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Sample records for f2 alpha metabolite

  1. Plasma oxytocin but not prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels at cerclage may predict preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Böhmer, S; Goeschen, K; Fuchs, A R

    1991-06-01

    Plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations were measured in 45 patients admitted for cerclage during the second trimester. Samples were collected before, 3 hours after, and 3 days after the Shirodkar procedure. Uterine activity was recorded by external tocography twice daily for 30 minutes. Twenty-eight women with uncomplicated pregnancy and commensurate gestational age served as controls. Cervical length, measured by ultrasonography, was significantly shorter before cerclage (36 +/- 2 mm) than after cerclage (43 +/- 2 mm) or compared with controls (48 +/- 1 mm). Bishop scores ranged from 3-6 (median 4) in the cerclage group and 0-1 (median 0) in controls. Fifteen cerclage patients and one control delivered preterm 5-22 weeks after the procedure. Initial plasma PGFM levels were significantly higher in cerclage patients than in controls. The cerclage procedure caused an immediate rise in plasma PGFM and a subsequent fall below initial levels to control values. Neither the initial levels of PGFM nor the increments 3 hours after cerclage correlated with the outcome of pregnancy. By contrast, plasma oxytocin levels before cerclage were significantly higher in patients who subsequently delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term. Cerclage resulted in a significant fall in plasma oxytocin at 3 hours in patients with preterm delivery, but after 3 days the oxytocin levels had returned to the precerclage values. Patients who had increased uterine contractions had significantly higher plasma oxytocin levels but lower PGFM levels than those without contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Improved quantification of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha and F2-isoprostanes by gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry: partial cyclooxygenase-dependent formation of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, H; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Nüsing, R M

    1997-12-01

    F2-isoprostanes are considered to be novel markers of lipid peroxidation. To study the in vivo formation of F2-isoprostanes, an improved method was developed for isotope dilution assays involving gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) including thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (sum of all F2-isoprostanes) and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) purification (prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha). Following the addition of isotopically labeled prostaglandins to urine, the sample was acidified and applied to a C18 cartridge. After elution, prostaglandins were derivatized to pentafluorobenzyl esters and subjected to TLC. A broad zone was scratched off, isoprostanes were eluted and after formation of their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives the sum of F2-isoprostanes was determined by GC/MS/MS. For the determination of PGE2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha prior to trimethylsilylation an additional HPLC step was performed and the fractions containing PGF2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha were analyzed by GC/MS/MS. Using this technique, 8-epi-PGF2 alpha concentrations in urine samples as low as 5 pg ml-1 could be determined with high accuracy. The excretion rates of isoprostanes were studied in comparison with the classical prostaglandins in three different groups: healthy adults, healthy children and children with hyper-PGE syndrome (HPS), a pathological situation associated with a stimulated PGE2 synthesis. F2-isoprostanes represented the main arachidonic acid metabolites in these groups and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha excretion was comparable in its amount to the classical prostanoids. To delineate the cyclooxygenase-catalyzed contribution, the influence of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, on F2-isoprostane formation in healthy adults and in HPS children was analyzed. Significantly decreased excretion rates were observed 2 days after indomethacin administration for all prostanoids, including F2-isoprostanes and 8

  3. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...

  4. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  5. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  6. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced response of the bovine ovary, oviduct (uterine tube), and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L P; Sadiku, A; Verma, O P

    1979-12-01

    Tissue strips from the ovary, (uterine tube), and oviduct, and uterus of pregnant and nonpregnant cows were tested for their contractile response to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). When 2.1 x 10(-6)M PGF2 alpha was added to the uterine strips, tension of tissues from pregnant cows increased sharply; however, tension in tissues from nonpregnant cows only increased moderately. Similar concentrations failed to elicit any response from oviductal tissues of either group. Unlike the uterus and the oviduct, the ovaries contracted slowly and irregularly. They responded with varying degrees of stimulation; ovaries from pregnant cows with brief and mild stimulation and ovaries from nonpregnant cows with slower and relatively stronger stimulation. Results indicate that the bovine ovary contracts rhythmically and that its sensitivity to PGF2 alpha decreases during pregnancy in contrast to the bovine uterus which becomes increasingly sensitive during pregnancy.

  7. [Cardiovascular effect of 15(S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzke, U; Schwarz, R

    1978-01-01

    The reaction of the cardiovascular system on one intramuscular injection of 250 microgram 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha was examined in 14 normotensive healthy pregnant women between 7th and 11th weeks of gestation with the method of quantitative sphygmometry with unbloody graphic recording of arterial blood pressure and direct electronic determination of velocity of aortic pulse wave. The tests were done in 10 patients in intervals of 5 minutes for one hour and in 4 subjects for 12 hours in intervals of one hour. Systolic blood pressure remains nearly constant, but diastolic blood pressure increases and then decreases significantly. Heart rate decreases significantly. Aortic pulse wave velocity decreases in a characteristic manner. Analogous to the biphasic behaviour of blood pressure cardiac output decreases significantly, but then increases insignificantly. The inverse changes of total peripheral resistance are insignificant. Comparing these reactions with the cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F2alpha or E2, 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha shows the smallest circulatory alterations.

  8. Induction of parturition in swine with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, estradiol benzoate and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, M A; Day, B N

    1987-03-01

    Pregnant sows and gilts were administered either 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) intramuscularly on Day 112 or 113 of gestation at 0800 h in an effort to induce parturition. The average interval from PGF(2)alpha injection to farrowing was 55.1 +/- 5.7, 29.4 +/- 3.1, 32.1 +/- 4.6, 27.8 +/- 1.8 and 26.9 +/- 1.1 h for 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively. All PGF(2)alpha treatments increased (P gestation length was significantly shorter in treated gilts; however, no detrimental effect on pig performance or pig survivability was observed. A second trial evaluated the effect of a 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha on the induction of parturition in sows in order to obtain a majority of sows farrowing within normal working hours (0700 to 1700 h). The interval from injection to farrowing was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGF(2)alpha treatment (66.2 +/- 5.3 vs 28.1 +/- 2.2 h). Fifty-seven percent (P < 0.05) of PGF(2)alpha-treated sows farrowed between 0700 and 1700 h as compared to 13.6% for control sows. A third trial was conducted to examine a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin to control the time of parturition more precisely. Sows receiving only 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha farrowed on an average 31.1 +/- 1.4 h after injection. The injection of 40 IU oxytocin 24 to 28 h after PGF(2)alpha decreased (P < 0.05) the interval from PGF(2)alpha to farrowing (28.1 +/- 0.9 h). The addition of oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) the number of sows farrowing within 3 h of injection (33 vs 86% for PGF(2)alpha and PGF(2)alpha + oxytocin treatments, respectively). A fourth trial was designed to determine if the addition of exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) to a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin would improve the predictability and synchronization of the induced parturition. Sows were assigned to receive either saline, 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 40 IU oxytocin or 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 5 mg EB + 40 IU oxytocin. The addition of EB reduced (P < 0.01) the variance in

  9. Clinical relevance of plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Aihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology with few current treatment options. Recently, we determined an important role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in pulmonary fibrosis by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and found an abundance of PGF2α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IPF patients. We investigated the role of PGF2α in human IPF by assessing plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α, a stable metabolite of PGF2α. METHODS: We measured plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α in 91 IPF patients and compared these values with those of controls (n = 25. We further investigated the relationships of plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations with disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α were significantly higher in IPF patients than controls (p<0.001. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (Rs [correlation coefficient] = -0.34, p = 0.004, forced vital capacity (Rs = -0.33, p = 0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Rs = -0.36, p = 0.003, the composite physiologic index (Rs = 0.40, p = 0.001, 6-minute walk distance (Rs = -0.24, p = 0.04 and end-exercise oxygen saturation (Rs = -0.25, p = 0.04 when patients with emphysema were excluded. Multivariate analysis using stepwise Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher composite physiologic index (relative risk = 1.049, p = 0.002 and plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations (relative risk = 1.005, p = 0.002 were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant associations of plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolites with disease severity and prognosis, which support a potential pathogenic role for PGF2α in human IPF.

  10. ROLE OF SINGLE INJECTION OF PROSTAGLANDIN F2 ALPHA ON BREEDING EFFICIENCY OF BUFFALOES

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    Sajid Iqbal, Muhammad Aleem and Muhammad Amir Saeed

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. Group A buffaloes (treatment group were administered with prostaglandin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn, 2 hours after calving while the group B buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on days 14 and 21 postpartum, followed by twice a week rectal palpation until the first postpartum oestrus. The results revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P0.05. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20 ± 5.71 days in treated and 28.20 ± 8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05. Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79. 50 ± 19.83 days as compared to control group (103.0 ± 17.45 days and the difference was significant (P< 0.05. So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance.

  11. Acute ozone exposure increases plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha in ozone-sensitive human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Giri, S.N.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1989-07-01

    Twenty O/sub 3/-sensitive and /sup 2/O O/sub 3/-nonsensitive subjects participated in a study to investigate the effects of disparate O/sub 3/ sensitivity on plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha responses consequent to exposure to ambient O3 concentrations. Subjects were selected from a pool of 75 normal healthy college-aged males who had been previously exposed to 0.35 ppm O3 for 1 h at an exercising VE of 60 L/min. The selection criterion used was the observed decrement in FEV1 after the O/sub 3/ exposure: O/sub 3/-sensitive, FEV1 decrement greater than 24%; O/sub 3/-nonsensitive, FEV1 decrement less than 11%. Each subject was exposed to filtered air and to 0.20 and 0.35 ppm O/sub 3/ for 80 min while exercising at a VE of 50 L/min. These experimental protocols were divided into two 40-min sessions separated by a period of 4 to 10 min. PGF2 alpha, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were evaluated before, during, and after each protocol. SGaw and Vtg were measured before and after each protocol. Plasma PGF2 alpha was significantly increased in the O/sub 3/-sensitive group during and after the 0.35-ppm O/sub 3/ exposure.

  12. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    .... Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α...

  13. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs

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    Forni Monica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corpus luteum (CL is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p, and during pregnancy (P-p. Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2. After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2 on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA. prostaglandin F2-alpha

  14. Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha release in the golden hamster retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zavalía, Nuria; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Keller Sarmiento, María I; Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Silberman, Dafne M

    2010-02-01

    Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha release were examined in the golden hamster retina. Both parameters showed significant diurnal variations with maximal values at midnight. When hamsters were placed under constant darkness for 48 h, the differences in prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight persisted. Western blot analysis showed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 levels were significantly higher at midnight than at mid-day, and at subjective midnight than at subjective mid-day, whereas no changes in COX-2 levels were observed among these time points. Immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of COX-1 and COX-2 in the inner (but not outer) retina. Circadian variations of retinal prostaglandin release were also assessed in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)-lesioned animals. Significant differences in retinal prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight were observed in SCN-lesioned animals. These results indicate that hamster retinal prostaglandin release is regulated by a retinal circadian clock independent from the SCN. Thus, the present results suggest that the prostaglandin/COX-1 system could be a retinal clock output or part of the retinal clock mechanism.

  15. Cervical dilatation related to uterine electromyographic activity and endocrinological changes during prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced parturition in cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasingh, V.N.; Struijk, P.C.; Lotgering, F.K.; Eijskoot, F.; Kindahl, H.; Weijden, G.C. van der; Taverne, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal relationship between changes in cervical dilatation, uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity, and maternal plasma concentrations of estradiol 17beta (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin-F(2alpha) (PGFM), was investigated in six parturient cows. Calving

  16. Prostaglandin E and F2 alpha receptors in human myometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Jackson, K.; Kredentser, J.; Tulchinsky, D.

    1985-12-15

    The binding of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha has been studied in the human myometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle and in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term before and during labor. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 and F2 alpha binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding was linear, which suggests a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.5 to 5.4 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 0.9, 273, 273, and 217 nmol/L for prostaglandins E2, A1, B1, and F2 alpha, respectively. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha, binding was also linear, but the affinity of these binding sites was much lower, with an average dissociation constant of 50 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 1.6, 2.2, and 11.2 nmol/L for prostaglandins E1, E2, and A1, respectively. In nonpregnant patients, the concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were similar in the myometrium during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, but the concentration of these sites was much lower in the cervix. The concentration of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites was significantly lower in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term than in the myometrium of nonpregnant patients. The concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were not significantly different in the upper and lower myometrium of pregnant patients at term or in the myometrium of such patients before and during labor. The concentrations of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha binding sites during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy at term were similar to those of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites.

  17. Two new hemoglobin variants: Hb Brem-sur-Mer [beta9(A6)Ser-->Tyr] and Hb Passy [alpha81(F2)Ser-->Pro (alpha2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Philippe; Moreau, Mathieu; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Louis, Jean-Jacques; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Two new hemoglobin (Hb) variants: Hb Brem-sur-Mer [codon 9 (TCT-->TAT); beta9(A6)Ser-->Tyr] on the first exon of the beta-globin gene and Hb Passy [codon 81 (TCC-->CCC); alpha81(F2)Ser-->Pro (alpha2)] on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, are described. The two variants were characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). Hematological abnormalities: microcytosis and hypochromia were found only in the carrier of Hb Passy. In the absence of an association with an alpha-thalassemic deletion or mutation, the mutation 81(F2)Pro could induce a possible alpha-thalassemia (thal).

  18. Estrus synchronization in sheep and goats using combinations of GnRH, progestagen and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi, H H; Kridli, R T; Alnimer, M A

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of GnRH, progestagen and prostaglandin F(2alpha) on estrus synchronization in sheep and goats. Sixty Awassi ewes and 53 Damascus does were used in the study. The experiment started at the beginning of the breeding season (June/July). The same treatments were applied to sheep and goats as follows: no treatment (CON), 14-day progestagen sponges and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (S), gonadotropin releasing hormone followed 5 days later by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (GP) and gonadotropin releasing hormone, progestagen sponges for 5 days and prostaglandin F(2alpha) on the day of sponge removal (GSP). None of the ewes in the S group lambed from mating during the induced cycle. A greater lambing rate (p synchronizing estrus and improving fecundity in sheep and goats. Although the use of GnRH-PGF(2alpha) was effective, the addition of progestagen sponges at the time of GnRH administration appeared to improve reproductive parameters.

