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Sample records for f2 transgenic fish

  1. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  2. Isogenic transgenic homozygous fish induced by artificial parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y K; Cho, Y S; Kim, D S

    2000-12-01

    As a model system for vertebrate transgenesis, fish have many attractive advantages, especially with respect to the characteristics of eggs, allowing us to produce isogenic, transgenic, homozygous vertebrates by combining with chromosome-set manipulation. Here, we describe the large-scale production of isogenic transgenic homozygous animals using our experimental organism, the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis, by the simple process of artificial parthenogenesis in a single generation. These isogenic fish have retained transgenic homozygous status in a stable manner during the subsequent 5 years, and exhibited increased levels of transgene expression. Furthermore, their isogenic nature was confirmed by cloned transgenic homozygous offspring produced via another step of parthenogenic reproduction of the isogenic homozygous transgenic fish. These results demonstrate that a combination of transgenesis and artificial parthenogenesis will make the rapid utilization of genetically pure homozygous transgenic system in vertebrate transgenesis possible.

  3. Rapid method for identification of transgenic fish zygosity

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    . Alimuddin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of zygosity in transgenik fish is normally achieved by PCR analysis with genomic DNA template extracted from the tissue of progenies which are derived by mating the transgenic fish and wild-type counterpart.  This method needs relatively large amounts of fish material and is time- and labor-intensive. New approaches addressing this problem could be of great help for fish biotechnologists.  In this experiment, we applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qr-PCR method to analyze zygosity in a stable line of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio carrying masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase-like gene. The qr-PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green Supermix in the iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA.  Data were analyzed using the comparative cycle threshold method.  The results demonstrated a clear-cut identification of all transgenic fish (n=20 classified as a homozygous or heterozygous.  Mating of those fish with wild-type had revealed transgene transmission to the offspring following expected Mendelian laws. Thus, we found that the qTR-PCR to be effective for a rapid and precise determination of zygosity in transgenic fish. This technique could be useful in the establishment of breeding programs for mass transgenic fish production and in experiments in which zygosity effect could have a functional impact. Keywords: quantitative real-time PCR; zygosity; transgenic fish; mass production   ABSTRAK Identifikasi sigositas ikan transgenik biasanya dilakukan menggunakan analisa PCR dengan cetakan DNA genomik yang diekstraksi dari jaringan ikan hasil persilangan antara ikan transgenik dan ikan normal.   Metode ini memerlukan ikan dalam jumlah yang banyak, dan juga waktu serta tenaga.  Pendekatan baru untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut akan memberikan manfaat besar kepada peneliti bioteknologi perikanan.  Pada penelitian ini, kami menggunakan metode PCR real-time kuantitatif (krt-PCR untuk

  4. Production and characterization of soluble human TNFRI-Fc and human HO-1(HMOX1) transgenic pigs by using the F2A peptide.

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    Park, Sol Ji; Cho, Bumrae; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Hwajung; Kang, Jung Taek; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Hye Jung; Moon, Joonho; Lee, Eun Mi; Choi, Ji Yei; Hong, Ju Ho; Jang, Goo; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Yang, Jaeseok; Lee, Byeong Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2014-06-01

    Generation of transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation is one of the most promising technologies for resolving organ shortages. Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1/HMOX1) can protect transplanted organs by its strong anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Soluble human TNFRI-Fc (shTNFRI-Fc) can inhibit the binding of human TNF-α (hTNF-α) to TNF receptors on porcine cells, and thereby, prevent hTNF-α-mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Herein, we successfully generated shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 transgenic (TG) pigs expressing both shTNFRI-Fc and hemagglutinin-tagged-human heme oxygenase-1 (HA-hHO-1) by using an F2A self-cleaving peptide. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 transgenes containing the F2A peptide were constructed under the control of the CAG promoter. Transgene insertion and copy number in the genome of transgenic pigs was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis. Expressions of shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 in TG pigs were confirmed using PCR, RT-PCR, western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 were expressed in various organs, including the heart, lung, and spleen. ELISA assays detected shTNFRI-Fc in the sera of TG pigs. For functional analysis, fibroblasts isolated from a shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig (i.e., #14; 1 × 10(5) cells) were cultured with hTNF-α (20 ng/mL) and cycloheximide (10 μg/mL). The viability of shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of the wild type (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 24 h, 31.6 ± 3.2 vs. 60.4 ± 8.3 %, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was lower than that of the wild type pig fibroblasts (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 12 h, 812,452 ± 113,078 RLU vs. 88,240 ± 10,438 RLU, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pigs generated by the F2A self-cleaving peptide express both shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 molecules, which provides protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury

  5. TaPP2C1, a Group F2 Protein Phosphatase 2C Gene, Confers Resistance to Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco.

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    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Group A protein phosphatases 2Cs (PP2Cs are essential components of abscisic acid (ABA signaling in Arabidopsis; however, the function of group F2 subfamily PP2Cs is currently less known. In this study, TaPP2C1 which belongs to group F2 was isolated and characterized from wheat. Expression of the TaPP2C1-GFP fusion protein suggested its ubiquitous localization within a cell. TaPP2C1 expression was downregulated by abscisic acid (ABA and NaCl treatments, but upregulated by H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of TaPP2C1 in tobacco resulted in reduced ABA sensitivity and increased salt resistance of transgenic seedlings. Additionally, physiological analyses showed that improved resistance to salt stress conferred by TaPP2C1 is due to the reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, the improved antioxidant system, and the increased transcription of genes in the ABA-independent pathway. Finally, transgenic tobacco showed increased resistance to oxidative stress by maintaining a more effective antioxidant system. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TaPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling, but positively regulates salt resistance. TaPP2C1 confers salt resistance through activating the antioxidant system and ABA-independent gene transcription process.

  6. ZyFISH: a simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice.

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    Donal McHugh

    Full Text Available Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, or by quantitative PCR (qPCR which requires transgene-specific design. Here, we describe a zygosity assessment procedure based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (zyFISH. The zyFISH protocol entails the detection of transgenic loci by FISH and the concomitant assignment of homozygosity using a concise and unbiased scoring system. The method requires small volumes of blood, is scalable to at least 40 determinations per assay, and produces results entirely consistent with the progeny testing assay. This combination of reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness makes zyFISH a method of choice for transgenic mouse zygosity determinations.

  7. Oestradiol and prostaglandin F2α regulate sexual displays in females of a sex-role reversed fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Costa, Silvia Santos; Teles, Magda C.; Silva, Helena; Inglês, Mafalda; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating sexual behaviours in female vertebrates are still poorly understood, mainly because in most species sexual displays in females are more subtle and less frequent than displays in males. In a sex-role reversed population of a teleost fish, the peacock blenny Salaria pavo, an external fertilizer, females are the courting sex and their sexual displays are conspicuous and unambiguous. We took advantage of this to investigate the role of ovarian-synthesized hormones in the induction of sexual displays in females. In particular, the effects of the sex steroids oestradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and of the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) were tested. Females were ovariectomized and their sexual behaviour tested 7 days (sex steroids and PGF2α) and 14 days (sex steroids) after ovariectomy by presenting females to an established nesting male. Ovariectomy reduced the expression of sexual behaviours, although a significant proportion of females still courted the male 14 days after the ovary removal. Administration of PGF2α to ovariectomized females recovered the frequency of approaches to the male's nest and of courtship displays towards the nesting male. However, E2 also had a positive effect on sexual behaviour, particularly on the frequency of approaches to the male's nest. T administration failed to recover sexual behaviours in ovariectomized females. These results suggest that the increase in E2 levels postulated to occur during the breeding season facilitates female mate-searching and assessment behaviours, whereas PGF2α acts as a short-latency endogenous signal informing the brain that oocytes are mature and ready to be spawned. In the light of these results, the classical view for female fishes, that sex steroids maintain sexual behaviour in internal fertilizers and that prostaglandins activate spawning behaviours in external fertilizers, needs to be reviewed. PMID:24452030

  8. Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions

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    Yusuf Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

  9. Desempenho de populações híbridas F2 de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa com arroz transgênico (O. sativa resistente ao herbicida amonio-glufosinate Performance of F2 hybrid populations of red rice (Oryza sativa with ammonium-glufosinate-resistant transgenic rice (O. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Noldin

    2004-09-01

    -preto. Mesmo assim, os usuários dessa tecnologia deverão adotar, obrigatoriamente, medidas que evitem a possibilidade de cruzamento entre o arroz transgênico e o arroz-vermelho ou arroz-preto.Red rice is an important weed in paddy rice fields. The use of ammonium glufosinate - resistant genetically modified (GM rice cultivars is a viable alternative for controlling red rice in cultivated rice crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of F2 hybrid population derivates of crossing between ammonium glufosinate - resistant GM rice and red rice. The F2 hybrid population derivates of crossing between GM rice and red rice are viable but do not present any apparent competitive advantage over red rice. The morphological characteristics of the F2 hybrid populations, such as tillering capacity, number of leaves produced and average plant height were partly reduced and partly unaffected by the introgression of the bar gene. The period between rice planting and 50% flowering increased in the red rice x GM rice F2 hybrids, compared to the parental red rice and GM rice. Average seed shattering rate in the four hybrid families was lower than in the red rice ecotypes, with such aspect also being unfavorable to the persistence of red rice in the environment. Seed dormancy of the hybrids was similar to that of the red rice ecotypes. However, management practices should be adopted to avoid crossing between transgenic rice and red rice.

  10. Transgenic labeling of higher order neuronal circuits linked to phospholipase C-β2-expressing taste bud cells in medaka fish.

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    Ieki, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Aihara, Yoshiko; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko; Yasuoka, Akihito; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-06-01

    The sense of taste plays a pivotal role in the food-selecting behaviors of vertebrates. We have shown that the fish ortholog of the phospholipase C gene (plc-β2) is expressed in a subpopulation of taste bud cells that transmit taste stimuli to the central nervous system to evoke favorable and aversive behaviors. We generated transgenic medaka expressing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) under the control of a regulatory region of the medaka plc-β2 gene to analyze the neuronal circuit connected to these sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the transgenic fish 12 days post fertilization revealed that the WGA protein was transferred to cranial sensory ganglia and several nuclei in the hindbrain. WGA signals were also detected in the secondary gustatory nucleus in the hindbrain of 3-month-old transgenic fish. WGA signals were observed in several diencephalic and telencephalic regions in 9-month-old transgenic fish. The age-dependent increase in the labeled brain regions strongly suggests that labeling occurred at taste bud cells and progressively extended to cranial nerves and neurons in the central nervous system. These data are the first to demonstrate the tracing of higher order gustatory neuronal circuitry that is associated with a specific subpopulation of taste bud cells. These results provide insight into the basic neuronal architecture of gustatory information processing that is common among vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  12. Studies of UCP2 transgenic and knockout mice reveal that liver UCP2 is not essential for the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

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    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.

  13. Desempenho de populações híbridas F2 de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) com arroz transgênico (O. sativa) resistente ao herbicida amonio-glufosinate Performance of F2 hybrid populations of red rice (Oryza sativa) with ammonium-glufosinate-resistant transgenic rice (O. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Noldin; S. Yokoyama; H. Stuker; F.T. Rampelotti; M.I.F. Gonçalves; D.S. Eberhardt; A. Abreu; P. Antunes; J. Vieira

    2004-01-01

    O arroz-vermelho e o arroz-preto constituem-se nas principais plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura de arroz irrigado, devido à dificuldade de controle seletivo desta espécie em lavouras comerciais. A utilização de cultivares geneticamente modificados resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos constitui uma alternativa de controle do arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto em arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de populações híbridas F2 originárias do cruzamento entre o a...

  14. IDENTIFIKASI IKAN CUPANG (Betta imbelis TRANSGENIK FOUNDER MEMBAWA GEN PENYANDI HORMON PERTUMBUHAN; Identification of Transgenic Founder Betta Fish (Betta imbelis Carry Growth Hormone Gene.

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    Eni Kusrini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi keberhasilan introduksi gen penyandi hormon pertumbuhan (Growth Hormone, GH pada induk F-0 ikan Betta imbellis. Ikan transgenik F-0 dibuat dengan menggunakan metode transfeksi. Identifikasi dilakukan menggunakan metode RT-PCR. RNA total diekstraksi dari embrio pooled sample hasil persilangan induk transgenik dan non-transgenik. Berdasarkan analisis ekspresi gen pada embrio juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen GH pada semua perlakuan dibandingkan dengan kontrol (embrio hasil persilangan non-transgenik x non-transgenik. Jumlah individu induk F-0 yang membawa gen GH eksogen berdasarkan analisis PCR dengan DNA template dari sirip ekor adalah sebanyak 16%. Individu positif membawa gen GH eksogen tersebut dibesarkan lebih lanjut untuk memproduksi Betta imbellis transgenik F-1. Kandidat ikan transgenik jantan F-0 dikawinkan dengan ikan non-transgenik betina, sedangkan transgenik F-0 betina dikawinkan dengan non-transgenik jantan. Sebanyak 30-50 butir embrio hasil pemijahan F-0 digabung, kemudian DNA genom diekstrak. Sebagian embrio digunakan untuk ekstraksi RNA total untuk analisis ekspresi mRNA GH eksogen. Hasil analisis PCR menunjukkan bahwa semua sampel embrio dari induk transgenik F-0 dapat terdeteksi gen GH eksogen, sedangkan untuk kontrol (non-transgenik tidak terdeteksi. Ekspresi mRNA juga terdeteksi pada embrio F-1. Dengan demikian, metode transfeksi embrio Betta imbellis efektif digunakan untuk menghasilkan ikan transgenik, dan sangat berpotensi menghasilkan individu F-1 Betta imbellis dengan pertumbuhan lebih cepat. The study was conducted to identify the successful introduction of the growth hormone gene (Growth Hormone, GH on the F-0 Betta imbellis broodstock. The F-0 transgenic fish was made through transfection methods. Identification was done using RT-PCR method. Total RNA was extracted from pooled embryos sample. Based on the analysis of gene expression in embryos also showed

  15. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

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    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  16. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  17. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.: Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.

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    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively. The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35% and fish oil (10%, reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO or transgenic camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.

  18. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

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    Shih Ping Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C, is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH analysis and F2 transmission in pigs. Furthermore, expression of the transgene is demonstrated in 61% (35/57 of transgenic pigs (F0 generation. Conclusions Our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in many different species.

  19. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and VLDL kinetics in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL)

  20. A dietary mixture containing fish oil, resveratrol, lycopene, catechins, and vitamins E and C reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Tijani, S.; Toet, K.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes. We hypothesized that the intake of

  1. Polinomios perfectos sobre F2

    OpenAIRE

    Cely Rojas, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra el status de los números perfectos y el análogo de los números perfectos en los anillos de polinomios. Además, se presentan las demostraciones de algunas propiedades de los polinomios perfectos sobre F2 de forma comprensible, basadas en el trabajo realizado por los profesores Luis Gallardo y Oliver Rahavandrainy. / Abstract. This work shows the status artis of perfect numbers and their analogue in the rings of polynomials. Proofs of some properties of perfect polynomials ...

  2. Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... segregation was observed in BC1F1, BC1F2 and F2 populations derived .... randomly chosen at the tillering stage respectively and were ground .... Figure 2. Southern blot of Hind III-digested DNA from Bt transgenic rice line ...

  3. Effectiveness of hCMV, mEF1a and mAct promoters on driving of foreign gene expression in transgenic zebrafish

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    . Alimuddin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have long been recognized for its beneficial effect for human health and development.   The D6 fatty acid desaturase is generally considered to be the rate-limiting factor in HUFA biosynthesis.  Here, as the first step of study, we conducted experiment to select an appropriate construct that allows higher expression levels of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase gene in zebrafish (Danio rerio in order to increase its activity for synthesizing EPA/DHA.  Salmon D6-desaturase cDNA (sD6 was separately ligated with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV, medaka elongation factor 1a (mEF1a and medaka b-actin (mAct promoters.  The resulted construct was designated as hCMV-sD6, mEF1a-sD6 and mAct-sD6, respectively.  Each of the constructs in circular DNA form was microinjected into 1-cell stage embryos at a concentration of 30mg/ml. Transgenic individuals were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and their expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR.  The first (F1 and second (F2 generation was produced by crossing the transgenic founder F0 and F1, respectively, with wild-type fish.  The results showed that the highest transient gene expression level was obtained from the mAct-D6 construct, followed respectively by EF1a-D6 and hCMV-D6 construct. The transmission rate of transgene into F1 generation was 4.2%-44.1%, and into F2 was followed the Mendellian segregation pattern.   Expression of transgene in F2 generation was varied between strains regarding as the mosaics of F0 fish.  Now, a transgenic system to study the modification of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in fish was established.  Further investigations are to produce fish containing higher levels of EPA and DHA. Keywords: desaturase, nutraceutical fatty acid, transgenic, zebrafish, masu salmon   Abstrak Promoter merupakan regulator yang menentukan

  4. hmF2 variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The hmF2 variability over Havana station (Geo. Latitude 23 deg. N, Geo Longitude 278 deg. E; Dip 54.6 deg. N; Modip: 44.8 deg. N) is presented. In this study different solar and seasonal conditions are considered. The results show that, in general, standard deviation of hmF2 is quite irregular and reaches its values at nighttimes hours. Lower and upper quartiles variability has a similar behaviour to IQ variability, showing its higher values at nighttimes too. (author)

  5. Summary of breakout Session F2: F2, decision support systems: Knowledge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The discussions in breakout session F2 are summarized. The topics discussed include contingency planning, environmental sensitivity, countermeasures planning tools, cleanup operations management, and logistics support systems. General comments, concerns and major research issues are summarized

  6. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  7. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS and zebrafish racemase (Rm, were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5′ end (N1 or 3′ end (N2 of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND. Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P1 fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P1 fish, most F1 individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F2 or F3 are needed for evaluation.

  8. Dissolution curve comparisons through the F(2) parameter, a Bayesian extension of the f(2) statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Steven; Shen, Yan; Yang, Harry; Peterson, John; LeBlond, Dave; Altan, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution (or in vitro release) studies constitute an important aspect of pharmaceutical drug development. One important use of such studies is for justifying a biowaiver for post-approval changes which requires establishing equivalence between the new and old product. We propose a statistically rigorous modeling approach for this purpose based on the estimation of what we refer to as the F2 parameter, an extension of the commonly used f2 statistic. A Bayesian test procedure is proposed in relation to a set of composite hypotheses that capture the similarity requirement on the absolute mean differences between test and reference dissolution profiles. Several examples are provided to illustrate the application. Results of our simulation study comparing the performance of f2 and the proposed method show that our Bayesian approach is comparable to or in many cases superior to the f2 statistic as a decision rule. Further useful extensions of the method, such as the use of continuous-time dissolution modeling, are considered.

  9. High Incidence of Thymic Epithelial Tumors in E2F2 Transgenic Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheijen, B.; Bronk, M.; Meer, T. van der; Jong, D. de; Bernards, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In virtually all human tumors, genetic and epigenetic alterations have been found which affect the INK4/-CYCLIN D/RB pathway, which regulates cell cycle entry and exit in normal cells. E2F transcription factors are important downstream components of this pathway, which act by controlling the

  10. Scintillation properties of LiF–SrF2 and LiF–CaF2 eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Dopant free eutectic scintillators 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 were developed by the vertical Bridgeman method for the purpose of thermal neutron detection. The molar ratio of LiF and Ca/SrF 2 was 4:1 on its eutectic composition. The α-ray induced radioluminescence spectra of the scintillators showed intense emission peak at 300 nm due to the emission from the self-trapped exciton in Ca/SrF 2 layers. When the samples were irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons, 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 exhibited the light yields of 4700 and 9400 ph/n, respectively. Scintillation decay times of 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 were accepted for scintillation detectors, 90 and 250 ns, respectively. -- Highlights: • Nondoped LiF–CaF 2 and LiF–SrF 2 eutectic scinitillators are reported for the first time. • Two sample showed self-trapped exciton emission. • LiF–SrF 2 sample exhibited the light yield of 9400 ph/n and this value was comparable to conventional materials doped with rare earth ions. • Scintillation decay times of LiF–CaF 2 and LiF–SrF 2 were 250 and 90 ns, respectively

  11. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  12. Electron collisions with F2CO molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Thiago Corrêa; Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio Henrique Franco

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for electron collisions with carbonyl fluoride (F2CO ) molecules for the incident electron's energy from 0.5 eV to 20 eV. The Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials was employed to obtain the cross sections in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The present results were compared with the available data in the literature, in particular, with the results of Kaur, Mason, and Antony [Phys. Rev. A 92, 052702 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.052702] for the differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections. We have found a π* shape resonance centered at 2.6 eV in the B1 symmetry and other resonance, in the B2 symmetry, located at around 9.7 eV. A systematic study of the inclusion of polarization effects was performed in order to have a well balanced description of this negative-ion transient state. The effects of the long-range electric dipole potential were included by the Born closure scheme. Electronic structure calculations were also performed to help in the interpretation of the scattering results, and associate the transient states to the unoccupied orbitals.

  13. Comparison of ionospheric F2 peak parameters foF2 and hmF2 with IRI2001 at Hainan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Shi, J. K.; Wang, G. J.; Gong, Y.

    2009-06-01

    Monthly median values of foF2, hmF2 and M(3000)F2 parameters, with quarter-hourly time interval resolution for the diurnal variation, obtained with DPS4 digisonde at Hainan (19.5°N, 109.1°E; Geomagnetic coordinates: 178.95°E, 8.1°N) are used to investigate the low-latitude ionospheric variations and comparisons with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model predictions. The data used for the present study covers the period from February 2002 to April 2007, which is characterized by a wide range of solar activity, ranging from high solar activity (2002) to low solar activity (2007). The results show that (1) Generally, IRI predictions follow well the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns of the experimental values of foF2, especially in the summer of 2002. However, there are systematic deviation between experimental values and IRI predictions with either CCIR or URSI coefficients. Generally IRI model greatly underestimate the values of foF2 from about noon to sunrise of next day, especially in the afternoon, and slightly overestimate them from sunrise to about noon. It seems that there are bigger deviations between IRI Model predictions and the experimental observations for the moderate solar activity. (2) Generally the IRI-predicted hmF2 values using CCIR M(3000)F2 option shows a poor agreement with the experimental results, but there is a relatively good agreement in summer at low solar activity. The deviation between the IRI-predicted hmF2 using CCIR M(3000)F2 and observed hmF2 is bigger from noon to sunset and around sunrise especially at high solar activity. The occurrence time of hmF2 peak (about 1200 LT) of the IRI model predictions is earlier than that of observations (around 1500 LT). The agreement between the IRI hmF2 obtained with the measured M(3000)F2 and the observed hmF2 is very good except that IRI overestimates slightly hmF2 in the daytime in summer at high solar activity and underestimates it in the nighttime with lower values near

  14. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  15. Stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms of slow muscle-specific myosin heavy chain gene expression in fish: Transient and transgenic analysis of torafugu MYHM86-2 promoter in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaduzzaman, Md.; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Bhuiyan, Sharmin Siddique; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH M86-2 , exhibited restricted expression in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae, suggesting its functional roles for embryonic and larval muscle development. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in its expression are still ambiguous. The present study is the first extensive analysis of slow muscle-specific MYH M86-2 promoter in fish for identifying the cis-elements that are crucial for its expression. Combining both transient transfection and transgenic approaches, we demonstrated that the 2614 bp 5′-flanking sequences of MYH M86-2 contain a sufficient promoter activity to drive gene expression specific to superficial slow muscle fibers. By cyclopamine treatment, we also demonstrated that the differentiation of such superficial slow muscle fibers depends on hedgehog signaling activity. The deletion analyses defined an upstream fragment necessary for repressing ectopic MYH M86-2 expression in the fast muscle fibers. The transcriptional mechanism that prevents MYH M86-2 expression in the fast muscle fibers is mediated through Sox6 binding elements. We also demonstrated that Sox6 may function as a transcriptional repressor of MYH M86-2 expression. We further discovered that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) binding elements plays a key role and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding elements participate in the transcriptional regulation of MYH M86-2 expression. - Highlights: ► MYH M86-2 is highly expressed in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae. ► MYH M86-2 promoter activity depends on the hedgehog signaling. ► Sox6 binding elements inhibits MYH M86-2 expression in fast muscle fibers. ► Sox6 elements function as transcriptional repressor of MYH M86-2 promoter activity. ► NFAT and MEF2 binding elements play a key role for directing MYH M86-2 expression

  16. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Aaron B; Bloomsburg, Samuel J; Billingslea, Samuel A; Merrill, Morgan M; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W; Fuerst, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    A transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the Pou4f2-promoter (also referred to as Brn-3b and Brn-3.2) was characterized. Pou4f2 expression has been reported in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, in the midbrain, and in the germline. In this study, we characterize the expression pattern of this Cre-recombinase line and report its utility in targeted deletion, temporal deletion, RGC depletion, and germline targeting, which can be regulated by the sex of the Cre-carrying mouse. Pou4f2(Cre) was mapped by using a combination of PCR and sequencing of PCR products to better understand the construct and to locate where it was inserted within the Pou4f2 locus. Cre expression patterns were examined by crossing Pou4f2(Cre/+) mice to Cre reporter mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to further define the pattern of Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination within the retina, brain, and other tissues. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-Cre cassette was inserted into the Pou4f2 gene disrupting normal gene function, as verified by the depletion of RGCs in mice homozygous for the insert. Pou4f2(Cre) expression was observed in the retina, brain, peripheral neurons, and male germ cells. Germline recombination was observed when the sire carried the Cre and the target for recombination. In all other breeding schemes, recombination was observed within subsets of cells within the retina, brain, intestines, heart, and gonads. In the retina, Cre efficiently targets recombination in neurons within the RGC layer (RGL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and a small percentage of photoreceptors, activity that has not been previously reported. Unlike most other Cre lines active in the inner retina, recombination in Müller and other glia was not observed in mice carrying Pou4f2(Cre) . Within the visual centers of the brain, Cre targets recombination in about 15% of cells within the superchiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and

  17. Magnetic hyperfine interactions of U2 center in CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, C.J.F.

    1976-02-01

    The magnetic hyperfine parameters of the U 2 center in CaF 2 , SeF 2 and BaF 2 , using a molecular orbitals scheme have been calculated. The need for the inclusion of mechanisms such as Pauli Repulsion and Covalence in order to describe the electronic structure of the defect has been shown. In the molecular orbitals model a weak covalence parameter has been phenomenologically introduced, mixing the is atomic wavefunction of hydrogen with a properly symmetrized linear combination of 2p F - functions centered on the ions of the first fluorine shell. The results obtained are compared with experimental measurements of EPR and ENDOR. (Author) [pt

  18. Calculation of the hyperfine constants of Vk center in CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.

    1975-03-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated, assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 central molecule, to describe the wave function of the defect. The introduction of covalence, with the ions neighboring the central molecule, have shown that this is a better description for the defect than a simple central molecule model. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of these neighboring ions, which have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different methods have been used. A better description for the wave function of the defect is suggested

  19. Calculation of the hyperfine constants of the V sub (K) center in CaF2, SrF2 e BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.

    1975-03-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated, assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F - 2 'central molecule', to describe the wave function of the defect. The introduction of covalence with the ions neighboring the 'central molecule', has shown that this is a better description for the defect than a simple 'central molecule' model. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of these neighboring ions, which have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different methods have been used. A better description for the wave function of the defect is suggested. (author) [pt

  20. Difluorophosphoryl nitrene F2P(O)N: matrix isolation and unexpected rearrangement to F2PNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoqing; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Neuhaus, Patrik; Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-12-14

    Triplet difluorophosphoryl nitrene F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') was generated on ArF excimer laser irradiation (lambda=193 nm) of F(2)P(O)N(3) in solid argon matrix at 16 K, and characterized by its matrix IR, UV/Vis, and EPR spectra, in combination with DFT and CBS-QB3 calculations. On visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm) at 16 K F(2)P(O)N reacts with molecular nitrogen and some of the azide is regenerated. UV irradiation (lambda=255 nm) of F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') induced a Curtius-type rearrangement, but instead of a 1,3-fluorine shift, nitrogen migration to give F(2)PON is proposed to be the first step of the photoisomerization of F(2)P(O)N into F(2)PNO (difluoronitrosophosphine). Formation of novel F(2)PNO was confirmed with (15)N- and (18)O-enriched isotopomers by IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations predict a rather long P-N bond of 1.922 A [B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)] and low bond-dissociation energy of 76.3 kJ mol(-1) (CBS-QB3) for F(2)PNO.

  1. Cooled optically stimulated luminescence in CaF2:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new optically stimulated luminescence technique has been developed for the readout of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent material. Minimum detectable gamma exposures may potentially be measured at 10 nC.kg -1 using the 254 nm line of a mercury lamp. Additional studies were done on CaF 2 :Mn using 351 nm excimer laser stimulation. (author)

  2. Semiconductor CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In Crystals as Media for Real-Time Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskin, Alexander I.; Shcheulin, Alexander S.; Angervaks, Alexander E.

    2012-01-01

    Monocrystalline cadmium fluoride is a dielectric solid that can be converted into a semiconductor by doping with donor impurities and subsequent heating in the reduction atmosphere. For two donor elements, Ga and In, the donor (“shallow”) state is a metastable one separated from the ground (“deep”) state by a barrier. Photoinduced deep-to-shallow state transition underlies the photochromism of CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In. Real-time phase holograms are recorded in these crystals capable of following up optical processes in a wide frequency range. The features of photochromic transformations in CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In crystals as well as holographic characteristics of these media are discussed. Exemplary applications of CdF2-based holographic elements are given. PMID:28817009

  3. Shock Compression Response of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The fluorite crystal structure is a textbook lattice that is observed for many systems, such as CaF2, Mg2 Si, and CeO2. Specifically, CaF2 is a useful material for studying the fluorite system because it is readily available as a single crystal. Under static compression, CaF2 is known to have at least three solid phases: fluorite, cotunnite, and a Ni2 In phase. Along the Hugoniot CaF2 undergoes a fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, however, at higher shock pressures it is unknown whether CaF2 undergoes another solid phase transition or melts directly from the cotunnite phase. In this work, we conducted planar shock compression experiments on CaF2 using Sandia's Z-machine and a two-stage light gun up to 900 GPa. In addition, we use density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations to provide insight into the CaF2 state along the Hugoniot. In collaboration with: Michael Desjarlais, Ray Lemke, Patricia Kalita, Scott Alexander, Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL850.

  4. Scintillation properties of CdF2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    CdF 2 single crystal was prepared by Tokuyama Corp. with the μ-PD method to investigate Auger free luminescence of this material. From optical transmittance spectrum, bandgap wavelength was around 280 nm. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectrum, emission lines appeared around 350 nm and 420 nm. Excitation wavelength was investigated and excitation peak was around 250 nm. Photoluminescence and scintillation decay times were evaluated and decay time was few ns. Temperature dependence of X-ray induced radioluminescence was compared with conventional BaF 2 scintillator and scintillation of CdF 2 decreased when the temperature increased. Consequently, scintillation of CdF 2 is possibly emission at color centers or exciton related one. - Highlights: • CdF 2 crystal scinitillator was synthesized. • Emission wavelengths of CdF 2 appeared around 350 and 420 nm. • Scintillation decay time of CdF 2 was quite fast, 1.75 ns. • Excitation bands were investigated by using Synchrotron facility, UVSOR

  5. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  6. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  7. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Horticulture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT: The F2 segregating generations of exotic tomato hybrids were studied to measure variability, character association and path coefficient analysis.

  8. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Miao, Mao-sheng; Merino, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-01-01

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  9. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  10. Hemispherical F2-layer differences and the neutral atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotadia, K.M.; Almaula, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of noon and early morning (05 h) critical frequencies of the F2-layer through one solar cycle (1958-1969) at 8 pairs of dip-conjugate stations at latitudes lower than +- 60 0 dip. The study reveals some characteristic features of the F2-layer, such as (1) at sunspot minimum the noon foF2 values exhibit a marked semiannual variation with equinoxial maxima in the north and a dominant annual variation with a maximum in December in the south; (2) the annual component of the foF2 variation increases appreciably with solar activity in the north, while the semiannual component increases in the south. They show maxima at latitudes near +- 40 0 dip and minima near the equator. The early morning foF2 values essentially go through an annual wave with maxima in local summer in both hemispheres; there is, however, a significant semiannual component in the south. The annual component is largest at +- 40 0 dip while the semiannual component has peaks at the equator and at 40 0 S dip. The differences between the behaviour of foF2 in the two hemispheres as reported in this paper appear to be in conformity with current thinking on the effects of (a) the global neutral wind pattern and (b) changes in the relative proportions of atomic and molecular gas species. (author)

  11. Urinary F2-Isoprostanes and Metabolic Markers of Fat Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Il’yasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682. Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and −0.094, respectively (P < 0.05. For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI are 0.77 (0.60–0.97, 0.79 (0.62–1.01, 1.18 (0.92–1.53, and 0.51 (0.35–0.76 for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12 supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation.

  12. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... College of Horticulture, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong ... The pattern of expression vector pBI-PacPAP. ..... Disease scale ... These transgenic T0 plants were self-pollinated and the.

  13. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  14. Electron color centers in SrF2-Na crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachan, S.I.; Chornij, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-induced memory effect in SrF 2 -Na crystals is studied. It was shown that optical bleaching of M + A color centers at 80 K in SrF 2 -Na crystals causes the core of an M + A -center to transform into the V + a Me + V + a configuration, in which all three point defects are arranged diagonally in the cube cell. Reirradiation of an optically bleached crystal by X-rays generates F D centers in it. The F D →M + A transformation in SrF 2 -Na crystals occurs at T = 135 K, in contrast to the F A →M + A transformations, which take place at T > 200 K [ru

  15. Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapa, Maria Lucia; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Perrone, Maria Rita; Piegari, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ristau, Detlev; Quesnel, Etienne; Duparre, Angela

    2001-01-01

    The results of laser damage studies performed at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) on MgF 2 thin films deposited by different techniques (electron-beam evaporation, thermal boat evaporation, and ion-beam sputtering) on fused silica and CaF 2 substrates are presented. We find that the films deposited on CaF 2 substrates by the electron-beam evaporation technique present the highest damage threshold fluence (9 J/cm2). The photoacoustic (PA) beam deflection technique was employed, in addition to microscopical inspection, to determine laser damage fluences. We confirm, by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the damaged spots, the capability of the PA technique to provide information on the mechanisms leading to damage. The dependence of both laser damage fluence and damage morphology on the film deposition technique, as well as on the film substrate, is discussed

  16. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin Hamilton......Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  17. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over F2; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive-search technique, our

  19. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.; Mangard, S.; Standaert, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over $F_2$; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive search technique, our

  20. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  1. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  2. Fabrication and characterisation of nanostructures on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, M.M.

    1999-04-01

    Novel nanostructure fabrication techniques are described in this dissertation. Furthermore, an unusual two dimensional phase segregation on CaF 2 surfaces after glancing incidence ion beam irradiation is reported. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-tip assisted self-organisation of clusters on anisotropic surfaces is illustrated. This new technique for the fabrication of periodic structures has been demonstrated using silver clusters grown on vicinal CaF 2 (111) surfaces. The scanning action of the tip aligns silver clusters along crystal step edges on the vicinal surface. Nanowire arrays of silver with a uniform periodicity of 20-50 nm and wire widths of 5-7 nm have been achieved over the entire area scanned by the AFM. Calcium remaining on CaF 2 surfaces after electron irradiation induced depletion of the surface of fluorine is found to re-organise itself into island structures. These islands show a shape transition, upon reaching a critical size of ∼ 20 nm in diameter, from a compact to an elongated island shape. Crystal step edge erosion of fluorine allows the formation of long ranging nanowires. These wires have a uniform width of ∼ 15 nm. The observed island shape transition and the width of the wires has been explained by the presence of strain in the islands. This is the first experimental observation confirming a theoretical prediction of the reduction of island width with increasing length for strained islands. A novel technique of ion beam assisted fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays over macroscopic areas is reported. Potential sputtering of CaF 2 surfaces leads to a calcium enriched surface that organised itself in stress domains due to the lattice misfit between calcium and CaF 2 . These stress domains can be oriented by directed ion beam irradiation under glancing angles in parallel stripes with a periodicity of 8-12 nm. A phase segregation on the CaF 2 (111) surface has been observed upon glancing incidence ion beam irradiation under certain

  3. F2 phenomenological test on fuel motion (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; Fink, C.L.; Stewart, R.R.; Gehl, S.M.; Rothman, A.B.

