTs and conventional processing equipment. In this work, high performance rubber/MWCNT composites featuring a combination of good mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivities and damping capacity over a wide temperature range are fabricated based on a well-developed master batch process. It is demonstrated that the MWCNTs are dispersed homogeneously due to the disentanglement induced by well-wetting and shearing, and the elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of the MWCNTs by rubber chains via the novel processing method. To further enhance the efficacy of elastic-resilience-induced dispersion for MWCNTs, a slightly pre-crosslinked network is constructed in the master batch. Consequently, we obtain rubber/MWCNT composites with unprecedented performance by amplifying the reinforcing effect of relatively low MWCNT loading. This work provides a novel insight into the fabrication of high performance functional elastomeric composites with pristine CNTs by taking advantage of the unique elastic resilience of rubber chains as the driving force for the disentanglement of CNTs. (paper)

  9. An efficient DNA isolation method for tropical plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    walkinnet

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... 2Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. ... yielded high-quality DNA from 10 tropical plants including cassava, rubber tree, banana, etc. ..... Major Projects (GrantNo.

  10. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Rubber Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, ... important crops, most of which are heliophilous plants of ... spacing of 4 m and 20 m gap between double rows. ... Data analysis.

  11. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  12. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C. [Center of Excellence on Natural Rubber Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content were measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.

  13. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  14. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  15. their use as Accelerator in Curing Process of Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. taghvaee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In some special cases, rubber compounds with high amounts of unsaturated elastomer are recommended with organic sulfur donors instead of mineral sulfurs. In this condition, activated sulfur is produced in situ and curingprocess is facilitated without accelerators. Organic sulfur donor compounds have low thermal stability and in the vulcanization temperature produce free and activated sulfurs. The advantages of these compounds are:1. High effectiveness of curing agent in low quantities in rubber compounds manufacturing.2. Producing activated sulfurs in controlled condition and avoiding the over curing of rubber compounds.In this report the novel synthesis of some derivatives of diamino-disulfides which can be applied as sulfur donors in vulcanization of special rubber compounds is introduced. The key process is reaction of sulfurmonochloride with amines in petroleum ether as solvent in low temperature. Dithio-dimorpholine(DTDM, dithio-dipipyridyl (DTDP, dithio-bis dibutylamine (DTBDB and dithio-bisdiisopropyl amine (DTBDI were prepared according to this method. All products thus obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The effects of accelerating and sulfur donoring of all prepared agents were detected in rubber compounds with natural and synthetic rubber bases. All physical, chemical, reological and mechanical properties of rubber compounds based on prepared sulfur donors were characterized.

  16. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  17. Forecasting Natural Rubber Price In Malaysia Using Arima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Fatin Z.; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains introduction, materials and methods, results and discussions, conclusions and references. Based on the title mentioned, high volatility of the price of natural rubber nowadays will give the significant risk to the producers, traders, consumers, and others parties involved in the production of natural rubber. To help them in making decisions, forecasting is needed to predict the price of natural rubber. The main objective of the research is to forecast the upcoming price of natural rubber by using the reliable statistical method. The data are gathered from Malaysia Rubber Board which the data are from January 2000 until December 2015. In this research, average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) will be forecast by using Box-Jenkins approach. Time series plot is used to determine the pattern of the data. The data have trend pattern which indicates the data is non-stationary data and the data need to be transformed. By using the Box-Jenkins method, the best fit model for the time series data is ARIMA (1, 1, 0) which this model satisfy all the criteria needed. Hence, ARIMA (1, 1, 0) is the best fitted model and the model will be used to forecast the average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) for twelve months ahead.

  18. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Moustafa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of natural rubber (NR with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up using benzene as a solvent. Thermal measurements namely thermogravimetric analysis were carried out. The results indicated that the addition of NR has improved the properties of NR / SBR blends. Also NR/SBR blend is thermally stable than NR alone.

  20. Natural rubber/high density polyethylene/ground rubber composites vulcanized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, N.A.; Abou zeid, M.M.; Khalil, A.M.; El Miligy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was blended mechanically with 50 phr high density polyethylene (HDPE). the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of NR/HDPE blend and its composites with different contents of ground tire rubber (GTR) before and after exposure to gamma irradiation to various doses up to 250 kGy were studied. Also, the change in structure morphology of irradiated NR/HDPE blend as well as NR/HDPE/GTR composites was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the substitution of a part of virgin NR with GTR decreases the mechanical and physical properties but not to the extent of deterioration . However, it was found that the mechanical and physical properties were improved after gamma irradiation . Composite of NR/GTR/HDPE (75/25/50) showed good properties. Scanning electron microscope showed homogeneity between the irradiated composites ingredients.