  19. The use of Cloprostenol and prostaglandin F2alpha to induce luteolysis in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 reindeer of about 7 months of age, were isolated from a flock at the end of the breeding season. The animals were treated either with 12.5 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (n = 41 or 0.25 mg cloprostenol (n = 50. Thirty-five animals were left untreated. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 2 Vi days later and the plasma progesterone concentrations were determined. A significant fall in progesterone concentration was seen in both treatment groups. A large proportion of animals responded to treatment with cloprostenol than with prostaglandin F2alpha. It was concluded that prostaglandins can be used to induce luteolysis in reindeer.

  20. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    (HCG) before and after treatment by injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha into the site of the gestation and into the corpus luteum. There was no significant difference in the pre-treatment serum progesterone and serum PP14 concentrations of 26 women who were treated successfully and of five women, who...... be used for selection of patients for treatment by prostaglandin F2 alpha or for monitoring the effect of the treatment. The injection of prostaglandin into the ovary has either no effect on the activity of the corpus luteum or induces only a partial luteolysis....... were operated on after failure of the treatment. After the prostaglandin treatment the serum progesterone and PP14 concentrations decreased simultaneously with the serum HCG concentration or remained at a low, constant concentration. We conclude that measurement of serum progesterone and PP14 cannot...

  1. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.S.; Weakland, L.L.; Weiland, D.A.; Farese, R.V.; West, L.A.

    1987-06-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of ''second messengers'' derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ((Ca2+)i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in (Ca2+)i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in (Ca2+)i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and (Ca2+)i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in (Ca2+)i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum.

  2. [Induced abortion using prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, T H; Modly, T

    1974-01-01

    In this study of 20 patients in the 13th-17th week of pregnancy abortion was induced with intrauterine, extraamniotic application of prostaglandins (PG) E2 or F2 in gel form. The gel composition was as follows: 4% tylose MH 300, 2% glycerine, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate, 83% sterile distilled water and 10% PG stock solution. Both PGE2 and PGF2 gels were used. Final concentration was 2.5 mg E2 or 2.5 mg F2 per g of gel. Gel was applied via transcervical, extraamniotic polyethylene catheter every 2-3 hours. Results: PGE2-gel was used in 14 cases. After 3-4 applications both fetus and placenta were expelled. Average dose used was 4.6 mg E2/patient. First contractions started in 30 minutes; induction to expulsion time was 11 hours 35 minutes. F2-gel given to 6 patients resulted in expulsion of the fetus in all cases but placenta needed removal by curettage in 4 patients. Average dose per patient was 17.7 mg of F2; first contractions in 30 minutes, average expulsion time 17 hours 38 minutes. With both PGs there were painful contractions which were controlled with a combination of pentazocine and Valium. PGE2 caused vomiting in 5 patients. No increased bleeding or postabortion infection occurred. Follow-up curettage was done in all patients to ensure removal of all tissues. Overall evaluation of the PG-gels was considered good. PG stability in gel form is good; during 8 months of preservation in sterile aluminum tubes at -25 degrees Celsius no decline in clinical effectiveness was noted. The gel application is less expensive than the slow-injection pump method.

  3. Reproducibility of dorsal hand vein responses to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha using the dorsal hand vein compliance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, C; Grossmann, M; Dobrev, D; Francke, K; Ravens, U; Kirch, W

    2003-03-01

    Assessment of drug-induced venodilation by the dorsal hand vein compliance method requires stable constriction of the vein. This study was designed to investigate intra- and intersubject reproducibility of the venous preconstriction technique in response to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha and to determine the influence of basal vein size. Twelve healthy male nonsmokers participated in a prospective cross-over study. Inter- and intrasubject variability was tested in response to phenylephrine and PGF2 alpha on different study days in the same hand vein. The dose of the respective constrictor causing approximately 80% constriction of the vein (ED80) was determined and infused for another 100 minutes. Actual vein size was measured every 5 minutes. Coefficient of variation and regression analyses were performed to analyze influence of vessel size on ED80 of the respective constrictor. Adjusted constriction levels were stable and well reproducible in all subjects. The intersubject coefficient of variation of ED80 ranged from 0.9% to 6.7% for phenylephrine and from 0.9% to 6.9% for PGF2 alpha. Whereas responses to phenylephrine were independent of basal vein diameter, there was a positive correlation between ED80 of PGF2 alpha and basal vein size. Thus, the hand vein compliance method is a suitable method to study dilatory responses in phenylephrine- or PGF2 alpha-constricted veins with considerable interindividual but small intraindividual variability. However, in such studies, phenylephrine appears to be a more reliable tool than PGF2 alpha.

  4. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates uterine prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis in bovine endometrium: role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P D; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    1998-11-01

    The objective of these experiments was to determine the role of Ca2+ during oxytocin-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha release from bovine endometrial tissue in vitro. Uteri were collected from dairy cows on the day after spontaneous luteal regression. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and incubated in vitro to determine phospholipase C activity or PGF2 alpha release. A23,187 (a calcium ionophore) and maitotoxin (an activator of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels) stimulated release of PGF 2 alpha in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thapsigargin (induces accumulation of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+/ATPase pumps) stimulated release of PGF2 alpha in a concentration-dependent manner as well (P < 0.13). Oxytocin (10(-6) M), AIF4- (a nonspecific activator of G-proteins; 10(-5) M), A23,187 (10(-5) M), and melittin (a stimulator of phospholipase A2; 10(-4) M) stimulated PGF2 alpha release when explants were incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium (P < 0.10); however, oxytocin, A23,187, or melittin were unable to stimulate PGF2 alpha release when explants were incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium containing the calcium chelator EGTA (P < 0.10). This treatment did not prevent oxytocin or AIF4- from stimulating phospholipase C activity (P < 0.08). CoCl2 (a nonspecific Ca2+ channel blocker) and methoxyverapamil (a specific voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker) prevented oxytocin from stimulating PGF2 alpha release (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ may be required for oxytocin to stimulate PGF2 alpha secretion in bovine endometrial tissue.

  5. Oxytocin- and aluminium fluoride-induced phospholipase C activity and prostaglandin F2 alpha secretion during the ovine luteolytic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, G A; Burns, P D; Silvia, W J

    1998-03-01

    A series of studies was conducted to characterize changes in components of the cell signalling cascade that mediates oxytocin-induced prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) synthesis at the onset of luteolysis in sheep. In the first experiment, caruncular tissue was dissected from 20 ewes on days 12-15 of the oestrous cycle, and incubated for the measurement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity or secretion of PGF2 alpha. Activation of GTP-binding proteins with aluminium fluoride stimulated both inositol phosphate accumulation and PGF2 alpha secretion on all days examined. However, oxytocin did not stimulate PLC activity or PGF2 alpha accumulation until day 13. While the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PLC activity increased after day 13, oxytocin-induced PGF2 alpha secretion declined slightly from day 13 to 15, suggesting that cell signalling components downstream from PLC modulate the response to oxytocin after day 13. Oxytocin failed to stimulate PGF2 alpha synthesis on day 14 after oestrus. Secretion of endogenous luteal oxytocin may have rendered uterine tissues collected on day 14 refractory to oxytocin in vitro. Therefore, a second study was conducted in ovariectomized, steroid replaced ewes. Ovarian steroids were administered to mimic endogenous changes in progesterone and oestradiol. The temporal patterns of PGF2 alpha synthesis in response to oxytocin and pharmacological agents were similar to uterine tissues from cyclic ewes in the first experiment; however, the magnitude of the response was less. These data suggest that oxytocin receptors are absent or are not coupled to PLC until day 13 after oestrus.

  6. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    (HCG) before and after treatment by injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha into the site of the gestation and into the corpus luteum. There was no significant difference in the pre-treatment serum progesterone and serum PP14 concentrations of 26 women who were treated successfully and of five women, who...... were operated on after failure of the treatment. After the prostaglandin treatment the serum progesterone and PP14 concentrations decreased simultaneously with the serum HCG concentration or remained at a low, constant concentration. We conclude that measurement of serum progesterone and PP14 cannot...

  7. Extra-amniotic prostaglandin F2alpha in gel for prelabor cervical ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Parewyck, W; de Gezelle, H; van Kets, H; Derom, R; Martens, G

    1978-08-01

    In 22 normal term gravidas with unfavorable cervix, 5 mg PGF2alpha in Tylose gel was instilled into the extra-amniotic space. The treatment improved the cervical state so much that the women could be successfully induced by conventional methods. The procedure was well tolerated by the mother and it appeared to be perinatally safe.

  8. Prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in exudate in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Kassis, V

    1989-01-01

    with and one without nickel challenge. A higher flux of leukocytes, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha was observed during the second day of allergen exposure, while the concentrations probably due to dilution were unchanged or diminished, indicating an unspecific role of the prostaglandins during the contact allergic......Ten nickel-allergic patients and 5 healthy control subjects participated in a study of the kinetics of the flux and concentration of migrated leukocytes and extracellular PGE1 and PGF2 alpha during a 48 h period, using a skin chamber technique. The patients were provided with two skin chambers, one...... reaction. No correlations were found within the groups between the migration of leukocytes and the prostaglandin content....

  9. Regulation of pulsatile secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha from the ovine uterus by ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Raw, R E

    1993-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine how progesterone and oestradiol regulate pulsatile secretion of PGF2 alpha from the ovine uterus. In Expt 1, ovariectomized ewes received: (1) no treatment, (2) oestradiol, (3) progesterone, or (4) oestradiol and progesterone (n = 5 ewes per treatment group) to approximate the changes in steroids that occur during the oestrous cycle. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals for 48 h beginning at 08:00 on day 14 of steroid replacement. Blood samples were collected from five intact ewes at a comparable time of the oestrous cycle for comparison. The number and magnitude of pulses in 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) in jugular venous blood samples were used to assess uterine secretion of PGF2 alpha. Experiment 2 was conducted as Expt 1, except that the progesterone replacement protocol was modified to duplicate more closely the temporal pattern of progesterone observed in intact ewes. Results were similar in both experiments. Intact ewes averaged 4.4 +/- 0.6 pulses per 48 h blood sampling period. The frequency of pulses was less in ovariectomized ewes (P < 0.05). The number of pulses was increased by progesterone treatment (P < 0.01); the number of pulses in ovariectomized ewes receiving progesterone replacement was similar to that observed in intact ewes. There was a tendency for oestradiol to have a positive effect on the number of pulses (P = 0.12). The magnitude of pulses in intact ewes averaged 419 +/- 38 pg ml-1 and was much less in ovariectomized ewes (P < 0.05) than in intact ewes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Loss of prostaglandin F2alpha, but not thromboxane, responsiveness in pregnant human myometrium during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M

    2008-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (Plabour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (Plabour-associated disorders.

  11. Modulation of JB6 Mouse Epidermal Cell Transformation Response by the Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.; Chrisler, William B.; Vielhauer, George A.; Regan, John W.

    2002-12-01

    Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) has been associated with the modulation of clonal selection processes in the mouse skin model of carcinogenesis. We have investigated whether JB6 mouse epidermal cells express a functional PGF2a receptor (FP) coupled to the regulation of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Treatment of JB6 cells with a FP receptor ligand (fluprostenol) potently (pM-nM) increased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, as determined by a battery of in vitro assays. Treatment of JB6 cells with PGF2a and fluprostenol increased inositol phospholipid accumulation and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity, consistent with FP receptor-related signaling. FP receptor mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and a radiolabel binding assay determined the average specific [3H]PGF2a binding to be 8.25 + 0.95 fmol/mg protein. Treatment of cells with fluprostenol as a single exposure resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-dependent and -independent growth in media containing low (0.1-0.5%), but not high (5%) concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS). In contrast, treatment of cells with fluprostenol at two day intervals resulted in a more robust growth response under anchorage-dependent conditions only in media containing low FBS concentrations; and under anchorage-independent conditions only in media containing high FBS concentrations. ERK activation and colony size were increased by cotreatment of JB6 cells with EGF and fluprostenol to a greater extent than either treatment alone, while the cotreatment effect on colony number appeared to be simply additive. In summary, FBS concentration and signal oscillation exert pronounced effects on the biological response to a FP receptor agonist. The data raise the possibility that the FP receptor may independently contribute to clonal selection processes, but may play a more important role as a response modifier.

  12. [Maturation of the cervix uteri using prostaglandin F2 alpha before induction of labor in pathologic pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, B; Fayette, E; Stampf, F; Gandon, C; Gantrel, J; Barrat, J

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to induce labour in pathological pregnancies after artificial ripening of the cervix. The present study concerns 70 patients (45 primipara, 25 multipara). The main pathologies are hypertension of pregnancy and pregnancies past dates. Prostaglandin F2 alpha has been used with a Tylose gel containing 5 mg of PGF2 alpha introduced by the extra-amniotic route. The cervical change was noted using Bishop's score. The mean increase of the cervical score was 0.8 with the first PGF2 alpha gel. The total mean increase was 1.2. Two cases of hyperstimulation of the uterus were observed and they led to Caesarean section. Prostaglandin gel induced labour in 56% of the patients. The mean time between the introduction of the gel and the delivery was 14 h for primipara and 10 h for multipara. Other patients were induced with oxytocin on the following day. Epidural analgesia was widely used in this study (in 64% of cases). The mean duration of labour was 6 h 10 for primipara and 4 h 30 for multipara. 30% of the patients needed Caesarean section but there was a marked difference between primipara (36%) and multipara (4%). After a review of the literature the authors conclude that it is useful to ripen the cervix prostaglandin but, as foreign authors do, they think that PGE2 should be more efficient.

  13. Effects of progesterone withdrawal on uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, M A; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if withdrawal of progesterone during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle affected the ability of the ovine uterus to secrete prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in response to oxytocin. In Experiment 1, 18 ewes were ovariectomized on Day 9 and Day 12 after oestrus. Ewes were subdivided into three treatment groups (n = 6 per group): Group-1 ewes underwent sham surgery; Group-2 ewes received oestradiol (OVX + O); and Group-3 ewes received oestradiol + progesterone (OVX + O,P). Oxytocin was administered to each ewe on Days 10, 13 and 15 after oestrus. Concentrations of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were determined in samples of jugular venous blood for 2 h after oxytocin challenge. The magnitude of the PGFM response 24 h after ovariectomy was greater (P Day 11 and assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 6 per group): Group 1, no steroid replacement (OVX); Group 2, oestradiol replacement (OVX + O); Group 3, progesterone replacement (OVX + P); or Group 4, progesterone + oestradiol replacement (OVX + O,P). Ewes received oxytocin on Day 12 and Day 15. On Day 12, uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin was greatest in ewes in the OVX + O group (P < 0.1). Responsiveness was low in ewes in the OVX group, as it was in ewes in both groups that received progesterone replacement. Therefore, the increase in uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin following progesterone withdrawal is dependent on oestradiol replacement.