    1976-09-01

    TREAT F-series tests are being conducted to provide data on fuel motion at accident power levels from one to about ten times design for use in development of fuel motion models. Test F2 was conducted to evaluate motion of high power fuel in a hypothetical LMFBR unprotected TUC (transient undercooling) accident. Fuel and fuel-boundary conditions following coolant boiling and dryout under TUC conditions are achieved in each F-series test with a single fuel element surrounded by a nuclear heated wall in a dry test capsule. Test F2 was conducted with a low burnup but restructured fuel element to investigate the effect of fuel vapor pressure on fuel motion. Results are presented and discussed

  4. A detailed simulation of F2 measurability at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.; Hildesheim, W.

    1992-01-01

    A study on the measurement of the F 2 proton structure function is presented, based on a realistic Monte Carlo of the H1 detector. The influence of systematic errors and detector acceptance on the values of x, y and Q 2 was studied in four independent reconstruction methods, based on: the electron only, the hadrons only, or 2 separate combinations of electronic and hadronic information. In particular, results from the combined measurement of y with the hadronic system, and Q 2 from the electron indicate that the evolution of F 2 will be measurable at low Q 2 (∼50 GeV 2 ) on two orders of magnitude in x. (authors) 10 refs., 10 figs

  5. Polycrystalline dosimetric discs of natural CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, E.; Ferreira, M.M.; Cruz, M.T.; Watanabe, S.

    1977-01-01

    A new method to prepare TL dosimeters in solid discs form, by the application of cold press in a mixture of KCL and fluorite in powder form, is investigated. By this method, it is possible to obtain thousands of dosimeters without difficulty much more uniform than that obtained from monocrystal ingots. The results show that the new dosimeters present the same properties as the fluorite in powder form, with the advantage that it is easier to handle in routine work. The ratio of 2 to 1 for KCL mass to CaF 2 mass presents good Tl sensitivity to ionizing radiation and sufficient mechanical resistivity. The minimum detectable exposure is approximately 10 mR. 83% from 442 CaF 2 solid discs gave TL response within 10% of mean value. Energy dependence is also presented [pt

  6. Luminescence of color centers in MgF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhidov, Sh.A.; Nuritdinov, I.; Musaeva, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of the proper radiation color centers of the MgF 2 crystals are studied. The samples were irradiated by the 60 Co source γ-rays up to the dose 10 7 Gy. The bands with the maxima in the area of 420, 460, 550 and 620 nm were identified, which are excited correspondingly in the bands with the maxima of 370, 320, 410 and 480 nm

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  8. The rise in F$_{2}^{p}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, S

    1994-01-01

    We show that the rise in F_2^p at small x and large Q^2 seen at HERA is indeed the non-Regge double asymptotic scaling behaviour expected from the perturbative emission of strongly ordered hard gluons. An alternative explanation, in which there is no strong ordering, and a new hard Reggeon is generated, is also tried but found wanting: its theoretical short-comings are betrayed by its failure to properly account for the HERA data.

  9. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  10. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  11. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  12. Behavioral and motoric testing of transgenic minipigs - focus on F0, F1, and F2 generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Božena; Kučerová, S.; Mačáková, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 16-16 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : minipig Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  14. The energy response of CaF2:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1982-11-01

    The energy response of CaF 2 :Dy was measured for 40-1250 keV photons and a very strong dependence was found below 200 keV. In order to fit the crystal to the requirements of the American Standards for Environmental Dosimetry, a number of filters which improve the energy dependence, were checked. It was found that the best filter is one which is made of 3 layers: tantalum, lead and aluminium, 0.018, 0.014 and 0.26 cm thick, respectively. (Author)

  15. An observation on F2 at low x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de; Wolf, E.A. de

    1996-08-01

    A simple parametrisation of H1 and ZEUS data at HERA is given for the ranges in x and Q 2 of 10 -4 -5.10 -2 and 5-250 GeV 2 , respectively. This empirical expression is based on a strikingly similar dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity on the centre of mass system energy √(s) in e + e - collisions on the one hand, and the x dependence of the proton structure function F 2 as measured at small x on the other hand. To the best of our knowledge, this similarity has not been noted before. (orig.)

  16. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  17. Atomic structure of CaF2/MnF2-Si(1 1 1) superlattices from X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nicklin, C.L.; Howes, P.B.; Norris, C.A.; Kyutt, R.N.; Sokolov, N.S.; Yakovlev, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity and non-specular crystal truncation rod scans have been used to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of the buried CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) interface and ultrathin films of MnF 2 and CaF 2 within a superlattice. We show that ultrathin films of MnF 2 , below a critical thickness of approximately four monolayers, are crystalline, pseudomorphic, and adopt the fluorite structure of CaF 2 . High temperature deposition of the CaF 2 buffer layer produces a fully reacted, CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) type-B interface. The mature, 'long' interface is shown to consist of a partially occupied layer of CaF bonded to the Si substrate, followed by a distorted CaF layer. Our atomistic, semi-kinematical scattering method extends the slab reflectivity method by providing in-plane structural information

  18. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  19. Radiation damage in BaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage and recovery have been studied in BaF 2 crystals exposed to 60 Co radiation. The change in optical transmission and scintillation light output have been measured as a function of dose up to 4.7 x 10 6 rad. Although some crystals exhibit a small change in transmission, a greater change in scintillation light output is observed. Several 25 cm long crystals whichhave been irradiated show large changes in both transmission and light output. Recovery from radiation damage has been studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A long lived radiation induced phosphorescence has been observed in all irradiated samples which is distinct from the standard fast and slow scintillation emissions. The emission spectrum of the phosphorescence has been measured and shown a peakat ∼330 nm, near the region of the slow scintillation component. Results are given on the dependence of the decay time of the phosphorescence with dose

  20. Synthesis of CaF2: dy for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, M.E.P.; Vasconcelos, D.A.A. de; Asfora, V.K.; Khoury, H.J.; Santos, R.A.; Barros, V.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium Fluoride doped with dysprosium is a known thermoluminescent material for applications that require highly sensitive dosimeters. Research in novel methods such as Combustion Synthesis (CS) has been ongoing for several years at the University of Pernambuco. The method uses the heat of the oxi-redox reaction a between nitrate and a fuel. This work presents results of CaF 2 :Dy produced by combustion synthesis under different fabrication conditions. Samples were prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts of calcium nitrate, urea and ammonium nitrate in a beaker under vigorous stirring. The resulting gel was transferred to a pre-heated muffle furnace were the combustion reaction occurred after a few minutes. For comparison, a variation of the production method with the same amounts of nitrate, ammonium fluoride and dopant, but without using the fuel was prepared. For both methods the resulting powder was pelleted and irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation. The reproducibility and sensitivity for gamma dose irradiation was tested and results showed that optimum TL sample reproducibility was without the urea as fuel. Samples were then prepared with 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mol% Dy concentration. The highest TL sensitivity was found for samples with 0.15 mol% Dy and sintered at 400 deg C for 3.5 h in air. The TL emission spectra, obtained using a Hammamatsu optical spectrometer, was comparable with commercial CaF 2 :Dy. Thermoluminescence was measured in a Harshaw-Bicron 3500 TL Reader. The glow curve showed stable dosimetric peaks at around 200, 235 and 300 deg C were a linear dose response curve was obtained for the range 100 mGy to 1000 mGy. (author)

  1. Scintillation and radiation damage of doped BaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zufang; Xu Zizong; Chang Jin

    1992-01-01

    The emission spectra and the radiation damage of BaF 2 crystals doped Ce and Dy have been studied. The results indicate that the doped BaF 2 crystals have the intrinsic spectra of impurity besides the intrinsic spectra of BaF 2 crystals. The crystals colored and the transmissions decrease with the concentration of impurity in BaF 2 crystals after radiation by γ-ray of 60 Co. The doped Ce BaF 2 irradiated by ultraviolet has faster recover of transmissions but for doped Dy the effect is not obvious. The radiation resistance is not good as pure BaF 2 crystals

  2. Defect-induced wetting on BaF 2(111) and CaF 2(111) at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, M.; Verdaguer, A.; Fraxedas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of water with freshly cleaved (111) surfaces of isostructural BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals at ambient conditions (room temperature and under controlled humidity) has been studied using scanning force microscopy in different operation modes and optical microscopy. Such surfaces exhibit contrasting behaviors for both materials: while on BaF2(111) two-dimensional water layers are formed after accumulation at step edges, CaF2(111) does not promote the formation of such layers. We attribute such opposed behavior to lattice match (mismatch) between hexagonal water ice and the hexagonal (111) surfaces of BaF2(CaF2). Optical microscope images reveal that this behavior also determines the way the surfaces become wetted at a macroscopic level.

  3. Novel and easy access to highly luminescent Eu and Tb doped ultra-small CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 nanoparticles - structure and luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Benjamin; Haida, Philipp; Fink, Friedrich; Krahl, Thoralf; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut; Scholz, Gudrun; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2017-02-28

    A universal fast and easy access at room temperature to transparent sols of nanoscopic Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ doped CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 particles via the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis route is presented. Monodisperse quasi-spherical nanoparticles with sizes of 3-20 nm are obtained with up to 40% rare earth doping showing red or green luminescence. In the beginning luminescence quenching effects are only observed for the highest content, which demonstrates the unique and outstanding properties of these materials. From CaF 2 :Eu10 via SrF 2 :Eu10 to BaF 2 :Eu10 a steady increase of the luminescence intensity and lifetime occurs by a factor of ≈2; the photoluminescence quantum yield increases by 29 to 35% due to the lower phonon energy of the matrix. The fast formation process of the particles within fractions of seconds is clearly visualized by exploiting appropriate luminescence processes during the synthesis. Multiply doped particles are also available by this method. Fine tuning of the luminescence properties is achieved by variation of the Ca-to-Sr ratio. Co-doping with Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ results in a huge increase (>50 times) of the green luminescence intensity due to energy transfer Ce 3+ → Tb 3+ . In this case, the luminescence intensity is higher for CaF 2 than for SrF 2 , due to a lower spatial distance of the rare earth ions.

  4. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  5. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  6. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  8. Ab initio study of dissociative attachment of low-energy electrons to F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.; Orel, A.E.; Rescigno, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Adiabatic-nuclei resonance theory has been applied to the study of dissociative attachment of low-energy electrons to F 2 . Stieltjes moment theory was used to derive fixed-nuclei electronic resonance parameters from large scale configuration-interaction calculations on F 2 and F 2 - . Dissociative attachment cross sections are reported for the four lowest vibrational levels of F 2 and compared to available experimental data

  9. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of such...

  10. A Mediterranean Diet Reduces F2-Isoprostanes and Triglycerides among Older Australian Men and Women after 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Courtney Rose; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Health benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern have been shown. However, there are few data on the effects of increased adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in non-Mediterranean countries. Objective: We aimed to determine whether adherence to a MedDiet would result in changes in plasma lipids, glucose and insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs) in an Australian population. Methods: The study was a 6-mo parallel, randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. We recruited 166 participants aged ≥65 y. Participants were stratified on body mass index, sex, and age and assigned to receive either a MedDiet or a habitual diet (HabDiet). The primary outcome was cognitive function, reported elsewhere. As secondary outcomes, assessment of fasting total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; triglycerides (TGs); glucose; insulin; hs-CRP; and F 2 -IsoPs was completed at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. The MedDiet group followed a prescribed diet containing 15-45 mL extra-virgin olive oil/d, abundant vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, and whole grains, as well as moderate fish, poultry, and dairy foods. Dietary intake was measured by 3-d weighed food records at baseline and at 2 and 4 mo. Results were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects models. Results: Compared with the HabDiet, the MedDiet resulted in lower TGs at 3 mo (mean difference: -0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.07 mmol/L; P glucose and insulin, and hs-CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A high adherence to a MedDiet for 6 mo resulted in a significant reduction in TGs and F 2 -IsoPs among older Australians. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ACTRN12613000602729. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Anomalous variations of NmF2 over the Argentine Islands: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of variations in the F2-layer peak electron density, NmF2, and altitude, hmF2, over the Argentine Islands ionosonde. The critical frequencies, foF2, and, foE, of the F2 and E-layers, and the propagation factor, M(3000F2, measured by the ionosonde during the 1957–1959 and 1962–1995 time periods were used in the statistical analysis to determine the values of NmF2 and hmF2. The probabilities to observe maximum and minimum values of NmF2 and hmF2 in a diurnal variation of the electron density are calculated. Our study shows that the main part of the maximum diurnal values of NmF2 is observed in a time sector close to midnight in November, December, January, and February exhibiting the anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2. Another anomalous feature of the diurnal variations of NmF2 exhibited during November, December, and January when the minimum diurnal value of NmF2 is mainly located close to the noon sector. These anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2 are found to be during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. Anomalous features are not found in the diurnal variations of hmF2. The statistical study of the NmF2 winter anomaly phenomena over the Argentine Islands ionosonde was carried out. The variations in a maximum daytime value, R, of a ratio of a geomagnetically quiet daytime winter NmF2 to a geomagnetically quiet daytime summer NmF2 taken at a given UT and for approximately the same level of solar activity were studied. The conditional probability of the occurrence of R in an interval of R, the most frequent value of R, the mean expected value of R, and the conditional probability to observe the F2-region winter anomaly during a daytime period were calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity. The calculations show that the mean expected value of R and the occurrence frequency of the F2-region winter anomaly increase with increasing solar activity.

  12. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  13. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  14. The E2F2 transcription factor sustains hepatic glycerophospholipid homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N Maldonado

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence links metabolic signals to cell proliferation, but the molecular wiring that connects the two core machineries remains largely unknown. E2Fs are master regulators of cellular proliferation. We have recently shown that E2F2 activity facilitates the completion of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH by regulating the expression of genes required for S-phase entry. Our study also revealed that E2F2 determines the duration of hepatectomy-induced hepatic steatosis. A transcriptomic analysis of normal adult liver identified "lipid metabolism regulation" as a major E2F2 functional target, suggesting that E2F2 has a role in lipid homeostasis. Here we use wild-type (E2F2+/+ and E2F2 deficient (E2F2-/- mice to investigate the in vivo role of E2F2 in the composition of liver lipids and fatty acids in two metabolically different contexts: quiescence and 48-h post-PH, when cellular proliferation and anabolic demands are maximal. We show that liver regeneration is accompanied by large triglyceride and protein increases without changes in total phospholipids both in E2F2+/+ and E2F2-/- mice. Remarkably, we found that the phenotype of quiescent liver tissue from E2F2-/- mice resembles the phenotype of proliferating E2F2+/+ liver tissue, characterized by a decreased phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine ratio and a reprogramming of genes involved in generation of choline and ethanolamine derivatives. The diversity of fatty acids in total lipid, triglycerides and phospholipids was essentially preserved on E2F2 loss both in proliferating and non-proliferating liver tissue, although notable exceptions in inflammation-related fatty acids of defined phospholipid classes were detected. Overall, our results indicate that E2F2 activity sustains the hepatic homeostasis of major membrane glycerolipid components while it is dispensable for storage glycerolipid balance.

  15. THE SEGREGATION PATTERN OF INSECT RESISTANCE GENES IN THE PROGENIES AND CROSSES OF TRANSGENIC ROJOLELE RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoto Satoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful application of genetic transformation technique, especially in developing rice variety resistant to brown plant hopper and stem borer, will depend on transgene being expressed and the gene inherited in a stable and predictable manner. This study aimed to analyse transgene segregation pattern of the progenies and the crosses of transgenic rice cv. Rojolele harboring cry1Ab and gna genes. The third generation (T2 of fivetransgenic Rojolele events containing gna and/or cry1Ab were evaluated for two generations to identify the homozygous lines and to study their inheritance. The homozygous lines were selected based on the result of PCR technique. The segregation patterns of gna and cry1Ab were studied in eight F2 populations derived from Rojolele x transgenic Rojolele homozygous for cry1Ab and or gna and their reciprocal crosses. Data  resulted from PCR of F2 population were analysed using a Chi Square test. The study obtained six homozygous lines for gna, namely A22- 1-32, A22-1-37, C72-1-9, F11-1-48, K21-1-39, K21-1-48, and two homozygous lines for cry1Ab, namely K21-1-39 and K21- 1-48. Both cry1Ab and gna transgenes had been inherited through selfing and crossing with their wild type as indicated from the F1 containing gna and cry1Ab as many as 48.4% and 47.4%, respectively. In six of the eight crosses, gna was inherited in a 3:1 ratio consistent with Mendelian inheritance of a single dominant locus, while in the remaining two crosses, gna was segregated in a 1:1 ratio. The presence of cry1Ab in F2 populations also showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in all crosses. In the F2 population derived from F1 plant containing cry1Ab and gna, both transgenes segregated in a 9:3:3:1 dihybrid segregation ratio. This study will add to the diversity of genetic sources for insect resistance and allow further use of these transgenic lines for pyramiding resistance to brown plant hopper and stem borer or  separately in rice breeding programs whenever

  16. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  17. Computation of the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We apply the spectral projector method, recently introduced by Giusti and Luescher, to compute the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions. We present our results for several quark masses at three different lattice spacings which allows us to perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition we report our analysis on the O(a) improvement of the chiral condensate for twisted mass fermions. We also study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors.

  18. Complex refractive index measurements for BaF 2 and CaF 2 via single-angle infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-10-01

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to the model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques

  19. Dipole model analysis of F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ derived from the new D* data in DIS at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I analyse the new D* deep inelastic scattering data from HERA with the help of dipole models. I calculate F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ from the GBW [1] and BGK [2] saturation models. I compare results with the last values determined by H1 at low Q2. I find good agreement with the data.

  20. Variability of critical frequency and M(3000)F2 at Tucuman and San Juan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Corbella, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of the M(3000)F2 factor and the critical frequency of the E and F2 ionospheric regions over two argentine stations for middle solar activity conditions is studied. To this end different parameters to specify variability are used, namely: standard deviation, difference between median to lower quartile and to upper quartile. The results show that low variability is observed for foE and M(3000)F2 factor at both stations for equinoxes and solstices. The coefficients of variability are lower than 10% for foE and M(3000)F2 factor. The highest variability was observed for foF2. In general, the foF2 coefficient of variability ranges between 0 and 30%, at both stations. (author)

  1. Resistance Switching Memory Characteristics of Si/CaF2/CdF2 Quantum-Well Structures Grown on Metal (CoSi2) Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Junya; Uryu, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    A novel scheme of resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices fabricated using Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si quantum-well structures grown on metal CoSi2 layer formed on a Si substrate has been proposed, and embryonic write/erase memory operation has been demonstrated at room temperature. It has been found that the oxide-mediated epitaxy (OME) technique for forming the CoSi2 layer on Si dramatically improves the stability and reproducibility of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. This technology involves 10-nm-thick Co layer deposition on a protective oxide prepared by boiling in a peroxide-based solution followed by annealing at 550 °C for 30 min for silicidation in ultrahigh vacuum. A switching voltage of lower than 1 V, a peak current density of 32 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10 have been observed for the sample with the thickness sequence of 0.9/0.9/2.5/0.9/5.0 nm for the respective layers in the Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si structure. Results of surface morphology analysis suggest that the grain size of crystal islands with flat surfaces strongly affects the quality of device characteristics.

  2. The characteristics of CaF2:Tm crystals (TLD-300) irradiated by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; Yona, S.; Laichter, Y.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1985-09-01

    The main characteristics of the CaF 2 :Tm crystals (TLD-300), as a dosimeter, were measured: the glow curve, sensitivity, linearity, fading and energy dependence for photons, and compared to those of LiF (TLD-100) and CaF 2 :Dy (TLD-200). It was found that CaF 2 :Tm can be used for environmental dosimetry by reading the crystals after four days. (Author)

  3. Expression and Functional Pathway Analysis of Nuclear Receptor NR2F2 in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Loomans, Holli A.; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Coffey, Donna; Xiao, Weimin; Liu, Zhandong; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recent evidence implicates the orphan nuclear receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II) as both a master regulator of angiogenesis and an oncogene in prostate and other human cancers. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether NR2F2 plays a role in ovarian cancer and dissect its potential mechanisms of action. Design, Setting, and Patients: We examined NR2F2 expression in healthy ovary and ovarian cancers using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. NR2F2 expression was targeted in established ovarian cancer cell lines to assess the impact of dysregulated NR2F2 expression in the epithelial compartment of ovarian cancers. Results: Our results indicate that NR2F2 is robustly expressed in the stroma of healthy ovary with little or no expression in epithelia lining the ovarian surface, clefts, or crypts. This pattern of NR2F2 expression was markedly disrupted in ovarian cancers, in which decreased levels of stromal expression and ectopic epithelial expression were frequently observed. Ovarian cancers with the most disrupted patterns of NR2F2 were associated with significantly shorter disease-free interval by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Targeting NR2F2 expression in established ovarian cancer cell lines enhanced apoptosis and increased proliferation. In addition, we found that NR2F2 regulates the expression of NEK2, RAI14, and multiple other genes involved in the cell cycle, suggesting potential pathways by which dysregulated expression of NR2F2 impacts ovarian cancer. Conclusions: These results uncover novel roles for NR2F2 in ovarian cancer and point to a unique scenario in which a single nuclear receptor plays potentially distinct roles in the stromal and epithelial compartments of the same tissue. PMID:23690307

  4. Investigation of the relationship between ionospheric foF2 and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboga, Tuba; Canyilmaz, Murat; Ozcan, Osman

    2018-04-01

    Variations of the ionospheric F2 region critical frequency (foF2) have been investigated statistically before earthquakes during 1980-2008 periods in Japan area. Ionosonde data was taken from Kokubunji station which is in the earthquake preparation zone for all earthquakes. Standard Deviations and Inter-Quartile Range methods are applied to the foF2 data. It is observed that there are anomalous variations in foF2 before earthquakes. These variations can be regarded as ionospheric precursors and may be used for earthquake prediction.

  5. Characterization and sequence analysis of the F2 promoter from corynephage BFK20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koptides, M.; Ugorcakova, J.; Baloghova, E.; Bukovska, G.; Timko, J.

    1994-01-01

    F2 promoter from corynephage BFK20 was isolated and characterized. It was functional in Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Cloning of the F2 promoter into the pJUP05 promoter probe vector caused an increase of the neomycin phosphotransferase II specific activity. According to the Northern blot hybridization the nptII gene was expressed from the cloned F2 promoter. The apparent transcription start point in E. coli and C. glutamicum was determined. The-35 region of F2 promoter showed high similarity to that of E. coli promoter consensus sequence, but its - 10 region was G+C rich and had no significant homology to that. (author)

  6. NmF2 and hmF2 measurements at 95° E and 127° E around the EIA northern crest during 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Bitap Raj; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of the F2 layer parameters NmF2 and hmF2 over Dibrugarh (27.5° N, 95° E, 17° N geomagnetic, 43° dip) measured by a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) for the period of August 2010 to July 2014 are reported for the first time from this low mid-latitude station lying within the daytime peak of the longitudinal wave number 4 structure of equatorial anomaly (EIA) around the northern edge of anomaly crest. Equinoctial asymmetry is clearly observed at all solar activity levels whereas the midday winter anomaly is observed only during high solar activity years and disappears during the temporary dip in solar activity in 2013 but forenoon winter anomaly can be observed even at moderate solar activity. The NmF2/hmF2 variations over Dibrugarh are compared with that of Okinawa (26.5° N, 127° E, 17° N geomagnetic), and the eastward propagation speed of the wave number 4 longitudinal structure from 95° E to 127° E is estimated. The speed is found to be close to the theoretical speed of the wave number 4 (WN4) structure. The correlation of daily NmF2 over Dibrugarh and Okinawa with solar activity exhibits diurnal and seasonal variations. The highest correlation in daytime is observed during the forenoon hours in equinox. The correlation of daily NmF2 (linear or non-linear) with solar activity exhibits diurnal variation. A tendency for amplification with solar activity is observed in the forenoon and late evening period of March equinox and the postsunset period of December solstice. NmF2 saturation effect is observed only in the midday period of equinox. Non-linear variation of neutral composition at higher altitudes and variation of recombination rates with solar activity via temperature dependence may be related to the non-linear trend. The noon time maximum NmF2 over Dibrugarh exhibits better correlation with equatorial electrojet (EEJ) than with solar activity and, therefore, new low-latitude NmF2 index is proposed taking both solar

  7. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  8. The dynamics of long-term transgene expression in engrafted neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jean-Pyo; Tsai, David J; In Park, Kook; Harvey, Alan R; Snyder, Evan Y

    2009-07-01

    To assess the dynamics and confounding variables that influence transgene expression in neural stem cells (NSCs), we generated distinct NSC clones from the same pool of cells, carrying the same reporter gene transcribed from the same promoter, transduced by the same retroviral vector, and transplanted similarly at the same differentiation state, at the same time and location, into the brains of newborn mouse littermates, and monitored in parallel for over a year in vivo (without immunosuppression). Therefore, the sole variables were transgene chromosomal insertion site and copy number. We then adapted and optimized a technique that tests, at the single cell level, persistence of stem cell-mediated transgene expression in vivo based on correlating the presence of the transgene in a given NSC's nucleus (by fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) with the frequency of that transgene's product within the same cell (by combined immunohistochemistry [IHC]). Under the above-stated conditions, insertion site is likely the most contributory variable dictating transgene downregulation in an NSC after 3 months in vivo. We also observed that this obstacle could be effectively and safely counteracted by simple serial infections (as few as three) inserting redundant copies of the transgene into the prospective donor NSC. (The preservation of normal growth control mechanisms and an absence of tumorigenic potential can be readily screened and ensured ex vivo prior to transplantation.) The combined FISH/IHC strategy employed here for monitoring the dynamics of transgene expression at the single cell level in vivo may be used for other types of therapeutic and housekeeping genes in endogenous and exogenous stem cells of many organs and lineages. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparison of foE and M(3000)F2 variability at Ibadan, Singapore and Slough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoye, E. O.; Onori, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The variability, VR, of critical frequency of E-layer, foE, and ionospheric propagation factor, M(3000)F2 at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) is investigated for local time, seasonal and solar cycle variations. Latitudinal influence of these characteristics is sought by comparison with foE VR and M(3000)F2 VR of Slough ( 51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°N dip) in the European sector, and Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the Asian sector. While the pattern of foE VR is similar to those of other F2 characteristics with characteristic peaks around dawn and dusk, M(3000)F2 VR shows no clear diurnal trend.A lower bound of foE VR is usually 3% while the maximum VR ranges between 8% and13% at post-sunrise and pre-sunset hours at all the epochs, M(3000)F2 VR is however lower during MSA (about 9%) than during LSA and HSA when it is 4% to about 12-14%. Generally, daytime M(3000)F2 VR is greater than that of foE VR by between 5% and 10%. Furthermore, no latitudinal difference is observed in both characteristics during both HSA and MSA. While nighttime M(3000)F2 VR is about half that of nighttime foF2 VR (the critical frequency of F2-layer ) VR, daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal during the three epochs at Ibadan. For Slough, nighttime M(3000)F2 VR and nighttime foF2 VR as well as the daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal. This difference is most likely due to latitudinal effect.

  10. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zou

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2 and height (hmF2 have been compared with the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere computational model (CTIP, for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2, such as the dominant winter maxima at high midlatitudes in longitude sectors near the magnetic poles, the equinox maxima in sectors remote from the magnetic poles and at lower latitudes generally, and the form of the month-to-month variations at latitudes between about 60°N and 50°S. CTIP also reproduces the seasonal behaviour of NmF2 at midnight and the summer-winter changes of hmF2. Some features of the F2-layer, not reproduced by the present version of CTIP, are attributed to processes not included in the modelling. Examples are the increased prevalence of the winter maxima of noon NmF2 at higher solar activity, which may be a consequence of the increase of F2-layer loss rate in summer by vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen, and the semiannual variation in hmF2, which may be due to tidal effects. An unexpected feature of the computed distributions of NmF2 is an east-west hemisphere difference, which seems to be linked to the geomagnetic field configuration. Physical discussion is reserved to the companion paper by Rishbeth et al.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere-composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  11. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zou

    Full Text Available Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2 and height (hmF2 have been compared with the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere computational model (CTIP, for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2, such as the dominant winter maxima at high midlatitudes in longitude sectors near the magnetic poles, the equinox maxima in sectors remote from the magnetic poles and at lower latitudes generally, and the form of the month-to-month variations at latitudes between about 60°N and 50°S. CTIP also reproduces the seasonal behaviour of NmF2 at midnight and the summer-winter changes of hmF2. Some features of the F2-layer, not reproduced by the present version of CTIP, are attributed to processes not included in the modelling. Examples are the increased prevalence of the winter maxima of noon NmF2 at higher solar activity, which may be a consequence of the increase of F2-layer loss rate in summer by vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen, and the semiannual variation in hmF2, which may be due to tidal effects. An unexpected feature of the computed distributions of NmF2 is an east-west hemisphere difference, which seems to be linked to the geomagnetic field configuration. Physical discussion is reserved to the companion paper by Rishbeth et al.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere-composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  12. Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry using CaF2 TL phosphors- state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of undoped and Dy, Tb- and Eu activated CaF 2 TL phosphors has been re-investigated after heat treatment (600-1100 degC) in air. The study confirmed the earlier observed increase in intrinsic UV response of CaF 2 : Dy 3+ after 900 degC heat treatment. Enhancement in UV response was also observed in undoped CaF 2 thus indicating the base matrix related phenomenon. However, the enhancement observed in UV sensitivity and the optimum treatment temperature for high UV sensitivity is different for different activators. It is activator specific and needs further probing. UV response of undoped CaF 2 monotonically increases as the treatment temperature (in air) is increased from 600 degC to 1100 degC. Similar increase is observed in case of CaF 2 : Tb 3+ also. However, CaF 2 : Dy 3+ and CaF 2 :Eu 2+ follow a different pattern. Heat treatment in air increases UV response of CaF 2 : Dy 3+ up to 900 degC, and a decrease is observed at higher temperatures. UV response of CaF 2 : Eu 2+ is maximum for 600 degC treatment in air and decreases thereafter. TL response of CaF 2 : Tb and CaF 2 : Eu 2+ phosphors to UV is high, can be employed over the range 10 -2 - 2 mJ.cm -2 and is rate independent for 250±10 nm UV. (author)

  13. Representation of the Coulomb Matrix Elements by Means of Appell Hypergeometric Function F 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentalha, Zine el abidine

    2018-06-01

    Exact analytical representation for the Coulomb matrix elements by means of Appell's double series F 2 is derived. The finite sum obtained for the Appell function F 2 allows us to evaluate explicitly the matrix elements of the two-body Coulomb interaction in the lowest Landau level. An application requiring the matrix elements of Coulomb potential in quantum Hall effect regime is presented.

  14. Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 population across and RIL population through single-environment analysis (SEA). Trait. Population. Environment. QTL. Binlocusa. Flanking marker. Peak position. (cM). Range. (cM)b. Ac. Dd. Gene actione. R2(%)f. Subtotal R2. (%)g. F(0.05)h type. TTL. F2:3.

  15. Role of MgF2 on properties of glass–ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–F with and with- out addition of MgF2 has been investigated. Crystallization of glass sample was done by controlled thermal heat treatment at nucleation and crystallization temperatures. The results showed that MgF2 in high ...

  16. Elastic properties of Na 2 O–ZnO–ZnF 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentrations have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity measurements ...

  17. Structural Phase Transition and Compressibility of CaF2 Nanocrystals under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshu Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural phase transition and compressibility of CaF2 nanocrystals with size of 23 nm under high pressure were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement. A pressure-induced fluorite to α-PbCl2-type phase transition starts at 9.5 GPa and completes at 20.2 GPa. The phase-transition pressure is lower than that of 8 nm CaF2 nanocrystals and closer to bulk CaF2. Upon decompression, the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type structure co-exist at the ambient pressure. The bulk modulus B0 of the 23 nm CaF2 nanocrystals for the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type phase are 103(2 and 78(2 GPa, which are both larger than those of the bulk CaF2. The CaF2 nanocrystals exhibit obviously higher incompressibility compare to bulk CaF2. Further analysis demonstrates that the defect effect in our CaF2 nanocrystals plays a dominant role in the structural stability.

  18. Ionospheric F2-Layer Semi-Annual Variation in Middle Latitude by Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation by solar activity in middle latitude by using foF2 observed at the Kokubunji ionosonde station in Japan for the period from 1997 to 2008. The semi-annual variation of foF2 shows obviously in high solar activity (2000-2002 than low solar activity (2006-2008. It seems that variation of geomagnetic activity by solar activity influences on the semi-annual variation of the ionospheric F2-layer electron density. According to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis of foF2 and Ap index, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bs (IMF Bz <0 component, solar wind speed, solar wind number density and flow pressure which influence the geomagnetic activity, we examine how the geomagnetic activity affects the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation. We find that the semi-annual variation of daily foF2, Ap index and IMF Bs appear clearly during the high solar activity. It suggests that the semi-annual variation of geomagnetic activity, caused by Russell-McPherron effect, contributes greatly to the ionospheric F2-layer semi-annual electron density variation, except dynamical effects in the thermosphere.

  19. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on fluorides of alkaline earth elements (CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaichik, V. I.; Sobolev, B. P.; Zaporozhets, M. A.; Avilov, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of high-energy (150 eV) electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on crystals of fluorides of alkaline earth elements CaF 2 , SrF 2 , and BaF 2 is studied. During structural investigations by electron diffraction and electron microscopy, the electron irradiation causes chemical changes in MF 2 crystals such as the desorption of fluorine and the accumulation of oxygen in the irradiated area with the formation of oxide MO. The fluorine desorption rate increases significantly when the electron-beam density exceeds the threshold value of ∼2 × 10 3 pA/cm 2 ). In BaF 2 samples, the transformation of BaO into Ba(OH) 2 was observed when irradiation stopped. The renewal of irradiation is accompanied by the inverse transformation of Ba(OH) 2 into BaO. In the initial stage of irradiation of all MF 2 compounds, the oxide phase is in the single-crystal state with a lattice highly matched with the MF 2 matrix. When the irradiation dose is increased, the oxide phase passes to the polycrystalline phase. Gaseous products of MF 2 destruction (in the form of bubbles several nanometers in diameter) form a rectangular array with a period of ∼20 nm in the sample.

  20. Oxidation characteristics of MgF2 in air at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. K.; Jie, Y. Y.; Chang, L.

    2017-02-01

    High temperature oxidation properties of MgF2 in air were studied. The changes of phase composition, macro surface morphology, weight and elemental composition of MgF2 samples with temperature were investigated by using XRD, EDS and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the oxidation reaction of MgF2 converted to MgO occurred at high temperature, and the reaction was accelerated by the increase of temperature and the presence of impurities. This result clarifies the understanding of the high temperature oxidation behavior of MgF2 in air, and provides a theoretical basis for the reasonable application of MgF2 in optical coating materials, electronic ceramic materials and magnesium melt protection.

  1. Comportamiento productivo en híbridos de jitomate y sus respectivas poblaciones F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que el precio de semilla híbrida de jitomate es muy alto, muchos agricultores utilizan generaciones F2 en parcelas comerciales. Por esta razón con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento entre genotipos de jitomate F1 y F2, 37 híbridos y sus respectivas generaciones F2 fueron establecidos en invernadero. La mayoría de las generaciones F2 presentaron menor peso total de fruto por planta y número de frutos por planta con respecto a sus F1; sin embargo, el efecto fue estadísticamente significativo sólo en dos genotipos tipo bola de hábito de crecimiento determinado y cuatro genotipos tipo bola de hábito de crecimiento indeterminado, los cuales abatieron su producción de fruto de F2 en al menos 20 %

  2. Thermal expansion coefficients of obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films and their intrinsic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Cheng-Chung

    2011-03-20

    This study elucidates the effects of columnar angles and deposition angles on the thermal expansion coefficients and intrinsic stress behaviors of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures. The behaviors associated with temperature-dependent stresses in the MgF2 films are measured using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer with a heating stage and the application of a phase reduction algorithm. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films at various columnar angles were larger than those of glass substrates. The intrinsic stress in the MgF2 films with columnar microstructures was compressive, while the thermal stress was tensile. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures and their intrinsic stress evidently depended on the deposition angle and the columnar angle.