  1. Functionalization of Liquid Natural Rubber via Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhawati Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR is a high molecular weight natural polymer and can be degraded to liquid natural rubber (LNR leaving certain functional groups at the end of chains. In this study, LNR samples prepared via oxidative degradation using H2O2 and NaNO2 as reagents were found to have different end groups depending on the pH of the reaction medium. In an acidic medium, LNR with hydroxyl terminal groups was formed as the degradation reaction was initiated by hydroxyl radicals produced from decomposition of peroxynitrite acid. In contrast, a redox reaction took place in an alkaline medium to yield LNR with carbonyl terminal groups. The mechanisms of reaction are discussed and proposed to explain the formation of different end groups when reaction carried out in acidic and alkaline media. Chain degradation in an acidic medium seems to be more effective than in an alkaline medium, and thus yields LNR with lower Mn.

  2. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  3. The role of pressure in rubber elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A F; Weiner, J H

    2004-06-22

    We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy epsilon(LJ) and radius sigma(LJ). We calculate the difference stress t(11)-(t(22)+t(33))/2 and mean stress (t(11)+t(22)+t(33))/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x(1) direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density rho(*)=Nsigma(IJ) (3)/nu. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and nu is the cell volume. Results show that for rho(*)rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to rho(*)=1.2. For rho(*)>1, the system is entropic for kT/epsilon(LJ)>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as rho(*) increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for rho(*)=1.2 and kT/epsilon(LJ) approximately 2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution sigma(nbr)>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides sigma(nba) approximately 0, while the covalent bonds provide sigma(b)nbr)0, and Pi(b)nbr)=-APi(nbr)P(2)(theta(b)), sigma(b)=BPi(b)P(2)(theta(b)), where P(2)(theta(b)) is a measure of the anisotropy of the orientation of the covalent bonds, and A and B are coefficients that depend weakly on rho(*) and temperature. For high

  4. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Pornprasit, Rattapol; Pornprasit, Philaiwan; Boonma, Pruet; Natwichai, Juggapong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-...

  5. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2018-04-24

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 10 13 to 10 16 ions/cm². The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  6. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondyurin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  7. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  8. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  9. SUPPLY-CHAIN OF NATURAL RUBBER IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustanul Arifin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The study examines the supply chain of natural rubber production in Indonesia and assessing the transmission of prices to rubber growers and provides recommendations for a suitable scheme that would help to ensure high production standards and a sustainable return for natural rubber production.  The frameworks to examine the performance of supply chain of rubber marketing rely mostly on the efficiency level of marketing system of natural rubbers, including the value chain principles in marketing margin, and revealed price transmission from consumers to growers. The results show that the roles of subdistrict middlemen are extremely crucial in moving up the slabs from the village level to urban areas, where trader-brokers are expecting the slabs to be forwarded directly to crumb-rubber factories.  Changes in world price, hence the profits being accumulated by traders and rubber factories, are not transmitted properly to rubber farmers and/or sharetappers. Information asymmetry, the access over price information, and immediate response of rubber growers to the change in world price could explain this non-cointegration in price data between growers and exporters.  In the near future, the policy reforms in supply chain of natural rubber marketing in Indonesia should carefully address these issues in a more comprehensive manner.  Finally, in order to contribute to the positive environmental and social benefits, the major challenge for natural rubber

  10. Preparation and study of new rubber to steel adhesive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaj, I.; Ondrusova, D.; Dubec, A.; Pajtasova, M.; Kohutiar, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation of new rubber to steel adhesive systems using the steel surface treatment by applying the adhesive coats based on Co (II) and Cu(II) salts. For demonstration of coats chemical composition EDX analysis was used. The topography and microstructure of prepared adhesive coats were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Finally the efficiency of adhesion between rubber blends and coated metal steel pieces was evaluated according to Test ASTM D429 Rubber to metal adhesion, method A. The adhesive strength resulting values of prepared steel samples with new adhesive coats were compared with samples covered with adhesive systems commonly used in industry. (authors)

  11. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  12. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tiwen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Zheng [Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Substantiate the ring open reaction between Si-OH of silica and epoxy groups of ENR. • ENR can act as a bridge between NR and silica to enhance the interfacial interaction. • As a modifier, ENR gets the potential to be used in the tread of green tire for improving the wet skid resistance apparently. - Abstract: The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress–strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  13. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of magnetorheological elastomers based on Deproteinised natural rubber as smart damping materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nik Intan Nik; Kamaruddin, Shamsul