  14. The O(\\alpha_s^3 T_F^2) Contributions to the Gluonic Operator Matrix Element

    CERN Document Server

    Ablinger, J; De Freitas, A; Hasselhuhn, A; von Manteuffel, A; Round, M; Schneider, C

    2014-01-01

    The $O(\\alpha_s^3 T_F^2 C_F (C_A))$ contributions to the transition matrix element $A_{gg,Q}$ relevant for the variable flavor number scheme at 3--loop order are calculated. The corresponding graphs contain two massive fermion lines of equal mass leading to terms given by inverse binomially weighted sums beyond the usual harmonic sums. In $x$-space two root-valued letters contribute in the iterated integrals in addition to those forming the harmonic polylogarithms. We outline technical details needed in the calculation of graphs of this type, which are as well of importance in the case of two different internal massive lines.

  15. Receptors for gonadotrophin and prostaglandin F2 alpha in bovine corpora lutea of early, mid and late luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Estergreen, V L; Carman, F R; Moss, G E

    1979-07-01

    A total of 15 corpora lutea representing early (day 3), mid (day 13) and late luteal phase (day 20 and 21-24) were obtained by ovariectomy on cycling cows. The luteal weights and peripheral plasma progesterone levels just prior to ovariectomy, were consistent with the above luteal phases. The specific binding of [125I]human chorionic gonadotrophin to membranes prepared from corpora lutea was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) for days 13 and 20 than for days 3 and 21-24. The binding in day 21-24 corpora lutea was higher (P less than 0.01) than day 3. Although there was no different either in number or affinity (apparent dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.04 nM) of gonadotrophin receptors in days 13 and 20 corpora lutea, only in the former did the binding correlate well with plasma progesterone levels. The specific binding of [3H]prostaglanding (PG)F2 alpha to the membranes of the same corpora lutea showed a progressive increase (P less than 0.01) from day 3, reached the highest value at a time when corpora lutea were actively regressing (day 20) and the decline (P less than 0.01) by day 21-24. Although a considerable number of PGF2 alpha receptors existed at day 13, the affinity of these same receptors was 203 times lower (Kd = 3458 nM) than the affinity of receptors in day 20 corpora lutea (Kd = 17 nM). In summary, the above results show that gonadotrophin receptors correlate with luteotrophic, whereas PGF2 alpha receptors correlate with luteolytic phases in bovine corpora lutea.

  16. Effect of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2 alpha on osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, D.A.; Chambers, T.J. (St. George' s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) act as direct inhibitors of mature osteoclasts, but although resorption-inhibition is also observed initially PG increase bone resorption in organ culture. This suggests that PG influence bone resorption in organ culture through actions on cell types other than mature osteoclasts. We have therefore tested the effects of PG E1, E2, and F2 alpha on the differentiation of osteoclastic phenotype in mouse bone marrow cultures using bone resorption and calcitonin receptors (CTR) as markers of osteoclastic differentiation. We found that PGE2 (10{sup {minus} 6}-10{sup {minus} 9} M) and PGE1 (10{sup {minus} 6} - 10{sup {minus} 7} M) induced a significant increase in CTR-positive cell numbers, to levels five to eight times those seen in controls and similar to the number induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3). Bone resorption was increased (10{sup {minus} 7} M PGE2 and 10{sup {minus} 6} M PGE1) in association with the increased CTR-positive cell numbers, suggesting that the PG also induced resorptive function. 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased both the number of CTR-positive cells and the extent of resorption per cell; the additional presence of PG did not affect the number of CTR-positive cells but did reduce bone resorption compared with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone. PGF2 alpha had no significant effect on CTR-positive cell induction or bone resorption. The results suggest that PGE1 and E2 induce osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures and inhibit the function of the osteoclasts thus formed.

  17. Biochemical and clinical evaluation of the efficiency of intracervical extraamniotic prostaglandin F2 alpha and intravenous oxytocin infusion to induce labour at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, K; Rechberger, T; Oleszczuk, J; Jakowicki, J; Oleszczuk, J

    1994-08-01

    A prospective randomized study of 296 patients was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of 15 mg prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) suspended in tylose gel and applied intracervically for labour induction. The control group was treated with standard oxytocin intravenous infusion. Results indicated that local PGF2 alpha was superior to oxytocin therapy in shortening the duration of labour (6.3 +/- 2.3 versus 8.1 +/- 2.6 hours, p < 0.05). Only 19% of the patients treated with PGF2 alpha required oxytocin augmentation during labour. Our data suggest that PGF2 alpha treatment is associated with few maternal side-effects, few failed inductions, a low operative delivery rate and favourable neonatal outcome. To investigate the influence of PGF2 alpha for labour promotion we have measured interstitial collagenase and elastase activity in the lower uterine segment after both methods of labour induction. The total collagenase activity was 22 times higher in tissue samples obtained from patients in active spontaneous and oxytocin-induced labour, compared with women not in labour (at term) (p < 0.001). The total interstitial elastase activity was 2-fold higher in women in active labour than in patients at term (p < 0.03). A significantly higher collagenase and elastase activity was observed in uterine specimens obtained from patients treated with PGF2 alpha compared to oxytocin, and this indicates that cervical collagen may be digested more quickly in the presence of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha.

  18. Evaluation of local trace element status and 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2[alpha] concentrations in patients with Tinea pedis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Miraloglu, Meral; Ozturk, Perihan; Arican, Ozer

    2016-01-01

    .... Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostaglandin F.sub.2[alpha] (8-iso-PGF.sub.2[alpha]), concentration as oxidative stress biomarker and trace elements status have not been published in patients with TP...

  19. Activity of phospholipase C and release of prostaglandin F2 alpha by endometrial tissue from ovariectomized ewes receiving progesterone and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, R E; Silvia, W J

    1991-03-01

    Progesterone and estradiol interact to regulate secretion of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha from the ovine endometrium in response to oxytocin. Two experiments were conducted to determine if these effects were due to changes in activity of phospholipase C or in the second messenger responsive pathways that regulate production of PGF2 alpha. In both experiments, ovariectomized ewes were assigned to one of four treatment groups (control, estradiol, progesterone, progesterone and estradiol). Steroids were administered, in vivo, to mimic the changes that occur during the estrous cycle. On Day 16 of steroid treatment, endometrial tissue was collected and incubated, in vitro, to measure activity of phospholipase C and release of PGF2 alpha. Treatment with progesterone, in vivo, enhanced basal and oxytocin-induced activity of phospholipase C and release of PGF2 alpha, in vitro. Estradiol suppressed oxytocin-induced activity of phospholipase C, both in the presence and absence of progesterone. In contrast to its effects on phospholipase C, estradiol inhibited basal and oxytocin-induced release of PGF2 alpha when administered alone, but not when administered with progesterone. Steroids had similar effects on the release of PGF2 alpha induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and A23187. It was concluded that progesterone and estradiol regulate endometrial release of PGF2 alpha by affecting both the activity of phospholipase C and its associated second messenger responsive pathways that may regulate production of PGF2 alpha.

  20. Cellular mechanisms mediating the stimulation of ovine endometrial secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin: role of phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Silvia, W J

    1994-06-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether phospholipase (PL) A2 mediates the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on the release of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha from ovine endometrial tissue. Caruncular endometrial tissue was collected from ovariectomized ewes on the day after a steroid replacement protocol had been completed. The replacement protocol consisted of progesterone for 10 days (12 mg/day) followed by oestradiol on days 10 and 11 (100 micrograms/day) and had been shown previously to provide endometrial tissue that would release PGF2 alpha in response to oxytocin in vitro. In experiment 1, oxytocin (10(-7) M) and melittin (1.76 x 10(-6) M; a stimulator of PLA2) stimulated release of PGF2 alpha from tissue explants (P 80% (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Cellular mechanisms mediating the stimulation of ovine endometrial secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin: role of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Lee, J S; Trammell, D S; Hayes, S H; Lowberger, L L; Brockman, J A

    1994-06-01

    The first objective was to describe and evaluate the relationship between the ability of oxytocin to stimulate the activity of phospholipase (PL) C and its ability to stimulate the release of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha in ovine endometrial tissue. Caruncular endometrial tissue was collected from ovariectomized ewes after completion of an 11-day steroid replacement protocol. In experiment 1, explants were incubated either in the presence (10(-6) M) or absence of oxytocin for 0, 1, 3, 10, 30 or 100 min to examine the time-course for activation of PLC and release of PGF2 alpha in response to oxytocin. An increase in the activity of PLC was detected at 3 min while an increase in the release of PGF2 alpha was not detected until 10 min (P 0.1). Based on the results from these experiments, the role of PLC in mediating the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on the release of PGF2 alpha remains unclear. The second objective was to evaluate the role of diacylglycerol (DAG) in mediating the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on endometrial secretion of PGF2 alpha. In experiment 5, explants were incubated in vitro with varying doses of two DAG analogues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Miller, Kristy K.; Al-Rayyan, Numan; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Ripp, Sharon L.; Klinge, Carolyn M.; Prough, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were reported to associate with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but some carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor studies question this claim. The purpose of this study was to determine how DHEA and its metabolites affect estrogen receptors α or β (ERα or ERβ) -regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. In transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, androstenediol, DHEA, and DHEA-S activated ERα. In ERβ transfected HepG2 cells, androstenedione, DHEA, androstenediol, and 7-oxo DHEA stimulated reporter activity. ER antagonists ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, general P450 inhibitor miconazole, and aromatase inhibitor exemestane inhibited activation by DHEA or metabolites in transfected cells. ERβ-selective antagonist R,R-THC (R,R-cis-diethyl tetrahydrochrysene) inhibited DHEA and DHEA metabolite transcriptional activity in ERβ-transfected cells. Expression of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes: pS2, progesterone receptor, cathepsin D1, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 was increased by DHEA and its metabolites in an ER-subtype, gene, and cell-specific manner. DHEA metabolites, but not DHEA, competed with 17β-estradiol for ERα and ERβ binding and stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, demonstrating that DHEA metabolites interact directly with ERα and ERβ in vitro, modulating estrogen target genes in vivo. PMID:23123738

  3. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  4. Measurement of C-reactive protein and prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in differentiation of canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginler, S O; Ateş, A; Diren Sığırcı, B; Sontaş, B H; Sönmez, K; Karaçam, E; Ekici, H; Evkuran Dal, G; Gürel, A

    2014-08-01

    Canine pyometra is a dioestrus period disease in which systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common outcome due to the response of the body to the bacterial infection. The purpose of this study was i) to differentiate canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/mucometra by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM) concentrations in blood and ii) to compare serum concentrations of CRP and PGFM in bitches with a pathological uterus (pyometra or CEH/mucometra) to concentrations in bitches with a healthy uterus. Mean CRP concentrations were found significantly higher (p dogs with pyometra compared to those with CEH/mucometra or healthy uterus. However, no statistical difference could be detected between the groups for mean PGFM concentrations. Mean white blood cell count (WBC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein concentrations were found significantly higher (p dogs with pyometra. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism from dogs with pyometra (64.3%). Edwardsiella spp. was detected in a single case of pyometra for the first time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that serum CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with pyometra and thus we conclude that serum CRP concentration but not PGFM might be useful as a marker to differentiate a case of CEH/mucometra from pyometra in female dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which Edwardsiella spp. has been isolated in the canine uterus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Therapeutic interruption of pregnancy in the second trimester after preparation of the cervix with prostaglandins F2 alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, B; Stampf, F; Barrat, J

    1983-01-01

    The use of prostaglandins is one of the best techniques for second trimester abortion. The authors present 40 patients aborted by a new two stage technique: First: ripening of the cervix a tylose gel containing 5 or 10 mg PGF2 alpha every 12 hours during 3 days. Then, if abortion is not obtained, previously published techniques are used: intra-amniotic injection (40 mg PGF2 alpha) or intra-cervical infusion (2 mg/hour). The mean duration of these abortions is 52 hours using 29 mg of PGF2 alpha. 22 patients aborted during ripening (mean = 27 hours), 12 patients needed an intracervical infusion (mean = 88 hours) and 6, an intra-amniotic injection (mean = 72 hours). It seems that abortion is easier when pregnancy is earlier, under 20 weeks of gestation. Few side effects were observed: only three cases of fever with a single case of endometritis. Failure of this technique occurred in five patients (4 aborted outside the time allowed for, and one needed instrumental extraction). With this technique, the mean duration is longer than those previously described in the literature but the efficiency is over 90%.

  6. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist potencies of two hydroxylated metabolites of yohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, M.; Le Verge, R.; Galitzky, J.; Le Corre, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist capacities of two hydroxylated metabolites of yohimbine in man (10-OH-yohimbine and 11-OH-yohimbine) were investigated on the alpha 2-adrenoceptors of human platelets and adipocytes and compared to those of yohimbine. 2. Yohimbine and 11-OH-yohimbine exhibited similar alpha 2-adrenoceptor affinity in biological studies i.e. inhibition of adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation and inhibition of UK14304-induced antilipolysis in adipocytes. 3. Yohimbine and the two metabolites displaced [3H]-RX 821002 binding with equivalent affinities in platelet and adipocyte membranes with the following order of potency: yohimbine > 11-OH-yohimbine > 10-OH-yohimbine. However, when binding studies were carried out in binding buffer supplemented with 5% albumin, the apparent affinity of yohimbine was reduced about 10 fold and was similar to that of 11-OH-yohimbine. 4. Yohimbine and its metabolites were bound to different extents to plasma proteins, the bound fraction being 82%, 43% and 32% respectively for yohimbine, 11-OH-yohimbine and 10-OH-yohimbine. 5. These results show that the main hydroxylated metabolite of yohimbine in man (11-OH-yohimbine) possesses alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist properties. The discrepancies found in binding studies (i.e. 10 fold lower affinity of 11-OH-yohimbine than yohimbine for alpha 2-adrenoceptors but similar capacities in blocking biological alpha 2-adrenoceptor effects in cells) are attributable to the higher degree of binding of yohimbine to plasma protein. PMID:8097957

  7. Changes in growth and lipid profiles of silk gland, mid-gut biochemical composition of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. on exposure to prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yun-gen; Jiang, Li-jun

    2003-01-01

    The growth of the silkworm is influenced by the outside and inside environment. Among them, the category of various endocrine hormone of inside is the main factors that adjust the characters such as growth and propagate. In this experiment, we applied different dosage of prostaglandin to the fourth and fifth instar silkworm to observe the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on silk gland growth, mid-gut biochemical constituents and the lipid profiles of silkworm larva, Bombyx mori L. The weight of the posterior silk gland increased significantly (P lipid profiles except lipase activity suggests that the silk gland had more synthetic activity that might reflect in active spinning of silkworm larva. The changes of total proteins, free amino acids and alkaline phosphatase in mid-gut of control and PGF2alpha treated silkworm, B. mori L. indicate that PGF2alpha favored stimulatory effect on physiology of digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrients which might influence on the growth and development of larva.