  3. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) and the Raman spectra of (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2009-05-18

    The adduct, (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), was synthesized by dissolution of the infinite chain polymer, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), in XeOF(4) solvent at room temperature followed by removal of excess XeOF(4) under dynamic vacuum at 0 degrees C. Continued pumping at 0 degrees C resulted in removal of associated XeOF(4), yielding (OsO(3)F(2))(2), a new low-temperature phase of OsO(3)F(2). Upon standing at 25 degrees C for 1(1)/(2) h, (OsO(3)F(2))(2) underwent a phase transition to the known monoclinic phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The title compounds, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) have been characterized by low-temperature (-150 degrees C) Raman spectroscopy. Crystallization of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) from XeOF(4) solution at 0 degrees C yielded crystals suitable for X-ray structure determination. The structural unit contains the (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer in which the OsO(3)F(3) units are joined by two Os---F---Os bridges having fluorine bridge atoms that are equidistant from the osmium centers (2.117(5) and 2.107(4) A). The dimer coordinates to two XeOF(4) molecules through Os-F...Xe bridges in which the Xe...F distances (2.757(5) A) are significantly less than the sum of the Xe and F van der Waals radii (3.63 A). The (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer has C(i) symmetry in which each pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3) unit has a facial arrangement of oxygen ligands with XeOF(4) molecules that are only slightly distorted from their gas-phase C(4v) symmetry. Quantum-chemical calculations using SVWN and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the gas-phase geometries, natural bond orbital analyses, and vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), XeOF(4), OsO(2)F(4), and (mu-FOsO(3)F(2))(2)OsO(3)F(-) to aid in the assignment of the experimental vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The vibrational modes of the low-temperature polymeric phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), have been

  4. Accumulation of enriched uranium UO2F2 in ultrastructure as studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Yuanchang

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on the retention of soluble enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 in ultrastructure by electron microscopic autoradiography. The early dynamic accumulation of radioactivity in the body showed that enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was mainly localized in kidneys, especially accumulated in epithelial cells of proximal convoluted tubules leading to degeneration and necrosis of the tubules. In liver cells, enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 at first deposited in nuclei of the cells and in soluble proteins of the plasma, and later accumulated selectively in mitochondria and lysosomes. On electron microscopic autoradiographic study it was shown that the dynamic retention of radioactivity of enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 in skeleton increased steadily through the time period of exposure. Enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 chiefly deposited in nuclei and mitochondria of osteoblasts as well as of osteoclasts

  5. Media for identification of Gibberella zeae and production of F-2-(Zearalenone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Robbins, J D; Porter, J K

    1977-02-01

    Media are described for the isolaton of Fusarium graminearum in the perithecial state, Gibberella zeae, and for the production of F-2 (zearalenone) by Fusarium species. On soil extract-corn meal agar isolated medium, G. Zeae produced perithecia in 9 to 14 days under a 12-h photoperiod. Species of Fusarium were screened for F-2 production on a liquid medium. From strains that produced F-2, the yields, from stationary cultures of G. zeae and F. culmorum after 12 days of incubation, ranged from 22 to 86 mg/liter. Three strains produced no F-2. Glumatic acid, starch, yeast extract,and the proper ratio of medium volume-to-flask volume were necessary for F-2 synthesis.

  6. Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd, La: CaF2 transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Mei, Bingchu; Song, Jinghong; Li, Weiwei; Su, Liangbi

    2018-02-01

    1 at.% Nd: CaF2 nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of La3+ ions (from 0 to 5 at.%) were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Phase identification, morphology of the nanoparticles were investigated by XRD and SEM measurements. The Nd, La: CaF2 ceramics were fabricated by hot-pressed method in the vacuum environment. The transmittance of all the ceramics reached 88% at the wavelength of 1400 nm. The luminescence intensities and decay lifetimes enhanced significantly with the increasing of La3+ concentration. The Nd, La: CaF2 ceramics have broad and flat emission band at 1050 nm with the largest FWHM of 28.16 nm. In addition, the spectrum results indicated that the fluorescence lifetime of Nd, La: CaF2 ceramics was longer than that of the Nd, Y: CaF2 ceramics with the same doping concentration.

  7. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  8. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT, and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3 in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  9. One- and two-photon spectra of Nd3+ clusters in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Voronov, Valerii V; Glotova, M Yu; Papashvili, A G; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya

    2003-01-01

    The polarised two-photon (IR) and one-photon (visible) luminescence excitation spectra of Nd 3+ nanoclusters in CaF 2 and SrF 2 crystals are measured at 10 K using a F - 2 :LiF colour centre laser tunable in spectral ranges 1090 - 1230 nm and 545 - 615 nm with an emission linewidth of ∼0.02 - 0.03 cm -1 , an average output power of ∼55 mW, and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The two-photon excitation spectra at the 4 I 9/2 → 4 G 5/2 transition reveal the structure, which is absent upon one-photon excitation, which can be explained by different selection rules for some Stark - Stark transitions upon one- and two-photon absorption. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  10. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  11. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  12. Aspects of the production of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose via 18F2 with a tandem Van de Graaf accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, W.J.; Gatley, S.J.; Hichwa, R.D.; Lieberman, L.M.; Nickles, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    During deuteron irradiation of 100 psig neon containing 1-2% of elemental fluorine, the induced 18 F partitions into three main fractions. About 50% remains in the passivated nickel target after elution of the gas mixture. Some of the gaseous 18 F is capable of performing fluorination reactions and is presumed to be 18 F 2 : the rest is a mixture of at least two unreactive gases, one of which behaves on gas chromatography like CF 4 . The ratio of reactive to unreactive gaseous 18 F decreases with longer irradiation times but increases when the target gas is cooled to -30C during bombardment. Reaction of the presumed 18 F 2 with 4.5,6-triacetyl-D-glucal, essentially by the published method, yielded 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-4,5,6-triacetyl-x-D-glucosyl fluoride and the corresponding β-D-mannosyl fluoride. These were separated either by column chromatography or preparative TLC, using plates with a pre-absorbent layer. Hydrolysis of the glucoyl fluoride gave 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-2FDG) with a decay-corrected yield of about 10% based on 18 F trapped by the triacetylglucal. The 60 min organ distribution of 18 F from 18 F-2-FDG in tumor bearing rats was compared with the corresponding distribution after administration of 18 F-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-3FDG). Organ/blood ratios were uniformly higher for 18 F-2FDG than for no carrier added 18 F-3FDG; only heart, brain and thyroid had ratios greater than unity. Added carrier 3-FDG further lowered organ/blood ratios. The main conclusion drawn from this animal work is that 18 F-3FDG is unlikely to rival 18 F-2FDG for nuclear medicine studies, where high target /blood ratios (obtained by metabolic trapping as the sugar-6-phosphate) are necessary. However 18 F-3FDG may be useful for estimating the concentration of free glucose in organs if further work confirms that it is an essentially non-metabolized analog of glucose. (author)

  13. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  14. Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements were due to previous geomagnetic storms, moderate auroral activity or they presented the class of positive quiet time events (Q-disturbances. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is no such an effect as the pre-storm NmF2 enhancement as a phenomenon inalienably related to the following magnetic storm. The observed nighttime NmF2 enhancements at sub-auroral latitudes may result from plasma transfer from the plasma ring area by meridional thermospheric wind. Enhanced plasmaspheric fluxes into the nighttime F2-region resulted from westward substorm-associated electric fields is another possible source of nighttime NmF2 enhancements. Daytime positive Q-disturbances occurring under very low geomagnetic activity level may be related to the dayside cusp activity.

  15. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epitaxial growth of lithium fluoride on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, St; Dabringhaus, H.

    1999-08-01

    Growth of lithium fluoride by molecular beam epitaxy on the (1 1 1) surface of calcium fluoride crystals was studied by TEM and LEED for crystal temperatures from 400 to 773 K and impinging lithium fluoride fluxes from 3×10 11 to 3×10 14 cm -2 s -1. Growth starts, usually, at the steps on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2. For larger step distances and at later growth stages also growth on the terraces between the steps is found. Preferably, longish, roof-like crystallites are formed, which can be interpreted by growth of LiF(2 0 1¯)[0 1 0] parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1)[ 1¯ 0 1]. To a lesser extent square crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(0 0 1), and, rarely, three-folded pyramidal crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(1 1 1) parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1), are observed. While the pyramidal crystallites show strict epitaxial orientation with LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] and LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[1 2¯ 1], only about 80% of the square crystallites exhibit an epitaxial alignment, where LiF[1 0 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] is preferred to LiF[1 1 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1]. The epitaxial relationships are discussed on the basis of theoretically calculated adsorption positions of the lithium fluoride monomer and dimer on the terrace and at the steps of the CaF 2(1 1 1) surface.

  17. Theoretical characterization of the F(2)O(3) molecule by coupled-cluster methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Watts, John D

    2010-09-23

    Coupled-cluster calculations with extended basis sets that include noniterative connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) have been used to study the FOOOF isomer of F(2)O(3). Second-order Moller-Plessett perturbation theory (MP2) and density-functional theory (B3LYP functional) calculations have also been performed for comparison. Two local minima of similar energy, namely, conformers of C(2) and C(s) symmetry have been located. Structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and standard enthalpies and free energies of formation have been calculated. The calculated bond lengths of F(2)O(3) are more characteristic of those in F(2)O and a "normal" peroxide than the unusual bond lengths in F(2)O(2). Both conformers have equal F-O and O-O bond lengths, contrary to a recent suggestion of an unsymmetrical structure. The harmonic vibrational frequencies can aid possible identification of gaseous F(2)O(3). The calculated Δ(f)H° and Δ(f)G° are 110 and 173 kJ mol(-1), respectively. These values are based on extrapolation of CCSD(T) results with augmented triple- and quadruple-ζ basis sets and are expected to be within chemical accuracy (i.e., 1 kcal mol(-1) or 4 kJ mol(-1)). F(2)O(3) is calculated to be stable to decomposition to either FO + FOO or F(2) + O(3), but unstable to decomposition to its elements, to F(2)O(2) + (1)/(2)O(2), and to F(2)O + O(2).

  18. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ningbo Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology (China)

    2014-07-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO{sub 4}, dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study.

  19. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO 4 , dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study

  20. Long-term trends in foF2: their estimating and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with two problems, methods of foF2 trend determination and origin of trends in foF2, both being controversial in current literature. We found that various regression-based methods and artificial neural network-based method of Yue et al. (2006 provided comparable results within uncertainties caused mainly by various ways of removing/suppressing the dominant solar cycle effect. The role of geomagnetic activity in the observed trends in foF2 was probably substantial and might be still even rather dominant in the last quarter of the 20th century.

  1. Optical annealing of CaF2:Mn for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.D.; Stahl, K.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; McDonald, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical annealing of the cooled optically stimulated luminescence in CaF 2 :Mn at room temperature has been demonstrated. The laser of choice for optical annealing of CaF 2 : Mn is a 326 nm helium-cadmium ultraviolet laser. A complete cycle of readout and annealing of the CaF 2 :Mn cooled optically stimulated dosemeters can now be accomplished without heating the dosemeters above room temperature. This annealing work represents the next step toward creating a proton-recoil-based fast neutron dosimetry system based on the cooled optically stimulated luminescence technique. (author)

  2. Short-Term fo F2 Forecast: Present Day State of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Depuev, V. H.; Depueva, A. H.

    An analysis of the F2-layer short-term forecast problem has been done. Both objective and methodological problems prevent us from a deliberate F2-layer forecast issuing at present. An empirical approach based on statistical methods may be recommended for practical use. A forecast method based on a new aeronomic index (a proxy) AI has been proposed and tested over selected 64 severe storm events. The method provides an acceptable prediction accuracy both for strongly disturbed and quiet conditions. The problems with the prediction of the F2-layer quiet-time disturbances as well as some other unsolved problems are discussed

  3. 4He adsorption and third-sound propagation on rough CaF2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.C.; Hallock, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the propagation of third sound on well characterized rough CaF 2 surfaces as a function of 4 He film thickness. In addition we have measured the adsorption of 4 He to the CaF 2 surfaces using quartz crystal microbalances. We report values for the superfluid depletion thickness D for the three surfaces examined here. A model for the reduction of the third-sound speed due to the increased helium adsorption on rough CaF 2 is explored

  4. Screening of nuclear structure function F2A(x,Q2) at small x values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovs'kij, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The U-matrix method have been applied to build an amplitude for virtual photon absorption by nuclei which satisfies unitarity.This amplitude have been utilised to obtain the expression for the structure function F 2A ,which is convenient to perform analytical calculations with.Profile functions of nuclei with Gauss,Woods-Saxon and constant density distribution have been considered.It is shown that effects of quark-antiquark pair rescattering in nucleus cause the screening of F 2A and the change of power-like behaviour of F 2A to logarithmic one at small x. Numerical estimations are given

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  6. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  7. Developmental immunotoxicity is not associated with the consumption of transgenic Bt rice TT51 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Liang, Chunlai; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiannan; Cui, Wenming; Yu, Zhou

    2018-04-01

    TT51 is a transgenic strain of Bt rice generated by fusing a synthetic CryAb/Ac gene into MingHui rice. In this study, rats from F0, F1, and F2 generations were fed a diet with 60% TT51 rice, MingHui rice, or nominal-origin rice. The study focused on developmental immunotoxicity in F1 and F2 offspring after long-term consumption of TT51. A wide range of immunological parameters was monitored in this two-generation study on reproductive toxicity. The experiments were performed on F1 and F2 offspring at postnatal days 21 and 42. No adverse clinical effects were observed in any of the experimental groups. In addition, histopathology observations and immunotoxicity tests, including hematological indicators, spleen lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell activity, lymphoproliferative response, and plaque-forming cell assay, revealed no significant difference between the groups. These results indicated that developmental immunotoxicity was not associated with a diet of transgenic Bt rice TT51, compared to the parental MingHui rice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Observation of ultraslow stress release in silicon nitride films on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tianyi; Deen, M. Jamal; Xu, Changqing; Fang, Qiyin; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) CaF 2 crystalline substrates. Delaminated wavy buckles formed during the release of internal compressive stress in the films and the stress releasing processes are observed macroscopically and microscopically. The stress release patterns start from the substrate edges and propagate to the center along defined directions aligned with the crystallographic orientations of the substrate. The stress releasing velocity of SiN x film on (111) CaF 2 is larger than that of SiN x film with the same thickness on (100) CaF 2 . The velocities of SiN x film on both (100) and (111) CaF 2 increase with the film thickness. The stress releasing process is initiated when the films are exposed to atmosphere, but it is not a chemical change from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  9. Measurements of CaF2 concentration in fluorite ore using thermoluminescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembo, L.; Maestri, G.; Pimpinella, M.; Benzi, V.; Muntoni, C.

    1990-01-01

    Fluorite powder is produced by means of a flotation process on crude ore extracted by the mines. A full automation of the flotation plant would reduce the operating cost and improve the quality and recovery of fluorite production. However, taking into account that the efficiency of a flotation cycle is directly dependent on the CaF 2 content in the concentrate and tail products, this automation requires a quasi-real-time quantitative analysis of CaF 2 concentration in the floated pulp. The feasibility was studied of using a thermoluminescence technique as an on-line analysis method to measure the CaF 2 concentration during the flotation cycle. A first set of experimental conditions to determine CaF 2 content in acid-grade fluorspar has been already developed and the preliminary results so far obtained are presented. (author)

  10. Theoretical study of the F2 molecule using the variational cellular method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.A.P.; Leite, J.R.; Fazzio, A.

    1981-02-01

    Variational Cellular Method calculations for F 2 have been carried out at several internuclear distances. The ground and excited state potential curves are presented. The overall agreement between the VCM results and ab initio calculations is fairly good. (Author) [pt

  11. Isolation and characterization of a thermolysin peptide containing acetyllysine from enzymatically acetylated f2al histone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Daisaburo

    1973-01-01

    Previous studies (vol. 72, 433, '72) in this laboratory showed that histone acetylase in the cytosol of calf thymus introduced acetyl groups primarily into the epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues in a histone fraction, f2al. In an attempt to examine the site of acetylation in f2al by the enzyme, 14 C-acetylated f2al was isolated and digested by thermolysin. A radioactive peptide, which accounted for 50 - 60% of the total radioactivity, was obtained from the thermolysin digest and identified as the fragment containing amino acid residues 10-21. It appears, therefore, that the major sites of acetylation by the enzyme are the lysine 12 or 16 or both, which are known to be acetylated in vivo. It was also shown that the peptide was not deacetylated by histone deacetylase, in contrast with the whole f2al molecule. (author)

  12. Transgenic Epigenetics: Using Transgenic Organisms to Examine Epigenetic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. McEachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-model organisms are generally more difficult and/or time consuming to work with than model organisms. In addition, epigenetic analysis of model organisms is facilitated by well-established protocols, and commercially-available reagents and kits that may not be available for, or previously tested on, non-model organisms. Given the evolutionary conservation and widespread nature of many epigenetic mechanisms, a powerful method to analyze epigenetic phenomena from non-model organisms would be to use transgenic model organisms containing an epigenetic region of interest from the non-model. Interestingly, while transgenic Drosophila and mice have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of the epigenetic processes that target epigenetic control regions in other model organisms, this method has so far been under-exploited for non-model organism epigenetic analysis. This paper details several experiments that have examined the epigenetic processes of genomic imprinting and paramutation, by transferring an epigenetic control region from one model organism to another. These cross-species experiments demonstrate that valuable insight into both the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of epigenetic processes may be obtained via transgenic experiments, which can then be used to guide further investigations and experiments in the species of interest.

  13. Thailand low and equatorial F 2-layer peak electron density and comparison with IRI-2007 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaipanich, N.; Supnithi, P.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.

    2012-06-01

    Ionosonde measurements obtained at two Thailand ionospheric stations, namely Chumphon (10.72°N, 99.37°E, dip 3.0°N) and Chiang Mai (18.76°N, 98.93°E, dip 12.7°N) are used to examine the variation of the F 2-layer peak electron density ( N m F 2) which is derived from the F 2-layer critical frequency, f o f 2. Measured data from September 2004 to August 2005 (a period of low solar activity) are analyzed based on the diurnal and seasonal variation and then compared with IRI-2007 model predictions. Our results show that, in general, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the N m F 2 predicted by the IRI (URSI and CCIR options) model show a feature generally similar to the observed N m F 2. Underestimation mostly occurs in all seasons except during the September equinox and the December solstice at Chumphon, and the September equinox and the March equinox at Chiang Mai, when they overestimate those measured. The best agreement between observation and prediction occurs during the pre-sunrise to post-sunrise hours. The best agreement of the %PD values of both the options occurs during the March equinox, while the agreement is the worst during the September equinox. The N m F 2 values predicted by the CCIR option show a smaller range of deviation than the N m F 2 values predicted by the URSI option. During post-sunset to morning hours (around 21:00-09:00 LT), the observed N m F 2 at both stations are almost identical for the periods of low solar activity. However, during daytime, the observed N m F 2 at Chumphon is lower than that at Chiang Mai. The difference between these two stations can be explained by the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA). These results are important for future improvements of the IRI model for N m F 2 over Southeast Asia, especially for the areas covered by Chumphon and Chiang Mai stations.

  14. Study of Photoionization and Fragmentation on CHClF2 : Experiments and Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, L.; Yang, B.; Huang, C.; Qi, F.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The photoionization and fragmentation of CHClF 2 are studied with VUV radiation and photoionization mass spectroscopy at NSRL. Ionization potential of Parent molecule CHClF 2 , appearance energies of some fragment ions, and dissociative energy of some fragmentation process are obtained from photoionization efficiency spectroscopy. Dissociative photoionization channels for formation of some fragment ions are proposed on comparison of determined appearance energies and energies predicted with Gaussian-98 calculation

  15. NLO predictions for the growth of F2 at small χ and comparison with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Barreiro, F.; Yndurain, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    We present parametrizations for the proton structure function F 2 in the next to leading order in perturbative QCD. The calculations show that the dominant term to F 2 (x,Q 2 ) should grow as x -λ s for small x values, with the exponent λ S being essentially independent of Q 2 . Comparisons with the most recent H1 and ZEUS data confirm the value λ S ∼0.35 obtained previously from fits to low energy data. (orig.)

  16. On the Rise of the Proton Structure Function F_2 Towards Low x

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement of the derivative (d ln F_2 / d lnx)_(Q^2)= -lambda(x,Q^2) of the proton structure function F_2 is presented in the low x domain of deeply inelastic positron-proton scattering. For 5*10^(-5)=1.5 GeV^2, lambda(x,Q^2) is found to be independent of x and to increase linearly with ln(Q^2).

  17. Fading of LiF and CaF2:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1983-03-01

    The fading of LiF and CaF 2 :Dy was investigated and the results were compared to the literature. The effect of thermal annealing was studied in order to reduce the fading in both phosphors and to minimize the effects of the environment on CaF 2 :Dy. Minimizing the fading and knowing its time dependence make possible the exact personal and environmental dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Initiation Factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is comprised of 3 subunits. The control of protein synthesis in mammalian cells have been shown to involve the phosphorylation of the small (alpha) subunit by a specific protein kinase. Phosphorylation results in an inhibition of protein synthesis. In order to determine whether or not an analogous system is operative in yeast, the phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of elF-2 in Saccharomyces was determined during various growth and nongrowth conditions. Cells were radiolabelled with 32 P and 35 S, and the whole cell lysates were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. These experiments revealed that the smallest subunit (alpha, M/sub r/ = 31,000) is a phosphoprotein in vivo under a variety of growth and nongrowth conditions. This is in direct contrast to the pattern exhibited in mammalian cells. The fact that the small subunit of elF-2 in yeast is phosphorylated under a variety of physiological conditions indicates that such a covalent modification is important for some aspects of elF-2 function. In order to investigate this problem further, a protein kinase that specifically labels the alpha subunit of elF-2 in vitro was isolated. The kinase is not autophosphorylating, utilizes ATP as a phosphate donor, phosphorylates an exogenous protein, casein, modifies serine residues in elF-2, is cyclic nucleotide-independent, and is strongly inhibited by heparin

  19. Fabrication and Sintering Behavior of Er:SrF2 Transparent Ceramics using Chemically Derived Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Dongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Nie, Xinming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase structure, densification, and microstructure evolution of the Er:SrF2 ceramics were systematically investigated. In addition, the grain growth kinetic mechanism of Er:SrF2 was clarified. The results showed lattice diffusion to be the grain growth mechanism in the Er:SrF2 transparent ceramic of which highest in-line transmittance reached 92% at 2000 nm, i.e., very close to the theoretical transmittance value of SrF2 single crystal. Furthermore, the emission spectra showed that the strongest emission band was located at 2735 nm. This means that it is possible to achieve a laser output of approximately 2.7 μm in the 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics. PMID:29565322

  20. Fabrication and Sintering Behavior of Er:SrF2 Transparent Ceramics using Chemically Derived Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase structure, densification, and microstructure evolution of the Er:SrF2 ceramics were systematically investigated. In addition, the grain growth kinetic mechanism of Er:SrF2 was clarified. The results showed lattice diffusion to be the grain growth mechanism in the Er:SrF2 transparent ceramic of which highest in-line transmittance reached 92% at 2000 nm, i.e., very close to the theoretical transmittance value of SrF2 single crystal. Furthermore, the emission spectra showed that the strongest emission band was located at 2735 nm. This means that it is possible to achieve a laser output of approximately 2.7 μm in the 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Er3+ doped CaF2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Guanglin; Song Jinghong; Mei Bingchu; Zhou Weibing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Er 3+ :CaF 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method with particle size of 8-36 nm. → Increasing dopant concentration increases lattice constants and decreases grain size. → Annealing treatment has a remarkable effect on luminescence properties. → Luminescence intensity decrease with the increasing of the dopant concentration. - Abstract: Er 3+ doped CaF 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. Effect of the dopant concentrations on the structure and optical properties of the CaF 2 nanoparticles was investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis was used to characterize the structure and morphology of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with different dopant concentration exhibited a sphere-like morphology with diameters of about 8-36 nm. The incorporation of Er 3+ ions into CaF 2 resulted in the decrease in grain size and deterioration of crystallinity, but enlarged the lattice constants of CaF 2 . Additional annealing treatment at 400 deg. C to the prepared CaF 2 removed the NO 3 - and OH - groups adsorbed on the particles' surfaces, and improved the optical properties of the nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity, with a maximum at approximately 0.4 mol%, decreased with the increase in doping concentration because of concentration quenching.

  2. Evolution and Virulence of Influenza A Virus Protein PB1-F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P. Kamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs. Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. This can at least partially be explained by the presence of multiple PB1-F2 sequence variants, including premature stop codons that lead to the expression of truncated PB1-F2 proteins of different lengths and specific virulence-associated residues that enhance susceptibility to bacterial superinfection. Although there has been a tendency for human seasonal IAV to gradually reduce the number of virulence-associated residues, zoonotic IAVs contain a reservoir of PB1-F2 proteins with full length, virulence-associated sequences. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which PB1-F2 may affect influenza virulence, and factors associated with the evolution and selection of this protein.

  3. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  4. The production of fluorescent transgenic trout to study in vitro myogenic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rescan Pierre-Yves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish skeletal muscle growth involves the activation of a resident myogenic stem cell population, referred to as satellite cells, that can fuse with pre-existing muscle fibers or among themselves to generate a new fiber. In order to monitor the regulation of myogenic cell differentiation and fusion by various extrinsic factors, we generated transgenic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss carrying a construct containing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by a fast myosin light chain 2 (MlC2f promoter, and cultivated genetically modified myogenic cells derived from these fish. Results In transgenic trout, green fluorescence appeared in fast muscle fibers as early as the somitogenesis stage and persisted throughout life. Using an in vitro myogenesis system we observed that satellite cells isolated from the myotomal muscle of transgenic trout expressed GFP about 5 days post-plating as they started to fuse. GFP fluorescence persisted subsequently in myosatellite cell-derived myotubes. Using this in vitro myogenesis system, we showed that the rate of muscle cell differentiation was strongly dependent on temperature, one of the most important environmental factors in the muscle growth of poikilotherms. Conclusions We produced MLC2f-gfp transgenic trout that exhibited fluorescence in their fast muscle fibers. The culture of muscle cells extracted from these trout enabled the real-time monitoring of myogenic differentiation. This in vitro myogenesis system could have numerous applications in fish physiology to evaluate the myogenic activity of circulating growth factors, to test interfering RNA and to assess the myogenic potential of fish mesenchymal stem cells. In ecotoxicology, this system could be useful to assess the impact of environmental factors and marine pollutants on fish muscle growth.

  5. Reconstruction of missed critical frequency of F2-layer over Mexico using TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, M. A.; Maltseva, O. A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Romero Hernandez, E.; De la Luz, V.; Rodriguez-Martinez, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the Earth's ionosphere's state is one of the key issues within the Space Weather monitoring task. It is hard to overestimate the importance of diagnostics of its current state and forecasts of Space Weather conditions. There are different methods of short-time predictions for the ionosphere state change. The real-time monitoring of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) provides the opportunity to choose an appropriate technique for the particular observation point on the Earth. From September 2015 the continuous monitoring of TEC variations over the territory of Mexico is performed by the Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX). Regular patterns of the diurnal and seasonal TEC variations were revealed in base of past statistics and real-time observations which can be used to test the prediction method. Some specific features of the ionosphere behaviour are discussed. However, with all the merits of TEC as an ionospheric parameter, for the full picture of the processes in the ionosphere and for practical applications it is needed to identify the behaviour of other principal ionospheric parameters provided by ionosondes. Currently, SCiESMEX works on the project of the ionosonde installation in Mexico. This study was focused on the reconstruction of the critical frequency of F2-layer of the ionosphere (foF2) when this data is missing. For this purpose measurements of TEC and the median value of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere were used. First, the foF2 values reconstruction was made for the case of the ionosonde data being absent during some hours or days. Second, the possibility of foF2 reconstruction was estimated for the Mexican region having no ionosonde using local TEC data and foF2 data obtained in the regions close to Mexico. Calculations were performed for quiet and disturbed periods. The results of reconstruction were compared to the foF2 obtained from the International Reference Model and to median foF2 values. Comparison

  6. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  7. Crystal structure of difluorochloronium hexafluoroniobate and hexafluorotantalate, ClF2NbF6 and ClF2TaF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehllern, A.M.; Antipin, M.Yu.; Sharabarin, A.V.; Struchkov, Yu.T.

    1991-01-01

    Crystal structure of ClF 2 NbF 6 (1) and ClF 2 TaF 6 (2) were investigated by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. Salts 1 and 2 are isostructural, crystals are rhombic: a = 9.981(2) and 10.049(2), b = 5.781(1) and 5.775(1), c = 10.552(2) and 10.670(2) A, V = 608.9(3) and 619.2(3) A 3 , Z = 4, d calcd 3.058 and 3.952 g/cm 3 , sp. gr. Pcca. Both salts are characterized by ionic structure. Bond lengths and valent angles, general view of 1 crystal structure are presented

  8. Measurement of F_2^ccbar and F_2^bbbar at High Q^2 using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality Q^2 > 150 GeV^2 and of inelasticity 0.1 < y < 0.7. The charm and beauty fractions are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. The data are divided into four regions in Q^2 and Bjorken x, and values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  9. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  10. Simultaneous response of NmF2 and GPS-TEC to storm events at Ilorin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, B. W.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Oladipo, O. A.; Doherty, P. H.; Adimula, I. A.; Olawepo, A. O.; Adebiyi, S. J.

    2018-06-01

    A comparative study of both TEC and NmF2 variations during quiet and disturbed conditions has been investigated using simultaneous measurements from dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and a DPS-4 Digisonde co-located at Ilorin (Geog. Lat. 8.50°N, Long. 4.50°E, dip. - 7.9°). The results of the quiet time variations of the two parameters show some similarities as well as differences in their structures. The values of both parameters generally increase during the sunrise period attaining a peak around the noon and then decaying towards the night time. The onset time of the sunrise growth is observed to be earlier in TEC than in NmF2. The rate of decay of TEC was observed to be faster than that of the NmF2 in most cases. Also, the noon 'bite-outs', leading to the formation of pre-noon and post-noon peaks, are prominent in the NmF2 structure and was hardly noticed in TEC. Results of the variations of both TEC and NmF2 during the 5 April, 10 May and 3 August 2010 geomagnetic storm events showed a simultaneous deviations of both parameters from the quiet time behavior. The magnitude of the deviations is however most pronounced in NmF2 structure than in TEC. We also found that the enhancement observed in the two parameters during the storm events generally corresponds to decrease in hmF2.

  11. Assigning the Cerium Oxidation State for CH2CeF2 and OCeF2 Based on Multireference Wave Function Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooßen, Oliver; Dolg, Michael

    2016-06-09

    The geometric and electronic structure of the recently experimentally studied molecules ZCeF2 (Z = CH2, O) was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and wave function-based ab initio methods. Special attention was paid to the Ce-Z metal-ligand bonding, especially to the nature of the interaction between the Ce 4f and the Z 2p orbitals and the possible multiconfigurational character arising from it, as well as to the assignment of an oxidation state of Ce reflecting the electronic structure. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations were performed, followed by orbital rotations in the active orbital space. The methylene compound CH2CeF2 has an open-shell singlet ground state, which is characterized by a two-configurational wave function in the basis of the strongly mixed natural CASSCF orbitals. The system can also be described in a very compact way by the dominant Ce 4f(1) C 2p(1) configuration, if nearly pure Ce 4f and C 2p orbitals are used. In the basis of these localized orbitals, the molecule is almost monoconfigurational and should be best described as a Ce(III) system. The singlet ground state of the oxygen OCeF2 complex is of closed-shell character when a monoconfigurational wave function with very strongly mixed Ce 4f and O 2p CASSCF natural orbitals is used for the description. The transformation to orbitals localized on the cerium and oxygen atoms leads to a multiconfigurational wave function and reveals characteristics of a mixed valent Ce(IV)/Ce(III) compound. Additionally, the interactions of the localized active orbitals were analyzed by evaluating the expectation values of the charge fluctuation operator and the local spin operator. The Ce 4f and C 2p orbital interaction of the CH2CeF2 compound is weakly covalent and resembles the interaction of the H 1s orbitals in a stretched hydrogen dimer. In contrast, the interaction of the localized active orbitals for OCeF2 shows ionic character. Calculated vibrational Ce

  12. Production of germline transgenic prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) using lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Zoe R; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chan, Anthony W S; Young, Larry J

    2009-12-01

    The study of alternative model organisms has yielded tremendous insights into the regulation of behavioral and physiological traits not displayed by more widely used animal models, such as laboratory rats and mice. In particular, comparative approaches often exploit species ideally suited for investigating specific phenomenon. For instance, comparative studies of socially monogamous prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles have been instrumental toward gaining an understanding of the genetic and neurobiological basis of social bonding. However, laboratory studies of less commonly used organisms, such as prairie voles, have been limited by a lack of genetic tools, including the ability to manipulate the genome. Here, we show that lentiviral vector-mediated transgenesis is a rapid and efficient approach for creating germline transgenics in alternative laboratory rodents. Injection of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing lentiviral vector into the perivitelline space of 23 single-cell embryos yielded three live offspring (13 %), one of which (33%) contained germline integration of a GFP transgene driven by the human ubiquitin-C promoter. In comparison, transfer of 23 uninjected embryos yielded six live offspring (26%). Green fluorescent protein is present in all tissues examined and is expressed widely in the brain. The GFP transgene is heritable and stably expressed until at least the F(2) generation. This technology has the potential to allow investigation of specific gene candidates in prairie voles and provides a general protocol to pursue germline transgenic manipulation in many different rodent species.

  13. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280F-2T Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax credit—(1...

  14. Colloidal synthesis of BaF2 nanoparticles and their application as fillers in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Tuncer, Enis; More, Karren L.; Gu, Baohua; Sauers, Isidor; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and Eu-doped BaF2 have been prepared through sol-gel colloidal synthesis. In addition, BaF2-filled PMMA polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and dielectric properties were measured. The as-synthesized pure and Eu-doped BaF2 nanoparticles were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of crystalline BaF2 particles with an average diameter of 13.6 nm with a standard deviation of about ±2.4 nm. The photoluminescence properties of the pure and Eu-doped (2%, 4% and 8%) nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0→7F J ( J=1-4) transitions). We also measured significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of up to 30% for BaF2 nanocomposites over the unfilled PMMA polymer. This study thus offers some promise of sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite dielectrics with great potential for use as electrical insulation materials in cryogenic high-voltage applications.

  15. Colloidal synthesis of BaF2 nanoparticles and their application as fillers in polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and Eu-doped BaF2 have been prepared through sol-gel colloidal synthesis. In addition, BaF2 filled PMMA polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and dielectric properties were measured. The as-synthesized pure and Eu-doped BaF2 nanoparticles were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of crystalline BaF2 particles with an average diameter of 13.6 nm with a standard deviation of about 2.4 nm. The photoluminescence properties of the pure and Eu-doped (2%, 4% and 8%) nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0 7FJ (J=1-4) transitions). We also measured significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of up to 30% for BaF2 nanocomposites over the unfilled PMMA polymer. This study thus offers some promise of sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite dielectrics with great potential for use as electrical insulation materials in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  16. Synthesis, characterization of CaF2 doped silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Mirza, Ambreen; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Anjum, Safia

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of silicate glass-ceramics doped with (0-12mol%) CaF 2 . TGA-DSC analysis was carried out to determine the crystallization temperature and stability of glass measured by two glass parameters; Hruby parameter K H =(T x -T g )/(T L -T x ) and Weinberg parameter K W =(T c -T g )/T L . It was found that with CaF 2 doping improved sinterability at low temperature and provided stability to the glass. The XRD pattern exhibits a single phase of combeite and doping of CaF 2 cause increase in crystallite size. Microstructure of samples was also improved with CaF 2 addition, pores were significantly reduced. After 15days immersion in simulated body fluid all samples developed apatite layer onto its surface. Hence, the addition of CaF 2 provided bioactive glass-ceramic material having a low processing temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Size Controlled CaF2 Nanocubes and Their Dosimetric Properties Using Photoluminescence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa D. Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic chemical coprecipitation route for the preparation of well-crystallized size controlled nano- and microcrystalline cubes of CaF2 is reported. Crystalline cubes in the range of 2 μm–20 nm could be synthesized and their sizes were controlled by varying the solvent : cosolvent ratio. The as-synthesized CaF2 nanocubes were characterized by different techniques. Photoluminescence (PL emission spectrum of CaF2 nanocrystalline powder showed strong emission band at 415 nm. Moreover, the effect of Eu as a dopant on the emission spectrum of CaF2 was investigated. This dopant was found to get incorporated in its Eu2+ and Eu3+ forms. The as-produced nanocubes were exposed to UV irradiation and the corresponding PL emission was studied. Excellent results are obtained, where CaF2:Eu nanocubes were found to be highly sensitive and might be suitable for esteeming the doses of UV irradiation using the PL technique.

  18. Afterglow properties of CaF2:Tm nanoparticles and its potential application in photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedifar, M.; Sadeghi, E.; Shanei, M.M.; Sazgarnia, A.; Mehrabi, M.

    2016-01-01

    CaF 2 :Tm nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Intense afterglow emission with long life time was found for the produced NPs, so its applicability in photodynamic therapy was investigated. Since the wavelength of the afterglow emission of the NPs fairly matches with the absorption band of the PpIX sensitizer, especially in the red region, the Cystein mediator was used to bond NPs with the PpIX sensitizer. The CaF 2 :Tm NPs conjugated with PpIX was exposed to X-ray and by using the Antracene as detector, the production of the singlet oxygen was verified. Therefore, the produced NPs are recommended as a source of energy that improves photodynamic therapy beyond its current limitations. - Highlights: • Intense afterglow emission found for the synthesized CaF 2 :Tm nanoparticles. • CaF 2 :Tm emission band fairly matched with PpIX sensitizer's absorption band. • CaF 2 :Tm conjugated with the sensitized is a good candidate for photodynamic therapy. • The application of nanoparticles in producing singlet oxygen was verified.

  19. Variation of saturation effect in the ionospheric F2 critical frequency at low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikubanni, S. O.; Adeniyi, J. O.