    2017-12-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are composite materials consist of micron-sized magnetizable particles carbonyl iron particles [CIPs]) embedded in a soft elastomer matrix. MRE technology offers variable stiffness and damping properties under the influence of a magnetic field. Herein, the feasibility of incorporating a new generation specialty rubber, Pureprena as a matrix for MREs was investigated. Pureprena or Deproteinised Natural Rubber (DPNR) is a specialty natural rubber that has good dynamic properties, particularly with respect to damping parameters. DPNR was compounded with 60 wt% of CIPs to fabricate MREs. The performance of the DPNR-based MRE was measured in terms of tensile strength, dynamic properties, and magnetorheological (MR) effect and compared with polyisoprene (IR)-based MRE with the same amount of CIPs. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) showed that the loss factor in the glass transition region of the DPNR-based MRE was higher than that of the IR-based MRE, indicating better damping properties. Further investigation was undertaken using a servo-hydraulic testing machine to characterise the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the dynamic properties (e.g. damping coefficient) of MREs at zero magnetic fields. The results demonstrate that DPNR-based MREs possess a comparable damping coefficient to that of IR-based MREs. In addition, MR effect, which relates to the ratio between elastic modulus with applied magnetic field (on-state) to the same modulus without applied fields (off-state), was measured using a parallel plate rheometer. As a result, DPNR-based MREs have improved MR effect than that of IR-based MREs. Moreover, variable stiffness is obtained when the magnetic field was increased to 0.8T. Loss factor or tan δ of MREs was found to vary against different magnetic fields. Finally, MREs with varied stiffness and damping were found to have potential as active control devices for smart damping materials.

  15. Investigation of the durability of anisotropic magnetorheological elastomers based on mixed rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W; Gong, X L; Fan, Y C; Jiang, W Q

    2010-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomer (MREs)-based devices often operate at cyclic loading and high temperature conditions, which may cause fatigue and aging problems of MRE materials. This paper investigates the durability properties of MRE materials based on a mixed matrix: cis-polybutadiene rubber (BR) and natural rubber (NR). Six MREs samples were fabricated and their mechanical properties under cyclic loading with a constant strain amplitude of 50% and different aging temperatures were measured. The absolute MR effect, storage modulus (G ' ) and loss modulus (G '' ) of MRE samples after cyclic loading and aging were evaluated by a modified dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The results revealed that the MR effect, G ' and G '' of all samples depended on the number of loading cycles, but samples which contained different ratios of two rubbers showed distinct properties. G ' and G '' of all samples which contained only BR change little, but G ' and G '' of samples which contained NR was large and decreased with the increment of the cycle number. Meanwhile, all their MR effects increased after cyclic loading. The results also revealed that the MR effect, G ' and G '' of all samples were dependent on the time of aging at different aging temperatures. G ' and G '' of all samples increased with the increment of aging time, but the properties of samples which contained more NR had better durability properties because their MR effect was higher and decreased more slowly than that of samples which contained more BR. The relationship between the durability properties, and cyclic loading and aging conditions were also analyzed

  16. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation that is presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is examined. Sampling difficulties including the inlet-probe arrangement and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are discussed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered. Monitoring requirements range from the detection of low-level, routine releases to high-level accidental releases. Both first and second kinds of detection errors are considered in a discussion of adequate detection limits. The presently deployed monitors are critically examined in this light and the drawbacks and limitations of each are noted. Prototype instrumentation is studied, including Argonne's mechanical separation technique, Battelle's mass separation by surface ionization method, and in particular, LLL's transuranic aerosol measurement system. The potentials, sensitivities, advantages, and limitations of each system are enumerated. The additional potential uses of the LLL system are also discussed

  17. Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rubber Packaging Materials and in Parenteral Formulations Stored in Bottles With Rubber Stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Viana, Carine; Barichello, Marcia M; de Moura, Juliane F; de Carvalho, Leandro M; Nascimento, Paulo C

    2017-08-01

    Rubber closures are the primary packaging material for sterile preparations intended for repeated use. Important features of rubber closures are achieved after additives are added to the elastomeric material that compounds the rubber. Among these additives is carbon black. Because of its origin, carbon black may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified 16 priority PAHs on the basis of concerns that they cause or might cause cancer in animals and humans. Regulatory agencies impose carbon black purity specifications based on limits for total PAHs (0.5 mg/kg) and benzo[a]pyrene (5 μg/kg) or benzo[a]pyrene only (250 μg/kg). PAHs in rubber packaging used for pharmaceutical formulations and in parenteral products stored in containers with rubber stoppers were investigated. To this end, the method proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection-was adapted to determine the levels of PAHs in rubber stoppers (gray and red) and in lipid emulsions and amino acid solutions stored in bottles with rubber stoppers. The rubber materials were shown to contain 12 PAHs, in concentrations ranging from 0.25-3.31 µg/g. Only 1 of 18 samples (11 amino acid solutions and 7 lipid emulsions) was uncontaminated. The most prevalent contaminants were pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The total PAH concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.11-5.96 µg/mL. Components of parenteral nutrition may be contaminated with PAHs, and rubber stoppers represent a potential source of these contaminants.

  18. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  20. Thermal stability of radiation vulcanized EPDM rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal stability of gamma- ray vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) stabilized with various types of antioxidants. The antioxidants used were penta erythrityl tetrakis(3,5- di-tert-butyl(-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (Irganox 1010), Irganox 1035, Irganox 1520 D, as primary antioxidants; Irganox B 561 and Irganox B 900, as synergistic blends; hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), i.e. Tinuvin 622 LD; N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and Trimethyl quinoline (TMQ) and their mixtures. The measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions. The effect of antioxidant type, selected concentration and mechanism of reaction were determined