  8. Effects of progesterone and estradiol-17 beta on uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin in ovariectomized ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homanics, G E; Silvia, W J

    1988-05-01

    Twenty ovariectomized ewes were used in an experiment designed to examine the interaction of progesterone, estradiol, and oxytocin in the regulation of uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). All ewes underwent a steroid pretreatment that mimicked the changes in progesterone and estradiol which occur during the six days immediately prior to estrus. After pretreatment, ewes were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1) control (n = 4); 2) estradiol-17 beta (n = 6); 3) progesterone (n = 4); and 4) progesterone and estradiol-17 beta (n = 6). Progesterone was injected twice daily for 15 days. The dose of progesterone varied with day postestrus in a manner designed to simulate endogenous luteal secretion of progesterone. Estradiol-17 beta was administered in s.c. Silastic implants. The implants maintained circulating concentrations of estradiol at 3 pg/ml. On Days 5, 10, and 15 of treatment, ewes were injected with oxytocin (10 IU in 1.0 ml saline, i.v.). Jugular venous blood samples were collected beginning one-half hour prior to and continuing for 2 hours post-oxytocin injection for quantification of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM). No changes in concentration of PGFM following injection of oxytocin were observed on Day 5 or 10 in any treatment group. Concentrations of PGFM increased following injection of oxytocin on Day 15 only in groups receiving progesterone. Both the area under the PGFM response curve (p = 0.08) and peak response (p = 0.06) were greater in ewes treated with progesterone and estradiol-17 beta than in those receiving progesterone alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Miller, Kristy K.; AL-RAYYAN, NUMAN; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Ripp, Sharon L.; Klinge, Carolyn M; Prough, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were reported to associate with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but some carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor studies question this claim. The purpose of this study was to determine how DHEA and its metabolites affect estrogen receptors α or β (ERα or ERβ) -regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. In transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, androstenediol, DHEA, and DHEA-S activated ERα. In ERβ transfected HepG2 cells, andro...

  10. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-08-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and (D-Ala6,Des-Gly10)GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or (3H)inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism.

  11. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P D; Mendes, J O; Yemm, R S; Clay, C M; Nelson, S E; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    2001-10-01

    Oxytocin stimulates a rapid increase in ovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis. The overall objective of these experiments was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin induces endometrial PGF2alpha synthesis. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether G(i) proteins mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i) proteins, had no effect on the ability of oxytocin to induce PGF2alpha synthesis (P > 0.10). The objective of experiment 2 was to determine whether any of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), or p38 MAPK, mediate oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) synthesis. Eleven ovary-intact ewes were given an injection of oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.; n = 5) or physiological saline (i.v.; n = 6) on Day 15 postestrus. Uteri were collected 15 min after injection and caruncular endometrium was dissected. Endometrial homogenates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting. Membranes were probed for both total and phosphorylated forms of all three classes of MAPK. All classes of MAPK were detected in ovine endometrium, but oxytocin treatment had no effect on the expression of these proteins (P > 0.10). ERK1/2 was the only phosphorylated MAPK detected and its concentrations were higher in oxytocin-treated ewes (P Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activity, blocked the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PGF(2alpha synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the ovine oxytocin receptor is not coupled to G(i) proteins. These results indicate that oxytocin induces phosphorylation of ERK1

  12. An efficient protocol for inducing pseudopregnancy using estradiol dipropionate and follicular development associated with changes in reproductive hormones after prostaglandin F2alpha treatment in pseudopregnant sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Michiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of estrus synchronization program in livestock industry would provide greater options for reproductive management in herd. To develop a convenient method for estrus synchronization in pigs, we determined the effective protocol using estradiol dipropionate (EDP for the establishment of pseudopregnancy and investigated follicular development during the estrus synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha in association with reproductive hormone profiles in pseudopregnant sows. Methods In Experiment 1, the effective dose (0, 10, 20, or 30 mg and timing (5, 8, 11 or 13 days after ovulation of a single administration of EDP in cyclic pigs for the induction of pseudopregnancy were investigated. In Experiment 2, four pseudopregnant sows were treated with PGF2alpha twice at a 24-h interval between 24 and 28 days after EDP treatment. The changes in plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones were analyzed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Follicular development and ovulation following PGF2alpha administration were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. Results High efficiency (greater than 80% of pseudopregnancy was achieved with a single treatment with 20 mg of EDP at 8 and 11 days after ovulation (equivalent to 9-13 days after the onset of estrus. Plasma estradiol-17beta concentrations in pseudopregnant sows were significantly higher between 12 h and 7 days than before EDP treatment. Total inhibin concentrations significantly decreased following EDP treatment and remained low for 14 days. The number of small follicles was increased from 6.3 +/- 2.6 at PGF2alpha treatment to 22.8 +/- 4.8 at 3 days later; this was associated with increased plasma concentrations of inhibin. Onset of estrus was detectable in all sows on 5.3 +/- 0.3 days after PGF2alpha treatment and the number of ovulated follicles was 15.5 +/- 1.4 detected at 7.6 +/- 0.2 days after the treatment. Conclusions This study has defined the

  13. Concentrations of oxytocin in the intercavernous sinus of mares during luteolysis: temporal relationship with concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwall, D K; Silvia, W J; Fitzgerald, B P

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive tracts of nine thoroughbred mares were examined by ultrasound to determine the day of ovulation (day 0). Mares were fitted with intercavernous sinus cannulae on the day before the start of sample collection of pituitary venous effluent rich in oxytocin. Intercavernous sinus blood samples were collected for at least 36 h at 5 min intervals beginning at noon on day 13 (n = 2), day 15 (n = 5) or day 16 (n = 2) after ovulation. Concentrations of oxytocin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. Three high-magnitude surges of PGFM (> 1 ng ml-1) were found in these samples. Three high magnitude pulses of oxytocin (> 200 pg ml-1) were also observed, one associated with each of the PGFM surges. In each of these cases, the oxytocin pulse appeared to follow or coincide with the onset of the PGFM surge. Lower magnitude pulses of both hormones were detected throughout the bleeding period in every mare. The average interval between these pulses was 122.3 min for oxytocin and 121.0 min for PGFM. The interval between pulses for individual mares varied from 90 to 199 min for oxytocin, and from 87 to 213 min for PGFM. However, there was no correlation between PGFM and oxytocin pulse intervals among mares. Within each mare, there was no discernable association between low magnitude pulses of oxytocin and PGFM. From these data, it was concluded that high-magnitude surges of PGF2 alpha are associated with similar surges of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland, and that PGF2 alpha may induce their secretion. The posterior pituitary gland also appears to secrete oxytocin in a pulsatile manner at a frequency of approximately 1 pulse every 2 h but these pulses do not appear to be associated with the low magnitude pulses of PGF2 alpha secreted from the uterus.

  14. Uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin in ewes: changes during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Raw, R E; Aldrich, S L; Hayes, S H

    1992-06-01

    Experiment 1 was conducted to determine when the ovine uterus develops the ability to secrete prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in response to oxytocin and how development is affected by pregnancy. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes received an injection of oxytocin (10 IU, i.v.) on Day 10, 13, or 16 postestrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected for 2 h after injection for quantification of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM). In nonpregnant ewes, concentrations of PGFM increased following oxytocin on Day 16 but not on Day 10 or 13. Concentrations of PGFM did not increase following treatment on Day 10, 13, or 16 in pregnant ewes. Therefore, the ability of oxytocin to induce uterine secretion of PGF2 alpha develops after Day 13 in nonpregnant but not in pregnant ewes. Experiment 2 was conducted to precisely define when uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin develops. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes received oxytocin on Day 12, 13, 14, or 15. In nonpregnant ewes, concentrations of PGFM increased following treatment on Days 14 and 15, but not earlier. Peripheral concentrations of progesterone showed that uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin developed prior to the onset of luteal regression. As in experiment 1, the increase in concentrations of PGFM following administration of oxytocin was much lower in pregnant than in nonpregnant ewes; however, some pregnant ewes did respond to oxytocin with an increase in PGFM. In experiment 3, pregnant ewes received an injection of oxytocin on Day 18, 24, or 30 postmating. Concentrations of PGFM increased following oxytocin on Days 18 and 24. The conceptus appears to delay and attenuate the development of uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin.

  15. Ozone-induced increases in substance P and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha in the airways of human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazbun, M.E.; Hamilton, R.; Holian, A.; Eschenbacher, W.L. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms of ozone-induced lung effects after short-term exposure and the relationship with subsequent pulmonary inflammation and disease. Our hypothesis is that ozone, as a powerful oxidant, will diminish the activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the airways of humans with resulting increased concentrations of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP). We have exposed seven (two women, five men) healthy, nonsmoking individuals (22 to 30 yr of age) to filtered air and ozone (0.25 ppm) for 1 h in an environmental chamber during heavy exercise. Bronchoscopy with airway lavage (AL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed immediately after ozone exposure. The lavage samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for SP and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) (a marker for oxidative free radical reaction) and by radioimmunoassay for complement fragments. FEV1 had declined 12.4 +/- 1.9% (mean +/- SEM) as a result of ozone exposure. The AL concentration for SP and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha and BAL concentration of C3a after ozone exposure were significantly higher than after the filtered air exposure (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between SP and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha concentrations in the AL fluid (r2 = 0.89 and P < 0.05). There were no changes in C5a in either compartment or any of the mediators in the plasma samples. These results extend previous results from animal studies suggesting that ozone's mechanism of action is through an oxidative reaction resulting in a decreased activity of NEP in the airways with a subsequent increase in the concentration and activity of SP.

  16. Maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the ewe. IV. Changes in luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha throughout early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Niswender, G D

    1986-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the temporal aspects of luteal resistance to the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha during early pregnancy. In Exp. 1, 14 pregnant and 12 nonpregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha either on d 10 or 13 post-estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -30 min, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection for quantification of progesterone. The difference (delta P) between pre-treatment and post-treatment concentrations of progesterone was calculated for each ewe. There was a significant interaction between pregnancy status and day of treatment on delta P (P less than .05). Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes treated on d 10 showed a large delta P. A large delta P also was observed in nonpregnant ewes treated on d 13 post-estrus. However, delta P in pregnant ewes treated on d 13 was smaller than in the other three groups (P less than .05). The temporal patterns of concentrations of progesterone in serum were different among treatment groups (P less than .05). A suppression in the concentration of progesterone was observed by 24 h post-injection in all four treatment groups. Progesterone returned to pre-treatment levels only in pregnant ewes treated on d 13. In Exp. 2, 47 pregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha on d 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26 or 30 postestrus. Blood samples were collected and data were analyzed as described for Exp. 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. 5Alpha-Reduced Steroids Are Major Metabolites in the Early Equine Embryo Proper and Its Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeside, James I; Christie, Heather L; Betteridge, Keith J

    2015-09-01

    Steroid production and metabolism by early conceptuses are very important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in horses. Our earlier work suggested the possible formation of 5alpha-reduced steroids in equine conceptuses. We have now demonstrated the formation of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone by the embryo and its membranes. A total of 44 conceptuses were collected from 26 mares between 20 and 31 days of pregnancy. Tissues from the embryo proper and from the separated components of the conceptus (bilaminar and trilaminar trophoblast, allantois) were incubated with tritium-labeled substrates. 5Alpha-reduced metabolites (5alpha-dihydro- and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydro- steroids) as radiolabeled products were identified from a series of chromatographic steps using four solvent systems for high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor confirmed the metabolites were indeed 5alpha-reduced steroids. For the embryo, the only products from androstenedione were 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione, with no evidence of more polar metabolites; there was some 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydrotestosterone but no 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and formation of androstenedione was followed by the production of 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione. The major 5alpha-reduced product from progesterone was 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone, with lesser amounts of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone. For the membranes, reductions to tetrahydro, 5alpha-reduced steroids were prominent in most instances, but also present were considerable amounts of products more polar than the substrates. The well-recognized activity of some 5alpha-reduced steroids--for example, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in male sexual differentiation--provokes interest in their even earlier appearance, as seen in this study, and suggests a possible role for them in

  18. $O(\\alpha_s^3 T_F^2 N_F)$ Contributions to the Heavy Flavor Wilson Coefficients of the Structure Function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ at $Q^2 \\gg m^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Wissbrock, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    The massive 3-loop fermion-loop corrections $\\propto C_A N_f T_F^2$ and $C_F N_f T_F^2$ to the massive operator matrix elements $A_{Qg}$, $A_{Qq}^{\\rm{PS}}$, $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{PS}}$, $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{NS}}$ and $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{NS,TR}} have been obtained for general values of $N$. Thereby the corresponding contributions to the asymptotic heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and of transversity in the region $Q^2 \\geq 10 \\cdot m^2$ are known. Our method is based on direct integration, avoiding the integration-by-parts technique, which is advantageous due to the compactness of the intermediate and final results. We also obtain the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions and confirm results in the literature.