    2013-08-01

    Saturation in the dependence of foF2 on solar flux is a phenomenon more pronounced in the equatorial ionization anomaly region. The phenomenon was observed in the relationship between the F2 critical frequency (foF2) and any solar indices. Using a two-segmented regression fit on data from an African low latitude station (Geographical Latitude 12.4°N; Geomagnetic latitude 3.5°N), saturation features from the dependence of foF2 on solar radio flux (F10.7) was studied. Diurnal and seasonal variation were studied for the first time in this low latitude region of the African sector. Significant variations were observed, especially in the solstices. It was observed that saturation effect is closely related to the hourly F2 critical frequency and these results were compared with those from Asian, Australian and the American sectors. The diurnal and seasonal variations find their explanations in the photo-ionization process, the fountain effect, and the pre-reversal enhancement while the seasonal variation was attributed to both the ion drift and thermospheric circulation. Future work with larger volume of data is expected to validate the observations from this study.

  20. [Chromosomal localization of foreign genes in transgenic mice using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Gong, Xiu-li; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin-bing; Zhu, Yi-wen; Huang, Ying

    2008-02-01

    To establish a highly sensitive and specific dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) method used for chromosomal localization of foreign genes in double transgenic mice. Two strains of double transgenic mice were used in this experiment, one was integrated with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP), the other was with the short hairpin RNA interference(RNAi) and beta(654). Splenic cells cultured in vitro were arrested in metaphase by colchicine and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled and biotinylated DNA probes, then detected by rhodamine-conjugated avidin and FITC-conjugated anti-digoxigenin. Dual-color fluorescence signals were detected on the same metaphase in both transgenic mice strains. In HSV-tk/eGFP double transgenic mice, strong green fluorescence for HSV-tk and red for eGFP were observed and localized at 2E5-G3 and 8A2-A4 respectively. In beta(654)/RNAi mice, beta(654) was detected as red fluorescence on chromosome 7D3-E2, and RNAi showed random integration on chromosomes. It was detected as green fluorescence on chromosome 12B1 in one mouse, while on 1E2.3-1F and 3A3 in the other. Highly sensitive and specific D-FISH method was established using the self-prepared DNA probes, and chromosomal localization of the foreign genes was also performed in combination with G-banding in double transgenic mice. This technology will facilitate the researches in transgenic animals and gene therapy models.

  1. Comparison of nutrition composition of transgenic maize (chitinase gene) with its non-transgenic counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-mei, Yan; Yu-kui, Rui; Xiao-yan, Yan; Zheng, Chai; Qing, Wang; Jian-zhong, Du; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the nutrition components of transgenic maize seeds (chitinase gene), achieved by the pollen-mediated approach, with its non-transgenic counterpart, Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, fatty acids and essential amino acids of transgenic maize seeds and their counterparts were analyzed by the Chinese national standard methods or AOAC methods. The results showed that the contents of all the six kinds of fatty acids detected in transgenic maize seeds were significantly higher than those i...

  2. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  3. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chunyang; Simmons, Steven O.; Law, Sheran H.W.; Jensen, Karl; Cowden, John; Hinton, David; Padilla, Stephanie; Ramabhadran, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  4. Durability of ITO-MgF2 Films for Space-Inflatable Polymer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.; Schieman, David A.; Hambourger, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from ITO-MgF2 film durability evaluations that included tape peel, fold, thermal cycle, and AO exposure testing. Polymer coupon preparation is described as well as ITO-MgF2 film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed visually, microscopically, and electrically. Results show that at 500 ITO - 9 vol% MgF2 film is suitable to protect polymer surfaces, such as those used in space-inflatable structures of the PowerSphere microsatellite concept, during a 1-year Earth orbiting mission. Future plans for ground-based and orbital testing of this film are also discussed.

  5. ESR of Ag2+ ions in S2F2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaripov, M.M.; Ulanov, V.A.; Falin, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data on investigation of bivalent silver ions in S 2 F 2 crystals are presented. Due to the investigation of the grown crystals it is determined that centres of univalent silver ore formed in SrF 2 during crystal growth. X-ray irradiation at room temperature results in the transition of these centres in bivalent staes. Investigation of temperature dependence of ESR spectra type has allowed to make the conclusion about the presence of Jahn-Teller dynamic effect. Analysis of experimental data allows to develop a model of the investigated paramagnetic complex in S 2 F 2 crystal where Ag 2* ion has coordination polyhedron in the form of eight F - ion cube distorted by C 3 3 axis

  6. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  7. Identification of θ(f2(1720)) as a tensor glueball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The energy-momentum tensor matrix element for the tensor glueball is obtained from the tensor dominance model. Branching ratio of θ(f 2 (1720)) in J/ψ radiative decay is thus calculated which is in accord with the observed experimental branching ratio. The decay modes of θ(f 2 (1720)) and results from J/ψ→ γK bar K,ωK bar K, and φK bar K are taken as good indicators for flavor independence of the tensor meson Θ. Suppression of θ(f 2 (1720)) in γγ reaction and K - p → ΛK o s K o s are considered as evidence for the fact that there are no quarks in θ. From the combined theoretical and experimental studies, the authors conclude that θ is by far the best tensor glueball candidate

  8. Solar Cycle variations of ƒoF2 from IGY to 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Goel

    Full Text Available Noontime monthly median values of F2-layer critical frequency foF2 (m for some ionospheric stations representing low- and mid-latitudes are examined for their dependence on solar activity for the years 1957 (IGY to 1990. This is the period for which ionospheric data in digital form is available in two CD-ROMs at the World Data Center, Boulder. It is observed that at mid-latitudes, foF2 (m shows nearly a linear relationship with R12 (the 12-month running average of the Zurich sunspot number, though this relation is nonlinear for low-latitudes. These results indicate some departures from the existing information often used in theoretical and applied areas of space research.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  9. Interface reaction and wetting in the CaF2/Me systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilai, S.; Aizenshtein, M.; Lomberg, M.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wetting experiments using the sessile drop method were performed in the CaF 2 -Me systems (Me = Cu, Ge, Al, In and Ga). Liquid Cu, Ge, In and Ga, do not wet the CaF 2 substrate and contact angles are significantly higher than 90 deg. No condensed products were found at the metal/ceramic interface. In the CaF 2 /Al system, evidence of an interface interaction was detected and the contact angle is about 92 deg. It was established that the spreading behavior and the values of the apparent contact angle depend on the rate of evaporation of the molten metals, the rate of sublimation of the substrate and on the value of the work of adhesion at the interface. The experimental observations are well accounted for by a thermodynamic analysis of the ternary Ca-Me-F systems

  10. Variability study of foF2 for an equatorial station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.; Adimula, I.A.

    1994-08-01

    The deviation of hourly values of foF 2 from the monthly median values was used to study the variability of foF 2 . The study was done for the period of high and low solar activity. Generally the range of variation of the deviation is not dependent on solar activity. There is a tendency for positive deviation to occur on magnetically disturbed days and for negative deviation to occur on quiet days. The magnitude of the deviation does not depend on whether the day is disturbed or quiet. The correlation between Ap index and deviation of foF 2 from the median value is generally poor. THe range of deviation at night is usually higher than that of the daytime for the period of high solar activity. Some seasonal effect were also observed on the deviation. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Fast neutron responses of CaF2:Tm Teflon TLD discs of different thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Hoffmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    The fact that in CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) the ratio of the heights of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks at 240 0 C and 150 0 C is greater for irradiations by high LET radiations than by gamma rays has been found useful for the simultaneous and separate measurement of fast neutron and gamma ray absorbed doses. A recent study has indicated that the mixed field dosimetric characteristics of CaF 2 :Tm could be significantly improved by using thin TLDs. In the present study, CaF 2 :Tm Teflon TLD discs of thickness as low as 0.05 mm were evaluated. The thin discs could be read out by using normal planchette heating if a 400 0 C heat treatment is given to the discs prior to irradiation and TL readout. Influence of encapsulation of thin dosemeters was studied and their utility in situations such as interface dosimetry is discussed. (author)

  12. 2.4 μm diode-pumped Dy2+:CaF2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Papashvili, Alexander G.; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Batygov, Sergei H.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a cryogenic cooled, longitudinal diode-pumped Dy2+ :CaF2 laser was investigated for the first time. The temperature dependence of the spectroscopy and the laser properties of Dy2+ :CaF2 are presented. The tested Dy2+ :CaF2 crystal was a longitudinal pump in a near-IR region (926 nm) by laser diode radiation. The maximal mean output power and slope efficiency at 78 K during the pulse regime of the laser were 57.5 mW and 7%, respectively. Furthermore, the CW regime was successfully tested and a maximum output power of 0.37 W was obtained for the absorbed pumping power 5.7 W. The emission laser wavelength was 2367 nm.

  13. Microwave, High-Resolution Infrared, and Quantum Chemical Investigations of CHBrF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Cludi, Lino; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    terms as well as the hyperfine parameters (quadrupole-coupling and spin-rotation interaction constants) of the bromine nucleus. The determination of the latter was made possible by recording of spectra at sub-Doppler resolution, achieved by means of the Lamb-dip technique, and supporting the spectra......A combined microwave, infrared, and computational investigation of CHBrF2 is reported. For the vibrational ground state, measurements in the millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave regions for (CHBrF2)-Br-79 and (CHBrF2)-Br-81 provided rotational and centrifugal-distortion constants up to the sextic...... parameters of the v(4) = 1 state were found to be close to those of the vibrational ground state, indicating that the v(4) band is essentially unaffected by perturbations....

  14. Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ziye; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Wei, Zhiyi; Su, Liangbi; Zheng, Lihe; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A passively mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal was demonstrated. The Y 3+ -codoping in Nd : CaF 2 markedly suppressed the quenching effect and improved the fluorescence quantum efficiency and emission spectra. With a fiber-coupled laser diode as the pump source, the continuous wave tuning range covering from 1042 to 1076 nm was realized, while the mode-locked operation generated 264 fs pulses with an average output power of 180 mW at a repetition rate of 85 MHz. The experimental results show that the Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal has potential in a new generation diode-pumped high repetition rate chirped pulse amplifier. (letter)

  15. Ultraviolet radiation monitoring in makkah city, Saudi Arabia, using thermoluminescence material CaF2:Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghorabie, F.H.; Natto, S.S.; AL-Lehyani, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of using Ca F2:Tm thermoluminescence material for measuring and monitoring of solar UV R in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Several laboratory experiments, prior to the field measurements, were performed included study of the effects of ultraviolet wavelengths on the response of the phosphor, study of the effect of increasing ultraviolet radiation dose on the intensity of thermoluminescence and study the effect of time factor on the thermoluminescence fading of Ca F 2 :Tm. The phosphor was then exposed directly for one hour to sunlight radiation on a daily basis for 90 days in an open field inside Umm Al-Qura university campus. The field measurements were performed during the months of June, July and August 2003 at 1:00 p.m. The laboratory and field results of this study showed that Ca F 2 :Tm can be used as a suitable dosimeter for solar UV R

  16. Software data acquisition system for the ''Chateau de Cristal'' multicounter 74 BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzama, G.

    1985-01-01

    The ''Chateau de Cristal'' is a 74 BaF2 detector assembly. Other detectors such as Ge (up to 12) and particle detectors can be added to this multidetector. The data acquisition system hardware and software are implemented in 3 VME crates. The operating system is handled by 68000 Motorola microprocessors. This work is dedicated to the initialization and control tasks of the multidetector. Handling of high voltage power supply for the 74 BaF2 detectors via a RS 232 C serial port, CAMAC initialization for the ADC 4300 Lecroy and DFC modules, data exchange between the 3 VME crates and automatic energy calibration for the BaF2 detectors. All the software is written in 68000 Motorola assembly language [fr

  17. The synthesis of PbF2 nanorods in a microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ke; Mao Changjie; Geng Jun; Zhu Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline PbF 2 nanorods with a diameter of 100-500 nm and length of 1-10 μm have been successfully synthesized by a simple sonochemical route in a microemulsion system at room temperature. The morphologies and structures of the nanorods were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that polyethylene glycol 6000 played an important role in the formation of PbF 2 nanorods. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements indicated that the as-prepared PbF 2 nanorods had strong green emission, which could have potential applications in optoelectronic devices

  18. The proapoptotic influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 forms a nonselective ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Henkel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PB1-F2 is a proapoptotic influenza A virus protein of approximately 90 amino acids in length that is located in the nucleus, cytosol and in the mitochondria membrane of infected cells. Previous studies indicated that the molecule destabilizes planar lipid bilayers and has a strong inherent tendency for multimerization. This may be correlate with its capacity to induce mitochondrial membrane depolarization.Here, we investigated whether PB1-F2 is able to form ion channels within planar lipid bilayers and microsomes. For that purpose, a set of biologically active synthetic versions of PB1-F2 (sPB1-F2 derived from the IAV isolates A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1 (IAV(PR8, from A/Brevig Mission/1/1918(H1N1 (IAV(SF2 or the H5N1 consensus sequence (IAV(BF2 were used. Electrical and fluorimetric measurements show that all three peptides generate in planar lipid bilayers or in liposomes, respectively, a barely selective conductance that is associated with stochastic channel type fluctuations between a closed state and at least two defined open states. Unitary channel fluctuations were also generated when a truncated protein comprising only the 37 c-terminal amino acids of sPB1-F2 was reconstituted in bilayers. Experiments were complemented by extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the truncated fragment in a lipid bilayer. The results indicate that the c-terminal region exhibits a slightly bent helical fold, which is stable and remains embedded in the bilayer for over 180 ns.The data support the idea that PB1-F2 is able to form protein channel pores with no appreciable selectivity in membranes and that the c-terminus is important for this function. This information could be important for drug development.

  19. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  20. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  1. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  2. [18F]-2-FDG as a tool for studying hexokinase kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Gysemans, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the basic research related to the development of radiolabelled glucose analogues or to sugar metabolism, the measurement of hexokinase kinetics is very important. The article of S. J. Gatley et al about the quality control of [ 18 F]-2-FDG preparations using the hexokinase reaction in vitro was the basic idea of the method proposed in this paper dealing with the direct measurement of hexokinase kinetics by the measurement of the activity related to [ 18 F]-2-FDG-6-phosphate. Experimental results indicate that the method is appropriate for hexokinase studies

  3. Measurement of the proton structure function F2 in ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents our first measurement of the F 2 structure function in neutral-current, deep inelastic scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA, the ep colliding beam facility at DESY. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 24.7 nb -1 . Results are presented for data in a range of Q 2 from 10 GeV 2 to 4700 GeV 2 and Bjorken x down to 3.0x10 -4 . The F 2 structure function increases rapidly as x decreases. (orig.)

  4. Transmission of electric fields and photoelectron fluxes between conjugate ionospheric F2-regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelski, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of the ionospheric F2-layer requires considerable vertical transport of ionization. Possible causes of such transport are ambipolar diffusion, neutral air winds and electric fields. Here mid-latitude electric fields are investigated. Real height variations of the F2-layer indicate that the phases and amplitudes of these fields are similar at well conjugate points and that the field strengths can become unexpectedly high. It is further shown that photoelectrons can migrate between the two hemispheres along the geomagnetic field lines. (orig.) [de

  5. Fluorine dynamics in BaF2 superionic conductors investigated by NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Gumann, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    In this work the dynamics of fluorine in solid-state electrolytes having BaF2-structure was investigated using three different NMR-methods: field cycling relaxometry, lineshape analysis, and static field gradient NMR. For this purpose a pure BaF2 crystal, as well as crystals doped with trivalent impurities (LaF3), were studied as a function of temperature. The main goal of this investigation was to utilize the structure information provided by neutron scattering and MAS NMR data in order to s...

  6. The f2(1565) in pbar-p -> (omega-omega)pizero interactions at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Braune, K.; Bugg, D.V.; Cramer, O.; Crede, V.; Djaoshvili, N.; Dunnweber, W.; Faessler, M.A.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Hodd, C.; Jamnik, D.; Kilinowsky, H.; Kisiel, J.; Klempt, E.; Kolo, C.; Montanet, L.; Pick, B.; Roethel, W.; Sarantsev, A.; Scott, I.; Strassburger, C.; Thoma, U.; Volcker, C.; Wallis, S.; Walther, D.; Wittmack, K.; Zou, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Data are presented on the reaction pbar-p -> omega-omega-pizero at rest from the Crystal Barrel detector. These data identify a strong signal due to f2(1565) -> omega-omega. The relative production from initial pbar-p states 3P2, 3P1 and 1S0 is well determined from omega-omega decay angular correlations; P-state annihilation dominates strongly. A combined fit is made with data on pbar-p -> 3pizero at rest, where f2(1565) -> pizero-pizero is observed.

  7. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  8. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  9. Recent progress on technologies and applications of transgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... this, the methods for producing transgenic poultry must become routine. ... and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been developed to generate transgenic chickens. ... any procedure aimed at generating transgenic birds.

  10. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic poles. Here, the downwelling occurs

  11. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic

  12. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  13. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  14. [New advances in animal transgenic technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  15. Reproductive parameters and mitochondrial function in spermatozoa of F1 and F2 minipig boars transgenic for n-terminal part of the human mutated huntingtin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Hansíková, H.; Pavlok, Antonín; Hajková, Z.; Sádková, J.; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Baxa, Monika; Zeman, J.; Motlík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, Suppl 1 (2012), A16-A16 ISSN 0022-3050. [European Huntington´s disease network 2012 plenary meeting. 14.09.2012-16.09.2012, Stockholm] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : huntingtin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Activation of cytokine production in F1 and F2 generation of miniature pigs transgenic for n-terminal part of mutated human huntingtin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeková, Ivona; Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, Suppl 1 (2012), A16-A16 ISSN 0022-3050. [European Huntington´s disease network 2012 plenary meeting. 14.09.2012-16.09.2012, Stockholm] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Hutington´s disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Wetting induced by near-surface Ti-enrichment in the CaF2/In-Ti and CaF2/Cu-Ti systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froumin, N.; Barzilai, S.; Aizenshtein, M.; Lomberg, M.; Frage, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wetting of CaF 2 by liquid Cu and In and with the effect of Ti additions to the melt. According to thermodynamic analysis and to the experimental observations, the significantly decreased contact angle following the addition of Ti to the molten metals is not due to the formation of interfacial fluoride phases, in contrast to previously reported results. Ab initio density functional calculations indicate that preferential Ti adsorption takes place at the near CaF 2 surface. It is suggested that the presence of a Ti-enriched liquid, adjacent to the substrate, gives rise, by means of heterogeneous nucleation, to the formation of a thin intermetallic compound layer that stands behind the experimentally observed enhanced wetting. The suggested wetting mechanism is supported by the notable correlation that has been observed between the temperature dependence of the contact angle and the temperature domains, associated with the presence of intermetallic compounds in both Me-Ti (Me = Cu, In) binary systems

  18. Analysis of the Rare Decay $B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ with $f_2' \\rightarrow K^+ K^-$ Final State

    CERN Document Server

    Berninghoff, Daniel Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the project that I worked on during my time as a summer student at CERN in summer 2014: A search for the rare decay $B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ at the LHCb experiment has been performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L} = 3.0 \\text{ fb}^{-1}$. In the Standard Model (SM), this decay is highly suppressed as it proceeds via an electroweak penguin transition. New Physics (NP) effects can enter the loop and influence observables like the branching ratio $\\mathcal{B}$. A theoretical prediction of the branching ratio in the SM is given by $\\mathcal{B}_\\text{th}(B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-) = \\left( 1.8\\,^{+1.1}_{-0.7} \\right) \\cdot 10^{-7}$. We found $N_\\text{obs} = 17.2 \\pm 2.9$ signal candidates using a two dimensional mass fit which is in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical prediction $N_\\text{pred} = 15_{-7}^{+10}$. Though, further systematic effects in the analysis still have to be investigated before converting this into a reliable va...

  19. Estimation of ultraviolet radiation dose using CaF2:Tb phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Y.; Ohtaki, H.; Owaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    To observe and estimate the dose of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight, the available thermoluminescence (TL) materials were studied. Several kinds of lanthanide elements were doped in pure CaF 2 powdered crystal and the properties of the Tl for UV were observed. The TL intensity from CaF 2 :Tb was the highest among the samples doped with various lanthanide elements, and form the TL emission spectra (380-540 nm) the TL is estimated to be due to inner transition of Tb 3+ . The peak wavelength of the TL excitation light was located approximately at 235 nm and light of a longer wavelength than 320 nm was unable to excite the TL. The ultraviolet response of CaF 2 :Tb depended on its sintering temperature. Even without γ ray pre-irradiation the CaF 2 :Tb sample with 1 h exposure to sunlight has enough sensitivity to estimate the change of UV. Seasonal change of UV intensity in sunlight was measured with this TLD during four months in 1993. The results agreed with that of other institutes in Japan. (author)

  20. Electron density variations in the F2 layer maximum during solar activity cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besprozvannaya, A.S.; Kozina, P.E.; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Sektor Ionosfery)

    1988-01-01

    R value, characterizing for F2 relation of hourly median values in solar activity minimum and maximum, is calculated by average monthly values of F2 layer critical frequencies for June, October and December 1958 and 1964. R latitudinal-temporal distributions are plotted for different seasons according to the data from the north hemisphere west and east stations, placed within the Φ'=35-70deg latitudes interval. The following peculiarities of F2 lyer ionization relation with solar activity are pointed out. There are day-time hours, they are - winter one characterized by the gain rate increase with the widths increase, and summer one, realizing the opposite regularity. In night-time hours R value is characterized by the abnormally low values (∼ 1.2) at the latitudes to the south of the ionospheric through and to the pole from it. For all three seasons during 24 hours the periods with ionization gain maximal rate, which occur at nights in summer time and in the hours after the sunset - in winter and equinoctial months, are observed. The quantitative explanation of the peculiarities detected concerning the to-day concepts on F2 layer formation mechanisms is given

  1. Study of VUV emission and γ-ray responses of Nd:BaF2 scintillaotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yokota, Yuui; Ishidu, Sumito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Akira; Pejchal, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Babin, Vladimir; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Nd 3+ 1%, 5% and 10% doped BaF 2 single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down method. Photoluminescence properties, including excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay were measured under synchrotron radiation excitation at the Superlumi station in HASYLAB at DESY (Hamburg, Germany). The Nd 3+ related 5d-4f emission lines peaking around 180 nm, 230 nm, and 260 nm, identified as the 5d- 4 I j , 5d- 4 F j , and 5d- 2 G j transitions, were observed under 140-168 nm excitation. In photoluminescence decay under the 160 nm excitation, the dominant component decay time is about 12, 2.5 and 1.2 ns for Nd 3+ 1%, 5% and 10% concentration, respectively. The decay time shortening is explained by the concentration quenching effect. Transmittance of Nd1% sample is about 80% for wavelengths above 185 nm. Finally, gamma-ray responses, non-proportionality and energy resolution of Nd1% sample were compared with the undoped BaF 2 scintillator. The light yield of the Nd1%:BaF 2 is about 93% of that of undoped BaF 2 .

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-2T - Recapture of overall foreign losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... $500 balance in the general category overall foreign loss account or $300 foreign source income in the... in the general category is recharacterized as U.S. source income. The balance in Y's general category..., see § 1.904(f)-2(a) and (b). (c) Section 904(f)(1) recapture—(1) In general. In a year in which a...

  3. A BaF2-BGO detector for high-energy gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Ritzen, B.; Tegner, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation detector has been developed for gamma rays with energy between a few hundred keV and approximately 100 MeV. The detector comprises a BaF 2 and a BGO crystal giving it good timing properties and a reasonably good energy resolution in combination with compact size. (orig.)

  4. A status report of the QCDSF N{sub f}=2+1 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, Meinulf [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, Roger [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Yoshifumi [DESY, Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann Institute NIC] (and others)

    2007-12-20

    We report about on-going simulations of N{sub f}=2+1 lattice QCD. We use a tadpole improved Symanzik gauge action and stout link smeared Wilson fermions with a clover term. We employ the Hasenbusch trick for the degenerate u- and d-quarks, and the RHMC algorithm for the simulation of the strange quark. (orig.)

  5. Mineralization of CCl4 and CCl2F2 on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeb, S.; Schmitzer, J.; Turner, W.V.; Korte, F.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising

    1980-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CCl 2 F 2 in the dark is shown to be greatly dependent on the nature of the solid surfaces to which they are exposed, alumina being more effective than silica gel and a number of natural sands. Activation of the solids by drying or mechanically by tumbling leads to increased mineralization rates. (orig.)

  6. Vibrational excitation resulting from electron capture in LUMO of F2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of F2 and HCl – A treatment using the time-dependent wave ... using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curve of the neutral target. The result- ..... reason for splitting of the wave packet is unknown to us.

  7. F2 layer characteristics and electrojet strength over an equatorial station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, B. O.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adimula, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Yumoto, K.

    2013-09-01

    The data presented in this work describes the diurnal and seasonal variation in hmF2, NmF2, and the electrojet current strength over an African equatorial station during a period of low solar activity. The F2 region horizontal magnetic element H revealed that the Solar quiet Sq(H) daily variation rises from early morning period to maximum around local noon and falls to lower values towards evening. The F2 ionospheric current responsible for the magnetic field variations is inferred to build up at the early morning hours, attaining maximum strength around 1200 LT. The Sq variation across the entire months was higher during the daytime than nighttime. This is ascribed to the variability of the ionospheric parameters like conductivity and winds structure in this region. Seasonal daytime electrojet (EEJ) current strength for June solstice, March and September equinoxes, respectively had peak values ranging within 27-35 nT (at 1400 LT) , 30-40 nT (at 1200 LT) and 35-45 nT (at 1500 LT). The different peak periods of the EEJ strength were attributed to the combined effects of the peak electron density and electric field. Lastly, the EEJ strength was observed to be higher during the equinoxes than the solstice period.

  8. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy-ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming ...

  9. Finding column depedencies in sparse matrices over $ F_ 2 $ by block Wiedemann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Penninga

    1998-01-01

    textabstractLarge systems of linear equations over $mathbb{F_2$ with sparse coefficient matrices have to be solved as a part of integer factorization with sieve-based methods such as in the Number Field Sieve algorithm. In this report, we first discuss the Wiedemann algorithm to solve these systems

  10. Luminescence Properties of CaF2 Nanostructure Activated by Different Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Salah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructures of calcium fluoride (CaF2 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu, and Ag were synthesized by the coprecipitation method and studied for their thermoluminescence (TL and photoluminescence (PL properties. The PL emission spectrum of pure CaF2 nanostructure has a broad band in the 370–550 nm range. Similar spectra were observed in case of doped samples, beside extra bands related to these impurities. The maximum PL intensity was observed in Eu doped sample. The TL results of Eu, Cu, Ag, and Tb doped samples show weak glow peaks below 125°C, whereas Dy doped one is found to be highly sensitive with a prominent peak at 165°C. This sample was further exposed to a wide range of gamma rays exposures from 137Cs source. The response curve is linear in the 100 Gy-10 kGy range. It is also observed that the particle size of CaF2 nanostructure was significantly reduced by increasing Dy concentration. These results showed that Dy is a proper activator in the host of CaF2 nanostructure, providing a highly sensitive dosimeter in a wide range of exposures and also plays a role as a controlling agent for particle size growth.

  11. Verification of Ca F2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1995-01-01

    Verification results of CaF2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes are presented in this paper. Tree types of irradiations are proceeded due to verification of relevant features of TLD. It is concluded that mentioned type of dosemeter can be used for purpose of personal dosimetry. (author)

  12. Fluorine dynamics in BaF2 superionic conductors investigated by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumann, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    In this work the dynamics of fluorine in solid-state electrolytes having BaF 2 -structure was investigated using three different NMR-methods: field cycling relaxometry, lineshape analysis, and static field gradient NMR. For this purpose a pure BaF 2 crystal, as well as crystals doped with trivalent impurities (LaF 3 ), were studied as a function of temperature. Using MAS NMR it was possible to identify two lines in Ba 0.9 La 0.1 F 2.1 having different chemical shift, and to refer them to the modified crystal structure. On this basis a model for the fluorine lineshape has been developed, taking into account three motional processes characterized by their correlation times. It includes jump diffusion of the fluorine ions among equivalent sites within two crystallographically distinct sublattices, and inter-lattice exchange processes. By measuring frequency and temperature-dependent spin lattice relaxation times, it was possible to gain information about fluorine dynamics on microscopic length scales. An attempt was also made to analyze the data for pure BaF 2 and low admixture concentration samples with a non-exponential correlation function. (orig.)

  13. Calcium flouride (CaF2) from oyster shell as a raw material for thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coloma, Lyra C.; Fanuga, Lyn N.; Ocreto, Cherries Ann; Rodriguez, Richita

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to develop a thermoluminescence dosimeter raw material made of calcium fluoride from locally available seashells that is suitable for personal radiation monitoring. Oyster shells were collected and grounded as powder samples and analyzed for calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) content using XRF and XRD testing. Samples include pure CaF 2 , pure oyster shell, and oyster shells treated with acid. Based from the XRF results, natural oyster shell (w/ and w/o HNO 3 ) had high percentage of calcium about 49.64% and 47.45%, next to the pure calcium fluoride of 51.08%. X-ray diffractrogram shows that oyster sample had the nearest desired structure of CaF 2 compared with two seashells relative to the pure CaF 2 as standard materials. Results show that all of the natural oyster samples displayed TL emission glow curves at the temperature range 200-300 o C. It was also found that pure oyster sample has better TL response as compared to the treated ones. The researchers concluded that the calcium fluoride from oyster shells (without acid and heated) is a potentially good low-cost TLD raw material and may be used as an alternative for the much more expensive LiF dosimeters. (Authors)

  14. Ionospheric foF2 at EIA region: comparison between observations and IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuo, Y. J.; Lee, C. C.

    We have used data from an equatorial ionization anomaly area station in the western Pacific region to study the monthly variability of foF2 Diurnal seasonal and solar activity effects were investigated The data established by this study are proposed as valid input values for the development of URSI and CCIR options for the International Reference Ionosphere

  15. Long-term trends in foF2: A comparison of various methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ulich, T.; Bremer, J.; Elias, A. G.; Ortiz de Adler, N.; Jara, V.; Abarca del Rio, R.; Foppiano, A. J.; Ovalle, E.; Danilov, A. D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 17 (2006), s. 1854-1870 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * foF2 * Long-term trends * Anthropogenic effects Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.448, year: 2006

  16. Variability in foF2 at an equatorial station and the influence of magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in foF2 is investigated for an equatorial station in the African region. Variability during the day time at high solar activity varies between 10 and 30 percent. It varies between 10 and 20 percent at high solar activity. Magnetic storms increase the variability at both solar activity periods. (author)

  17. When semantics turns to substance: reformulating QCD analysis of F2{γ}(x,Q2)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    2000-01-01

    QCD analysis of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) is revisited. It is emphasized that the presence of the inhomogeneous term in the evolution equations for quark distribution functions of the photon implies important difference in the way factorization mechanism works in photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as compared to the hadronic ones. Moreover, a careful definitions of the very concepts of the ''leading order'' and ''next-to-leading order'' QCD analysis of F 2 {γ} are needed in order to separate genuine QCD effects from those of pure QED origin. After presenting such definitions, I show that all existing allegedly LO, as well as NLO analyses of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) are incomplete. The source of this incompleteness of the conventional approach is traced back to the lack of clear identification of QCD effects and to the misinterpretation of the behaviour of q {γ} (x,M) as a function of /α s (M). Complete LO and NLO QCD analyses of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) are shown to differ substantially from the conventional ones. Whereas complete NLO analysis requires the knowledge of two so far uncalculated quantities, a complete LO one is currently possible, but compared to the conventional formulation requires the inclusion of four known, but in the existing LO analyses unused quantities. The arguments recently advanced in favour of the conventional approach are analyzed and shown to contain a serious flaw. If corrected, they actually lend support to my claim. (author)

  18. Phenotypic variation of F 1 and F 2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incomplete restoration of some of the masked characters in the F2 hybrids suggests a near-complete homogenization of parental genomes and/or chromosomal disharmony through silent genomic changes. These might have prevented sufficient chromosomal rearrangement and full homology for improved vigour in ...

  19. Probing the (110)-Oriented plane of rutile ZnF2: A DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Ali Abbaspour; Ebrahimiaqda, Elham

    2017-12-01

    For many years, rutile-like crystals have given rise to pronounced enthusiasm amongst mineralogists. In this context, rutile-type ZnF2 has found numerous applications across a variety of disciplines, ranging from material sciences to optoelectronics. Surprisingly, very limited literature is concerned with the molecular adsorption on ZnF2 surfaces and related energetics. Additionally, surface probing with small particles is a well-entrenched technique to analyze the interfacial properties. In this regard, small organic species are valuable picks. In the present work, we have employed electronic structure calculations to simulate the adsorption of methane, chloroform, pyrrole, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and pentacene at the (110) plane of rutile ZnF2. Dispersion-corrected DFT method was chosen to predict the binding energies and structures of molecule-adsorbed surfaces. Interestingly, a linear proportionality relationship was found between the binding energies of aromatic adsorbates and their respective molecular lengths. By applying this relationship, we were able to predict the adsorption energy of pentacene on ZnF2 to within 2% of our DFT-based result.

  20. Measurement of the Neutron F2 Structure Function via Spectator Tagging with CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, N.; Tkachenko, S.; Zhang, J.; Bosted, P.; Bültmann, S.; Christy, M. E.; Fenker, H.; Griffioen, K. A.; Keppel, C. E.; Kuhn, S. E.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tvaskis, V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Arrington, J.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Domingo, J.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Dutta, D.; Ent, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hungerford, E.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ispiryan, M.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Kalantarians, N.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Morrison, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, I.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Pisano, S.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the first measurement of the F2 structure function of the neutron from the semi-inclusive scattering of electrons from deuterium, with low-momentum protons detected in the backward hemisphere. Restricting the momentum of the spectator protons to ≲100MeV/c and their angles to ≳100° relative to the momentum transfer allows an interpretation of the process in terms of scattering from nearly on-shell neutrons. The F2n data collected cover the nucleon-resonance and deep-inelastic regions over a wide range of Bjorken x for 0.65F2n/F2p at 0.2≲x≲0.8 with little uncertainty due to nuclear effects.

  1. Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci using immortalized F2 populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Wen

    Full Text Available Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTLs is helpful for understanding the effects of genomic imprinting on complex traits in animals and plants. At present, the experimental designs and corresponding statistical methods having been proposed for iQTL mapping are all based on temporary populations including F2 and BC1, which can be used only once and suffer some other shortcomings respectively. In this paper, we propose a framework for iQTL mapping, including methods of interval mapping (IM and composite interval mapping (CIM based on conventional low-density genetic maps and point mapping (PM and composite point mapping (CPM based on ultrahigh-density genetic maps, using an immortalized F2 (imF2 population generated by random crosses between recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines. We demonstrate by simulations that imF2 populations are very desirable and the proposed statistical methods (especially CIM and CPM are very powerful for iQTL mapping, with which the imprinting effects as well as the additive and dominance effects of iQTLs can be unbiasedly estimated.

  2. Experimental study of the photon structure function F2 in the high Q2 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dietrich, G.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Krehbiel, H.; Meier, K.; Naroska, B.

    1982-09-01

    We report on a measurement of the process e + e - → e + e - + hadrons, where one of the scattered electron is detected at large angles, with an average Q 2 of 23 GeV 2 . The results are analysed in terms of the photon structure function F 2 and are compared with QCD predictions. (orig.)