  19. Effects of progesterone and estradiol on uterine secretion of prostaglandin f(2alpha)in response to oxytocin in ovariectomized sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, L A; Kaminski, M A; Silvia, W J

    2000-02-01

    Thirty ovariectomized sows were used in an experiment designed to determine whether the ability of the porcine uterus to release prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) in response to oxytocin is regulated by progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)). Sows were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) no steroids (ovariectomized controls; n = 8), 2) E(2) (n = 8), 3) P(4) (n = 7), or 4) E(2) + P(4) (n = 7). P(4) and E(2) were administered so as to mimic the normal temporal changes that occur in these hormones during the estrous cycle. A group of intact sows (n = 9) was included for comparison. All sows received an injection of oxytocin (30 IU, i.v.) on Days 12, 15, and 18 postestrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from 60 min before through 120 min after injection of oxytocin for quantification of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). Preinjection baseline concentrations of PGFM, the magnitude of the PGFM response above baseline, and area under the PGFM response curve (AUC) were calculated for each sow on each day and compared among treatment groups by ANOVA. Among the ovariectomized sows receiving steroid replacement, baseline concentrations of PGFM were low on Day 12 postestrus in all four groups. On Days 15 and 18, baseline concentrations remained low in the two groups that did not receive P(4) but increased in those that did. Both the magnitude of the response to oxytocin and AUC were small on Day 12 postestrus in all 4 groups. By Day 15, the magnitude of the response and AUC increased in the group that received both P(4) and E(2) but remained low in the other three groups. By Day 18, responses to oxytocin were greater in both groups that received P(4) than in those that did not. Baseline concentrations were similar in intact sows and in those that received both P(4) and E(2) on all three days examined. The magnitude of the response and the AUC were greater in the ovariectomized sows receiving P(4) and E(2) replacement than in the intact control sows on

  20. Concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the utero-ovarian venous plasma of nonpregnant and early pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Ottobre, J S; Inskeep, E K

    1984-05-01

    The effect of pregnancy on concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGE2, PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha) in utero-ovarian venous plasma was examined in ewes on Days 10 through 14 after estrus, an interval which includes the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy. The utero-ovarian vein ipsilateral to a corpus luteum was catheterized on Day 9 or 10 in 6 pregnant and 8 nonpregnant ewes. Five blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h beginning at 0500 and 1700 h daily. Sampling began at 0500 h on the day after catheterization. The mean and variance within each 2-h collection period were calculated for each ewe. The natural logarithm of the variance in each collection period (ln variance) was used as an estimate of the fluctuations in secretory activity by the endometrial-conceptus complex. Patterns of the mean concentrations of PGE2 were different between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes (P less than 0.01); PGE2 being higher in the pregnant ewes beginning on Day 13. There was a trend for the patterns of ln variance in PGE2 to differ (P less than 0.1) with pregnancy status over the entire period; ln variance was greater in pregnant ewes beginning on Day 13. The patterns of the mean concentrations and ln variances for PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. There were significant increases in both of these prostaglandins over time, independent of pregnancy status (P less than 0.01). The association of higher concentrations of PGE2 in utero-ovarian venous plasma with early pregnancy is consistent with the hypothesis that PGE2, originating from the uterus and/or conceptus, is one factor involved in maintenance of the corpus luteum of pregnancy.

  1. Predictive values of H.I.F.-1 alpha, H.I.F.-2 alpha and C.A. 9 expressions by prostate adenocarcinomas treated by exclusive irradiation. Ancillary study of the G.E.T.U.G. 06 protocol; Valeurs predictives des expressions de HIF-1 alpha, HIF-2 alpha et CA 9 par les adenocarcinomes de la prostate traites par irradiation exclusive. Etude ancillaire du protocole GETUG 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.M.; Mazeron, J.J. [Groupe Hospitalier de la Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Comperat, E. [Groupe Hospitalier de la Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Lab. d' Anatomie Pathologique, 75 - Paris (France); Beckendorf, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bey, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Jaillon, P. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, APHP, Service de Pharmacologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-11-15

    The adenocarcinomas of the prostate are potentially hypoxic tumors. The strong expression of markers of hypoxia H.I.F.-2 alpha and C.A. 9 are independent predictor factors of biochemical relapse after exclusive radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  2. Changes in uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy, and estrogen-induced pseudopregnancy in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, L A; Kaminski, M A; Silvia, W J

    1996-09-01

    Thirty-one sows were used in an experiment designed to determine whether the ability of the porcine uterus to release prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha in response to oxytocin was suppressed in pregnancy and pseudopregnancy. Sows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: nonbred (nonpregnant) controls (n = 8), pseudopregnant (5 mg estradiol benzoate, i.m., daily on Days 11-15 postestrus; n = 8), or bred (bred once daily throughout the estrous period; n = 15). Jugular venous blood samples were collected daily for quantification of progesterone. Pregnancy was determined by uterine examination at slaughter 51-72 days postmating. On the basis of progesterone and embryo recovery, bred sows were classified into three subgroups: confirmed pregnant (n = 4), suspected pregnant based on delayed luteal regression (n = 5), or bred/not pregnant (n = 6). All sows received an injection of oxytocin (30 IU, i.v.) on Days 12, 15, and 18 postestrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from 60 min prior to through 120 min after injection of oxytocin for quantification of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM). Magnitude of response above baseline and area under the PGFM response curve (AUC) were calculated for each sow on each day and compared among treatment groups by analysis of variance. Responses in pregnant and suspected-pregnant sows were not different on any day examined; therefore the two groups were combined (n = 9) and considered pregnant for all subsequent analyses. Responses in the nonpregnant and bred/not pregnant sows were pooled and compared to the responses in the pregnant and pseudopregnant sows. Magnitudes of response were similar between these pooled groups on Day 12 (p > 0.5), but were less in pregnant and pseudopregnant sows on Days 15 and 18 (p Days 12, 15, and 18 (p > 0.3 on each day). In contrast, when pregnant and pseudopregnant sows were compared, pseudopregnant sows had a lower magnitude of response that was consistent across all 3 days (p < 0

  3. Effect of Mailuoning injection on 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha and superoxide dismutase in rabbits with extremity ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Jun; Tian, Hua

    2014-12-01

    To date, there are no effective treatments for extremity ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The objective of the present study was to explore the protective effect of Mailuoning on IR injury by investigating the plasma levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF2α) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rabbits. The experimental models of posterior limb IR injury were established in thirty rabbits that were divided into three groups: the sham, IR, and IR + Mailuoning groups. At the end of ischemia, Mailuoning was injected intravenously into the rabbits in the IR + Mailuoning group, and normal saline solution was administered to the rabbits in the sham and IR groups. Venous blood samples were collected to measure the levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and the activity of SOD in the plasma at the following time points: at the onset of ischemia, the end of ischemia, and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after reperfusion. The skeletal muscles were harvested to examine the ultrastructure. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α increased significantly and SOD activity decreased in the IR group at every time point after reperfusion (P iso-PGF2α and SOD activity were not significantly different after reperfusion in the IR + Mailuoning group (P >0.05) but were significantly different compared with the IR group (P iso-PGF2α and protecting SOD activity, thereby exhibiting a protective effect on extremity IR injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (1–24, tetracosactid and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts (n = 3 and castrated boars (n = 3. The experiments were designed as crossover studies for each gender separately. Each animal received, during three consecutive days; 1 ACTH (Synacthen® Depot at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline, 2 porcine CRH at a dose 0.6 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline or 3 physiological saline (5 ml. The test substances were administered via an indwelling jugular cannula in randomized order according to a Latin square. The administration of ACTH to cycling gilts resulted in concomitant elevations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 70.0 ± 10.0 and 33.3 ± 6.7 min, respectively. Similarly, the administration of ACTH to castrated boars resulted in concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 60.0 ± 0.0 and 20.0 ± 0.0 min, respectively. Cortisol peaked at 20 min after administration of CRH in both cycling gilts and castrated boars with maximum levels of 149.3 ± 16.5 nmol/1 and 138.3 ± 10.1 nmol/1, respectively. It can be concluded that administration of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactid to pigs caused a concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite levels in both cycling gilts as well as castrated boars. The administration of CRH to pigs resulted in an elevation of cortisol levels in both cycling gilts and castrated boars. Conversely, PGF2α metabolite levels were not influenced by the administration of CRH either in cycling gilts or in castrated boars.

  5. Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl H

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (1–24, tetracosactid and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts (n = 3 and castrated boars (n = 3. The experiments were designed as crossover studies for each gender separately. Each animal received, during three consecutive days; 1 ACTH (Synacthen® Depot at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline, 2 porcine CRH at a dose 0.6 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline or 3 physiological saline (5 ml. The test substances were administered via an indwelling jugular cannula in randomized order according to a Latin square. The administration of ACTH to cycling gilts resulted in concomitant elevations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 70.0 ± 10.0 and 33.3 ± 6.7 min, respectively. Similarly, the administration of ACTH to castrated boars resulted in concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 60.0 ± 0.0 and 20.0 ± 0.0 min, respectively. Cortisol peaked at 20 min after administration of CRH in both cycling gilts and castrated boars with maximum levels of 149.3 ± 16.5 nmol/1 and 138.3 ± 10.1 nmol/1, respectively. It can be concluded that administration of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactid to pigs caused a concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite levels in both cycling gilts as well as castrated boars. The administration of CRH to pigs resulted in an elevation of cortisol levels in both cycling gilts and castrated boars. Conversely, PGF2α metabolite levels were not influenced by the administration of CRH either in cycling gilts or in castrated boars.

  6. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-16

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M.

  7. Ligand Binding Affinities of Arctigenin and Its Demethylated Metabolites to Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (−-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (−-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL by Eubacterium (E. sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (−-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (−-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC50 value of (2R,3R-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10−4 M.

  8. Effects of pentoxifylline,platelet activating factor and prostaglandin F 2-alpha on Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible that Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) post-thawed sperm fertilization is improved with pentoxifylline (PF),platelet activated factor (PAF) and prostaglandin F 2-alpha (PGF2α)? In our study Giant Panda post-thawed sperm was incubated in Ham's F-10 medium with different concentration of PF,PAF and PGF2α,under 37℃.The effects of PF,PAF and PGF2α,on Giant Panda post-thawed sperm fertility were evaluated through sperm motility,survival time,sperm membrane integrity,acrosome state and heterospecific egg penetration.The results were that PF,PAF and PGF2α all can affect Giant Panda post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability.In the experiment:1 mg·Ml-1 PF was most suitable for improving Giant Panda post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability.In the 1 mg·Ml-1 PF group,sperm survival time was (15.33±4.73) h,the heterospecific egg penetration was 51.44% after incubating for 4 hours,the heterospecific egg penetration was 7.49% after incubating for 6 hours.The results of the 1 mg·Ml-1 PF group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01).The results were also higher than those of the other treatment groups;Treated Giant Panda post-thawed sperm with 50 ng·Ml-1 PAF had a better effect than 100 ng·Ml-1 PAF,but the sperm fertilizing capability was damaged when incubation time exceeded 2 hours;50 ng·Ml-1PGF2α,had no significant effect on Giant Panda postthawed sperm,but when the PGFzα treated concentration was increased,sperm in vitro fertilizing capability decreased because of the damaged motility and declined acrosomal reaction rate.The conclusions suggest that it is possible to improve post-thawed Giant Panda sperm fertility with 1 mg·Ml-1 PF.

  9. Increased sensitivity of estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing antral follicles to methoxychlor and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, and its metabolites, mono-hydroxy MXC (MOH) and bis-hydroxy MXC (HPTE) are known ovarian toxicants and can cause inhibition of antral follicle growth. Since these chemicals bind to estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), we hypothesized that ovaries overexpressing ESR1 (ESR1 OE) would be more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites because the chemicals can bind to more ESR1 in the antral follicles. We cultured antral follicles from controls and ESR1 OE mouse ovaries with either the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), MXC, MOH, or HPTE. The data show that at 96 h, the cultured antral follicles from ESR1 OE antral follicles are more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC, MOH, and HPTE because low doses of these chemicals cause follicle growth inhibition in ESR1 OE mice but not in control mice. On comparing gene expression levels of nuclear receptors in the cultured antral follicles of ESR1 OE and control follicles, we found differential messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Esr1, estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), androgen receptor (Ar), progesterone receptor (Pr), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) between the genotypes. We also analyzed mRNA levels of Cyp3a41a, the enzyme metabolizing MOH and HPTE, in the cultured follicles and found that Cyp3a41a was significantly lower in DMSO-treated ESR1 OE follicles compared with controls. In ESR1 OE livers, we found that Cyp3a41a levels were significantly lower compared with control livers. Collectively, these data suggest that MXC and its metabolites cause differential gene expression in ESR1 OE mice compared with controls. The results also suggest that the increased sensitivity of ESR1 OE mouse ovaries to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites is due to low clearance of the metabolites by the liver and ovary.

  10. Acetylsalicylic acid regulates MMP-2 activity and inhibits colorectal invasion of murine B16F0 melanoma cells in C57BL/6J mice: effects of prostaglandin F(2)alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Shaw Stella; Luo, Shue-Fen; Ning, Chung-Chu; Lin, Chien-Liang; Jiang, Ming-Chung; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that acetylsalicylic acid may reduce the risk of mortality due to colon cancers. Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in tumor invasion regulation, and prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) is a key stimulator of MMP production. Thus, we investigated whether acetylsalicylic acid regulated MMP activity and the invasion of cancer cells and whether PGF(2)alpha attenuated acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of cancer cells. Gelatin-based zymography assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the MMP-2 activity of B16F0 melanoma cells. Matrigel-based chemoinvasion assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the invasion of B16F0 cells. Acetylsalicylic acid can inhibit PGF(2)alpha synthesis and PGF(2)alpha is a key stimulator of MMP-2 production. Our data showed that PGF(2)alpha treatment attenuated the acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of B16F0 cells. In animal experiments, acetylsalicylic acid reduced colorectal metastasis of B16F0 cells in C57BL/6J mice by 44%. Our results suggest that PGF(2)alpha is a therapeutic target for metastasis inhibition and acetylsalicylic acid may possess anti-metastasis ability.

  11. Extended ischemia prevents HIF1alpha degradation at reoxygenation by impairing prolyl-hydroxylation: role of Krebs cycle metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pérez, Anna; Planas, Anna M; Núñez-O'Mara, Analía; Berra, Edurne; García-Villoria, Judit; Ribes, Antònia; Santalucía, Tomàs

    2010-06-11

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that activates the cellular response to hypoxia. The HIF1alpha subunit is constantly synthesized and degraded under normoxia, but degradation is rapidly inhibited when oxygen levels drop. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation by prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHD) mediates HIF1alpha proteasome degradation. Brain ischemia limits the availability not only of oxygen but also of glucose. We hypothesized that this circumstance could have a modulating effect on HIF. We assessed the separate involvement of oxygen and glucose in HIF1alpha regulation in differentiated neuroblastoma cells subjected to ischemia. We report higher transcriptional activity and HIF1alpha expression under oxygen deprivation in the presence of glucose (OD), than in its absence (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD). Unexpectedly, HIF1alpha was not degraded at reoxygenation after an episode of OGD. This was not due to impairment of proteasome function, but was associated with lower HIF1alpha hydroxylation. Krebs cycle metabolites fumarate and succinate are known inhibitors of PHD, while alpha-ketoglutarate is a co-substrate of the reaction. Lack of HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen was accompanied by a very low alpha-ketoglutarate/fumarate ratio. Furthermore, treatment with a fumarate analogue prevented HIF1alpha degradation under normoxia. In all, our data suggest that postischemic metabolic alterations in Krebs cycle metabolites impair HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen by decreasing its hydroxylation, and highlight the involvement of metabolic pathways in HIF1alpha regulation besides the well known effects of oxygen.

  12. The relationship between the production and the anti-gonadotrophic action of prostaglandin F 2 alpha in luteal cells from the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) in the early and mid-luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, G E; Michael, A E; Abayasekara, D R E

    2010-04-01

    To address the potential luteolytic role for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) in the corpus luteum of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), the ability of marmoset luteal cells, maintained in monolayer culture, to produce PGF(2 alpha) was determined in vitro in the presence and absence of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and other established pharmacological modulators of PGF(2 alpha) synthesis. We also assessed the effects of the PGF(2 alpha) analogue, cloprostenol, on progesterone output from luteal cells isolated in the early luteal phase versus the mid-luteal phase (days 3 and 14 post ovulation, respectively). Cloprostenol had no effect on progesterone output from luteal cells isolated on day 3 of the luteal phase, whereas it significantly inhibited both basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone synthesis by day 14 luteal cells during the culture period 48-72 h (Pmarmoset monkey appears to involve changes in both the luteal cell response to and production of PGF(2 alpha).

  13. Involvement of prostaglandin F2alpha in the adverse effect of PCB 77 on the force of contractions of bovine myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michal H; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-08-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) stimulate in vitro both the force of myometrial contractions and endometrial secretion of PGF2alpha in cattle. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the participation of PGF2alpha in the effect of PCBs on uterine contractility. For this aim, the myometrial strips were incubated (48h) with PCB 77 at the dose of 1, 10 and 100ng/ml (i.e., 0.0034, 0.034 and 0.34nmol/ml) separately or jointly with indomethacin (INDO, 10(-4)M), which blocks the PGF2alpha synthesis. Next, the force of myometrial strips contractions was measured. Further, the influence of PCB 77 (0.1, 1 and 10ng/ml) on the PGF2alpha secretion from myometrial cells after 6, 24, and 48h and PCB 77 (1 and 10ng/ml) on the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and PGF2alpha synthase (PGFS) in myometrial cells after 6 and 24h, was investigated. The increase (P<0.05-0.001) of the contractions force of myometrial strips evoked by each dose of PCB 77, was markedly reduced (P<0.05-001) by INDO. There was an increase (P<0.05-0.001) of both PGF2alpha secretion after all studied periods of cell incubation and mRNA expression for COX-2 and PGFS after 6h treatment of myometrial cells with PCB 77. It can be concluded that myometrial synthesis of PGF2alpha and its further secretion is a part of the mechanism by means of which PCB 77 may affect the force of myometrial contractions in cattle.

  14. Effect of sodium loading on the urinary excretion of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathaus, M; Kariv, N; Shapira, J; Bernheim, J

    1985-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and changes in sodium balance influence renal prostaglandins (PGs). To separate these two mechanisms, the effect of sodium loading on the urinary excretion of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was studied in female Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus (DIHO) and compared with that in female, age matched, heterozygous Long Evans controls (LEHE). Ten DIHO and ten LEHE rats had a normal sodium intake. In ten DIHO rats a 0.16% NaCl solution was supplied instead of drinking water for either 8 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5). In two groups of LEHE rats, sodium loading was obtained with a 0.80% NaCl solution for the same study periods. Urine PGs were measured by radioimmunoassay in three 24 h urine collections for each rat. Urine PGs were significantly increased in the 8 day loaded but not in the 14 day loaded LEHE rats. In DIHO rats, a non-significant increase in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was present after 8 days of sodium loading, while PGE2 and the E/F ratio were decreased after 14 days of salt loading. The findings suggest that the natriuresis induced by sodium loading in the rat may be mediated in part by increased production of PGs. In addition, it seems that ADH plays a role in this response.

  15. Effects of two metabolites of ochratoxin A, (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha, on immune response in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Creppy, E. E.; Størmer, F C; Röschenthaler, R; Dirheimer, G

    1983-01-01

    The metabolites of ochratoxin A, (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha, were investigated for immunosuppressive properties in BALB/c mice. The standard plaque-counting technique for the estimation of antibody-producing spleen lymphocytes was used. (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A was found to be an immunosuppressor almost as highly effective as ochratoxin A. Doses of 1 microgram of (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A per kg administered to mice caused an 80% reduction in the number of cells produc...

  16. Estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing mouse antral follicles are sensitive to atresia induced by methoxychlor and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Hannon, Patrick R; Peretz, Jackye; Craig, Zelieann R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-06-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites bind to estrogen receptors (ESRs) and increase ovarian atresia. To test whether ESR alpha (ESR1) overexpressing (ESR1 OE) antral follicles are more sensitive to atresia compared to controls, we cultured antral follicles with vehicle, MXC (1-100 μg/ml) or metabolites (0.1-10 μg/ml). Results indicate that MXC and its metabolites significantly increase atresia in ESR1 OE antral follicles at lower doses compared to controls. Activity of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3/7 was significantly higher in ESR1 OE treated antral follicles compared to controls. ESR1 OE mice dosed with MXC 64 mg/kg/day had an increased percentage of atretic antral follicles compared to controls. Furthermore, pro-caspase-3 levels were found to be significantly lower in ESR1 OE ovaries than controls dosed with MXC 64 mg/kg/day. These data suggest that ESR1 OE ovaries are more sensitive to atresia induced by MXC and its metabolites in vitro and in vivo compared to controls.

  17. Cyclic Co des over F2+uF2+v F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-sheng; LIU Hua-lu

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of cyclic codes of an arbitrary length n over the ring F2+uF2+vF2, which is not a finite chain ring. We prove that the Gray image of a cyclic code length n over F2+uF2+vF2 is a 3-quasi-cyclic code length 3n over F2.

  18. Comparative neurochemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine on key targets of MDMA neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escubedo, E; Abad, S; Torres, I; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D

    2011-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of MDMA or "Ecstasy" in rats is selectively serotonergic, while in mice it is both dopaminergic and serotonergic. MDMA metabolism may play a key role in this neurotoxicity. The function of serotonin and dopamine transporter and the effect of MDMA and its metabolites on them are essential to understand MDMA neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of MDMA and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine (MeDA) on several molecular targets, mainly the dopamine and serotonin transporter functionality, to provide evidence for the role of this metabolite in the neurotoxicity of MDMA in rodents. MeDA had no affinity for the serotonin transporter but competed with serotonin for its uptake. It had no persistent effects on the functionalism of the serotonin transporter, in contrast to the effect of MDMA. Moreover, MeDA inhibited the uptake of dopamine into the serotonergic terminal and also MAO(B) activity. MeDA inhibited dopamine uptake with a lower IC(50) value than MDMA. After drug washout, the inhibition by MeDA persisted while that of MDMA was significantly reduced. The effect of MDMA on the dopamine transporter is related with dopamine release from vesicular stores, as this inhibition disappeared in reserpine-treated animals. However, the effect of MeDA seems to be a persistent conformational change of this transporter. Moreover, in contrast with MDMA, MeDA did not show affinity for nicotinic receptors, so no effects of MeDA derived from these interactions can be expected. The metabolite reduced cell viability at lower concentrations than MDMA. Apoptosis plays a key role in MDMA induced cellular toxicity but necrosis is the major process involved in MeDA cytotoxicity. We conclude that MeDA could protect against the serotonergic lesion induced by MDMA but potentiate the dopaminergic lesion as a result of the persistent blockade of the dopamine transporter induced this metabolite.

  19. Cervical ripening with intracervical prostaglandin-E2 gel. I. Clinical results and effect on plasma levels of oxytocin and 13,14-dihydro,15-ketoprostaglandin-F2 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A R; Goeschen, K; Rasmussen, A B; Rehnström, J V; Saling, E; Fuchs, F

    1983-10-01

    Tylose gel containing 400 micrograms prostaglandin E2 in 3 ml gel was injected into the cervical canal of 20 patients with high-risk pregnancy and indication for induction of labor, but with unfavorable cervix. Ten were studied after the first gel application, five during repeat injection, and five after application of gel without PGE2. Blood samples were drawn serially during the first 8 hours for determination of oxytocin and 13,14-dihydro,15-ketoprostaglandin-F2 alpha (PGFM). The PGE2 gel increased the Bishop score within 8 hours in all patients; in half of them, artificial rupture of the membranes could be performed and labor induced without further gel application; in the others, it was repeated every 8 hours until a Bishop score of greater than or equal to 8 was achieved. Fourteen of the 15 PGE2-induced patients delivered vaginally. Mean PGFM levels did not increase significantly during the 8 hours of observation, but in patients who responded with rapid progression, an increase was seen after cervical dilation was 6 cm or more. The mean oxytocin levels increased within 60 minutes after PGE2 application and were increased for the remaining observation period. Application of inactive gel had no effect on cervical ripening nor on oxytocin or PGFM levels.

  20. Progesterone metabolism in bovine endometrial cells and the effect of metabolites on the responsiveness of the cells to OT-stimulation of PGF2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ahmad A; Girard, Dominique; Beaudry, Francis; Goff, Alan K

    2007-11-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression is suppressed by progesterone (P4) during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and then it increases at the time of luteolysis, but its regulation is still not completely understood. The objective of this work was to characterize P4 metabolism by endometrial cells in vitro and determine if metabolites were able to modify prostaglandin secretion in response to oxytocin (OT). Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells were incubated with 3H-P4 or 3H-pregnenolone (P5) for 6 or 24 h. Metabolites in the medium were separated by HPLC. The results showed that P4 and P5 were converted to two major polar metabolites and a less polar metabolite that was identified as 5alpha- or 5beta-pregnanedione by LC/MS. Progesterone metabolism was similar in both stromal and epithelial cells. To determine if 5alpha- or 5beta-pregnanedione were able to modify PGF(2)alpha synthesis, cells were cultured with P4, 5alpha- or 5beta-pregnanedione (100 ng ml(-1)) for 48 h and then each group of cells was incubated for a further 4-6 h with or without OT (200 ng ml(-1)). Results showed that only P4 caused significant (P<0.001) increase in basal, but not OT-stimulated, PGF(2)alpha synthesis. OT binding assays showed no significant effect of progesterone or its metabolites on OTR concentration. In conclusion, bovine endometrial cells are able to metabolize pregnenolone and progesterone but neither 5alpha- nor 5beta-pregnanedione altered prostaglandin synthesis or OTR number in endometrial epithelial cells. These data suggest that 5-pregnanediones do not play a role in the regulation OT-stimulated PGF(2)alpha secretion during the bovine estrous cycle.

  1. Species differences in circulating prostaglandin metabolites. Relevance for the assay of prostaglandin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, E; Kindahl, H

    1982-12-13

    The profiles of circulating metabolites of prostaglandin F2 alpha were investigated in a number of species, viz. rat, rabbit, guinea pig, cattle and sheep. The aim of the study was to identify in each animal major plasma metabolites that outlast the initially formed, short-lived 15-keto-13, 14-dihydroprostaglandin F2 alpha and might thus serve as better parameters for monitoring prostaglandin production in vivo. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha was injected intravenously and frequent blood samples were collected. The metabolic profiles at different stages were visualized using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography. Identification of circulating products was achieved by comparison with reference compounds using several chromatographic methods, and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in cases where larger amounts of the prostaglandin had been administered. In the rabbit a similar study was also done with tritium-labeled prostaglandin E2. Certain species differences were seen in the removal of labeled compounds from the circulation, the elimination being most efficient in the guinea pig. Further differences were seen in the profiles of circulating prostaglandin metabolites. The first appearing major prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite was always 15-ketodihydroprostaglandin F2 alpha. However, this compound was later replaced in the circulation by a number of more degraded products, the profiles of which were relatively typical for each species. Thus, in cattle, rat and guinea pig, the earliest-formed metabolites, 15-ketodihydroprostaglandin F2 alpha and its tetranor counterpart, 5 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-11-ketotetranorprostanoic acid, remained comparatively prominent plasma products, whereas highly polar dicarboxylic acids rapidly dominated the metabolite spectrum in the ovine and lapine circulation. These differences were further supported by separate kinetic experiments, using unlabeled prostaglandin F2 alpha and radioimmunological

  2. Doping-control analysis of the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride: determination of its influence on urinary steroid profiles and detection of its major urinary metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Flenker, Ulrich; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-04-01

    5alpha-Reductase inhibitors such as finasteride are prohibited in sports according to the World Anti-Doping Agency. This class of drugs is used therapeutically to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as male baldness, by decreasing 5alpha-reductase activity. Accordingly, metabolic pathways of endogenous as well as synthetic steroids are influenced, which complicates the evaluation of steroid profiles in sports drug testing. The possibility of manipulating steroid excretion profiles and, presumably, to mask steroid abuse was investigated in 5 administration studies with use of finasteride at different doses, with and without coadministration of 19-norandrostenedione. The evaluation of urinary steroid profiles demonstrated the intense effect of finasteride on numerous crucial analytical parameters, in particular the production of 5alpha-steroids such as androsterone and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, which was significantly reduced. In addition, the excretion of the main metabolite of norandrostenedione, norandrosterone, was significantly suppressed, by up to 84%, in elimination studies. For doping-control analysis the use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors causes considerable problems because steroid profile parameters, which are commonly considered stable, are highly affected and complicate the detection of steroid abuse. In addition, the suppression of production and renal excretion of 5alpha-steroids such as 19-norandrosterone generated from anabolic agents such as 19-norandrostenedione may lead to false-negative doping-control results, because urine specimens are reported positive only when a threshold level of 2 ng/mL is exceeded. Finally, a method for the determination of the major urinary metabolite of finasteride (carboxy-finasteride) in routine doping-control screening with use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described, allowing the detection of carboxy-finasteride for up to 94 hours in urine specimens collected after an oral

  3. Quantitation of l-alpha-acetylmethadol and its metabolites in human serum by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and nitrogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebey, K; DePace, A; Mulé, S J

    1985-10-11

    A procedure is described for the simultaneous measurement of l-alpha-acetylmethadol and its two pharmacologically active metabolites: noracetylmethadol and dinoracetylmethadol. In the method an intramolecular conversion reaction of the two metabolites to their amide configuration is utilized. The reaction is performed while the metabolites are still in the serum. Following solvent extraction the samples are analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography coupled with nitrogen detection. Quantitation is achieved by internal standardization. The lower limit of sensitivity is 5 ng/ml in serum. Absolute sensitivity is 0.1 ng for all three compounds. The advantages over other procedures are: speed due to the single extraction step; increased recovery of noracetylmethadol and dinoracetylmethadol due to decreased polarity of the amides; greater stability of the metabolites in the amide configuration; better chromatographic quantitation and separation because detector response for the amides is greater than it is for the original configuration of the metabolites and the area of the chromatographic tracing is free of interfering substances.