  3. Protein-protein docking with F(2Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error.The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other.The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  4. Protein-Protein Docking with F2Dock 2.0 and GB-Rerank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rezaul; Rasheed, Muhibur; Keidel, Donald; Moussalem, Maysam; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA) based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. Results The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. Availability The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol) which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  5. Investigation of the conversion mechanism of nanosized CoF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yin Ting; Pramana, Stevin S.; Ding, Junfeng; Wu, Tom; Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on synthesis of nanosized cobalt fluoride via precipitation. • CoF x formation during recharging commences at the interface between cobalt and lithium fluoride. • Valance change of cobalt in cobalt fluoride electrode upon discharging and recharging is shown from EELS and XPS. • Lithiation of CoF 2 leads to formation of superparamagnetic nanosized cobalt particles. • Morphology of the conductive carbon addictives used plays a crucial factor in determining the capacity retention ability. -- Abstract: Nanoparticles (∼20 nm) of tetragonal (P42/mnm) cobalt fluoride (CoF 2 ) has been synthesized by precipitation using cobalt nitrate and ammonium fluoride solution at room temperature, followed by annealing at 400 °C under argon atmosphere. The morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical lithiation of CoF 2 and its structural and valence changes during conversion have been investigated. Electrochemical measurements revealed a discharge specific capacity close to theoretical specific capacity of 553 mAh g −1 and charge specific capacities ranging from 250 to 450 mAh g −1 in the first cycle, depending on the type of conductive carbon addictive used. Lithiation of CoF 2 occurs without any intercalation, but via conversion reaction CoF 2 + 2Li + + 2e − → Co(0) + 2LiF. During lithiation, CoF 2 is fully reduced to Co(0) and breaks down into smaller particles of ∼2 nm. Upon recharging, CoF x is formed instead of CoF 2 . XPS and EELS studies show that only the surface of the electrode is reconverted back to CoF x during recharging. In addition, recharging to form CoF x commences at the interface between the cobalt and lithium fluoride. These results offer the experimental evidence explaining the lack of cycle stability of metal fluorides that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium such

  6. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  7. ITO-MgF2 Film Development for PowerSphere Polymer Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, Paul D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-kilogram class microsatellites with a PowerSphere electric power system are attractive for fulfilling a variety of potential NASA missions. However, PowerSphere polymer surfaces must be coated with a film that has suitable electrical sheet resistivity for electrostatic discharge control, be resistant to atomic oxygen attack, be transparent to ultraviolet light for composite structure curing and resist ultraviolet light induced darkening for efficient photovoltaic cell operation. In addition, the film must be tolerant of polymer layer folding associated with launch stowage of PowerSphere inflatable structures. An excellent film material candidate to meet these requirements is co-sputtered, indium oxide (In2O3) - tin oxide (SnO2), known as 'ITO', and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). While basic ITO-MgF2 film properties have been the subject of research over the last decade, further research is required in the areas of film durability for space-inflatable applications and precise film property control for large scale commercial production. In this paper, the authors present film durability results for a folded polymer substrate and film resistance to vacuum UV darkening. The authors discuss methods and results in the area of film sheet resistivity measurement and active control, particularly dual-channel, plasma emission line measurement of ITO and MgF2 plasma sources. ITO-MgF2 film polymer coupon preparation is described as well as film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed microscopically and electrically. Results show that an approx. 500A ITO-18vol% MgF2 film is a promising candidate to protect PowerSphere polymer surfaces for Earth orbit missions. Preliminary data also indicate that in situ film measurement methods are promising for active film resistivity control in future large scale production. Future film research plans are also

  8. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F settings during a computer programming in the fall semester of the year 2010. The study was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University. This online course is one of the required courses for students majoring in Mathematics. It is delivered in a learning management system developed in house through a project funded by Istanbul University. The goal is to introduce students with structured programming using the programming language C. Two topics -“Functions in C Programming” and “Loops in C Programming” - were presented to students online and F2F. The total of 62 students formed two groups: the online and F2F groups. The content analysis statistical technique is used, as well as a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, which performed as a data collection tool to find out the views of the students in context to the process. While some results concluded that the performance of online students was satisfactory, but that their aggregate final grade was significantly lower than that of students who took an equivalent F2F class, others arrived at a conclusion reporting that there were no significant differences in overall outcomes. In case of making transition from F2F to online mode of teaching, prepossession about a new way of teaching is always an important barrier in students’ perceptions. One of the further researches is investigation of strategies for incorporating blended learning opportunities in programming courses.

  9. Study on the retention of enriched UO2F2 in the mouse and its radiogenotoxicological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qiyue; Zhu Shoupeng

    1991-06-01

    The study on toxicological effects of enriched UO 2 F 2 was undertaken in purebred BALB/c male mice to examine: (a) the retention in body; (b) the testicular clearance; (c) the effect of sperm abnormality; (d) the effect of chromosomal aberrations in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes; and (e) the effect of DNA damage in germ cells in various spermiogenic stages. Results show that enriched UO 2 F 2 mainly deposited in the kidneys, then the skeleton and liver. The amount of enriched UO 2 F 2 depositing in other tissues was small. Enriched UO 2 F 2 was similar to the natural uranium in transference and retention in the body. The testis had efficient clearance of enriched UO 2 F 2 . Enriched UO 2 F 2 could result in sperm abnormality. Even with the same treating does but at different treating time the rates of sperm abnormality were different. Enriched UO 2 F 2 could result in chromosomal aberrations in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. The important type of aberrations in spermatogonia was break. For primary spermatocytes the most significant aberration was multivalents. Enriched UO 2 F 2 could also result in DNA breakage in germ cells. The sensitivity of mouse germ cells at various stages to enriched UO 2 F 2 was different. There was a linear relationship between the amount of sperm DNA eluted and enriched UO 2 F 2 dose

  10. Aberrant phenotypes of transgenic mice expressing dimeric human erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Seong-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeric human erythropoietin (dHuEPO peptides are reported to exhibit significantly higher biological activity than the monomeric form of recombinant EPO. The objective of this study was to produce transgenic (tg mice expressing dHuEPO and to investigate the characteristics of these mice. Methods A dHuEPO-expressing vector under the control of the goat beta-casein promoter, which produced a dimer of human EPO molecules linked by a 2-amino acid peptide linker (Asp-Ile, was constructed and injected into 1-cell fertilized embryos by microinjection. Mice were screened using genomic DNA samples obtained from tail biopsies. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture using heparinized tubes, and hematologic parameters were assessed. Using the microarray analysis tool, we analyzed differences in gene expression in the spleens of tg and control mice. Results A high rate of spontaneous abortion or death of the offspring was observed in the recipients of dHuEPO embryos. We obtained 3 founder lines (#4, #11, and #47 of tg mice expressing the dHuEPO gene. However, only one founder line showed stable germline integration and transmission, subsequently establishing the only transgenic line (#11. We obtained 2 F1 mice and 3 F2 mice from line #11. The dHuEPO protein could not be obtained because of repeated spontaneous abortions in the tg mice. Tg mice exhibited symptoms such as short lifespan and abnormal blood composition. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hematocrit levels in the tg mice were remarkably higher than those in the control mice. The spleens of the tg mice (F1 and F2 females were 11- and -21-fold larger than those of the control mice. Microarray analysis revealed 2,672 spleen-derived candidate genes; more genes were downregulated than upregulated (849/764. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were used for validating the results of the microarray

  11. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Bouguyon, Edwige; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina; Da Costa, Bruno; Leymarie, Olivier; Bourdieu, Christiane; Decamps, Laure; Dhorne-Pollet, Sophie; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-10-15

    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. PB1-F2 was shown to modulate apoptosis and to be targeted by the CD8(+) T cell response. In this study, we examined the downstream effects of PB1-F2 protein during IAV infection by measuring expression of the cellular genes in response to infection with wild-type WSN/33 and PB1-F2 knockout viruses in human lung epithelial cells. Wild-type virus infection resulted in a significant induction of genes involved in innate immunity. Knocking out the PB1-F2 gene strongly decreased the magnitude of expression of cellular genes implicated in antiviral response and MHC class I Ag presentation, suggesting that PB1-F2 exacerbates innate immune response. Biological network analysis revealed the IFN pathway as a link between PB1-F2 and deregulated genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR and IFN-β gene reporter assay, we determined that PB1-F2 mediates an upregulation of IFN-β expression that is dependent on NF-κB but not on AP-1 and IFN regulatory factor-3 transcription factors. Recombinant viruses knocked out for the PB1-F2 and/or the nonstructural viral protein 1 (the viral antagonist of the IFN response) genes provide further evidence that PB1-F2 increases IFN-β expression and that nonstructural viral protein 1 strongly antagonizes the effect of PB1-F2 on the innate response. Finally, we compared the effect of PB1-F2 variants taken from several IAV strains on IFN-β expression and found that PB1-F2-mediated IFN-β induction is significantly influenced by its amino acid sequence, demonstrating its importance in the host cell response triggered by IAV infection.

  12. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  13. The complexity of the CaF2:Yb system: evidence that CaF2:Yb2+ is not an impurity trapped exciton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Cameron; Bridges, Frank; Kozina, Michael; Mehta, Apurva; Reid, M. F.; Wells, J.-P. R.; BarandiaráN, Zoila

    Fluorite crystal structures doped with rare-earth elements exhibit an anomalous redshifted luminescence upon UV excitation, generally attributed to the relaxation of impurity trapped excitons (ITE). We find that the intensity of this luminescence decreases as the total concentration of Yb 2+ increases in unexposed samples, which is in conflict with the currently accepted ITE model. Further, using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and UV-vis studies of CaF2:Yb, we find a large (but reversible) Yb valence reduction upon x-ray exposure at 200 K - from mostly 3+ to 2+. This valence reduction is stable for long time periods at low T ITE model; the data appear more consistent with an intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) model. It is likely that many similar ITE systems have also been misidentified.

  14. Highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watakabe, Ikuko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kimura, Yukiko; Yokoi, Saori; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    Medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. If the same technique were applicable in medaka, it would greatly expand the usefulness of this model organism. The question of the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in medaka, however, has yet to be addressed. We report the highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Donor plasmid containing a heat-shock promoter and a reporter gene was co-injected with a short guide RNA (sgRNA) targeted for genome digestion, an sgRNA targeted for donor plasmid digestion, and Cas9 mRNA. Broad transgene expression in the expression domain of a target gene was observed in approximately 25% of injected embryos. By raising these animals, we established stable knock-in transgenic fish with several different constructs for five genetic loci, obtaining transgenic founders at efficiencies of > 50% for all five loci. Further, we show that the method is useful for obtaining mutant alleles. In the experiments where transgene integrations were targeted between the transcription start site and the initiation methionine, the resultant transgenic fish became mutant alleles. With its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in via NHEJ will become a standard method for the generation of transgenic and mutant medaka.

  15. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  16. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  19. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  20. EPR study of concentration dependence in Ce, Ce : La and Ce:Y doped SrF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert, O.; Vainchtein, David; Datema, H.C.; den Hartog, Hendrik

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results of an EPR-study of the concentration dependence of the doubly integrated intensity and linewidth of the signals associated with tetragonal Ce3+-F--dipoles in Sr1-xCexF2+x, Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005LaxF2+0.005+x and Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005YxF2+0.005+x are presented. Both show a nonlinear

  1. Relationship between vertical ExB drift and F2-layer characteristics in the equatorial ionosphere at solar minimum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2012-07-01

    Equatorial and low-latitude electrodynamics plays a dominant role in determining the structure and dynamics of the equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric F-region. Thus, they constitute essential input parameters for quantitative global and regional modeling studies. In this work, hourly median value of ionosonde measurements namely, peak height F2-layer (hmF2), F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) and propagation factor M(3000)F2 made at near equatorial dip latitude, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (12oN, 1.5oW; dip: 1.5oN) and relevant F2-layer parameters such as thickness parameter (Bo), electron temperature (Te), ion temperature (Ti), total electron content (TEC) and electron density (Ne, at the fixed altitude of 300 km) provided by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model for the longitude of Ouagadougou are contrasted with the IRI vertical drift model to explore in detail the monthly climatological behavior of equatorial ionosphere and the effects of equatorial vertical plasma drift velocities on the diurnal structure of F2-layer parameters. The analysis period covers four months representative of solstitial and equinoctial seasonal periods during solar minimum year of 1987 for geomagnetically quiet-day. We show that month-by-month morphological patterns between vertical E×B drifts and F2-layer parameters range from worst to reasonably good and are largely seasonally dependent. A cross-correlation analysis conducted between equatorial drift and F2-layer characteristics yield statistically significant correlations for equatorial vertical drift and IRI-Bo, IRI-Te and IRI-TEC, whereas little or no acceptable correlation is obtained with observational evidence. Assessment of the association between measured foF2, hmF2 and M(3000)F2 illustrates consistent much more smaller correlation coefficients with no systematic linkage. In general, our research indicates strong departure from simple electrodynamically controlled behavior.

  2. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  3. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  5. Variation of hmF2 and NmF2 deduced from DPS-4 over Multan (Pakistan) and their comparisons with IRI-2012 & IRI-2016 during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Muhammad Ayyaz; Khursheed, Haqqa; Jabbar, Mehak Abdul; Ali, Muneeza Salman; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of ionospheric measurements from DPS-4 installed at Multan (Geog coord. 30.18°N, 71.48°E, dip 47.4°). The variations in F2-layer maximum electron density NmF2 and its peak height hmF2 are studied during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24 i.e 2008-2009 with comparisons conducted with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) versions 2012 & 2016. We find that the hmF2 observations peak around the pre-sunrise and sunrise hours depending on the month. Seasonally, the daytime variation of NmF2 is higher in the Equinox and Summer, while daytime hmF2 are slightly higher in the Equinox and Winter. High values of hmF2 around midnight are caused by an increase of upward drifts produced by meridional winds. The ionosphere over Multan, which lies at the verge of low and mid latitude, is affected by both E × B drifts and thermospheric winds as evident from mid-night peaks and near-sunrise dips in hmF2. The results of the comparison of the observed NmF2 and hmF2 for the year 2008-2009 with the IRI-2012 (both NmF2 and hmF2) and IRI-2016 (only hmF2) estimates indicate that for NmF2, IRI-2012 with Consultative Committee International Radio (CCIR) option produces values in better agreement with observed data. Whereas, for hmF2, IRI-2016 with both International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and CCIR SHU-2015 options, predicts well for nighttime hours throughout the year. However, the IRI-2012 with CCIR option produces better agreement with data during daytime hours. Furthermore, IRI-2012 with CCIR option gives better results during Equinox months, whereas, IRI-2016 with both URSI and CCIR SHU-2015 options predict well for Winter and Summer.

  6. Laser grade CaF2 with controllable properties: growing conditions and structural imperfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchovski, J T; Temelkov, K A; Vuchkov, N K; Sabotinov, N V

    2007-01-01

    Optical properties of CaF 2 , grown by a controlled Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, are studied by CuBr and SrBr 2 vapour lasers. Absorption losses are determined as a function of the grown crystal volume, the crystallization front (CF), and the real crystallization rate. It is found that the absorption losses are relatively independent of the transmitted wavelengths in a wide spectral range from the deep ultraviolet (DUV) to the middle infrared (MIR) spectral region and their minimum corresponds to CF positions within the upper half of the adiabatic furnace zone, where the CR reaches a constant value slightly higher than the speed of crucible movement. The crystal quality conforms to laser grade CaF 2 for the DUV, visible and MIR spectral regions and may be controlled efficiently by introducing an appropriate systematic correction in the furnace temperature field, which shifts the CF position

  7. Immunological comparison of basic encephalitogen and histone F2A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustin, M.; Teitelbaum, D.; Webb, C.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of immunological cross-reaction between basic encephalitogen and histone F2A1 on both the humoral antibody level and on the cellular level has been established. The extent of humoral cross-reaction was tested by direct complement fixation employing both anti-histone F2A1 and antisera to basic encephalitogen, by inhibition of complement fixation, by radioimmunoassay and by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The data obtained failed to reveal immunological cross-reaction between the proteins on the humoral antibody level. The extent of cross-reaction at the cellular level was tested by the lymphocyte stimulation technique in rabbits and guinea pigs, by inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions. It is concluded that the immunological studies provide limited evidence that the two proteins share antigenic determinants. (orig./GSE) [de

  8. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F2 laser surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi; Miyamoto, Iwao; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F 2 laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F 2 laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  9. Leading twist moments of the neutron structure function F_2n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Osipenko; W. Melnitchouk; S. Simula; S. Kulagin; G. Ricco

    2005-10-20

    We perform a global analysis of neutron $F_2^n$ structure function data, obtained by combining proton and deuteron measurements over a large range of kinematics. From these data the lowest moments ($n \\leq 10$) of the leading twist neutron $F_2^n$ structure function are extracted. Particular attention is paid to nuclear effects in the deuteron, which become increasingly important for the higher moments. Our results for the nonsinglet, isovector $p - n$ combination of the leading twist moments are compared with those of available lattice simulations. We also determine the lowest few moments of the higher twist contributions, obtained by subtracting the leading twist from the total structure function, and analyze their isospin dependence.

  10. Quenching of scintillation in BaF2 for light charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.

    1992-01-01

    Detectors made of a barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) crystal have recently become popular in the spectroscopy of photons and light charged particles at intermediate energies. The quenching of the scintillation light of BaF 2 crystals is described in the framework of Birks law for light charged particles in the energy range of 20-100 A MeV. Based on the recently published data, the analysis yields a value of Birks constant equal to 1.8±0.3 mg MeV -1 cm -2 and a scintillation efficiency equal to 0.79±0.05 MeV ee MeV -1 . (R.P.) 10 refs.; 2 figs

  11. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the photon structure function $F_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at low x

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron-photon scattering is studied using e+e- data collected by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s_ee} ~ M_{Z^0}. The photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) is explored in a Q^2 range of 1.1 to 6.6 GeV/c^2 at lower x values than ever before. To probe this kinematic region events are selected with a beam electron scattered into one of the OPAL luminosity calorimeters at scattering angles between 27 and 55 mrad. A measurement is presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) at = 1.86 GeV^2 and 3.76 GeV^2 in five logarithmic x bins from 0.0025 to 0.2.

  13. B meson spectrum and decay constant from N{sub f}=2 simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossier, Benoit [Lab. de Physique Theorique, CNRS et Univ. Paris-Sud XI, 91 - Orsay (France); Bulava, John [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Della Morte, Michele [Mainz Univ. (DE), Inst. fuer Kernphysik] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    We report on the status of an ALPHA Collaboration project to extract quantities for B physics phenomenology from N{sub f}=2 lattice simulations. The framework is Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) expanded up to the first order of the inverse b-quark mass. The couplings of the effective theory are determined by imposing matching conditions of observables computed in HQET with their counterpart computed in QCD. That program, based on N{sub f}=2 simulations in a small physical volume with Schroedinger functional boundary conditions, is now almost finished. On the other side the analysis of configurations selected from the CLS ensembles, in order to measure HQET hadronic matrix elements, has just started recently so that only results obtained at a single lattice spacing, a=0:07 fm, is discussed. We give our first results for the b-quark mass and for the B meson decay constant. (orig.)

  14. Comparing AdS/CFT dipole model to HERA F2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LU Zhun

    2010-01-01

    We apply an AdS/CFT-inspired color-dipole model which contains only three free parameters to describe the HERA data for the inclusive structure function F 2 at small Bjorken-x and virtuality. We found that the saturation scale in our AdS/CFT-based parameterization varies in the range of 1-3 GeV becoming independent of energy/Bjorken-x at very small x. This leads to the prediction of x-independence of the structure functions at very small x. With the fitted parameters in our model, the predictions for F 2 , longitudinal structure function, charm structure function and total photo-production cross-sections in the kinematic regions of future experiments can be given. (authors)

  15. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).  Methods: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α......]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease [OND] with no signs of inflammation) and 62 patients with MS. Oxidation products were correlated with disease severity and validated biomarkers of inflammation (chemokine ligand 13; matrix metalloproteinase-9; osteopontin) and axonal damage...... with natalizumab and methylprednisolone treatment and was unaffected by the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in secondary progressive MS. CSF PGF2α did not associate with validated CSF markers of inflammation and axonal damage that themselves did not associate with the Expanded Disability Status Scale...

  16. Cloning and characterization of two duplicated interleukin-17A/F2 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Transcripts expression and bioactivity of recombinant IL-17A/F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Yu, Juhua; Li, Jianlin; Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in inflammation and host defense in mammals. In this study, we identified two duplicated IL-17A/F2 genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (ccIL-17A/F2a and ccIL-17A/F2b), putative encoded proteins contain 140 amino acids (aa) with conserved IL-17 family motifs. Expression analysis revealed high constitutive expression of ccIL-17A/F2s in mucosal tissues, including gill, skin and intestine, their expression could be induced by Aeromonas hydrophila, suggesting a potential role in mucosal immunity. Recombinant ccIL-17A/F2a protein (rccIL-17A/F2a) produced in Escherichia coli could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β) and the antimicrobial peptides S100A1, S100A10a and S100A10b in the primary kidney in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Above findings suggest that ccIL-17A/F2 plays an important role in both proinflammatory and innate immunity. Two duplicated ccIL-17A/F2s showed different expression level with ccIL-17A/F2a higher than b, comparison of two 5' regulatory regions indicated the length from anticipated promoter to transcriptional start site (TSS) and putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS) were different. Promoter activity of ccIL-17A/F2a was 2.5 times of ccIL-17A/F2b which consistent with expression results of two genes. These suggest mutations in 5'regulatory region contributed to the differentiation of duplicated genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze 5'regulatory region of piscine IL-17 family genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, o...

  18. Determination of fluoride content in UO2F2 and ADUF solution by ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Papu; Kumar, Pradeep; Bagchi, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    During production of uranium metal powder, liquid solution UO 2 F 2 and ADUF containing high content of fluoride gets generated. Fluoride being corrosive in nature, fluorides concentration needs to determined. Ion selective electrode, LaF 3 (Eu) crystal, has been used. Uranium was found to interfere with fluoride analysis. Study was carried out to selectively remove uranium by solvent extraction employing D2EHPA+Cyanex 923 and TBP in dodecane. The TBP was found effective to remove uranium. (author)

  19. Synthesis and Physical Properties of the Oxofluoride Cu2(SeO3)F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoudi-Vagourdi, Eleni; Papawassiliou, Wassilios; Müllner, Silvia; Jaworski, Aleksander; Pell, Andrew J; Lemmens, Peter; Kremer, Reinhard K; Johnsson, Mats

    2018-04-16

    Single crystals of the new compound Cu 2 (SeO 3 )F 2 were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method, and the crystal structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma with the unit cell parameters a = 7.066(4) Å, b = 9.590(4) Å, and c = 5.563(3) Å. Cu 2 (SeO 3 )F 2 is isostructural with the previously described compounds Co 2 TeO 3 F 2 and CoSeO 3 F 2 . The crystal structure comprises a framework of corner- and edge-sharing distorted [CuO 3 F 3 ] octahedra, within which [SeO 3 ] trigonal pyramids are present in voids and are connected to [CuO 3 F 3 ] octahedra by corner sharing. The presence of a single local environment in both the 19 F and 77 Se solid-state MAS NMR spectra supports the hypothesis that O and F do not mix at the same crystallographic positions. Also the specific phonon modes observed with Raman scattering support the coordination around the cations. At high temperatures the magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie temperature of Θ = -173(2) K and an effective magnetic moment of μ eff ∼ 2.2 μ B . Antiferromagnetic ordering below ∼44 K is indicated by a peak in the magnetic susceptibility. A second though smaller peak at ∼16 K is tentatively ascribed to a magnetic reorientation transition. Both transitions are also confirmed by heat capacity measurements. Raman scattering experiments propose a structural phase instability in the temperature range 6-50 K based on phonon anomalies. Further changes in the Raman shift of modes at ∼46 K and ∼16 K arise from transitions of the magnetic lattice in accordance with the susceptibility and heat capacity measurements.

  20. Gluons from logarithmic slopes of F2 in the NLL approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    1994-02-01

    We make a critical, next-to-leading order, study of the accuracy of the ''Prytz'' relation, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution at small x from the logarithmic slopes of the structure function F 2 . We find that the simple relation is not generally valid in the HERA regime, but show that it is a reasonable approximation for gluons which are sufficiency singular at small x. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  1. T-x projections of phase diagrams of the MeF-BeF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    The T-x projections of the state diagrams of the systems MeF-BeF 2 (Me=Li-Rb) have been plotted. Transformation of P-x cross sections of the system state diagrams with decreasing temperature have been considered with the aid, of the general view of T-x projections. The nature of sublimation of the compounds formed in these systems is discussed

  2. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibczynski, Pawel; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Grodzicki, Krystian; Iwanowska-Hanke, Joanna; Moszyński, Marek; Swiderski, Lukasz; Syntfeld-Każuch, Agnieszka; Wolski, Dariusz; Carrel, Frédérick; Grabowski, Amélie; Hamel, Matthieu; Laine, Frederic; Sari, Adrien; Iovene, Alessandro; Tintori, Carlo; Fontana, Cristiano; Pino, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD). The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII) is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD) V known also as a "dirty bomb". This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α)16N or 19F(n,p)19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC). Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  3. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibczynski Pawel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD. The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD V known also as a “dirty bomb”. This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α16N or 19F(n,p19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC. Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  4. Refractive indices of CaF2 single crystals under elastic shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Refractive indices and Hugoniots of CaF2 single crystals are investigated by laser displacement interferometry under shock loading below 5 GPa. Birefringence is observed for the [110] loading. We obtain the Hugoniot equation of states for [100], [110] and [111], and refractive indices for these orientations with consideration of their polarization. The measured refractive indices are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the piezo-optic theory, and are used to refine the elasto-optic coefficients.

  5. Nucleon scalar matrix elements with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate scalar matrix elements of the nucleon using N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions at a fixed value of the lattice spacing of a{approx}0.078 fm. We compute disconnected contributions to the relevant three-point functions using an efficient noise reduction technique. Using these methods together with an only multiplicative renormalization applicable for twisted mass fermions, allows us to obtain accurate results in the light and strange sector. (orig.)

  6. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  7. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  8. Cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of YAC transgenic mouse models of Friedreich ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anjomani Virmouni

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. We have previously established and performed preliminary characterisation of several human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing GAA repeat expansions, Y47R (9 GAA repeats, YG8R (90 and 190 GAA repeats and YG22R (190 GAA repeats.We now report extended cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of these FXN YAC transgenic mouse models. FXN transgene copy number analysis of the FRDA mice demonstrated that the YG22R and Y47R lines each have a single copy of the FXN transgene while the YG8R line has two copies. Single integration sites of all transgenes were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We identified significant functional deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8R and YG22R FRDA mice compared to Y47R and wild-type control mice. We also confirmed increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the cerebellum and brain of YG22R and YG8R mice, together with significantly reduced levels of FXN mRNA and protein in the brain and liver of YG8R and YG22R compared to Y47R.Together these studies provide a detailed characterisation of our GAA repeat expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models that will help investigations of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.

  9. Frictional Heating of Ions In The F2-region of The Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhko, G. O.; Vlasov, V. G.

    Auroral electron beams unstable on the Cherenkov resonance are stabilized by large- scale inhomogeneity of the plasma density during all their way from the acceleration region to the E-region of the ionosphere. The generation of plasma waves by beam is possible only in the region of small plasma density gradients, that always is the area of the F2-region maximum. Thus, collective dissipation of the electron beam energy occurs in the local region with the length about several tens of kilometers. This leads to the intensive heating of the electrons(up to temperatures about 10000 K) and will give origin to the ion upflows with velocity about 1 km/s and density about 109 cm-2 s-1. These flows can result in the ion frictional heating. At the same time ion temperatures reach the values about 5000 K. A numerical simulation of the ion frictional heating in the presence of collective elec- tron heating in the high-latitude F2-region of the ionosphere was performed. The sim- ulation has shown that the most critical parameter for the occurence of the ion fric- tional heating was the the steepness of the plasma density profile above the F2-region maximum.

  10. Photoionization study of the F2+ ion via the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, M.; Tine, M.; Sow, M.; Diop, B.; Guèye, M.; Faye, M.; Sakho, I.; Biaye, M.; Wagué, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we have tabulated energy resonances of the 2s22p2 (1D)nd (2L), 2s22p2 (1S)nd (2L) and 2s22p3 (3D)np Rydberg series originating from the 2s22p3(2Po) and from the 2s22p3 (2Do) metastable states of F2+. In addition, energy resonances of the 2s2p3(5So)np (4P) Rydberg series originating from the 2s22p3 (4So) ground-state of F2+are also reported. Calculations are performed using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) method. Analysis of the present data is achieved by calculating the quantum defects and the effective nuclear charges for each series. The present results agree very well with the Advanced Light Source experiments on F2+ (Aguilar et al., 2005). Upto n=30, the present quantum defects are almost constant and the effective charge decreases regularly toward the electric charge of the F3+ core ion along each series.

  11. The investigation on electrochemical reaction mechanism of CuF2 thin film with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yanhua; Xue Mingzhe; Zhou Yongning; Peng Shuming; Wang Xiaolin; Fu Zhengwen

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline CuF 2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition under room temperature. The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-deposited thin films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Reversible capacity of 544 mAh g -1 was achieved in the potential range of 1.0-4.0 V. A reversible couple of redox peaks at 3.0 V and 3.7 V was firstly observed. By using ex situ XRD and TEM techniques, an insertion process followed by a fully conversion reaction to Cu and LiF was revealed in the lithium electrochemical reaction of CuF 2 thin film electrode. The reversible insertion reaction above 2.8 V could provide a capacity of about 125 mAh g -1 , which makes CuF 2 a potential cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  12. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Stephen H; Wehlitz, Ralf; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-06-14

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF2 from Xe 3d(5/2), Xe 3d(3/2), and F 1s subshells in the 660-740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d-ϵf continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF2 cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. Comparisons of the ion products from the atom and molecule following Xe 3d photoionization show that the charge-state distribution of Xe ions is shifted to lower charge states in the molecule along with production of energetic F(+) and F(2+) ions. This suggests that, in decay of a Xe 3d core hole, charge is redistributed to the F ligands and the system dissociates due to Coulomb repulsion. The ion products from excitation of the F 1s-LUMO resonance are different and show strong increases in the yields of Xe(+) and F(+) ions. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies, and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods and agree well with measurements.

  13. A new ionospheric storm scale based on TEC and foF2 statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Michi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Jin, Hidekatsu; Ishii, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the I-scale, a new ionospheric storm scale for general users in various regions in the world. With the I-scale, ionospheric storms can be classified at any season, local time, and location. Since the ionospheric condition largely depends on many factors such as solar irradiance, energy input from the magnetosphere, and lower atmospheric activity, it had been difficult to scale ionospheric storms, which are mainly caused by solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, statistical analysis was carried out for total electron content (TEC) and F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) in Japan for 18 years from 1997 to 2014. Seasonal, local time, and latitudinal dependences of TEC and foF2 variabilities are excluded by normalizing each percentage variation using their statistical standard deviations. The I-scale is defined by setting thresholds to the normalized numbers to seven categories: I0, IP1, IP2, IP3, IN1, IN2, and IN3. I0 represents a quiet state, and IP1 (IN1), IP2 (IN2), and IP3 (IN3) represent moderate, strong, and severe positive (negative) storms, respectively. The proposed I-scale can be used for other locations, such as polar and equatorial regions. It is considered that the proposed I-scale can be a standardized scale to help the users to assess the impact of space weather on their systems.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Nd(3+)-Doped CaF2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Li, Weiwei; Mei, Bingchu; Song, Jinghong

    2015-12-01

    The Ca(1-x)F(2+x):Nd(x) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical direct precipitation method. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Image analyzer, absorption spectrum and transmittance were taken to characterization the phases, morphologies, sizes, size distribution and optical properties of the samples. The results indicate that the Ca(1-x)F(2+x):Nd(x) samples can be rationally modified in size and morphology by altering the Nd3+ ions doping concentration. With increasing concentration of Nd3+ ions, the particle size decreased from 24 to 14 nm, the intensity of the diffraction peaks decreased, the Ca(1-x)F(2+x):Nd(x) particles aggregated ion of the formed clusters which should have an effect on both speed and orientation of the particles growth. The transmittance of ceramics with a thickness of 2 mm showed that the transmittance can reach 90% when the doping concentration was 5%, which should be profitable for LD pumping.

  15. Mechanoluminescence by impulsive deformation of γ-irradiated Er-doped CaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, Nameeta; Shukla, Manju; Bisen, D.P.; Kurrey, U.; Choubey, Anil; Kher, R.S.; Singh, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    An impulsive technique has been used for mechanoluminescence (ML) measurements in γ-irradiated Er doped CaF 2 crystals. When the ML is excited impulsively by the impact of moving piston on to γ-irradiated CaF 2 :Er crystals, two peaks are observed in ML intensity with time and it is seen that the peak intensities of first and second peaks (I m1 and I m2 ) increase with increasing impact velocity. However the time corresponding to first and second peaks (t m1 and t m2 ) shifts towards shorter time values with increasing impact velocity. It is also seen that the total ML intensity I Total initially increases with the impact velocity and then it attains a saturation value for higher values of the impact velocity. We have presented a theoretical explanation for the observed results. - Research highlights: → Impulsive technique has been used for mechanoluminescence (ML) studies in γ-irradiated Er doped CaF 2 crystals. → ML intensity exhibited two peaks with time (I m1 and I m2 ), where the intensity of both the peaks increased with increasing impact velocity. → The time of occurrence of the peaks (t m1 and t m2 ) reduced with increasing the impact velocity. → Total ML intensity (I Total ) first increases and then attains a saturation value with an increment in the impact velocity. → A theoretical explanation is presented to the observed results.

  16. The proton and deuteron F2 structure function at low Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvaskis, Vladas; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, Oliver; Blok, Henk; Bosted, Peter; Boswell, Melissa; Bruell, Antje; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Ent, Rolf; Filippone, Bradley; Gasparian, Ashot; Keppel, Cynthia; Kinney, Edward; Lapikas, L.; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Mack, David; Mammei, Juliette; Martin, J.W.; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Piercey, Rodney; Potterveld, David; Smith, Gregory; Spurlock, Kurt; Van der Steenhoven, Gerard; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Wood, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the proton and deuteron F2 structure functions are presented. The data, taken at Jefferson Lab Hall C, span the four-momentum transfer range 0:06 < Q2 < 2:8 GeV2, and Bjorken x values from 0.009 to 0.45, thus extending the knowledge of F2 to low values of Q2 at low x. Next-to-next-to-leading order calculations using recent parton distribution functions start to deviate from the data for Q2 < 2 GeV2 at the low and high x-values. Down to the lowest value of Q2, the structure function is in good agreement with a parameterization of F2 based on data that have been taken at much higher values of Q2 or much lower values of x, and which is constrained by data at the photon point. The ratio of the deuteron and proton structure functions at low x remains well described by a logarithmic dependence on Q2 at low Q2.

  17. Pyramidal pits created by single highly charged ions in BaF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2010-01-01

    In various insulators, the impact of individual slow highly charged ions (eV-keV) creates surface nanostructures, whose size depends on the deposited potential energy. Here we report on the damage created on a cleaved BaF 2 (111) surface by irradiation with 4.5xq keV highly charged xenon ions from a room-temperature electron-beam ion trap. Up to charge states q=36, no surface topographic changes on the BaF 2 surface are observed by scanning force microscopy. The hidden stored damage, however, can be made visible using the technique of selective chemical etching. Each individual ion impact develops into a pyramidal etch pits, as can be concluded from a comparison of the areal density of observed etch pits with the applied ion fluence (typically 10 8 ions/cm 2 ). The dimensional analysis of the measured pits reveals the significance of the deposited potential energy in the creation of lattice distortions/defects in BaF 2 .

  18. A novel decomposition technique of friable asbestos by CHClF2-decomposed acidic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Onda, Ayumu; Kanazawa, Masazumi; Shinohara, Junichi; Takanami, Tetsuro; Shiraishi, Masatsugu

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos was widely used in numerous materials and building products due to their desirable properties. It is, however, well known that asbestos inhalation causes health damage and its inexpensive decomposition technique is necessary to be developed for pollution prevention. We report here an innovative decomposition technique of friable asbestos by acidic gas (HF and HCl) generated from the decomposition of CHClF 2 by the reaction with superheated steam at 800 deg. C. Chrysotile-asbestos fibers were completely decomposed to sellaite and magnesium silicofluoride hexahydrate by the reaction with CHClF 2 -decomposed acidic gas at 150 deg. C for 30 min. At high temperatures beyond 400 deg. C, sellaite and hematite were detected in the decomposed product. In addition, crocidolite containing wastes and amosite containing wastes were decomposed at 500 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 30 min, respectively, by CHClF 2 -decomposed acidic gas. The observation of the reaction products by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the resulting products did not contain any asbestos

  19. Ion conductivities of ZrF4-BaF2-CsF glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yoji; Nohara, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The glass-forming region in the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glass system has been determined and the ac conductivity and the transport number of fluoride ions have been measured. The conductivities of compounds β-Cs 2 ZrF 6 , α-SrZrF 6 , α-BaZrF 6 , β-BaZrF 6 and α-PbZrF 6 have also been measured. These results and a previous study of ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -MF n (M: the groups I-IV metals) glasses revealed the following: (1) the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glasses are exclusively fluoride-ion conductors; (2) the ionic conductivities of ZrF 4 -based glasses are predominantly determined by the activation energies for conduction; (3) the activation energy for conduction decreases with an increase in the average polarizability of glass-constituting cations; (4) a decrease in average Zr-F bond length and a lowering of the average F coordination number of Zr are presumed to increase the activation energy for conduction. Principles of developing ZrF 4 -based glasses with higher conductivities have also been proposed. (Auth.)