  4. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of C-11-labeled isotopomers and metabolites of GTS-21, a partial {alpha}7 nicotinic cholinergic agonist drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)]. E-mail: swkim@bnl.gov; Ding Yushin [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Alexoff, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Patel, Vinal [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Logan, Jean [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lin, K.-S. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Carter, Pauline [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); King, Payton [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Constanzo, Jasmine R. [Department of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Ciaccio, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Introduction: (3E)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine (GTS-21), a partial {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist drug, has recently been shown to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. One of its two major demethylated metabolites, 4-OH-GTS-21, has been suggested to contribute to its therapeutic effects. Methods: We labeled GTS-21 in two different positions with carbon-11 ([2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 and [4-{sup 11}C]GTS-21) along with two corresponding demethylated metabolites ([2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]4-OH-GTS-21 and [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]2-OH-GTS-21) for pharmacokinetic studies in baboons and mice with positron emission tomography (PET). Results: Both [2-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 and [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 showed similar initial high rapid uptake in baboon brain, peaking from 1 to 3.5 min (0.027-0.038%ID/cc) followed by rapid clearance (t {sub 1/2}<15 min), resulting in low brain retention by 30 min. However, after 30 min, [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 continued to clear while [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 plateaued, suggesting the entry of a labeled metabolite into the brain. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of the two labeled metabolites confirmed expected higher brain uptake and retention of [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]2-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [4-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21) relative to [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]4-OH-GTS-21 (the labeled metabolite of [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21), which had negligible brain uptake. Ex vivo studies in mice showed that GTS-21 is the major chemical form in the mouse brain. Whole-body dynamic PET imaging in baboon and mouse showed that the major route of excretion of C-11 is through the gallbladder. Conclusions: The major findings are as follows: (a) extremely rapid uptake and clearance of [2-methoxy-{sup 11}C]GTS-21 from the brain, which may need to be considered in developing optimal dosing of GTS-21 for patients, and (b) significant brain uptake of 2-OH-GTS-21

  5. Identification of metabolites in urine and feces from rats dosed with the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Frandsen, H

    2004-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) is a proximate mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems, MeA alpha C can be formed by pyrolyses of either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study, the in ......2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) is a proximate mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems, MeA alpha C can be formed by pyrolyses of either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study......-metabolites was excreted during the first 24 h. Thirty-four percent of the dose was found in the rat urine samples collected to 24 h. In addition to unmetabolized MeA alpha C and two phase I metabolites, 6-OH-MeA alpha C and 7-OH-MeA alpha C, the following conjugated metabolites were identified: MeA alpha C-N(2......)-glucuronide, A alpha C-3-CH(2)O-glucuronide, 3-carboxy-A alpha C and 3-carboxy-A alpha C-glucuronide, and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of 6-OH-MeA alpha C and 7-OH-MeA alpha C. Also, a large amount of a rather unstable compound proposed to be of MeA alpha C-N1-glucuronide was found. About 21...

  6. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with immunoaffinity clean-up for the determination of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-08-28

    A reliable oxidative stress biomarker, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), was for the first time quantitatively analysed in wastewater using an analytical method consisting of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to immunoaffinity clean-up (IAC-LC-HRMS). Factors influencing the method's robustness were investigated, including analyte stability in sewage and enzymatic deconjugation with β-glucuronidase. The IAC-LC-HRMS method was linear over the range of 0.1-100ng/mL with correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.999. The quantification limits were sufficiently low to detect 8-iso-PGF2α in sewage (method quantification limit of 0.3ng/L) and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation was less than 7% and the accuracy expressed as relative recovery was in the 103-113% range. As a result, the application of the method to 24-h composite wastewater samples from Oslo showed 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations of 18.9-23.3ng/L for 8 days in March 2015. This study demonstrates a standard method to analyse 8-iso-PGF2α in sewage that will contribute to the further investigation of the potential use of 8-iso-PGF2α as a sewage biomarker for assessing the status of community health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of central and peripheral actions of histamine and its metabolite N-alpha methyl histamine on gastric secretion and acute gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, M; Pajdo, R; Drozdowicz, D; Ptak, A; Hahn, E G

    2001-12-01

    N alpha-methylhistamine (N alpha-MH) is one of unusual metabolite of histamine that was found in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomach and is believed to interact with specific histamine H1, H2 and H3-receptors to stimulate gastric acid secretion and gastrin release from isolated G-cells but the effects of N alpha-MH on gastric mucosal integrity have been little studied. This study was designed; 1) to compare the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and gastric topical (intragastric i.g.) application of exogenous N alpha-MH with that of standard histamine on gastric secretion in rats equipped with gastric fistula (series A) and 2) to compare the effect of i.c.v. administration of histamine and N alpha-MH with that of peripheral (i.p. and i.g.) application of these amines on gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) in rats with or without capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves. The area of gastric lesions was determined planimetrically, gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance method and venous blood was collected for determination of plasma gastrin levels by RIA. N alpha-MH and histamine (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p. or i.g.) dose-dependently increased gastric acid output (series A); whereas i.c.v. administration of histamine or N alpha-MH inhibited dose-dependently this secretion; the dose attenuating gastric acid output by 50% (ED50) being 4 and 6 microg/kg i.c.v. Both, N alpha-MH and histamine (2 mg/kg i.p. and i.g.) attenuated significantly the area of gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) while producing significant rise in the GBF and plasma immunoreactive gastrin increments. Central application of N alpha-MH and histamine (0.01-5 microg/kg i.c.v.) inhibited ethanol-induced gastric damage whereas higher doses ranging from 10-100 microg/kg of histamine and N alpha-MH were significantly less effective. Capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves by itself augmented significantly ethanol

  8. Development of a chromosomally integrated metabolite-inducible Leu3p-alpha-IPM "off-on" gene switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Poulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Present technology uses mostly chimeric proteins as regulators and hormones or antibiotics as signals to induce spatial and temporal gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that a chromosomally integrated yeast 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' system constitutes a ligand-inducible regulatory "off-on" genetic switch with an extensively dynamic action area. We find that Leu3p acts as an active transcriptional repressor in the absence and as an activator in the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IotaRhoMu in primary fibroblasts isolated from double transgenic mouse embryos bearing ubiquitously expressing Leu3p and a Leu3p regulated GFP reporter. In the absence of the branched amino acid biosynthetic pathway in animals, metabolically stable alpha-IPM presents an EC(50 equal to 0.8837 mM and fast "OFF-ON" kinetics (t(50ON = 43 min, t(50OFF = 2.18 h, it enters the cells via passive diffusion, while it is non-toxic to mammalian cells and to fertilized mouse eggs cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' constitutes a simpler and safer system for inducible gene expression in biomedical applications.

  9. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  10. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  11. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on Metalaxyl Degradation and Metabolite Profile of Potato Seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) Alpha Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Miller, Marion G.; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L.; Hengel, Matt J.; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC–TOF–MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  12. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin mediates general and cell type-specific changes in metabolite concentrations of immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gierok

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (Hla is a potent pore-forming cytotoxin that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, including pneumonia. The impact of Hla on the dynamics of the metabolome in eukaryotic host cells has not been investigated comprehensively. Using 1H-NMR, GC-MS and HPLC-MS, we quantified the concentrations of 51 intracellular metabolites and assessed alterations in the amount of 25 extracellular metabolites in the two human bronchial epithelial cell lines S9 and 16HBE14o- under standard culture conditions and after treatment with sub-lethal amounts (2 µg/ml of recombinant Hla (rHla in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with rHla caused substantial decreases in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites from different metabolic pathways in both cell lines, including ATP and amino acids. Concomitant increases in the extracellular concentrations were detected for various intracellular compounds, including nucleotides, glutathione disulfide and NAD+. Our results indicate that rHla has a major impact on the metabolome of eukaryotic cells as a consequence of direct rHla-mediated alterations in plasma membrane permeability or indirect effects mediated by cellular signalling. However, cell-specific changes also were observed. Glucose consumption and lactate production rates suggest that the glycolytic activity of S9 cells, but not of 16HBE14o- cells, is increased in response to rHla. This could contribute to the observed higher level of resistance of S9 cells against rHla-induced membrane damage.

  13. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous cows (n = 18) received the

  14. Electron attachment to F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christophorou, L. G.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Pichiarella, L.

    1986-08-01

    The rate constant ka for electron attachment to F2 has been measured at ambient (298 K) temperature T in the buffer gas Ar over the mean electron energy range 0.40-2.95 eV; similar measurements were made at T=233, 298, and 373 K in the buffer gas N2 over the range 0.04-0.75 eV. The ka() function attains a maximum value of 1.7×10-8 cm3 s-1 (T=298 K) at ˜0.04 eV and decreases monotonically with increasing above thermal energy; the magnitude of ka increases only slightly with increasing T. The ka() data at 298 K were unfolded and the resultant cross section σa(ɛ) shows a main maximum at ˜0.0 eV, a shoulder at ˜0.5 eV, and a weak maximum at ˜1.1 eV. Possible electron attachment processes are discussed to account for the energy dependence of σa(ɛ). Also discussed, in the light of the present measurements, are published experimental and theoretical results on ka() and σa(ɛ).

  15. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis killing by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF activated human neutrophils: role for oxygen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D R; Dias-Melicio, L A; Calvi, S A; Peraçoli, M T S; Soares, A M V C

    2007-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Phagocytic cells play a critical role against the fungus and several papers show the effects of activator and suppressive cytokines on macrophage and monocyte functions. However, the studies focusing on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) antifungal functions are scarcer. Thus, the objective of the present paper was to assess the capacity of human PMNs to kill virulent P. brasiliensis strain in vitro, before and after priming with different cytokines. Moreover, the involvement of oxygen metabolites in this activity was evaluated. Nonactivated cells failed to exhibit antifungal activity. However, when these cells were IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha or GM-CSF activated, a significative fungicidal activity was detected. This process was significantly inhibited when P. brasiliensis challenge occurred in presence of catalase (CAT - a scavenger of H2O2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD - a scavenger of superoxide anion). From these results it is concluded that cytokines activation is required for P. brasiliensis killing by human PMNs, and that H2O2 and superoxide anion participate as effectors molecules in this process.

  16. Depth distributionthe of linear codes over ring F2+uF2+U2F2.%环F2+uF2+u2F2上线性码的深度分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华

    2011-01-01

    记R=F2+uF2+u2F2,定义了环R上码字的深度以及R上线性码的深度分布,研究了环R上码字深度的性质,给出了计算环R上码字深度的递归算法.利用环R上的线性码C及其生成矩阵,得到了域F2上的线性码C1,Cu,Cu2及相应的生成矩阵.通过域F2上的线性码C1,Cu,Cu2之间的关系,讨论了环R上的线性码的深度谱和深度分布,进而得到R上一类线性码的深度分布.%LetR=F2+uF2+u2+u2F2 ,the depth of a codeword and the depth distribution of linear codes over ring R are defined,a number of properties of the depth of codewords are studied, and the recursive algorithm for computing the depth of a codeword is given. Based on the linear codes over R and their generator matrices, the linear codes C1, Cu, Cu2 over F2 and their generator matrices are obtained. By using the relationship of C1, Cu, Cu2, the depth distribution and the depth spectrum of linear codes over R are discussed,moreover the depth distribution of a class of linear code over R is showed.

  17. Main: TE2F2NTPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TE2F2NTPCNA S000397 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi te2f-2 found in the promoter of tobacco PCN...riptional activation in actively dividing cells and tissue; E2F; PCNA; meristematic tissue; cell cycle; tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ATTCCCGC ...

  18. On sumsets in ${\\Bbb F}_2^n$

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Chaohua

    2012-01-01

    Let ${\\Bbb F}_2$ be the finite field of two elements, ${\\Bbb F}_2^n$ be the vector space of dimension $n$ over ${\\Bbb F}_2$. For sets $A,\\,B\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$, their sumset is defined as the set of all pairwise sums $a+b$ with $a\\in A,\\,b\\in B$. Ben Green and Terence Tao proved that, let $K\\geq 1$, if$A,\\,B\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ and $|A+B|\\leq K|A|^{1\\over 2}|B|^{1\\over 2}$, then there exists a subspace $H\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ with $$ |H|\\gg\\exp(-O(\\sqrt{K}\\log K))|A| $$ and $x,\\,y\\in{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ such that $$ |A\\cap(x+H)|^{1\\over 2}|B\\cap(y+H)|^{1\\over 2}\\geq{1\\over 2K}|H|. $$ In this note, we shall use the method of Green and Tao with some modification to prove that if $$ |H|\\gg\\exp(-O(\\sqrt{K}))|A|, $$ then the above conclusion still holds true.