  20. Scintillation and optical stimulated luminescence of Ce-doped CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kenichi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Yuka; Nanto, Hidehito

    2014-01-01

    Scintillation and optical stimulated luminescence of Ce 0.1–20% doped CaF 2 crystals prepared by Tokuyama Corp. were investigated. In X-ray induced scintillation spectra, luminescence due to Ce 3+ 5d–4f transition appeared around 320 nm with typically 40 ns decay time. By 241 Am 5.5 MeV α-ray irradiation, 0.1% doped one showed the highest scintillation light yield and the light yield monotonically decreased with Ce concentrations. Optically stimulated luminescence after X-ray irradiation was observed around 320 nm under 550 or 830 nm stimulation in all samples. As a result, intensities of optically stimulated luminescence were proportional to Ce concentrations. Consequently, scintillation and optically stimulated luminescence resulted to have a complementary relation in Ce-doped CaF 2 system. - Highlights: • Optical, scintillation, and OSL properties of Ce 0.1–20% doped CaF 2 were studied. • Scintillation light yield exhibited inverse proportionality to Ce concentrations. • OSL intensities showed proportionality to Ce concentrations. • Complementary relation of scintillation and OSL was experimentally confirmed

  1. Oestrous synchronization and fertility in cycling Damascus does using the synthetic prostaglandin F2α, iliren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effect of synthetic prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) Iliren, on oestrous synchronisation and other related parameters, 9 intact indigenous Damascus does each were either intramuscularly injected twice with 2 ml of synthetic prostaglandin F2α, Iliren (0.3 mg Tiaprost) at an interval of 12 d (P) or served as control (C) with no treatments. Doses in group P responded to the treatment and exhibited oestrus at an average of 96 h; whereas, does in group C exhibited oestrus at an average of 199 h after bucks introduction. The treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on duration of pregnancy, fecundity rate of does, birth or weaning weight of kids at 3 months of age. At the second injection of PGF2α, there were active corpora lutea formed in some ovaries of the does treated with Iliren as indicated by the high concentration of progesterone. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin F2α, Iliren, at a dose of 2 ml (0.3 mg Tiaprost) given twice at an interval of 12 d for oestrous synchronisation in local Damascus does during the breeding season with no adverse effect on the reproductive or growth parameters. (author)

  2. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  3. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  4. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  5. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  6. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  7. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  8. Influence of SrF_2-doping in AlN ceramics on scintillation and dosimeter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kaori; Okada, Go; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized undoped AlN and SrF_2-doped AlN (AlN-SrF_2) ceramics by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), and we characterized their optical, scintillation and dosimeter properties. The prepared undoped AlN ceramic had gray color and visually non-transparent whereas, with an addition of SrF_2, the transparency improved and became translucent. The measured in-line transmittance was approximately 0.2% at wavelengths longer than 500 nm. While the addition of SrF_2 decreased the scintillation intensity, the decay time was significantly fastened, which is a great advantage for fast photon counting-based measurements. Both the thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) showed good linear response from the milli-gray range to over 10 Gy. The sensitivity seems to decrease by an addition of SrF_2 as it suppresses structural defect centers which are responsible for dosimeter properties. However, the main TSL glow peak position shifts to higher temperature with the addition of SrF_2, which indicates that inclusion of SrF_2 improves the TSL signal stability. - Highlights: • We synthesized undoped and SrF_2-doped AlN ceramics by Spark Plasma Sintering. • We evaluated scintillator and dosimeter properties of undoped and SrF_2-doped AlN. • By doping with SrF_2, the decay time is shortened. • By doping with SrF_2, the stability of TSL and OSL is improved.

  9. Upgrading CCIR's fo F 2 maps using available ionosondes and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gularte, Erika; Carpintero, Daniel D.; Jaen, Juliana

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a new approach towards a new database of the ionospheric parameter fo F 2 . This parameter, being the frequency of the maximum of the ionospheric electronic density profile and its main modeller, is of great interest not only in atmospheric studies but also in the realm of radio propagation. The current databases, generated by CCIR (Committee Consultative for Ionospheric Radiowave propagation) and URSI (International Union of Radio Science), and used by the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model, are based on Fourier expansions and have been built in the 60s from the available ionosondes at that time. The main goal of this work is to upgrade the databases by using new available ionosonde data. To this end we used the IRI diurnal/spherical expansions to represent the fo F 2 variability, and computed its coefficients by means of a genetic algorithm (GA). In order to test the performance of the proposed methodology, we applied it to the South American region with data obtained by RAPEAS (Red Argentina para el Estudio de la Atmósfera Superior, i.e. Argentine Network for the Study of the Upper Atmosphere) during the years 1958-2009. The new GA coefficients provide a global better fit of the IRI model to the observed fo F 2 than the CCIR coefficients. Since the same formulae and the same number of coefficients were used, the overall integrity of IRI's typical ionospheric feature representation was preserved. The best improvements with respect to CCIR are obtained at low solar activities, at large (in absolute value) modip latitudes, and at night-time. The new method is flexible in the sense that can be applied either globally or regionally. It is also very easy to recompute the coefficients when new data is available. The computation of a third set of coefficients corresponding to days of medium solar activity in order to avoid the interpolation between low and high activities is suggested. The same procedure as for fo F 2 can be perfomed to

  10. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  11. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distributi...

  12. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  13. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, AT...

  14. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  15. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  16. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  17. Rapid transcriptional pulsing dynamics of high expressing retroviral transgenes in embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Y M Lo

    Full Text Available Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES cells. We established two ES cell lines each bearing a single copy, self-inactivating retroviral vector with a strong ubiquitous human EF1α gene promoter directing expression of mRFP fused to an MS2-stem-loop array. Transfection of MS2-EGFP generated EGFP focal dots bound to the mRFP-MS2 stem loop mRNA. These transcription foci colocalized with the transgene integration site detected by immunoFISH. Live tracking of single cells for 20 minutes detected EGFP focal dots that displayed frequent and rapid fluctuations in transcription over periods as short as 25 seconds. Similarly rapid fluctuations were detected from focal doublet signals that colocalized with replicated proviral integration sites by immunoFISH, consistent with transcriptional pulses from sister chromatids. We concluded that retroviral transgenes experience rapid transcriptional pulses in clonal ES cell lines that exhibit high level expression. These events are directed by a constitutive housekeeping gene promoter and may provide precedence for rapid transcriptional pulsing at endogenous genes in mammalian stem cells.

  18. Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, D. N.; Komar'kova, O. N.; Sorokin, N. I.; Bezhanov, V. A.; Chernov, S. P.; Popov, P. A.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2010-05-01

    Homogeneous crystals of Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 alloy (sp. gr., Fm bar 3 m, a = 0.56057 nm), corresponding to the point of minimum in the melting curve in the CaF2-SrF2 phase diagram, have been grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermophysical properties of Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 and MF2 crystals ( M = Ca, Sr) have been studied and comparatively analyzed. Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals are transparent in the range of 0.133-11.5 μm, have refractive index n D = 1.436, microhardness H μ = 2.63 ± 0.10 GPa, ion conductivity σ = 5 × 10-5 S/cm at 825 K, and thermal conductivity k = 4.0 W m-1 K-1 at 300 K. It is shown that the optical properties of Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals are intermediate between those of CaF2 and SrF2, whereas their mechanical and electrical characteristics are better than the latter compounds.

  19. Hexafluoridophosphate partial hydrolysis leading to the one-dimensional coordination polymer [{Cu(xantphos)(µ-PO2F2)}n

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, S.; Brunner, F.; Prescimone, A.; Constable, E. C.; Housecroft, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The one-dimensional coordination polymer [{Cu(xantphos)(μ-PO2F2)}n] (xantphos = 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene) is reported, the first extended structure in which copper(I) centres are linked by μ-PO2F2 units.

  20. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  1. 78 FR 69778 - Adjustments to Limitations on Designated School Official Assignment and Study by F-2 and M-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... to attract the best and brightest international students to study in our schools. Access of F-2 or M... change existing regulations allowing full-time study by children in elementary or secondary school... best and brightest international students to study in our schools. The ability of F-2 or M-2...

  2. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increased...

  3. Ionic thermocurrents and ionic conductivity of solid solutions of SrF2 and YbF3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuldijk, J.; Hartog, den H.W.

    1983-01-01

    We report dielectric [ionic thermocurrent (!TC)] experiments and ionic conductivity of cubic solid solutions of the type Sr1-xYbxF2+x. These combined experiments provide us with new information concerning the ionic conductivity mechanisms which play an important role in solid solutions Sr1-xRxF2+x

  4. Advantages of CaF2 over ZnS in an α-particle scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, B.; Schery, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported for using a europium-activated calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) scintillation crystal as a α-particle detector in a two-filter monitor of atmospheric radon. CaF 2 detectors are cheaper and can cover a larger surface area than the higher-resolution solid-state detectors. Compared to ZnS scintillators, the energy resolution for CaF 2 is improved from 3.0 MeV to 1.1 MeV for 4.7 MeV α-particles; however the light output from CaF 2 is considerably lower. It is concluded that a thin CaF 2 crystal is a cost-effective method of improving energy and time resolutions for the two-filter monitor. (U.K.)

  5. Inclusive f2(1270) meson production in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1991-01-01

    Using data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN, the inclusive f 2 (1270) meson production in νp and anti νp charged current reactions is studied. It is found that f 2 production occurs mainly in events with a hadronic invariant mass W> or approx.7 GeV. In these events, the average f 2 multiplicity is about half the average ρ 0 multiplicity, and the x F and p T 2 distributions of the f 2 agree in shape with those of the ρ 0 . The predictions of a semi-empirical model (Wells model) are in accord with the measured multiplicities at W>7 GeV, whereas at lower W the model predicts too large f 2 multiplicities. (orig.)

  6. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF2/hydrogen-terminated diamond heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Imura, M.; Koide, Y.

    2013-01-01

    CaF 2 films are deposited on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) by a radio-frequency sputter-deposition technique at room temperature. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunction are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is confirmed that there are only C-Ca bonds at the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterointerface. Valence and conductance band offsets of the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunciton are determined to be 3.7 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. It shows a type I straddling band configuration. The large valence band offset suggests advantage of the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunciton for the development of high power and high frequency field effect transistors.

  7. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  8. The Relationship between Ionospheric Slab Thickness and the Peak Density Height, hmF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, J.; Sojka, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The electron density profile is one of the most critical elements in the ionospheric modeling-related applications today. Ionosphere parameters, hmF2, the height of the peak density layer, and slab thickness, the ratio of the total electron content, TEC, to the peak density value, NmF2, are generally obtained from any global sounding observation network and are easily incorporated into models, theoretical or empirical, as numerical representations. Slab thickness is a convenient one-parameter summary of the electron density profile and can relate a variety of elements of interest that effect the overall electron profile shape, such as the neutral and ionospheric temperatures and gradients, the ionospheric composition, and dynamics. Using ISR data from the 2002 Millstone Hill ISR data campaign, we found, for the first time, slab thickness to be correlated to hmF2. For this, we introduce a new ionospheric index, k, which ultimately relates electron density parameters and can be a very useful tool for describing the topside ionosphere shape. Our study is an initial one location, one season, 30-day study, and future work is needed to verify the robustness of our claim. Generally, the ionospheric profile shape, requires knowledge of several ionospheric parameters: electron, ion and neutral temperatures, ion composition, electric fields, and neutral winds, and is dependent upon seasons, local time, location, and the level of solar and geomagnetic activity; however, with this new index, only readily-available, ionospheric density information is needed. Such information, as used in this study, is obtained from a bottomside electron density profile provided by an ionosonde, and TEC data provided by a local, collocated GPS receiver.

  9. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  10. Glass formation in RbF-BeF2-ErF3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnikova, L.P.; Topshinoev, A.P.; Zakharova, B.S.; Sipachev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    IR spectroscopic method (200-2000 cm -1 ) is used to study the glass structure in RbF-BeF 2 -ErF 3 system. It is shown that with increase of erbium fluoride content in fluoroberyllate glasses the absorption bands characteristic of (BeF 3 ) n n- groupings, appear in spectra. DTA and X-ray diffraction analysis of the glass annealing products are used to study the glass crystallization process. It is stated that erbium fluoride introduction into the glass results in increase of crystallization stability. The glass structure model is suggested

  11. Baryon axial charges and momentum fractions with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    We report on recent results of the QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration on investigations of baryon structure using configurations generated with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. With the strange quark mass as an additional dynamical degree of freedom in our simulations we avoid the need for a partially quenched approximation when investigating the properties of particles containing a strange quark, e.g. the hyperons. In particular, we focus on the nucleon and hyperon axial coupling constants and quark momentum fractions. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  13. Laser excited fluorescence spectrum of Ho3+:SrF2 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Bansi; Ramachandra Rao, D.

    1980-01-01

    The fluorescence spectrum of Ho 3+ : SrF 2 single crystal excited by the various lines of an Ar + laser, is reported. The three fluorescence groups recorded in the region 5300-7700 A, correspond to the transitions from ( 5 F 4 , 5 S 2 ) to 5 I 8 , 5 F 5 to 5 I 8 , 5 F 3 to 5 I 7 and ( 5 F 4 , 5 S 2 ) to 5 I 7 . Marked changes in the total integrated intensity of the various fluorescence groups with the change in the exciting wavelength are observed. (author)

  14. Dark matter search experiment with CaF2(Eu) scintillator at Kamioka Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Minowa, M.; Suganuma, W.; Inoue, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We report recent results of a WIMP dark matter search experiment using 310 g of CaF 2 (Eu) scintillator at Kamioka Observatory. We chose a highly radio-pure crystal, PMTs and radiation shields, so that the background rate decreased considerably. We derived limits on the spin dependent WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron coupling coefficients, a p and a n . The limits excluded a part of the parameter space allowed by the annual modulation observation of the DAMA NaI experiment

  15. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  16. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.

    2017-06-01

    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  17. Modeling ionospheric foF2 by using empirical orthogonal function analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A similar-parameters interpolation method and an empirical orthogonal function analysis are used to construct empirical models for the ionospheric foF2 by using the observational data from three ground-based ionosonde stations in Japan which are Wakkanai (Geographic 45.4° N, 141.7° E, Kokubunji (Geographic 35.7° N, 140.1° E and Yamagawa (Geographic 31.2° N, 130.6° E during the years of 1971–1987. The impact of different drivers towards ionospheric foF2 can be well indicated by choosing appropriate proxies. It is shown that the missing data of original foF2 can be optimal refilled using similar-parameters method. The characteristics of base functions and associated coefficients of EOF model are analyzed. The diurnal variation of base functions can reflect the essential nature of ionospheric foF2 while the coefficients represent the long-term alteration tendency. The 1st order EOF coefficient A1 can reflect the feature of the components with solar cycle variation. A1 also contains an evident semi-annual variation component as well as a relatively weak annual fluctuation component. Both of which are not so obvious as the solar cycle variation. The 2nd order coefficient A2 contains mainly annual variation components. The 3rd order coefficient A3 and 4th order coefficient A4 contain both annual and semi-annual variation components. The seasonal variation, solar rotation oscillation and the small-scale irregularities are also included in the 4th order coefficient A4. The amplitude range and developing tendency of all these coefficients depend on the level of solar activity and geomagnetic activity. The reliability and validity of EOF model are verified by comparison with observational data and with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI. The agreement between observations and EOF model is quite well, indicating that the EOF model can reflect the major changes and the temporal distribution characteristics of the mid-latitude ionosphere of the

  18. Proactive vs reactive failure recovery assessment in combined fog-to-cloud (F2C) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Vitor Barbosa Carlos de; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Marín Tordera, Eva; Ramirez Almonte, Wilson; Sánchez López, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of end user devices at the edge of the network, along with their ever increasing computing capacity, as well as the advances in Data Center technologies, paved the way for the generation of Internet of Things (IoT). Several IoT services have been deployed leveraging Cloud Computing and, more recently, Fog Computing. In order to enable efficient control of cloud and fog premises, Fog-to-Cloud (F2C) has been recently proposed as a distributed architecture for coordinated m...

  19. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the principal forage grass species used in temperate agriculture. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to develop molecular marker strategies to allow cost-effective characterization of a large number of loci simultaneously. One such strategy involves using DAr......T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  20. Pseudoscalar decay constants from N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farchioni, Federico [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Nube, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}, f{sub D} and f{sub D{sub S}} from lattice QCD with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of a ferromagnetic-FeF2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoni, Orlando V.; Tamarit, Francisco A.; Cannas, Sergio A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the magnetization reversal mechanism in ferromagnetic thin films on FeF 2 . In particular, we emulate a bilayer AFM/FM structure, where the AFM interface corresponds to an uncompensated (100) plane. The magnetic moments are modeled by classical Heisenberg spin variables. Our analysis focus on the role of the exchange interaction J AF between the FM spins and the spins belonging to the AFM interface on the reversal mechanisms of the magnetization. By simulating hysteresis loops we study the effect of temperature on the bias field

  2. Evaluation of thin CaF2 (Eu) scintillator for detecting tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiles, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    The primary objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using a CaF 2 (Eu) scintillator for detecting low-energy beta particles from tritium. A proof-of-principle detector was designed for flowing tritium-spiked nitrogen gas across the surface of a thin scintillator, which was optically coupled between two low-noise photomultiplier tubes. Electronics for operating the two photomultiplier tubes in coincidence eliminated most of the tube noise pulses and allowed detection of the small pulses from the low-energy tritium beta particles

  3. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    OpenAIRE

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-01-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, ...

  4. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  5. Continuously tunable cw lasing near 2.75 μm in diode-pumped Er3+ : SrF2 and Er3+ : CaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Orlovskii, Yu V; Polyachenkova, M V; Fedorov, Pavel P; Kuznetsov, S V; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Alimov, Olimkhon K; Dergachev, Alexey Yu

    2006-01-01

    CW lasing is obtained in Er 3+ (5%) : CaF 2 and Er 3+ (5%) : SrF 2 crystals near 2.75 μm with 0.4 and 2 W of output powers, respectively, upon transverse diode laser pumping into the upper 4 I 11/2 laser level of erbium ions at 980 nm. Continuous tuning of the laser wavelength between 2720 and 2760 nm is realised in the Er 3+ : SrF 2 crystal. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  6. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...... transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed....

  7. Influenza virus PB1-F2 protein induces cell death through mitochondrial ANT3 and VDAC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Zamarin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus PB1-F2 is an 87-amino acid mitochondrial protein that previously has been shown to induce cell death, although the mechanism of apoptosis induction has remained unclear. In the process of characterizing its mechanism of action we found that the viral PB1-F2 protein sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, as demonstrated by increased cleavage of caspase 3 substrates in PB1-F2-expressing cells. Moreover, treatment of purified mouse liver mitochondria with recombinant PB1-F2 protein resulted in cytochrome c release, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and enhancement of tBid-induced mitochondrial permeabilization, suggesting a possible mechanism for the observed cellular sensitization to apoptosis. Using glutathione-S-transferase pulldowns with subsequent mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the mitochondrial interactors of the PB1-F2 protein and showed that the viral protein uniquely interacts with the inner mitochondrial membrane adenine nucleotide translocator 3 and the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel 1, both of which are implicated in the mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis. Consistent with this interaction, blockers of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC inhibited PB1-F2-induced mitochondrial permeabilization. Based on our findings, we propose a model whereby the proapoptotic PB1-F2 protein acts through the mitochondrial PTPC and may play a role in the down-regulation of the host immune response to infection.

  8. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops.

  9. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovylina, M; Labarta, A; Batlle, X; Erekhinsky, M; Schuller, I K; Morales, R

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF 2 nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 μs) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 ± 8 to 500 ± 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 ± 8 to 1000 ± 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 ± 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 ± 8 to 1200 ± 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF 2 ) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  10. Adsorption effect in non-reaction wetting: In-Ti on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, E.; Fuks, D.; Frage, N.; Barzilai, S.; Froumin, N.

    2012-01-01

    The experiments show that the alloying liquid In with only (0.1-0.5) at% Ti dramatically reduces the equilibrium contact angle Θ ∞ formed by In on the surface of CaF 2 . The aim of this paper is to clarify whether this practically important and conceptually challenging effect can be explained solely by Ti adsorption at the F-terminated solid-liquid interface without resorting to any other Ti-induced effect. The combination of ab initio calculations and regular solution approximation was proposed for finding the binding energy, ΔE Ti of Ti adatom with the interface ''CaF 2 /liquid solutions In-Ti.'' With thus obtained ΔE Ti =1.16 eV, we calculated from the Shishkovsky isotherm the reduction in the solid-liquid interface energy, Δγ SL induced by Ti adsorption from liquid In with various Ti concentration, C. It was found that Δγ SL (C) dependence demonstrated close inverse correspondence with Θ ∞ (C) and that the theory fitted very well all available experimental data on the concentration and temperature dependence of Δγ SL . It was concluded that the Ti adsorption effect is large enough to account for the observed wetting improvement. The proposed multiscale modeling approach to the role of adsorption in wetting can be applied also to other nonreactive systems ''liquid metal-ceramics'' where the substrate determines the surface density of the adsorption sites for the active element. (orig.)

  11. Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hua; Qi Hongji; Cui Yun; Shen Yanming; Shao Jianda; Fan Zhengxiu

    2007-01-01

    Thermal boat evaporation was employed to prepare MgF 2 single-layer coatings upon both JGS1 and UBK7 substrates at different substrate temperatures. Microstructure, transmittance and residual stress of these coatings were measured by X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometer, and optical interferometer, respectively. Measurement of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the samples was performed at 355 nm, 8 ns pulses. The results showed that high substrate temperature was beneficial to crystallization of the film. Above 244 deg. C, the refractive index increased gradually with the substrate temperature rising. Whereas, it was exceptional at 210 deg. C that the refractive index was higher than those deposited at 244 and 277 deg. C. The tensile residual stresses were exhibited in all MgF 2 films, but not well correlated with the substrate temperature. In addition, the stresses were comparatively smaller upon JGS1 substrates. A tendency could be seen that the LIDTs reached the highest values at about 244 deg. C, and the films upon JGS1 had higher LIDTs than those upon UBK7 substrates at the same temperature. Meanwhile, the damage morphologies showed that the laser damage of the coating resulted from an absorbing center at the film-substrate interface. The features of the damages were displayed by an absorbing center dominated model. Furthermore, the reason of the difference in LIDT values was discussed in detail

  12. F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes as markers of intracranial aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syta-Krzyżanowska, Anna; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Kochanowicz, Jan; Turek, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Robert; Gorbacz, Krzysztof; Mariak, Zenon; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-24

    Intracranial aneurysms are common, occurring in about 1-2% of the population. Saccular aneurysm is a pouch-like pathological dilatation of an intracranial artery that develops when the cerebral artery wall becomes too weak to resist hemodynamic pressure and distends. The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects neuronal phospholipid metabolism, and what influence different invasive treatments have on brain free radical phospholipid metabolism. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) cyclization products - F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes - was examined using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the plasma of patients with brain aneurysm and resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage. It was revealed that an aneurysm leads to the enhancement of lipid peroxidation with a significant increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes (more than 3-fold and 11-fold, respectively) in comparison to healthy subjects. The rupture of an aneurysm results in hemorrhage and an additional increase in examined prostaglandin derivatives. The embolization and clipping of aneurysms contribute to a gradual restoration of metabolic homeostasis in brain cells, which is visible in the decrease in PUFA cyclization products. The results indicate that aneurysm development is associated with enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, factors which favor lipid peroxidation, particularly in neurons, whose membranes are rich in docosahexaenoic acid, a precursor of F4-neuroprostanes.

  13. Long-term trends of foF2 independent of geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the foF2 data at a series of ionospheric stations is performed to reveal long-term trends independent of the long-term changes in geomagnetic activity during the recent decades (nongeomagnetic trends. The method developed by the author and published earlier is used. It is found that the results for 21 out of 23 stations considered agree well and give a relative nongeomagnetic trend of -0.0012 per year (or an absolute nongeomagnetic trend of about -0.012 MHz per year for the period between 1958 and the mid-nineties. The trends derived show no dependence on geomagnetic latitude or local time, a fact confirming their independence of geomagnetic activity. The consideration of the earlier period (1948–1985 for a few stations for which the corresponding data are available provides significantly lower foF2 trends, the difference between the later and earlier periods being a factor of 1.6. This is a strong argument in favor of an anthropogenic nature of the trends derived.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere

  14. Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocker, Christian; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Hoeche, Thomas; Ruessel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In glasses with the composition 1.9 Na 2 O-15 K 2 O-7.5 Al 2 O 3 -69.6 SiO 2 -6 BaF 2 (in mol.%), BaF 2 nanocrystalline precipitates are formed upon heat treatment. Using dark-field and bright-field transmission electron micrographs, crystallite size distributions are obtained for samples crystallized at various temperatures. According to the 'tomato-salad problem', the size distributions are corrected and then compared to various theories of grain growth taking into account coarsening of the crystallites during heat treatment. The experimental crystallite size distributions show for smaller mean crystallite sizes a more symmetric shape in comparison to the theories of Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) or Brailsford and Wynblatt (B and W). With increasing mean crystallite sizes to about 18 nm at higher heat-treatment temperatures, the full width at half maximum of the observed distributions decreases and becomes even narrower than the LSW function. These findings indicate that in the investigated nano glass ceramics no coarsening by Ostwald ripening or coalescence occurs. This is explained by the formation of a diffusion barrier around each nanocrystallite which limits the size of the crystallites and hence results in such a narrow and uniform crystallite size distribution.

  15. Chiral phase transition of QCD with N{sub f}=2+1 flavors from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Danning [Department of Physics, Jinan University,Guangzhou 510632 (China); Huang, Mei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-08

    Chiral phase transition for three-flavor N{sub f}=2+1 QCD with m{sub u}=m{sub d}≠m{sub s} is investigated in a modified soft-wall holographic QCD model. Solving temperature dependent chiral condensates from equations of motion of the modified soft-wall model, we extract the quark mass dependence of the order of chiral phase transition in the case of N{sub f}=2+1, and the result is in agreement with the “Columbia Plot”, which is summarized from lattice simulations and other non-perturbative methods. First order phase transition is observed around the three flavor chiral limit m{sub u/d}=0,m{sub s}=0, while at sufficient large quark masses it turns to be a crossover phase transition. The first order and crossover regions are separated by a second order phase transition line. The second order line is divided into two parts by the m{sub u/d}=m{sub s} line, and the m{sub s} dependence of the transition temperature in these two parts are totally contrast, which might indicate that the two parts are governed by different universality classes.

  16. A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon, K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and World Health Organization (WHO for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

  17. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  19. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  20. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  1. Thermal performance study of a box type solar cooker: evaluation of second figure of merit, F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The thermal performance of a box type solar cooker can be evaluated through the determination of two figures of merit-F 1 and F 2 . The F 1 is defined as the ratio of optical efficiency factor (η o ) the overall heat loss coefficient (U L ) and F 2 relates to the effectiveness of heat exchange between cooker interiors and contents of the pots. The values of F 1 and F 2 can be found experimentally from the stagnation (no-load) and load (water) tests respectively. The sensible heating curve (a plot between pot water temperature and time) from the load test is used for determination of F 2 . An accurate determination of F 2 is necessary for making the correct and reliable assessment of solar cooker performance. In the present work, the thermal analysis has been carried out to simulate the sensible heating curves for different loads of water in the commercially available, fibre body double-glazed box type solar cooker (size 0.245 m 2 ) by using the heat balance equation. The comparison between the simulated and experimental sensible heating curves is presented. The close agreement in the results shows that the simulated heating curve can be employed for predicting the thermal performance (or F 2 ) of the solar cooker. The F 2 for different loads of water in the solar cooker have been obtained using the computer simulation, while considering the variable overall heat loss coefficient U L (a function of pot water temperature). The results indicate that F 2 increases linearly up to a load of 1.5 kg. Thereafter, the increase in the value of F 2 decreases gradually with the load

  2. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  3. Correlation studies for B-spline modeled F2 Chapman parameters obtained from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Limberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of ionospheric key quantities such as the maximum electron density of the F2 layer NmF2, the corresponding F2 peak height hmF2 and the F2 scale height HF2 are of high relevance in 4-D ionosphere modeling to provide information on the vertical structure of the electron density (Ne. The Ne distribution with respect to height can, for instance, be modeled by the commonly accepted F2 Chapman layer. An adequate and observation driven description of the vertical Ne variation can be obtained from electron density profiles (EDPs derived by ionospheric radio occultation measurements between GPS and low Earth orbiter (LEO satellites. For these purposes, the six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C satellites provide an excellent opportunity to collect EDPs that cover most of the ionospheric region, in particular the F2 layer. For the contents of this paper, F3/C EDPs have been exploited to determine NmF2, hmF2 and HF2 within a regional modeling approach. As mathematical base functions, endpoint-interpolating polynomial B-splines are considered to model the key parameters with respect to longitude, latitude and time. The description of deterministic processes and the verification of this modeling approach have been published previously in Limberger et al. (2013, whereas this paper should be considered as an extension dealing with related correlation studies, a topic to which less attention has been paid in the literature. Relations between the B-spline series coefficients regarding specific key parameters as well as dependencies between the three F2 Chapman key parameters are in the main focus. Dependencies are interpreted from the post-derived correlation matrices as a result of (1 a simulated scenario without data gaps by taking dense, homogenously distributed profiles into account and (2 two real data scenarios on 1 July 2008 and 1 July 2012 including sparsely, inhomogeneously distributed F3/C EDPs. Moderate correlations between hmF2 and HF2 as

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of host immune and cell death responses associated with the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Le Goffic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Airway inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza viruses and can lead to a fatal outcome. One of the challenging objectives in the field of influenza research is the identification of the molecular bases associated to the immunopathological disorders developed during infection. While its precise function in the virus cycle is still unclear, the viral protein PB1-F2 is proposed to exert a deleterious activity within the infected host. Using an engineered recombinant virus unable to express PB1-F2 and its wild-type homolog, we analyzed and compared the pathogenicity and host response developed by the two viruses in a mouse model. We confirmed that the deletion of PB1-F2 renders the virus less virulent. The global transcriptomic analyses of the infected lungs revealed a potent impact of PB1-F2 on the response developed by the host. Thus, after two days post-infection, PB1-F2 invalidation severely decreased the number of genes activated by the host. PB1-F2 expression induced an increase in the number and level of expression of activated genes linked to cell death, inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis. When generating interactive gene networks specific to PB1-F2, we identified IFN-γ as a central regulator of PB1-F2-regulated genes. The enhanced cell death of airway-recruited leukocytes was evidenced using an apoptosis assay, confirming the pro-apoptotic properties of PB1-F2. Using a NF-kB luciferase adenoviral vector, we were able to quantify in vivo the implication of NF-kB in the inflammation mediated by the influenza virus infection; we found that PB1-F2 expression intensifies the NF-kB activity. Finally, we quantified the neutrophil recruitment within the airways, and showed that this type of leukocyte is more abundant during the infection of the wild-type virus. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PB1-F2 strongly influences the early host response during IAV infection and provides new insights into the

  5. Measurement of the proton structure function F2 at low χand low Q2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-10-01

    We report on a measurement of the proton structure function F 2 in the range 3.5x10 -5 ≤x≤4x10 -3 and 1.5 GeV 2 ≤Q 2 ≤15 GeV 2 at the ep collider HERA operating at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=300 GeV. The rise of F 2 with decreasing x observed in the previous HERA measurements persists in this lower x and Q 2 range. The Q 2 evolution of F 2 , even at the lowest Q 2 and x measured, is consistent with perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} at Low Q^2 and x using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality 12 \\le Q^2 \\le 60 GeV^2 and of the Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002 \\le x \\le 0.005. The fractions of events containing charm and beauty quarks are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. Values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. This is the first measurement of F_2^{b\\bar{b}} in this kinematic range. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics and withprevious measurements of F_2^{c\\bar{c}}.

  7. Use of TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Cheng [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2012-07-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit β (TSHβ) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSHβ in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSHβ promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSHβ:EGFP and endogenous TSHβ mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSHβ:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ► The promoter of zebrafish TSHβ gene has been identified. ► The stable TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ► The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSHβ mRNA. ► The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

  8. Use of TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Cheng; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit β (TSHβ) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSHβ in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSHβ promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSHβ:EGFP and endogenous TSHβ mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSHβ:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ► The promoter of zebrafish TSHβ gene has been identified. ► The stable TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ► The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSHβ mRNA. ► The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

  9. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  10. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  11. Small-x behavior of the structure function F2 and its slope ∂lnF2/∂ln(1/x) for ''frozen'' and analytic strong-coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, G.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.

    2009-06-01

    Using the leading-twist approximation of the Wilson operator product expansion with ''frozen'' and analytic versions of the strong-coupling constant, we show that the Bessel-inspired behavior of the structure function F 2 and its slope ∂lnF 2 /∂ln(1/x) at small values of x, obtained for a at initial condition in the DGLAP evolution equations, leads to good agreement with experimental data of deep-inelastic scattering at DESY HERA. (orig.)

  12. Transgenic cultures: from the economic viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mosquera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of transgenic seeds for agricultural purposes poses modification to their production, due to the potential for reaching desired characteristics such as greater yield, this being fundamental in an economic environment characterised by open market conditions. However, acceptance of products resulting from genetic engineering is far from becoming a simple process; discussion relating to the predominance of private sector interests, the monopoly of knowledge and the safety of such seeds/food is currently in the spotlight. This article presents the main points of debate regarding adoption of transgenic cultures, contributing to discussion about this topic for Colombia.

  13. Generation of BAC transgenic epithelial organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schwank

    Full Text Available Under previously developed culture conditions, mouse and human intestinal epithelia can be cultured and expanded over long periods. These so-called organoids recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture of the gut epithelium, and consist of all major intestinal cell types. One key advantage of these ex vivo cultures is their accessibility to live imaging. So far the establishment of transgenic fluorescent reporter organoids has required the generation of transgenic mice, a laborious and time-consuming process, which cannot be extended to human cultures. Here we present a transfection protocol that enables the generation of recombinant mouse and human reporter organoids using BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome technology.

  14. Scintillation response of BaF2 and YAlO3:Ce (YAP:Ce) to energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.; Cederwall, B.; Ideguchi, E.; Kerek, A.; Klamra, W.; Marel, J. van der; Novak, D.; Norlin, L.-O.

    2001-01-01

    The scintillation response of BaF 2 and YAP:Ce to protons, α particles, 16 O and 28 Si ions in the 5-30 MeV range has been investigated. The ratio between the fast and slow parts of the scintillator signal for BaF 2 has been used to separate protons, α particles and heavier ions, and the dependence of this ratio on the particle energy has been studied. The time constants and intensities of the two components of the YAP:Ce signal were measured, as were the time constant and intensity of the weak component of the slow part of the BaF 2 signal. Furthermore, the dependence of the light yield on the particle energy has been investigated for both BaF 2 and YAP:Ce

  15. Simulation and analysis of Au-MgF2 structure in plasmonic sensor in near infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.

    2018-05-01

    Plasmonic sensor based on metal-dielectric combination of gold and MgF2 layers is studied in near infrared (NIR) spectral region. An emphasis is given on the effect of variable thickness of MgF2 layer in combination with operating wavelength and gold layer thickness on the sensor's performance in NIR. It is established that the variation in MgF2 thickness in connection with plasmon penetration depth leads to significant variation in sensor's performance. The analysis leads to a conclusion that taking smaller values of MgF2 layer thickness and operating at longer NIR wavelength leads to enhanced sensing performance. Also, fluoride glass can provide better sensing performance than chalcogenide glass and silicon substrate.

  16. Coevaporation of Y, BaF2, and Cu utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer as a rate measuring probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudner, J.; Oestling, M.; Ohlsen, H.; Stolt, L.

    1991-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum coevaporator equipped with three sources for preparation of Y--BaF 2 --Cu--O thin films is described. Evaporation rates of Y, BaF 2 , and Cu were controlled using a quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiplexed mode. To evaluate the method depositions have been performed using different source configurations and evaporation rates. Utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry absolute values of the actual evaporation rates were determined. It was observed that the mass-spectrometer sensitivity is highest for Y, followed by BaF 2 (BaF + is the measured ion) and Cu. A partial pressure of oxygen during evaporation of Y, BaF 2 , and Cu affected mainly the rate of Y. It is shown that the mass spectrometer can be utilized to precisely control the film composition

  17. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  18. Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Xu, Xinping; Xing, Hengtai; Zhu, Huachen; Fan, Qin

    2005-04-01

    Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice 'Zhuxian B' plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene (gna) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene (sbti) were investigated in detail. PCR, 'dot' blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested. Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation, but the other showed either 1:1 (positive: negative for the transgenes) or other aberrant segregation patterns. The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny. In half of transgenic R3 lines, gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated. Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines. Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens (Stahl) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) than wild-type plants. The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines. In all, we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants, including one pure line, which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Matrix infrared spectra and electronic structure calculations of the first actinide borylene: FB=ThF(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Roos, Björn O; Andrews, Lester

    2010-03-14

    Laser-ablated Th atoms react with BF(3) during condensation in excess argon at 6 K to form the first actinide borylene (FB=ThF(2)) and actinide-boron multiple bond. Three new product absorptions in the B-F and Th-F stretching regions of matrix infrared spectra are assigned to FB=ThF(2) from comparison to theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies.

  20. Causes of the mid-latitudinal daytime NmF2 semi-annual anomaly at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Ionospheric ionosonde and radar observations and theoretical calculations of the F2-layer peak altitude, hmF2, and number density, NmF2, over Millstone Hill during winter, spring, summer, and autumn geomagnetically quiet time periods at low solar activity are used to study the causes of the observed daytime NmF2 semi-annual anomaly. It follows from the model simulations that this anomalous phenomenon arises in the ionosphere mainly as a result of seasonal variations of the following atmospheric parameters: (1) the plasma drift along geomagnetic field lines due to corresponding changes in neutral wind components, (2) temperature and number densities of the neutral atmosphere, and (3) an optical thickness of the atmosphere caused by the dependence of the solar zenith angle on the day of the year for the same solar local time. Seasonal variations of the production rate unexcited O+ ions due to chemical reactions involving electronically excited O+ ions contribute to the formation of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly during the predominant part of the existence time of this anomalous phenomenon. However, these seasonal variations are not significant, and this mechanism should be considered only as an additional source of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly during its time of existence. The reactions of unexcited O+ ions with vibrationally excited N2 and O2 cause only weak changes of NmF2 and these changes are close in magnitude at a given solar local time during the winter, spring, summer, and autumn daytime conditions under consideration. Ignoring these reactions cannot produce a significant impact on the formation of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly.

  1. Development and properties of duplex MgF2/PCL coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Preeti; Kang, Hoe Jin; Padalhin, Andrew R; Park, Ihho; Moon, Byoung-Gi; Lee, Byong Taek

    2018-01-01

    The present work addresses the performance of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on fluoride treated (MgF2) biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy (Mg) for biomedical application. MgF2 conversion layer was first produced by immersing Mg alloy substrate in hydrofluoric acid solution. The outer PCL coating was then prepared using dip coating technique. Morphology, elements profile, phase structure, roughness, mechanical properties, invitro corrosion, and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating were then characterized and compared to those of fluoride coated and uncoated Mg samples. The invivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating with respect to ZK60 Mg alloy were also studied using rabbit model for 2 weeks. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the duplex coating was uniform and comprised of porous PCL film (~3.3 μm) as upper layer with compact MgF2 (~2.2 μm) as inner layer. No significant change in microhardness was found on duplex coating compared with uncoated ZK60 Mg alloy. The duplex coating showed improved invitro corrosion resistance than single layered MgF2 or uncoated alloy samples. The duplex coating also resulted in better cell viability, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation compared to fluoride coated or uncoated alloy. Preliminary invivo studies indicated that duplex MgF2/PCL coating reduced the degradation rate of ZK60 Mg alloy and exhibited good biocompatibility. These results suggested that duplex MgF2/PCL coating on magnesium alloy might have great potential for orthopedic applications.

  2. Study of the fluorescence blinking behavior of single F2 color centers in LiF crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boichenko, S V; Koenig, K; Zilov, S A; Dresvianskiy, V P; Rakevich, A L; Kuznetsov, A V; Bartul, A V; Martynovich, E F; Voitovich, A P

    2014-01-01

    Using confocal fluorescence microscopy technique, we observed experimentally the luminescence of single F 2 color centers in LiF crystal. It is disclosed that the fluorescence shows blinking behavior. It is shown that this phenomenon is caused by the F 2 center reorientation occurring during the experiment. The ratio of luminescence intensities of differently oriented centers is assessed theoretically for two different experiment configurations. The calculated ratios are in fine agreement with experimental result

  3. The properties of CaF2:Dy used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, T.

    1976-05-01

    Chips of CaF 2 :Dy have been studied to assess their usefulness as a thermoluminescent dosimeter for the measurement of doses of the order of 1 mrad in water. The glow curve structure and the total light output from peaks below about 240 0 C have both been studied. Experiments have been done to study linearity, fading and energy dependence. Fading was found to be 15% in the first day and a further 21% over four weeks. The response of the material per rad in water showed a peak at 30 keV where the sensitivity was 17.5 times the value at 1 MeV. Doses of 0.1 mrad have been assessed with a standard deviation of 25%. (author)

  4. The immune response of adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to the bacteriophage f2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, D. T.

    1970-01-01

    Humoral immunity to the bacteriophage f2 was studied in adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and their responses were compared to those in New Zealand White rabbits. Antibodies were found in the serum of opossums 7 days after the subcutaneous injection of the antigen and peak antibody responses were observed between 10 and 21 days after immunization. A second injection of antigen resulted in increased antibody activity. In either case the level of serum antibody reached in opossums was less than that in rabbits. More striking, however, was the relatively slow conversion from γM to γG antibodies in opossums. The course of the immune response in adult opossums was more nearly like that of cold-blooded vertebrates than that of eutherian mammals. PMID:5416636

  5. Ab initio modeling of Al adsorption on CaF2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilai, S.; Argaman, N.; Froumin, N.; Fuks, D.; Frage, N.

    2008-01-01

    Ab initio simulations of the adsorption of Al atoms on CaF 2 (0 0 1) and (1 1 1) surfaces have been performed for supercells with 7 different atomic configurations, using density functional theory. For (1 1 1) surfaces, a repulsive interaction was observed for most configurations, while a weak attraction was obtained when the Al atom was placed above F atoms. For the Ca-terminated (0 0 1) surface, the adsorption energy was about 5 times larger, whereas for the F-terminated (0 0 1) surface it was about 20 times greater. The comparative analysis indicates that the (0 0 1) surfaces are reactive and have a strong Al adatom bonding (chemisorption), especially for the F-terminated substrate. On the contrary, the (1 1 1) plane may be considered as non-reactive (physisorption), having a weak bonding of the Al adatom above the F site

  6. Internal background build-up measurements in CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasybrahmanyam, V.; Measures, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems associated with the internal background build-up (IBB) of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters are reported. As a result of an investigation of batches of the EG and G model 15 dosimeter it is considered that measurements using this type of dosimeter are accurate and reproducible once the IBB has been determined. However, the use of the Manufacturer's claimed average of 0.064 mR/day can lead to erroneous results when determining environmental background dose rates. The authors therefore urge a rigid quality control program by the manufacturer and suggest that purchasers should be supplied with IBB information of each batch of dosimeters. Meanwhile each user should be aware of the IBB problem and be extremely cautious when using these dosimeters for environmental monitoring purposes. (U.K.)

  7. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... on salt stress tolerance. Ryegrass families where sown in rockwool blocks (in four replicates) in greenhouse, and allowed to establish over 60 days using standard fertilization and watering. Three consecutive treatments, with increasing salt (NaCl) concentrations, were applied. Ten days after initiation...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  8. Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of new Cu doped CaF(2) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedifar, M; Sadeghi, E

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of Cu-doped calcium fluoride were synthesised by using the hydrothermal method. The structure of the prepared nanomaterial was characterised by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and energy dispersive spectrometer. The particle size of 36 nm was calculated from the XRD data. Its shape and size were also observed by scanning electron microscope. Thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence of the produced phosphor were also considered. The computerised glow curve deconvolution procedure was used to identify the number of glow peaks included in the TL glow curve of the CaF2:Cu nanoparticles. The TL glow curve contains two overlapping glow peaks at ∼413 and 451 K. The TL response of this phosphor was studied for different Cu concentrations and the maximum sensitivity was found at 1 mol% of Cu impurity. Other dosimetric characteristics of the synthesised nanophosphor are also presented and discussed.

  9. Longitudinal structure function from logarithmic slopes of F2 at low x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroun, G. R.

    2018-01-01

    Using Laplace transform techniques, I calculate the longitudinal structure function FL(x ,Q2) from the scaling violations of the proton structure function F2(x ,Q2) and make a critical study of this relationship between the structure functions at leading order (LO) up to next-to-next-to leading order (NNLO) analysis at small x . Furthermore, I consider heavy quark contributions to the relation between the structure functions, which leads to compact formula for Nf=3 +Heavy . The nonlinear corrections to the longitudinal structure function at LO up to NNLO analysis are shown in the Nf=4 (light quark flavor) based on the nonlinear corrections at R =2 and R =4 GeV-1 . The results are compared with experimental data of the longitudinal proton structure function FL in the range of 6.5 ≤Q2≤800 GeV2 .

  10. Alpha/beta(gamma ray) discrimination and spillover quantification with a BaF2 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple pulse shape discrimination technique was used to separate alpha and beta(gamma ray) interactions in a BaF 2 scintillator. The separation was not ideal, resulting in a 5.1% spillover of alpha interactions into the beta(gamma ray) channel and 11.9% spillover of beta(gamma ray) interactions into the alpha channel for a set pulse shape discriminator. The misclassification of events was reduced by post-processing the data using either a simple analytical technique or a more complex linear least squares technique. Both techniques typically reduced the difference between the expected and calculated interaction rates to <10% when the ratio of beta(gamma ray) to alpha count rate was less than 100 : 1. ((orig.))

  11. Unbiased determination of the proton structure function F2p with faithful uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Latorre, Jose I.; Rojo, Joan; Piccione, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We construct a parametrization of the deep-inelastic structure function of the proton F 2 (x,Q 2 ) based on all available experimental information from charged lepton deep-inelastic scattering experiments. The parametrization effectively provides a bias-free determination of the probability measure in the space of structure functions, which retains information on experimental errors and correlations. The result is obtained in the form of a Monte Carlo sample of neural networks trained on an ensemble of replicas of the experimental data. We discuss in detail the techniques required for the construction of bias-free parameterizations of large amounts of structure function data, in view of future applications to the determination of parton distributions based on the same method. (author)

  12. Quantum mechanics of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F(2P) + H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, R.E.; Walker, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F( 2 P) + H 2 three-dimensional collisions, with electronic matrix elements from DIM theory. The quantum close-coupled equations are integrated via the R-matrix propagation method. Inelastic quenching probabilities are emphasized, with and without simulated open reaction channels. Interweaving patterns in the transition probability for even and odd nuclear parity vs. J (total angular momentum quantum number) are analyzed in terms of avoided crossing structure in the electrotational energy correlation diagrams. Localized regions where electronic quenching is dominant are identified in the correlation diagrams, and are confirmed in separate calculations which neglect interchannel mixing in local regions of the atom-molecule separation. Open reaction channels are found to have little influence on the quenching probabilities in these low energy calculations

  13. Correlation between TL and OSL properties of CaF2:N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Kitis, George; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.

    2006-01-01

    Natural CaF 2 is very well known thermoluminescent (TL) material, since it has been extensively used as a dosimeter. Its basic advantage is the exhibited high TL sensitivity. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) sensitivity of this material was studied by exposing it to environmental radiation for time intervals of few hours up to a few days, and was found to be very high. By analyzing the TL glow curves and the OSL decay curves into their individual glow-peaks and components respectively, a relation between specific glow-peaks and OSL components was established. An intense thermal transfer effect occurring during optical stimulation at high temperature was observed and an explanation is offered according to existing models

  14. Measurement of D^(*+-) Meson Production and F_2^c in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    The inclusive production of D^{*+-}(2010) mesons in deep-inelastic scattering is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. In the kinematic region 11.5 GeV and |\\eta_(D^*)|<1.5. Single and double differential inclusive D^(*+-) meson cross sections are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in two different evolution schemes. The charm contribution to the proton structure, F_2^c(x,Q^2), is determined by extrapolating the visible charm cross section to the full phase space. This contribution is found to rise from about 10% at Q^2 = 1.5 GeV^2 to more than 25% at Q^2 = 60 GeV^2 corresponding to x values ranging from 5*10^(-5) to 3*10^(-3)$.

  15. Light hadrons from N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P. [Paris 11 Univ., Orsay (FR). Lab. de Physique Theorique] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (N{sub f}=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at three values of the lattice spacing a{approx}0.06 fm, a{approx}0.08 fm and a{approx}0.09 fm with lattice sizes ranging from L{approx}1.9 fm to L{approx}3.9 fm. We perform a preliminary study of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory by combining our lattice data from these three values of the lattice spacing. (orig.)

  16. B{sub K}-parameter from N{sub f}=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT). Dipt. di Fisica] (and others)

    2011-01-07

    We present an unquenched N{sub f} = 2 lattice computation of the B{sub K} parameter which controls K{sup 0}- anti K{sup 0} oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B{sub K} parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B{sup RGI}{sub K}=0.729{+-}0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  17. Radiation-induced defect production in MgF2-Co crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuritdinov, I.; Turdanov, K.; Mirinoyatova, N.M.; Rejterov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Impact of Co-admixture on structural radiation defects formation in the MgF 2 crystals is studied. It is found that the Co admixture facilitates the probability of generating the F- and m-type centers of radiation defects as well as creation of the F- and M-centers, perturbed by admixtures. The availability of structural defects leads in its turn to the admixture ions perturbation. It is reflected in the removal of prohibition on spin-prohibited transitions of the Co 2 + ions. It is assumed that creation of the M-centers is the main cause for removal of the prohibition on the spin-prohibited transitions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  18. Birefringence and incipient plastic deformation in elastically overdriven [100] CaF2 under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Cai, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    [100] CaF2 single crystals are shock-compressed via symmetric planar impact, and the flyer plate-target interface velocity histories are measured with a laser displacement interferometry. The shock loading is slightly above the Hugoniot elastic limit to investigate incipient plasticity and its kinetics, and its effects on optical properties and deformation inhomogeneity. Fringe patterns demonstrate different features in modulation of fringe amplitude, including birefringence and complicated modulations. The birefringence is attributed to local lattice rotation accompanying incipient plasticity. Spatially resolved measurements show inhomogeneity in deformation, birefringence, and fringe pattern evolutions, most likely caused by the inhomogeneity associated with lattice rotation and dislocation slip. Transiently overdriven elastic states are observed, and the incubation time for incipient plasticity decreases inversely with increasing overdrive by the elastic shock.

  19. Axion phenomenology and θ-dependence from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonati, Claudio; D’Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Martinelli, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma La Sapienza,Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Mesiti, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Negro, Francesco [INFN sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Sanfilippo, Francesco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Villadoro, Giovanni [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-03-22

    We investigate the topological properties of N{sub f}=2+1 QCD with physical quark masses, both at zero and finite temperature. We adopt stout improved staggered fermions and explore a range of lattice spacings a∼0.05−0.12 fm. At zero temperature we estimate both finite size and finite cut-off effects, comparing our continuum extrapolated results for the topological susceptibility χ with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. At finite temperature, we explore a region going from T{sub c} up to around 4 T{sub c}, where we provide continuum extrapolated results for the topological susceptibility and for the fourth moment of the topological charge distribution. While the latter converges to the dilute instanton gas prediction the former differs strongly both in the size and in the temperature dependence. This results in a shift of the axion dark matter window of almost one order of magnitude with respect to the instanton computation.

  20. Megaspore competition in F1 and F2 hybrids between Oenothera hookeri and Oe. suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Śnieżko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac were investigated in F1 and F2 hybrids from crosses of Oe. hookeri and Oe. suaveolens. All hybrids form heteropolar and homopolar magaspore tetrads; the embryo sac, however, usually develops from the micropylar megaspore. Its development may occur immediately after degeneration of three other megaspores or after a period of competition between both apical megaspores. They develop simultaneously for a relatively short time, after which the growth of the chalazal megaspore is inhibited, although the latter does not degenerate. The micropylar megaspore as a rule develops without disturbances into the embryo sac, but in some ovules it is formed from the chalazal megaspore or double ones arise from both apical megaspores of the tetrad. The frequency of the micropylar embryo sac formation seems to be dependent above all on the hybrid plant genome and not on the haploid genome of the megaspore.

  1. ADS based on NaF-PbF2 molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Kwaratzkheli, A.Yu.; Konev, V.N.; Kochurov, B.P.; Shvedov, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The neutron-physical parameters of an accelerator driven system (ADS) with a proton accelerator feeding a sub-critical molten salt blanket are investigated. The installation is designed for the production of electric power, involving thorium in a fuel cycle, transmutation of fission products and actinides. It is supposed to use fluoride salt composition 66PbF 2 -34NaF with addition of heavy elements (Th, Np, Pu and minor actinides) as the material of fuel, coolant and target. The thermal power of this ADS is 2000 MW. The current of the 1 GeV proton beam is 29 mA. The investigations are carried out for the following fuel cycles: the plutonium one, the burning of Np and minor actinides and the plutonium-thorium cycle. The balances of nuclides systems under supposition of its continuous operation during 20 years are presented [ru

  2. Evaluation of the kinetic parameters of CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, Juan; Gutierrez, Alicia; Furetta, Claudio

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the first, third and fifth peaks of CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) dosemeters were determined experimentally using methods based on initial rise, peak shape, different heating rates, isothermal decay and numerical fitting method and a comparison was made between the results obtained. The average activation energy values determined by the methods used here were 0.72, 1.16 and 1.77 eV, with mean values for the frequency factor of 2.58 x 10 8 , 2.89 x 10 13 and 6.16 x 10 16 s -1 for the first, third and fifth peaks respectively. The values of activation energy obtained for each peak using the different methods covered a spread of about 4%. However, the spread for each of the frequency factors was very high. (author)

  3. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. Radiation dosimetry by optically stimulated phosphorescence of CaF2:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1974-01-01

    In addition to the light emission which occurs in TL, trapped electrons in CaF 2 :Mn can also be released by stimulation with visible and UV light. The measurement of stimulated light emission is disturbed by illumination. But there is an optically-stimulated phosphorescence, which permits to separate measurement of stimulated light emission and illumination. A theory is given. During illumination a part of the released electrons are captured by flat traps, which are emptied at room temperature. A dose dependent signal can be measured at a defined time after the stimulating pulse of visible light. Dosimeters (CaF 2 :Mn teflon disks) were illuminated by the light of a tungsten lamp. The dose response curve was found to be linear from 1 to 10 5 rads. The response curve obtained for optical stimulation was similar to the TL-response curve. Fading of the optically-stimulated signal was higher than TL-fading. Repeated readings of a single sample are possible. The number of readings is dependent on illumination conditions. Accuracy of sample to sample was about 3.5% (standard deviation). There are two background signals. (1) Post-irradiation phosphorescence occurs. Flat traps are also filled after 60 Co gamma excitation. The measurement of the signal is possible after decay of post-irradiation phosphorescence. (2) There is an optically-excited phosphorescence, which also occurs if all trapped electrons are released. The lower limit of dose measurements is given by deviations of optically-excited emission and the dark-current of the photomultiplier tube. (author)

  6. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  7. Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Planetary waves are oscillations of very predominantly tropospheric origin with typical periods of about 2–30 days. Their dominant zonal wave numbers are 1, 2 and 3, i.e. the waves are of large-scale (global character. The planetary wave type oscillations have been observed in the lower and middle atmosphere but also in the ionosphere, including the ionospheric F2-layer. Here, we deal only with the oscillations analyzed for four European stations over a solar cycle with the use of the Meyer and Morlet wavelet transforms. Waves with periods near 5, 10 and 16 days are studied. Only events with a duration of three wave-cycles and more are considered. The 5-day period wave events display a typical duration of 4 cycles, while 10- and 16-day wave events are less persistent, with a typical duration of about 3.5 cycles and 3 cycles, respectively. The persistence pattern in terms of number of cycles and in terms of number of days is different. In terms of number of cycles, the typical persistence of oscillations decreases with increasing period. On the other hand, in terms of number of days the typical persistence evidently increases with increasing period. The spectral distribution of event duration is too broad to allow for a reasonable prediction of event duration. Thus, the predictability of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 seems to be very questionable.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction, mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  8. Study of the OSL response of the CaF2:Dy (TLD-200) dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Beatriz M.; Alencar, Marcus A.V. de

    2013-01-01

    The OSL dosimetry has become, in recent years, a successful technique in personal and environmental dosimetry due to high luminescence efficiency, excellent reproducibility, fast readout of signal and repeated and successive OSL measurements of the same dosimeter. Another factor that contributes to the increased use of OSL dosimetry is the use of the aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al 2 O 3 :C) as dosimeter. Developed initially as thermoluminescent dosimeter, the Al 2 O 3 :C has an excellent OSL sensitivity, high efficiency, good linearity, low or no fading and excellent stability with respect to environmental conditions. However, the OSL dose response for aluminum oxide is linear only for low doses. For intermediate doses (doses in radiotherapy), the response is supralinear. For the values of high doses used in the processes of food irradiation and sterilization of surgical materials, the OSL signal of the aluminum oxide already saturated. Furthermore, the degree of supralinearity and the saturation value vary from sample to sample (∼ 30-300 Gy). Therefore, the use of aluminum oxide as OSL dosimeter is inappropriate in radiotherapy and in the irradiation industrial processes. The objective of this work is the study of the OSL properties of other dosimetric materials irradiated with values of intermediate and high dose to verify the applicability of the OSL dosimetry in radiotherapy and in the processes of food irradiation and sterilization of medical materials. The dosimetric material used in this work is the calcium fluoride doped with dysprosium (CaF 2 :Dy) produced by Harshaw and known commercially as TLD-200. The results demonstrate that the CaF 2 :Dy has OSL signal and the OSL dose response is linear in the range of 10 Gy to 300 Gy. Therefore, the dosimetry OSL with this dosimeter can be used in the evaluation of doses of the order of dozens to hundreds of grays. (author)

  9. Distinguishing between MSSM and NMSSM through ΔF=2 processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jacky [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Ist Homi Bhabha road, 400 005 Mumbai (India); Paraskevas, Michael [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Ioannina,GR 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-10-25

    We study deviations between MSSM and Z{sub 3}-invariant NMSSM, with respect to their predictions in ΔF=2 processes. We find that potentially significant effects arise either from the well known double-penguin diagrams, due to the extra scalar NMSSM states, or from neutralino-gluino box contributions, due to the extended neutralino sector. Both are discussed to be effective in the large tan β regime. Enhanced genuine-NMSSM contributions in double penguins are expected for a light singlet spectrum (CP-even, CP-odd), while the magnitude of box effects is primarily controlled through singlino mixing. The latter is found to be typically subleading (but non-negligible) for λ≲0.5, however it can become dominant for λ∼O(1). We also study the low tan β regime, where a distinction between MSSM and NMSSM can come instead due to experimental constraints, acting differently on the allowed parameter space of each model. To this end, we incorporate the LHC Run-I limits from H→Z Z, A→h Z and H{sup ±}→τ ν non-observation along with Higgs observables and set (different) upper bounds for new physics contributions in ΔF=2 processes. We find that a ∼25% contribution in ΔM{sub s(d)} is still possible for MFV models, however such a large effect is nowadays severely constrained for the case of MSSM, due to stronger bounds on the charged Higgs masses.

  10. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-04-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, 2 h and 12 h after lambing. The results were compared among and within treatment groups. They indicate that the physiological increase in peripheral PGFM levels starts two days before lambing and that the level peaks at lambing. The normal decrease after parturition is emphasized by NSAI injections as detected 1 h and 2 h posttreatment (p NSAI drug is short-acting as revealed by the lower PGFM levels in twice-treated animals 2 h after birth compared to once treated animals and the similar low levels in all three groups 12 h after birth. The fetal membranes were expelled normally in all treated and nontreated animals, but the time needed for placental expulsion in ewes injected with two doses of NSAI was longer than in controls (p < 0.05). A negative correlation (p < 0.05) was found between plasma PGFM levels measured two hours after lambing and the time needed for fetal membrane expulsion. PgF2 alpha appears to have a role in placental release in the ewe.

  11. Hydrodechlorination of Tetrachloromethane over Palladium Catalysts Supported on Mixed MgF2-MgO Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bonarowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd/MgO, Pd/MgF2 and Pd/MgO-MgF2 catalysts were investigated in the reaction of CCl4 hydrodechlorination. All the catalysts deactivated in time on stream, but the degree of deactivation varied from catalyst to catalyst. The MgF2-supported palladium with relatively large metal particles appeared the best catalyst, characterized by good activity and selectivity to C2-C5 hydrocarbons. Investigation of post-reaction catalyst samples allowed to find several details associated with the working state of hydrodechlorination catalysts. The role of support acidity was quite complex. On the one hand, a definite, although not very high Lewis acidity of MgF2 is beneficial for shaping high activity of palladium catalysts. The MgO-MgF2 support characterized by stronger Lewis acidity than MgF2 contributes to very good catalytic activity for a relatively long reaction period (~5 h but subsequent neutralization of stronger acid centers (by coking eliminates them from the catalyst. On the other hand, the role of acidity evolution, which takes place when basic supports (like MgO are chlorided during HdCl reactions, is difficult to assess because different events associated with distribution of chlorided support species, leading to partial or even full blocking of the surface of palladium, which plays the role of active component in HdCl reactions.

  12. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Xvsheng; Fan Xianping; Wang Minquan; Zhang Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped 50SiO 2 -10Al 2 O 3 -20ZnF 2 -20SrF 2 glass and glass ceramic containing SrF 2 nanocrystals were investigated. The formation of SrF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic was confirmed by XRD. The oscillator strengths for several transitions of the Er 3+ ions in the glass ceramic have been obtained and the Judd-Ofelt parameters were then determined. The XRD result and Judd-Ofelt parameters suggested that Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions had efficiently enriched in the SrF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic. The lifetime of excited states has been used to reveal the surroundings of luminescent Er 3+ and Yb 3+ and energy transfer (ET) mechanism between Er 3+ and Yb 3+ . Much stronger upconversion luminescence and longer lifetime of the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped glass ceramic were observed in comparison with the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped glass, which could be ascribed to more efficient ET from Yb 3+ to Er 3+ due to the enrichment of Yb 3+ and Er 3+ and the shortening of the distance between lanthanide ions in the precipitated SrF 2 nanocrystals.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  14. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  15. First-Generation Transgenic Plants and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Keizer, Paul; Jansen, Ritsert

    1993-01-01

    The statistical analyses of populations of first-generation transgenic plants are commonly based on mean and variance and generally require a test of normality. Since in many cases the assumptions of normality are not met, analyses can result in erroneous conclusions. Transformation of data to

  16. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  17. A transgenic mouse model for trilateral retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Carpenter, J.L.; Windle, J.J.; Mellon, P.; Albert, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a murine model of trilateral retinoblastoma. Ocular retinoblastoma and central nervous system tumors are observed in a line of mice formed by the transgenic expression of SV40 T-antigen. An oncogenic protein known to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (p105-Rb) is specifically

  18. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... practice. However, the useful life-span of many resistant cultivars is only a few years, due to the breakdown of the .... Thus, suppression of insect feeding by transgenic .... different types of defense-responsive genes were found.

  19. Assessing the value of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2002-10-01

    In the current controversy about the value of transgenic crops, matters open to empirical inquiry are centrally at issue. One such matter is a key premise in a common argument (that I summarize) that transgenic crops should be considered to have universal value. The premise is that there are no alternative forms of agriculture available to enable the production of sufficient food to feed the world. The proponents of agroecology challenge it, claiming that agroecology provides an alternative, and they deny the claim that it is well founded on empirical evidence. It is, therefore, a matter of both social and scientific importance that this premise and the criticisms of it be investigated rigorously and empirically, so that the benefits and disadvantages of transgenic-intensive agriculture and agroecology can be compared in a reliable way. Conducting adequate investigation about the potential contribution of agroecology requires that the cultural conditions of its practice (and, thus, of the practices and movements of small-scale farmers in the "third world") be strengthened--and this puts the interests of investigation into tension with the socio-economic interests driving the development of transgenics. General issues about relationship between ethical argument and empirical (scientific) investigation are raised throughout the article.

  20. Cancer immunotherapy : insights from transgenic animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, PMJ; Kroesen, BJ; Harmsen, MC; de Leij, LFMH

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of strategies in cancer immunotherapy has been developed in the last decade, some of which are currently being used in clinical settings. The development of these immunotherapeutical strategies has been facilitated by the generation of relevant transgenic animal models. Since the

  1. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard Brian; Summers, Anne O.; Rugh, Clayton L.

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  2. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  3. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  4. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  5. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  6. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  7. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  8. Exposure to welding fumes is associated with hypomethylation of the F2RL3 gene: a cardiovascular disease marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Welders are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies linked tobacco smoke exposure to hypomethylation of the F2RL3 (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3) gene, a marker for cardiovascular disease prognosis and mortality. However, whether welding fumes cause hypomethylation of F2RL3 remains unknown. We investigated 101 welders (median span of working as a welder: 7 years) and 127 unexposed controls (non-welders with no obvious exposure to respirable dust at work), age range 23-60 years, all currently non-smoking, in Sweden. The participants were interviewed about their work history, lifestyle factors and diseases. Personal sampling of respirable dust was performed for the welders. DNA methylation of F2RL3 in blood was assessed by pyrosequencing of four CpG sites, CpG_2 (corresponds to cg03636183) to CpG_5, in F2RL3. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between exposure to welding fumes and F2RL3 methylation. Welders had 2.6% lower methylation of CpG_5 than controls (pWelding fumes exposure and previous smoking were associated with F2RL3 hypomethylation. This finding links low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and suggests a potential mechanistic pathway for this link, via epigenetic effects on F2RL3 expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance.

  11. Stringent tests of constrained Minimal Flavor Violation through ΔF=2 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Girrbach, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    New Physics contributions to ΔF=2 transitions in the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the models with constrained Minimal Flavor Violation (CMFV), are parametrized by a single variable S(v), the value of the real box diagram function that in CMFV is bounded from below by its SM value S 0 (x t ). With already very precise experimental values of ε K , ΔM d , ΔM s and precise values of the CP-asymmetry S ψK S and of B K entering the evaluation of ε K , the future of CMFV in the ΔF = 2 sector depends crucially on the values of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke, γ, F B s √(B B s ) and F B d √(B B d ). The ratio ξ of the latter two non-perturbative parameters, already rather precisely determined from lattice calculations, allows then together with ΔM s / ΔM d and S ψK S to determine the range of the angle γ in the unitarity triangle independently of the value of S(v). Imposing in addition the constraints from vertical stroke ε K vertical stroke and ΔM d allows to determine the favorite CMFV values of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke, F B s √(B B s ) and F B d √(B B d ) as functions of S(v) and γ. The vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke 4 dependence of ε K allows to determine vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke for a given S(v) and γ with a higher precision than it is presently possible using tree-level decays. The same applies to vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke, vertical stroke V td vertical stroke and vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke that are automatically determined as functions of S(v) and γ. We derive correlations between F B s √(B B s ) and F B d √(B B d ), vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and γ that should be tested in the coming years. Typically F B s √(B B s ) and F B d √(B B d ) have to be lower than their present lattice values, while vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke has to

  12. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  13. Transgenic tools to characterize neuronal properties of discrete populations of zebrafish neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Chie; Kimura, Yukiko; Hirata, Hiromi; Suster, Maximiliano L; Kawakami, Koichi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The developing nervous system consists of a variety of cell types. Transgenic animals expressing reporter genes in specific classes of neuronal cells are powerful tools for the study of neuronal network formation. We generated a wide variety of transgenic zebrafish that expressed reporter genes in specific classes of neurons or neuronal progenitors. These include lines in which neurons of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes expressed fluorescent proteins or Gal4, and lines in which specific subsets of the dorsal progenitor domain in the spinal cord expressed fluorescent proteins. Using these, we examined domain organization in the developing dorsal spinal cord, and found that there are six progenitor domains in zebrafish, which is similar to the domain organization in mice. We also systematically characterized neurotransmitter properties of the neurons that are produced from each domain. Given that reporter gene expressions occurs in a wide area of the nervous system in the lines generated, these transgenic fish should serve as powerful tools for the investigation of not only the neurons in the dorsal spinal cord but also neuronal structures and functions in many other regions of the nervous system.

  14. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  15. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  16. Increased F3-Isoprostanes in the Canadian Inuit Population Could Be Cardioprotective by Limiting F2-Isoprostane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkazemi, Dalal; Jackson, Robert L; Chan, Hing Man; Kubow, Stan

    2016-09-01

    F3-isoprostanes (F3-IsoPs), derived from peroxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), could be cardioprotective by limiting production of F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), a cardiovascular disease risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine whether the n-3-polyunsaturated (PUFA)-rich Inuit diet is associated with a lower plasma ratio of F2-IsoPs to F3-IsoPs. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted in 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit communities. Participants included a random subset (n = 233) of Inuit adults taken from a population-based survey. Plasma F2-IsoPs and F3-IsoPs, cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, fasting glucose) and markers of dietary exposure (erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 PUFA, blood levels of Se, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls) were measured. Inuit aged 40 years old and older vs younger Inuit showed higher concentrations of plasma F3-IsoPs and erythrocyte n-3 PUFA and lower plasma F2-IsoPs concentrations despite having higher blood lipids, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and percentage body fat. Plasma F3-IsoPs were not associated with any cardiometabolic measures. When subjects were categorized into tertiles according to total n-3 PUFA erythrocyte concentrations, F3-IsoPs increased with increasing tertiles, whereas the F2-IsoP to F3-IsoP ratio was lowest at the highest n-3 tertile. The F2-IsoP to F3-IsoP ratio was significantly predicted by C20:5n-3 (β= -.365, P = .002); C20:4n-6:C20:5n-3 (β = .056, P = .006), blood mercury (β = -.812, P =.015), blood Se (β = -1.95, P = .015), and smoking (β = .745, P = .025). Plasma F3-IsoPs were not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors previously seen with F2-IsoPs. Higher n-3 fatty acid status was associated with lower plasma F2-IsoPs and higher plasma F3-IsoPs, which provides partial explanation to the cardioprotective effects of the n-3 PUFA-rich Inuit diet.

  17. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis

  18. Optical Spectra Properties and Continuous-Wave Laser Performance of Tm,Y:CaF2 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 3 at.% Tm, x at.% Y:CaF2 crystals (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and investigated. Codoping Y3+ ions can manipulate the local structure of Tm3+ ions in the CaF2 crystal and then improve the spectroscopic properties. Compared with 3 at.% Tm:CaF2, 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal has several advantages. Firstly, the absorption cross section is improved from 0.35 × 10−20 cm−2 to 0.45 × 10−20 cm−2 at 767 nm, and the fluorescence intensity had elevated 3.4 times. Secondly, the linewidth of the fluorescence spectrum and lifetime also increased from 164 nm to 191 nm and from 6.16 ms to 8.15 ms at room temperature, respectively. Furthermore, quantum efficiency improved from 58.2% to 80.3%. The maximum laser output power of 583 mW and slope efficiency of 25.3% were achieved in 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal under 790 nm diode pumping.

  19. Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lihui; Qin Guanshi; Arai, Yusuke; Jose, Rajan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Yusuke

    2007-01-01

    Transparent Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF 2 nanocrystals were prepared by melt quenching and subsequent heat treatment. Crystallization kinetics of CaF 2 nanocrystals was investigated by differential scanning calorimetric method. The average apparent activation energy E a of the crystallization was ∼498 kJ/mol. Moreover, the value of the Avrami exponent n was 1.01. These results suggest that the crystallization mechanism of CaF 2 is a diffusion controlled growth process of needles and plates of finite long dimensions. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the CaF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission spectra of the as-made glass and the glass ceramic with an excitation of a 974 nm laser diode were recorded at room temperature. An intense UV emission at 381 nm was observed in the glass ceramic. The origin of the enhancement of the emission at 381 nm was investigated using spectroscopic technique and Judd-Ofelt analysis. The enhancement of the emission at 381 nm could be attributed to the change of the ligand field of Tb 3+ ions due to the incorporation of some Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ ions into CaF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic

  20. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  1. Amplitude and phase of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the guinea pig in an (f1,f2) area study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Prijs, Vera F.; Schoonhoven, Ruurd

    2003-06-01

    Lower sideband distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), measured in the ear canal upon stimulation with two continuous pure tones, are the result of interfering contributions from two different mechanisms, the nonlinear distortion component and the linear reflection component. The two contributors have been shown to have a different amplitude and, in particular, a different phase behavior as a function of the stimulus frequencies. The dominance of either component was investigated in an extensive (f1,f2) area study of DPOAE amplitude and phase in the guinea pig, which allows for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of isophase contours. Making a minimum of additional assumptions, simple relations between the direction of constant phase in the (f1,f2) plane and the group delays in f1-sweep, f2-sweep, and fixed f2/f1 paradigms can be derived, both for distortion (wave-fixed) and reflection (place-fixed) components. The experimental data indicate the presence of both components in the lower sideband DPOAEs, with the reflection component as the dominant contributor for low f2/f1 ratios and the distortion component for intermediate ratios. At high ratios the behavior cannot be explained by dominance of either component.

  2. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-12-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  3. Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(ϕ)F2 mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ˜5 e-folds (˜50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL˜3(˜30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.

  4. Determination of UO2F2, UO2 and UF4 in tetrafluoride of uranium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Guzman, Ariel; Arlegui Hormazabal, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    The combustible elements for investigation reactors that at the present are manufacturing by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) they are based on aluminum and silicide uranium powdered which is obtained from metallic uranium. At the present the Conversion Units, is developing the technology of transformation UF 6 in metallic Uranium, reason for which is necessary that the Chemical Analysis Laboratory have a methodology that allows to quantify the presence of UO 2 F 2 , UO 2 and UF 4 in the samples obtained in this transformation process. For this reason we are implements the methodology of sequential analysis that had been developed previously, for the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations, IPEN Brasil, and to adapt it to the present conditions in the Laboratory of Chemical Analysis of the CCHEN. This method is based on the different solubilities that present those sample in front of solvents as ethanol and solutions of ammonium oxalate, what allows the separation of these compounds for a later analysis by means of the method of Davies and Gray. This method is based on the reduction of the uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) with ferrous ion amid phosphoric acid, quantifying the present uranium in the samples by means of titration with potassium dicromate. With the purpose of checking the efficiency of the method, the sum of all values of uranium coming from each compound and compares it with the total uranium of the sample (author)

  5. Classifying oxidative stress by F2-isoprostane levels across human diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Kadiiska, Maria B; London, Stephanie J; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-08-01

    The notion that oxidative stress plays a role in virtually every human disease and environmental exposure has become ingrained in everyday knowledge. However, mounting evidence regarding the lack of specificity of biomarkers traditionally used as indicators of oxidative stress in human disease and exposures now necessitates re-evaluation. To prioritize these re-evaluations, published literature was comprehensively analyzed in a meta-analysis to quantitatively classify the levels of systemic oxidative damage across human disease and in response to environmental exposures. In this meta-analysis, the F 2 -isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF 2α , was specifically chosen as the representative marker of oxidative damage. To combine published values across measurement methods and specimens, the standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels between affected and control populations were calculated. The meta-analysis resulted in a classification of oxidative damage levels as measured by 8-iso-PGF 2α across 50 human health outcomes and exposures from 242 distinct publications. Relatively small increases in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels (ganalysis of published data. This analysis provides knowledge on the true involvement of oxidative damage across human health outcomes as well as utilizes past research to prioritize those conditions requiring further scrutiny on the mechanisms of biomarker generation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation. PMID:19153792

  7. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen x dark agouti F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation.

  8. Multi-Phonon Relaxation of H^- Local Modes in CaF_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, C. P.; Happek, U.; Campbell, J. A.; Engholm, J. R.; Schwettman, H. A.

    1998-03-01

    Local modes play an important role in the relaxation of vibrational modes of small molecules in solids (J.R. Engholm, C.W. Rella, H.A. Schwettman, and U. Happek; Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 1302 (1996)., but only few attempts have been reported to study the relaxation of these local modes. Here we report on experiments to investigate the non-radiative relaxation of H^- local modes in CaF_2. Using a pump-probe technique, saturation experiments on the H^- local modes, both interstitial and substitutional, were performed at the Stanford Free Electron Laser Center. At low temperature we find a relaxation time T1 of 45 psec for the substitutional H^- local mode, and a more rapid relaxation for the interstitial H^- local modes next to La^3+ and Lu^3+ impurities. Information on the decay channels of the local modes are obtained from the characteristic temperature dependence of the relaxation rates. This work is supported in part by the ONR, Grant No. N00014-94-1024.

  9. Scintillation Response of CaF2 to H and He over a Continuous Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Xiang, Xia; Weber, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent demands for new radiation detector materials with improved γ-ray detection performance at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient techniques that can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. New material discovery has been limited due to the difficulties of large crystal growth to completely absorb γ-energies; whereas high-quality thin films or small crystals of candidate materials can be readily produced by various modern growth techniques. In this work, an ion-scintillator technique is demonstrated that can be applied to study scintillation properties of thin films and small crystals. The scintillation response of a benchmark scintillator, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu), to energetic proton and helium ions is studied using the ion-scintillator approach based on a time of flight (TOF) telescope. Excellent energy resolution and fast response of the TOF telescope allow quantitative measurement of light yield, nonlinearity and energy resolution over an energy range from a few tens to a few thousands of keV

  10. Nanocolloidal Ru/MgF2 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Chloronitrobenzene and Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrowski Mariusz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium fluoride support for ruthenium active phase allowed obtaining new catalysts of high activities in the hydrogenation of toluene and ortho-chloronitrobenzene. Ruthenium colloid catalysts (1 wt.% of Ru were prepared by impregnation of the support with the earlier produced polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-stabilized ruthenium colloids. The performances of the colloidal catalysts and those obtained by traditional impregnation were tested in the reactions of toluene hydrogenation to methylcyclohexane and selective hydrogenation of ortho-chloronitrobenzene (o-CNB to ortho-chloroaniline (o-CAN. It was shown that the use of chemical reduction method allows obtaining highly monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles of 1.6–2.6 nm in size. After reduction in hydrogen at 400oC, the colloidal ruthenium nanoparticles were found to strongly interact with MgF2 surface (SMSI, which decreased the catalyst ability to hydrogen chemisorption, but despite this, the colloid catalysts showed higher activity in o-CNB hydrogenation and higher selectivity to o-CAN than the traditional ones. It is supposed that their higher activity can be a result of high dispersion of Ru in colloid catalysts and the higher selectivity can be a consequence of the lower availability of hydrogen on the surface.

  11. Mellin moments of heavy flavor contributions to F2(x,Q2) at NNLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Sebastian Werner Gerhard

    2009-10-01

    The main parts of this thesis are the extension of the description of the contributions of heavy quark mass-effects to the deep-inelastic Wilson coefficients to NNLO. In course of that, we also obtain a first independent calculation of fixed moments of the fermionic parts of the NNLO anomalous dimensions. The calculation of the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in the whole Q 2 region is currently not within reach. However, a very precise description of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients contributing to the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) at NLO is obtained for Q 2 >or similar 10 m Q 2 , disregarding the power corrections ∝(m Q 2 /Q 2 ) k , k ≥ 1. If one considers the charm quark, this covers an important region for deep-inelastic physics at HERA. In this limit, the massive Wilson coefficients factorize into universal massive operator matrix elements (OMEs) A ij (x, μ 2 /m Q 2 ) and the light flavor Wilson coefficients C (q,g),(2,L) (x,Q 2 /μ 2 ). The former are process independent quantities and describe all quark mass effects. They are given by matrix elements of the leading twist local composite operators O i between partonic states j (i, j = q, g), including quark masses. The process dependence is described by the massless Wilson coefficients. (orig.)

  12. Crosshole investigations - physical properties of core samples from boreholes F1 and F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.A.; Carlsten, S.; Olsson, O.

    1987-06-01

    The geology and physical properties have been studied of roughly 100 core samples from the boreholes F1 and F2 drilled at the Crosshole site, located at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. The granitic rock has been divided into two classes: Fracture zones (also called major units) and a rock mass which is relatively undeformed. Samples from the major units have lower resistivity, higher porosity and dielectric constant than the samples from the less deformed rock mass. The electrical properties of the core samples have been measured over a frequency interval ranging from 1 Hz to 70 MHz. The conductivity of the samples increases with frequency, approximately with the frequency raised to the power 0.38. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency but is essentially constant above 3 MHz. These results show that the Hanai-Bruggeman equation can be used to describe the electrical bulk properties of the Stripa granite. The electrical conductivity of the samples is well correlated to the water content of the samples. The granite has a small contents of electrically conductive minerals which could influence the electrical bulk properties. (orig.)

  13. Absorption Spectra of BaF2 Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Bastiani-Ceccotti, Serena

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of the opacities of high Z element plasmas is important in indirect drive ICF and the study of stellar evolution. There are few experimental measurements of this quantity, and its theoretical determination is difficult due to the number of possible bound electron configurations. This study aims to better the theoretical understanding of this parameter by looking at the 3d-4f transitions of BaF2, Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho plasmas at the LULI2000 facility. The plasmas are produced by radiative heating and are cold, 15 -- 40 eV, and relatively dense, ˜ .01gm/cm^3 A plasma is produced by a .5 ns laser pulse irradiating a gold hohlraum and then probed by an x-ray source created by a gold foil irradiated by a 10 ps laser pulse. The transmission is found with simultaneous source and absorption measurements by an x-ray spectrometer in the 8 - 20 å range We will compare the results with statistical atomic structure codes. From this experiment we will gain further insight into the spectral broadening of neighboring Z elements due to changing plasma temperature and into mixture thermodynamics. This is a first step towards an experimental study of astrophysical domains.

  14. Parameters of heavy quark effective theory from N{sub f}=2 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossier, Benoit [CNRS, Orsay (France). LPT; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Della Morte, Michele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Fritzsch, Patrick [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Garron, Nicolas [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Heitger, Jochen [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Simma, Hubert; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tantalo, Nazario [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We report on a non-perturbative determination of the parameters of the lattice Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) Lagrangian and of the time component of the heavy-light axial-vector current with N{sub f} = 2 flavors of massless dynamical quarks. The effective theory is considered at the 1/m{sub h} order, and the heavy mass m{sub h} covers a range from slightly above the charm to beyond the beauty region. These HQET parameters are needed to compute, for example, the b-quark mass, the heavy-light spectrum and decay constants in the static approximation and to order 1/m{sub h} in HQET. The determination of the parameters is done non-perturbatively. The computation reported in this paper uses the plaquette gauge action and two different static actions for the heavy quark described by HQET. For the light-quark action we choose non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions.

  15. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  16. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ± 0......·001 mev, J2 = -0·152 ± 0·001 mev and J3 = -0·004 ± 0·001 mev. The second moment was also calculated with this model. The density of magnon states was evaluated by applying a six-parameter simulation of the dispersion surface. The critical points in the density of states agree well with those obtained...... by optical double-magnon experiments, whereas the detailed shape of the density of states differs significantly, indicating that the effect of magnon-magnon interactions rather than that of distant-neighbour exchange is of primary importance in the optical measurements....

  17. Synthesis and dosimetric characterization of LiF-MgF2, doped with Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Pedro R.; Nieto, Ana L.; Cruz-Zaragoza, Epifanio; Furetta, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The results of the synthesis and characterization of dosimetric thermoluminescent material based on the composition LiF-MgF 2 1:1 (Z eff = 9.7) doped Lu 3+ ions, developed at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, Mexico are presented. The TL material synthesis was carried out using the technique of casting solid substances, preparations were made with dopant concentrations of 0.25, 0.83, 1.00 and 2.00 mol%, the 1 mol% resulted in increased sensitivity to radiation. Its brightness curve has the TL peak intensity at 330 deg C when irradiated to 1000 Gy, whereas when irradiated greater than 2500 Gy, occurs at 230 ° C, also has a peak of smaller maximum intensity at 140 ° C. Microstructural characterization of the obtained material was performed using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction Kinetic parameters of the curves of brightness of the material is performed by the deconvolution method using the sequential quadratic programming algorithm, developed in the same institute. This new TL material complies fully with international standards to be used as dosimetry system in medical physics, research and industry, as its TL response (total integrated under the curve) to 60 Co gamma radiation, presents linearity between 1 and 5000 Gy , while the response of commercial TLD dosimeter-100 used as a reference, is only linear up to 10 Gy

  18. KIMA, PERLUKAH MENUNGGU F2 UNTUK PERDAGANGAN? SUATU KAJIAN BERDASARKAN MARKER GENETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Nugroho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kima (Tridagnidae merupakan salah satu komoditas air laut yang prospektif secara ekonomis, tercatat harga di Taiwan adalah $35--$142 per kg. Dalam pengembangan akuabisnis kima masih dijumpai kendala di antaranya adalah adanya aturan bahwa hanya turunan kedua atau F2 yang boleh diperdagangkan karena masuk dalam daftar CITES (Convention on Trade of Endangered Species menurut PP No. 8 tahun 1999 tentang pemanfaatan satwa. Karena pertumbuhannya yang relatif lambat serta adanya negara lain, misalnya Filipina, Fiji, dan Taiwan yang memperdagangkan hasil budidaya pada turunan F1, maka keadaan ini sangat merugikan pihak Indonesia. Kajian tentang permasalahan penurunan variasi genetik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mendukung adanya pelonggaran persyaratan perdagangan kima tersebut. Kajian genetika dengan menggunakan marker genetik menunjukkan bahwa tidak terjadi penurunan variasi genetik seperti yang dikuatirkan sebelumnya. Keragaman genetik pada F1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan induknya, yaitu 0,073 dan 0,023. Jarak genetik antar populasi yang diuji adalah sebesar 0,016.

  19. Placental Origin of Prostaglandin F2α in the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Siemieniuch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the question was addressed whether the feline placenta can synthesize prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α. The PGFS protein was elevated, particularly at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy compared to 7-8 (P<0.05 and 8.5–9 weeks (P<0.001. Transcripts for PGFS were significantly upregulated at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy and then gradually declined towards the end of gestation (P<0.001. Transcripts for PTGS2 were only upregulated in placentas from queens close to term (P<0.001 compared with earlier phases. Staining of PTGS2 showed distinct positive signals in placentas obtained during the last week before labor, particularly in the strongly invading trophoblast surrounding blood vessels, and also in decidual cells. Shortly after implantation, signals for PGFS were localized in the trophoblast cells. Near term, PGFS staining was seen mainly in decidual cells. Both placental PGF2α and plasma PGFM were elevated towards the end of pregnancy (P<0.001 compared with earlier weeks of pregnancy. The content of PGF2α in extracted placenta mirrored the PGFM level in plasma of pregnant females. During late gestation there is a significant increase in PGFM levels in maternal blood and of PGF2α levels in placental tissue concomitant with an upregulation of placental PTGS2.

  20. Longitudinal conductivity of LaF3/SrF2 multilayer heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Banshchikov, Alexander; Filimonov, Alexey; Koroleva, Ekaterina; Sokolov, Nikolay; Wurz, Marc Christopher

    2016-01-01

    LaF 3 /SrF 2 multilayer heterostructures with thicknesses of individual layers in the range 5-100 nm have been grown on MgO(100) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The longitudinal conductivity of the films has been measured using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 10 -1 -10 6  Hz and a temperature range 300-570 K. The ionic DC conductivities have been determined from Nyquist impedance diagrams and activation energies from the Arrhenius-Frenkel equation. An increase of the DC conductivity has been observed to accompany decreased layer thickness for various thicknesses as small as 25 nm. The greatest conductivity has been shown for a multilayer heterostructure having thicknesses of 25 nm per layer. The structure has a conductivity two orders of magnitude greater than pure LaF 3 bulk material. The increasing conductivity can be understood as a redistribution of charge carriers through the interface due to differing chemical potentials of the materials, by strong lattice-constant mismatch, and/or by formation of a solid La 1-x Sr x F 3-x solution at the interface during the growth process.

  1. Measurement of the Charm structure Function $F_{2}^{\\gamma},c$ of the Photon at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Busser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Cohen, I.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; Von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    The production of charm quarks is studied in deep-inelastic electron-photon scattering using data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP at normal e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209 GeV. The charm quarks have been identified by full reconstruction of charged D* mesons using their decays into D0pi with the D0 observed in two decay modes with charged particle final states, Kpi and K3pi. The cross-section sigma(D*) for production of charged D* in the reaction e+e- -> e+e-D*X is measured in a restricted kinematical region using two bins in Bjorken x, 0.0014 e+e- ccbar X) and the charm structure function of the photon F 2,c are determined in the region 0.0014 0.1 the perturbative QCD calculation at next-to-leading order agrees perfectly with the measured cross-section. For x < 0.1 the measured cross-section is 43.8 +- 14.3 +- 6.3 +- 2.8 pb with a next-to-leading order prediction of 17.0+2.9-2.3 p.b.

  2. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, a possible prognostic marker in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, De-Sheng; Yan, Min; Hassan, Muhammad; Fang, Ze-Bin; Chen, Man-Tao

    2017-06-01

    8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a potential biomarker of oxidative stress. This study clarified whether plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were affected and its underlying relevance to prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this prospective, observational study, a total of 170 controls and 170 aSAH patients were enrolled. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were detected using an ELISA. Severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale. Clinical outcomes included 6-month mortality and poor outcome referred to as Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3. As compared to controls, admission plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were significantly enhanced. Increased concentrations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α correlated with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes. Under ROC curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations resembled those of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores for clinical outcomes. An elevation in plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations is associated with the severity and poor outcome after aSAH, substantializing 8-iso-PGF2α as a potential prognostic biomarker of aSAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Major urinary metabolites of 6-keto-prostaglandin F2α in mice[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Hankin, Joseph A.; Uhlson, Charis L.; Hong, Yu H.; Murphy, Robert C.; Smith, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are enriched in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acids, and a shift in this balance toward omega-3 fatty acids may have health benefits. There is limited information about the catabolism of 3-series prostaglandins (PG) formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a fish oil omega-3 fatty acid that becomes elevated in tissues following fish oil consumption. Quantification of appropriate urinary 3-series PG metabolites could be used for noninvasive measurement of omega-3 fatty acid tone. Here we describe the preparation of tritium- and deuterium-labeled 6-keto-PGF2α and their use in identifying urinary metabolites in mice using LC-MS/MS. The major 6-keto-PGF2α urinary metabolites included dinor-6-keto-PGF2α (∼10%) and dinor-13,14-dihydro-6,15-diketo-PGF1α (∼10%). These metabolites can arise only from the enzymatic conversion of EPA to the 3-series PGH endoperoxide by cyclooxygenases, then PGI3 by prostacyclin synthase and, finally, nonenzymatic hydrolysis to 6-keto-PGF2α. The 6-keto-PGF derivatives are not formed by free radical mechanisms that generate isoprostanes, and thus, these metabolites provide an unbiased marker for utilization of EPA by cyclooxygenases. PMID:23644380

  4. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  5. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  6. Evolution of the spectrum of the solvated electron in BeF2 aqueous glasses at 76 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Walker, D.C.; Gillis, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a spontaneous shift from infrared-to- red-to-green in the overall spectrum of the electron trapped in an aqueous glass at 76 K following nanosecond pulse radiolysis. As with the alcohols, after the pulse the infrared absorption decays, there is a growth-then-decay of absorbance at intermediate wavelengths and net growth of absorption due to the equilibrated trapped electron state, e - /sub vis/. This progressive transition was not characterised by a single-step process and was discernible in aqueous glasses containing 7.5 or 10.7M BeF 2 in D 2 O. At higher BeF 2 concentrations, or with LiBr as glass-forming electrolyte, no growth of e - /sub vis/ was observed, probably because of concurrent loss of e - /sub vis/ in those glasses, as in LiCl and other glasses. BeF 2 glasses of trapped electrons showed several other features of interest: (i) wavelength- selective bleaching of the e - /sub vis/ band indicates that it is composed of a broad ''green'' band (lambda/sub max/, 530--590 nm) which bleaches homogeneously, and a broad ''red'' region which bleaches inhomogeneously. (ii) lambda/sub max/ for e - /sub vis/ changes with BeF 2 concentration, being blue shifted with increasing concentration , with both green and red underlying structures shifting slightly. (iii) No absorption due to F - 2 was found following pulse radiolysis in these glasses at 76 K. (iv) Several recent findings with LiCl are mimicked by F - 2 glasses. For instance, G (e - /sub vis/) increases and G (e - /sub ir/) decreases as the electrolyte concentration is increased, while the combined yield remains constant at 1.8 +- 0.1

  7. A prediction model of short-term ionospheric foF2 based on AdaBoost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiukuan; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Song, Gangbing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the AdaBoost-BP algorithm is used to construct a new model to predict the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2) one hour ahead. Different indices were used to characterize ionospheric diurnal and seasonal variations and their dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity. These indices, together with the current observed foF2 value, were input into the prediction model and the foF2 value at one hour ahead was output. We analyzed twenty-two years' foF2 data from nine ionosonde stations in the East-Asian sector in this work. The first eleven years' data were used as a training dataset and the second eleven years' data were used as a testing dataset. The results show that the performance of AdaBoost-BP is better than those of BP Neural Network (BPNN), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and the IRI model. For example, the AdaBoost-BP prediction absolute error of foF2 at Irkutsk station (a middle latitude station) is 0.32 MHz, which is better than 0.34 MHz from BPNN, 0.35 MHz from SVR and also significantly outperforms the IRI model whose absolute error is 0.64 MHz. Meanwhile, AdaBoost-BP prediction absolute error at Taipei station from the low latitude is 0.78 MHz, which is better than 0.81 MHz from BPNN, 0.81 MHz from SVR and 1.37 MHz from the IRI model. Finally, the variety characteristics of the AdaBoost-BP prediction error along with seasonal variation, solar activity and latitude variation were also discussed in the paper.

  8. Transgene mobilization and regulatory uncertainty for non-GE fruit products of transgenic rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-10-31

    Genetically engineered (GE) rootstocks may offer some advantages for biotechnology applications especially in woody perennial crops such as grape or walnut. Transgrafting combines horticultural grafting practices with modern GE methods for crop improvement. Here, a non-GE conventional scion (upper stem portion) is grafted onto a transgenic GE rootstock. Thus, the scion does not contain the genetic modification present in the rootstock genome. We examined transgene presence in walnut and tomato GE rootstocks and non-GE fruit-bearing scions. Mobilization of transgene DNA, protein, and mRNA across the graft was not detected. Though transgenic siRNA mobilization was not observed in grafted tomatoes or walnut scions, transgenic siRNA signal was detected in walnut kernels. Prospective benefits from transgrafted plants include minimized risk of GE pollen flow (Lev-Yadun and Sederoff, 2001), possible use of more than one scion per approved GE rootstock which could help curb the estimated US$136 million (CropLife International, 2011) cost to bring a GE crop to international markets, as well as potential for improved consumer and market acceptance since the consumable product is not itself GE. Thus, transgrafting provides an alternative option for agricultural industries wishing to expand their biotechnology portfolio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  10. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  11. Potential transgenic routes to increase tree biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouzet, Joseph G; Strabala, Timothy J; Wagner, Armin

    2013-11-01

    Biomass is a prime target for genetic engineering in forestry because increased biomass yield will benefit most downstream applications such as timber, fiber, pulp, paper, and bioenergy production. Transgenesis can increase biomass by improving resource acquisition and product utilization and by enhancing competitive ability for solar energy, water, and mineral nutrients. Transgenes that affect juvenility, winter dormancy, and flowering have been shown to influence biomass as well. Transgenic approaches have increased yield potential by mitigating the adverse effects of prevailing stress factors in the environment. Simultaneous introduction of multiple genes for resistance to various stress factors into trees may help forest trees cope with multiple or changing environments. We propose multi-trait engineering for tree crops, simultaneously deploying multiple independent genes to address a set of genetically uncorrelated traits that are important for crop improvement. This strategy increases the probability of unpredictable (synergistic or detrimental) interactions that may substantially affect the overall phenotype and its long-term performance. The very limited ability to predict the physiological processes that may be impacted by such a strategy requires vigilance and care during implementation. Hence, we recommend close monitoring of the resultant transgenic genotypes in multi-year, multi-location field trials. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  13. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  14. EVALUASI KERAGAMAN GENETIK INDUK IKAN KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus F-1 DAN TURUNANNYA (F-2 DENGAN PENANDA mt-DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2012-12-01

    pada turunannya (F-2. Hal ini dimungkinkan bahwa yuwana yang dianalisis tersebut berasal dari populasi 3 komposit haplotip induk F-1. Hasil analisis dengan program Tools for Population Genetic Analysis (TFPGA menunjukkan bahwa nilai keragaman genetik induk F-1 mengalami penurunan sebesar 20,46% terhadap turunannya (F-2, hal ini diduga karena sedikitnya jumlah induk efektif yang memijah. Dengan demikian penambahan induk efektif perlu dilakukan untuk menghindari laju penurunan keragaman genetik.

  15. Gold-coated copper cone detector as a new standard detector for F2 laser radiation at 157 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, Stefan; Brandt, Friedhelm; Taddeo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    A new standard detector for high-accuracy measurements of F2 laser radiation at 157 nm is presented. This gold-coated copper cone detector permits the measurement of average powers up to 2 W with an uncertainty of ∼1%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first highly accurate standard detector for F2 laser radiation for this power level. It is fully characterized according to Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement of the International Organization for Standardization and is connected to the calibration chain for laser radiation established by the German National Metrology Institute

  16. Next-to-leading order strong interaction corrections to the ΔF = 2 effective Hamiltonian in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, E.; Guadagnoli, D.; Lubicz, Vittorio; Porretti, V.; Silvestrini, L.

    2006-01-01

    We compute the next-to-leading order strong interaction corrections to gluino-mediated ΔF = 2 box diagrams in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. These corrections are given by two loop diagrams which we have calculated in three different regularization schemes in the mass insertion approximation. We obtain the next-to-leading order Wilson coefficients of the ΔF = 2 effective Hamiltonian relevant for neutral meson mixings. We find that the matching scale uncertainty is largely reduced at the next-to-leading order, typically from about 10-15% to few percent

  17. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  18. New facilities for Al+MgF2 coating for 2-m class mirrors for UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhupanov, Valery; Vlasenko, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail; Fedoseev, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    above 120 nm [19] with reflectivity more than 90% at wavelength longer than 200 nm, but the spectral range from 700 to 900 nm, where it's lowest value of reflectivity is 86% at 850 nm. That makes aluminum one of the best coating materials in the creating a mirror for operations in vacuum ultraviolet. However, the aluminum membrane is prone to oxidization, so applying the protecting coating is essential. Magnesium fluoride is one of the few materials transparent in the UV range [20]. In this contribution, capacities of new facilities in LUCH company that are created for World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project are described in Section 2, the process of applying Al + MgF2 coating workout is presented in Section 3, results of applying Al+MgF2 coating for WSO-UV primary mirror are presented in Section 4 and a brief summary are provided in the concluding Section 5.

  19. Epistatic Effects Contribute to Variation in BMD in Fischer 344 × Lewis F2 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. Introduction The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F2 progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Materials and Methods Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an α level of 0.01. Results and Conclusions Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. PMID:17907919

  20. Epistatic effects contribute to variation in BMD in Fischer 344 x Lewis F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F(2) progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.

  1. Neutron electric dipole moment using N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C.; Athenodorou, A.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Koutsou, G. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Ottnad, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Petschlies, M. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics

    2016-03-15

    We evaluate the neutron electric dipole moment vertical stroke vector d{sub N} vertical stroke using lattice QCD techniques. The gauge configurations analyzed are produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration using N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions at one value of the lattice spacing of a ≅0.082 fm and a light quark mass corresponding to m{sub π}≅373 MeV. Our approach to extract the neutron electric dipole moment is based on the calculation of the CP-odd electromagnetic form factor F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}) for small values of the vacuum angle θ in the limit of zero Euclidean momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. The limit Q{sup 2}→0 is realized either by adopting a parameterization of the momentum dependence of F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}) and performing a fit, or by employing new position space methods, which involve the elimination of the kinematical momentum factor in front of F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}). The computation in the presence of a CP-violating term requires the evaluation of the topological charge Q. This is computed by applying the cooling technique and the gradient flow with three different actions, namely the Wilson, the Symanzik tree-level improved and the Iwasaki action. We demonstrate that cooling and gradient flow give equivalent results for the neutron electric dipole moment. Our analysis yields a value of vertical stroke vector d{sub N} vertical stroke =0.045(6)(1) anti θ e.fm for the ensemble with m{sub π}=373 MeV considered.

  2. Stringent tests of constrained Minimal Flavor Violation through {Delta}F=2 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, Andrzej J. [TUM-IAS, Garching (Germany); Girrbach, Jennifer [TUM, Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    New Physics contributions to {Delta}F=2 transitions in the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the models with constrained Minimal Flavor Violation (CMFV), are parametrized by a single variable S(v), the value of the real box diagram function that in CMFV is bounded from below by its SM value S{sub 0}(x{sub t}). With already very precise experimental values of {epsilon}{sub K}, {Delta}M{sub d}, {Delta}M{sub s} and precise values of the CP-asymmetry S{sub {psi}K{sub S}} and of B{sub K} entering the evaluation of {epsilon}{sub K}, the future of CMFV in the {Delta}F = 2 sector depends crucially on the values of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke, {gamma}, F{sub B{sub s}} {radical}(B{sub B{sub s}}) and F{sub B{sub d}} {radical}(B{sub B{sub d}}). The ratio {xi} of the latter two non-perturbative parameters, already rather precisely determined from lattice calculations, allows then together with {Delta}M{sub s} / {Delta}M{sub d} and S{sub {psi}K{sub S}} to determine the range of the angle {gamma} in the unitarity triangle independently of the value of S(v). Imposing in addition the constraints from vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke and {Delta}M{sub d} allows to determine the favorite CMFV values of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke, F{sub B{sub s}} {radical}(B{sub B{sub s}}) and F{sub B{sub d}} {radical}(B{sub B{sub d}}) as functions of S(v) and {gamma}. The vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke {sup 4} dependence of {epsilon}{sub K} allows to determine vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke for a given S(v) and {gamma} with a higher precision than it is presently possible using tree-level decays. The same applies to vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub td} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ts} vertical stroke that are automatically determined as functions of S(v) and {gamma}. We derive correlations

  3. Effect of preterm formula with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, C; Schweer, H; Jelinek, J; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Leonhardt, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP)-enriched preterm formula on the endogenous formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha as possible markers of lipid peroxidation in preterm infants during their first weeks of life. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, infants received either formula enriched with LCP (n = 8), standard preterm formula (n = 7), or (expressed) breast milk (n = 8). Urine was sampled at study entry and after the study period of 3 weeks. The formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha was evaluated by measuring the urinary excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No differences in the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha were observed at the end of the study period. This result suggests that supplementation of a preterm formula with LCP for a period of 3 weeks does not stimulate lipid peroxidation in preterm infants.

  4. THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MELTS OF DOUBLE SYSTEM MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2, Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 – CaF2, SiO2 – CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Судавцова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of prognostication of thermodynamics properties of melts is presented from the coordinatesof liquidus of diagram of the state in area of equilibria a hard component is solution, on which energies ofmixing of Gibbs are expected in the double border systems of MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2,Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 - CaF2, SiO2 - CaF2. For the areas of equilibrium there is quasibinary connection(MgAl2O4, Mg2SiO4, Al6Si2O13 – a grout at calculations was used equalization of Hauffe-Wagner. Theobtained data comport with literary

  5. Superionic conductors with the fluorite structure: a) Measurement of the ionic conductivity of SrF2 at high temperatures, b) Study of the thermodynamic properties at CaF2 by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelakis, Georges

    1989-01-01

    In this work we present the results of an experimental study concerning the superionic conductivity of SrF 2 and those obtained by an investigation of the thermodynamical properties of CaF 2 using molecular dynamics simulation in the superionic region. The conductivity measurements in SrF 2 have been performed at high temperatures (700-1350 K) and various frequencies (10 Hz-10 MHz). At each temperature a frequency dependence of the conductivity has been detected. The analysis of the results using complex impedance diagrams revealed that this dependence is not an intrinsic property of the material but is related to electrodes effects. The apparent activation energies associated to the different parts of the intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity regions have been determined. Unfortunately no clear conclusion relative to the conduction mechanism can be made there from. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics have been performed in CaF 2 modeled using a rigid ion potential. The diffusion coefficient, the specific heat, structure factors, mean square displacements of both anions and cations, as well as the temperature dependence of these quantities have been calculated. The good agreement found between calculated quantities and experimental results justified us in using the crude approximation of a rigid on potential. A direct computation of the superionic conductivity has been obtained for the first time using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics in the linear response regime. From the independent calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the conductivity, the Havens ratio has been deduced, Hr 0.34, in the superionic region. Its value suggests that the superionic conductivity of CaF 2 is due to a collective and correlated mechanism, a fact which has been confirmed by the MD trajectory analysis. (author) [fr

  6. A built-in mechanism to mitigate the spread of insect-resistance and herbicide-tolerance transgenes into weedy rice populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM rice (Oryza sativa at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea. The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m(2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F(2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13 and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations.

  7. A Built-In Mechanism to Mitigate the Spread of Insect-Resistance and Herbicide-Tolerance Transgenes into Weedy Rice Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyi; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lu, Bao-Rong; Lin, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Background The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea). The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. Methodology/Principal Findings An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13) and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401). Conclusions/Significance Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations. PMID:22359609

  8. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  9. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, K.D.; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  10. Production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the allergen Can f 2 from Canis familiaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Nilsson, Ola B.; Jönsson, Klas; Grönlund, Hans; Achour, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    The recombinant form of the allergen Can f 2 from C. familiaris was produced, isolated and crystallized in two different forms. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses are reported for the two crystal forms of Can f 2. The allergen Can f 2 from dog (Canis familiaris) present in saliva, dander and fur is an important cause of allergic sensitization worldwide. Here, the production, isolation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two crystal forms of recombinant Can f 2 are reported. The first crystal form belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 77.3, c = 65.1 Å, and diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution, while the second crystal form belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.7, b = 48.3, c = 68.7 Å, β = 126.5°, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary data analysis indicated the presence of a single molecule in the asymmetric unit for both crystal forms

  11. Influences of Er3+ content on structure and upconversion emission of oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daqin; Wang Yuansheng; Yu Yunlong; Ma En; Bao Feng; Hu Zhongjian; Cheng Yao

    2006-01-01

    Transparent 45SiO 2 -25Al 2 O 3 -5CaO-10NaF-15CaF 2 glass ceramics doped with different content of erbium ion (Er 3+ ) were prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses evidenced the spherical CaF 2 nanocrystals homogeneously embedded among the glassy matrix. With increasing of Er 3+ content, the size of CaF 2 nanocrystals decreased while the number density increased. The crystallization kinetics studies revealed that CaF 2 crystallization was a diffusion-controlled growth process from small dimensions with decreasing nucleation rate. Er 3+ could act as nucleating agent to lower down crystallization temperature, while some of them may stay at the crystal surfaces to retard the growth of crystal. Intense red and weak green upconversion emissions were recorded for glass ceramics and their intensities increased with the increasing of Er 3+ content under 980 nm excitation. However, the concentration quenching effect appeared when Er 3+ doping reached 2 mol%. These results could be attributed to the change of ligand field of Er 3+ ions due to the incorporation of Er 3+ ions into precipitated fluoride nanocrystals

  12. Learners' Perceptions of Blended Learning and the Roles and Interaction of f2f and Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to probe into learners' perceptions of blended learning in relation to the respective roles of face-to-face learning (f2f learning) and online learning as well as their interaction in the blended EFL contexts. Questionnaires were used in the study to examine the attitudes of 296 university students towards a blended English…

  13. Computing K and D meson masses with N-f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Remi; Boucaud, Philippe; Carbonell, Jaume; Drach, Vincent; Farchioni, Federico; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Montvay, Istvan; Pallante, Elisabetta; Pene, Olivier; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc; Wenger, Urs

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N-f = 2 + 1 + 1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and

  14. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the single-file ProTaper F2 technique under reciprocating movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Brandão, Maria Claudia; Barino, Bianca; Di Giorgi, Karina; Fidel, Rivail Antonio Sergio; Luna, Aderval Severino

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of dentin debris extruded from the apical foramen by comparing the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal nickel-titanium (NiTi) files with the single-file ProTaper F2 technique. Thirty mesial roots of lower molars were selected, and the use of different instrumentation techniques resulted in 3 groups (n=10 each). In G1, a crown-down hand-file technique was used, and in G2 conventional ProTaper Universal technique was used. In G3, ProTaper F2 file was used in a reciprocating motion. The apical finish preparation was equivalent to ISO size 25. An apparatus was used to evaluate the apically extruded debris. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal NiTi files and the single-file ProTaper F2 technique (P>.05). In contrast, the hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than both NiTi groups (P<.05). The present results yielded favorable input for the F2 single-file technique in terms of apically extruded debris, inasmuch as it is the most simple and cost-effective instrumentation approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased levels of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in wastewater associated with tobacco use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard

    2016-01-01

    oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015. Using the same samples, biomarkers of alcohol (ethyl sulfate) and tobacco (trans-3...

  16. Critical frequency and maximum electron density of F2 region over four stations in the North American sector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; López, J. L.; Albornoz, M. R.; Mosert, M.; Marcó, P.; Burešová, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2011), s. 420-429 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * F2 region * Critical frequency * Electron density * Model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682610002786

  17. Determination of etching parameters for pulsed XeF2 etching of silicon using chamber pressure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipta; Baboly, M. G.; Elahi, M. M.; Abbas, K.; Butner, J.; Piñon, D.; Ward, T. L.; Hieber, Tyler; Schuberth, Austin; Leseman, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    A technique is presented for determination of the depletion of the etchant, etched depth, and instantaneous etch rate for Si etching with XeF2 in a pulsed etching system in real time. The only experimental data required is the pressure data collected temporally. Coupling the pressure data with the knowledge of the chemical reactions allows for the determination of the etching parameters of interest. Using this technique, it is revealed that pulsed etching processes are nonlinear, with the initial etch rate being the highest and monotonically decreasing as the etchant is depleted. With the pulsed etching system introduced in this paper, the highest instantaneous etch rate of silicon was recorded to be 19.5 µm min-1 for an initial pressure of 1.2 Torr for XeF2. Additionally, the same data is used to determine the rate constant for the reaction of XeF2 with Si; the reaction is determined to be second order in nature. The effect of varying the exposed surface area of Si as well as the effect that pressure has on the instantaneous etch rate as a function of time is shown applying the same technique. As a proof of concept, an AlN resonator is released using XeF2 pulses to remove a sacrificial poly-Si layer.

  18. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  19. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF2 for beta radiation of 90Sr + 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2003-01-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF 2 commercial dosimetry for detection of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves

  20. Optical absorption of BaF2 crystals with different prehistory when irradiated by high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinkov, E P; Stepanov, S A; Shtan'ko, V F; Ivanova, T S

    2016-01-01

    The spectra of stable optical absorption of BaF 2 crystals containing uncontrollable impurities after irradiation with 3 MeV electrons are studied at room temperature. The dependence of the efficiency of stable color accumulation in the region of emerging crossluminescence on the absorption coefficients measured near the fundamental absorption edge in unirradiated crystals of various prehistory is traced. (paper)