  19. 5alpha-Androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), an estrogenic metabolite of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor ERbeta expression in the ventral prostrate of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Coelho, Polyanna H; Guedes, Fernanda D; Mahecha, Germán A B; Hess, Rex A; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2007-12-01

    Prostate is one of the major targets for dihydrotestosterone (DHT), however this gland is also recognized as a nonclassical target for estrogen as it expresses both types of estrogen receptors (ER), especially ERbeta. Nevertheless, the concentrations of aromatase and estradiol in the prostate are low, indicating that estradiol may not be the only estrogenic molecule to play a role in the prostate. It is known that DHT can be metabolized to 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), a hormone that binds to ERbeta but not to AR. The concentration of 3beta-diol in prostate is much higher than that of estradiol. Based on the high concentration of 3beta-diol and since this metabolite is a physiological ERbeta ligand, we hypothesized that 3beta-diol would be involved in the regulation of ERbeta expression. To test this hypothesis, adult male rats were submitted to castration followed by estradiol, DHT or 3beta-diol replacement. ERbeta and AR protein levels in the prostate were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assays. The results showed that after castration, the structure of the prostate was dramatically changed and ERbeta and AR protein levels were decreased. Estradiol had just minor effects on the parameters analyzed. DHT-induced partial recovery of ERbeta while it was the most effective inductor of AR expression. Replacement with 3beta-diol-induced the highest levels of ERbeta, but was comparatively less effective in recovering the AR expression and the gland structure. These results offer evidence that one functional role of 3beta-diol in the prostate may be autoregulation of its natural receptor, ERbeta.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Melting Temperatures of SrF2and BaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yu Huang; Xin-lu Cheng; Chao-lei Fan; Qiong Chen; Xiao-li Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The shell-model molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate the melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2 at elevated temperatures and high pressures. The same method was used to calculate the equations of state for SrF2 and BaF2 over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa-3 GPa and 0.1 MPa-7 GPa. Compared with previous results for equations of state, the maximum errors are 0.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Considering the pre-melting in the fluorite-type crystals, we made the necessary corrections for the simulated melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2. Consequently, the melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 were obtained for high pressures. The melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 that were obtained by the simulation are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  1. Behavior of foF2 and hmF2 after sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. D.; Vanina-Dart, L. B.

    2010-12-01

    The time behavior of the foF2 and hmF2 values at the time moment T(ss + 2 h) 2 h after sunset is considered. It is assumed that at this moment, the horizontal winds in the thermosphere in the strongest way influence hmF2 and, therefore, foF2. It is found that a fairly well pronounced and statistically significant change (trend) is observed for the foF2(ss + 2)/ foF2(14) ratio, the sign of the change being different for different stations and even different seasons at the same station. A similar picture is obtained for the value of hmF2(ss + 2). It is shown that a positive correlation between the trends of these two values is observed. This confirms the initial concept of the paper that the foF2 and hmF2 trends are caused by long-term trends in the thermospheric dynamics.

  2. Effect of storage time on metabolite profile and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cosmos caudatus leaves – GCMS based metabolomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Javadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmos caudatus, which is a commonly consumed vegetable in Malaysia, is locally known as “Ulam Raja”. It is a local Malaysian herb traditionally used as a food and medicinal herb to treat several maladies. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents consist of a wide range of metabolites, including glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and easily degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomics changes occurring during post-harvest storage, C. caudatus samples were subjected to seven different storage times (0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 10 hours, and 12 hours at room temperature. As the model experiment, the metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS were correlated with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity analyzed with multivariate data analysis (MVDA to find out the variation among samples and metabolites contributing to the activity. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS analysis was applied to investigate the metabolomics changes. A profound chemical alteration, both in primary and secondary metabolites, was observed. The α-tocopherol, catechin, cyclohexen-1-carboxylic acid, benzoic acid, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, and lycopene compounds were found to be the discriminating metabolites at early storage; however, sugars such as sucrose, α-d-galactopyranose, and turanose were detected, which was attributed to the discriminating metabolites for late storage. The result shows that the MVDA method is a promising technique to identify biomarker compounds relative to storage at different times.

  3. Preliminary results on correlation in daily f0F2 and M(3000F2 variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Nissopoulos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the hourly daily values of the factor M(3000F2 and the F2-layer critical frequency f0F2 is carried out first for each hour of the day through-out a given month of a given year at a given station (hour-to-hour variation and then for each day of a given month and year at a given station (day-to-day variation. This analysis shows that these ionospheric characteristics are poorly correlated. It is concluded that the daily values of the first characteristic cannot be estimated from the second by using a simple linear equation.

  4. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  5. Effects of ozone on lung mechanics and cyclooxygenase metabolites in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouke, J.M.; Wolin, A.D.; McFadden, E.R. Jr. (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01

    To determine if acute exposure to ozone can cause changes in the production of cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the lung which are associated with changes in lung mechanics, we exposed mongrel dogs to 0.5 ppm ozone for two hours. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and obtained methacholine dose response curves and bronchoalveolar lavagate (BAL) before and after the exposures. We calculated the provocative dose of methacholine necessary to increase RL 50% (PD50) and analyzed the BAL for four cyclooxygenase metabolites of AA: a stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PgF1 alpha); prostaglandin E2 (PgE2); a stable hydrolysis product of thromboxane A2, thromboxane B2 (TxB2); and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PgF2 alpha). Following ozone exposure, RL increased from 4.75 +/- 1.06 to 6.08 +/- 1.3 cm H2O/L/sec (SEM) (p less than 0.05), Cdyn decreased from 0.0348 +/- 0.0109 TO .0217 +/- .0101 L/cm H2O (p less than 0.05), and PD50 decreased from 4.32 +/- 2.41 to 0.81 +/- 0.49 mg/cc (p less than 0.05). The baseline metabolite levels were as follows: 6-keto PgF1 alpha: 96.1 +/- 28.8 pg/ml; PgE2: 395.8 +/- 67.1 pg/ml; TxB2: 48.5 +/- 11.1 pg/ml; PgF2 alpha: 101.5 +/- 22.6 pg/ml. Ozone had no effect on any of these prostanoids. These studies quantify the magnitude of cyclooxygenase products of AA metabolism in BAL from dog lungs and demonstrate that changes in their levels are not prerequisites for ozone-induced changes in lung mechanics or airway reactivity.

  6. Magnetic Excitations of Mixed CoF2/ZnF2 Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, R. A.; Dietrich, O. W.; Jones, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic excitations in mixed crystals of Co1-cZncF2 with c=0.14+or-0.02, 0.31+or-0.03 and 0.77+or-0.10 have been measured using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The results for the first two crystals show that the excitations decrease in frequency with increasing zinc concentration...... and also have a finite lifetime. For the crystal containing the largest concentration of ZnF2 well defined magnetic excitations were not observed. These results are very similar to the predictions of the virtual lattice model in which each exchange interaction of CoF2 is reduced by the concentration of CoF...

  7. Insights into the mechanisms of ifosfamide encephalopathy: drug metabolites have agonistic effects on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors and induce cellular acidification in mouse cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, J Y; Idle, J R; Vågbø, C B; Magistretti, P J

    2001-12-01

    Therapeutic value of the alkylating agent ifosfamide has been limited by major side effects including encephalopathy. Although the underlying biochemical processes of the neurotoxic side effects are still unclear, they could be attributed to metabolites rather than to ifosfamide itself. In the present study, the effects of selected ifosfamide metabolites on indices of neuronal activity have been investigated, in particular for S-carboxymethylcysteine (SCMC) and thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA). Because of structural similarities of SCMC with glutamate, the Ca(2+)(i) response of single mouse cortical neurons to SCMC and TDGA was investigated. SCMC, but not TDGA, evoked a robust increase in Ca(2+)(i) concentration that could be abolished by the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), but only partly diminished by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 10,11-dihydro-5-methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK=801). Cyclothiazide (CYZ), used to prevent AMPA/kainate receptor desensitization, potentiated the response to SCMC. Because activation of AMPA/kainate receptors is known to induce proton influx, the intracellular pH (pH(i)) response to SCMC was investigated. SCMC caused a concentration-dependent acidification that was amplified by CYZ. Since H(+)/monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) activity leads to similar cellular acidification, we tested its potential involvement in the pH(i) response. Application of the lactate transport inhibitor quercetin diminished the pH(i) response to SCMC and TDGA by 43 and 51%, respectively, indicating that these compounds may be substrates of MCTs. Taken together, this study indicates that hitherto apparently inert ifosfamide metabolites, in particular SCMC, activate AMPA/kainate receptors and induce cellular acidification. Both processes could provide the biochemical basis of the observed ifosfamide-associated encephalopathy.

  8. Correlations in daily deviations from the median of f0F2, M(3000F2 and VF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median values of the factor M(3000F2 and of the critical frequency of the F2-layer, f0F2, reveals that the correlation between these parameters is poor. A similar analysis between the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median of the height h’F and the f0F2 leads to similar results. These results indicate that the factor M(3000F2, the height h’F and the critical frequency f0F2 may have a different daily variability.

  9. Spectroscopy of laser properties of Nd(3+)-doped CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Caird, John A.; Chase, L. L.; Smith, L. K.; Nielsen, N. D.; Krupke, William F.

    1990-03-01

    The optical properties of Nd(3+) in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 were investigated in order to determine if these materials are useful as laser-pumped amplifier media. The CaF2:Nd crystal was found to not be useful because the impurities tend to cluster at very low concentration, leading to the formation of nonluminescent centers. On the other hand, the Nd(3+) centers in BaF2 exhibit unacceptably low transition strengths. SrF2:Nd appears to have adequate absorption strength, and, in addition, to have a remarkably long emission lifetime of 1280 microns. A maximum doping of 0.20 atomic percent Nd(3+) can be tolerated in SrF2 without the occurrence of detrimental clustering. The peak emission cross section of SrF2:Nd is 1.7 x 10(exp -20) sq cm at 1036.5 nm. Direct measurement of the gain spectrum of SrF2:Nd(3+) reveals the presence of the F-4(sub 3/2) yields G-2(sub 9/2) excited state absorption lines, although the impact on the emission cross section is minor.

  10. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5alpha androstane, 3beta, 17beta Diol (3b-DIol in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Handa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Within the PVN, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2 and testosterone (T are well known reproductive hormones, however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated ACTH and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by both estrogen receptors alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ. However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERβ agonist, 5alpha- androstane 3beta,17beta diol (3b-Diol. The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the actions of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters have been shown by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to be through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role for 3beta Diol in the regulation of the HPA axis is suggested.

  11. Arabidopsis Indole Synthase,a Homolog of Tryptophan Synthase Alpha,is an Enzyme Involved in the Trp-independent Indole-containing Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Zhang; Bing Wang; Jian Ouyang; Jiayang Li; Yonghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    The plant tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway produces many secondary metabolites with diverse functions.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),proposed as a derivative from Trp or its precursors,plays an essential role in plant growth and development.Although the Trp-dependant and Trp-independent IAA biosynthetic pathways have been proposed,the enzymes,reactions and regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown.In Arabidopsis,indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) is suggested to serve as a branchpoint component in the Trp-independent IAA biosynthesis.To address whether other enzymes in addition to Trp synthase α(TSA1) catalyze IGP cleavage,we identified and characterized an indole synthase (INS) gene,a homolog of TSA1 in Arabidopsis.INS exhibits different subcellular localization from TSA1 owing to the lack of chloroplast transit peptide (cTP).In silico data show that the expression levels of INS and TSA1 in all examined organs are quite different.Histochemical staining of INS promoter-GUS transgenic lines indicates that INS is expressed in vascular tissue of cotyledons,hypocotyls,roots and rosette leaves as well as in flowers and siliques.INS is capable of complementing the Trp auxotrophy of Escherichia coil △trpA strain,which is defective in Trp synthesis due to the deletion of TSA.This implies that INS catalyzes the conversion of IGP to indole and may be involved in the biosynthesis of Trp-independent IAA or other secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  12. Analysis list: F2RL1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F2RL1 + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL1.1.tsv htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL...1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/F2RL1..tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/.gml ...

  13. {lambda}{sub MS} from the static potential for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Roma Univ. ' ' Tor Vergata' ' (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy); Karbstein, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany); Jena Univ. (Germany). Theoretisch-Physikalisches Inst.; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Marc [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-12-15

    We determine {lambda}{sub MS} for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors by fitting the Q anti Q static potential known analytically in the perturbative regime up to terms of O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}) and {proportional_to}{alpha}{sub s}{sup 4} ln{alpha}{sub s} to corresponding results obtained from lattice simulations. This has become possible, due to recent advances in both perturbative calculations, namely the determination and publication of the last missing contribution to the Q anti Q static potential at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}), and lattice simulations with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors performed at the rather fine lattice spacing of a{approx}0.042 fm. Imposing conservative error estimates we obtain {lambda}{sub MS}=315(30) MeV. (orig.)

  14. Cyclic Code and Self-Dual Code over F2+ uF2 + u2F2%环F2+uF2+u2F2上的循环码及自对偶码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯倩倩; 周伟刚

    2009-01-01

    We give the structures of a cyclic code over ring R = F2+ uF2 + u2F2 = {0, 1,u, u2,υ,υ2,uυ, υ3}, where υ3 = 0, of odd length and its dual code. For the cyclic code, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of self-dual code are provided.

  15. Hardness of CaF2 and BaF2 solid lubricants at 25 to 670 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, Daniel L.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    Plastic deformation is a prominent factor in determining the lubricating value of solid lubricants. Little information is available and its direct measurement is difficult so hardness, which is an indirect measure of this property was determined for fluoride solid lubricant compositions. The Vickers hardness of BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals was measured up to 670 C in a vacuum. The orientation of the BaF2 was near the (013) plane and the CaF2 was about 16 degrees from the degrees from the (1'11) plane. The BaF2 has a hardness of 83 kg/sq mm at the 25 C and 9 at the 600 C. The CaF2 is 170 at 25 C and 13 at 670 C. The decrease in hardness in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C is very rapid and amounts to 40% for both materials. Melts of BaF2 and CaF2 were made in a platinum crucible in ambient air with compositions of 50 to 100 wt% BaF2. The Vickers hardness of these polycrystalline binary compositions at 25 C increased with increasing CaF2 reaching a maximum of 150 kn/sq mm near the eutectic. The polycrystalline CaF2 was 14% softer than that of the single crystal surface and BsF2 was 30% harder than the single crystal surface. It is estimated that the brittle to ductile transition temperature for CaF2 and BaF2 is less than 100 C for the conditions present in the hardness tester.

  16. Stimulation of transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors alpha, beta-a, and beta-b by methoxychlor and its mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jason L; James, Margaret O; Stuchal, Leah D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), acts as an environmental endocrine disruptor through interaction with the three largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, betaa, and betab. MXC is a less-environmentally persistent analog of DDT that behaves as a weak estrogen. Using transient transfection assays in HepG2 cells, we have previously shown that each receptor is responsive to the endogenous ligand 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in a dose-dependent manner. The parent compound, MXC, showed dose-dependent stimulation of transcriptional activation through all three ERs. In addition to the parent molecule, each of the metabolites was also estrogenic with all three ERs. The order of potency for ERalpha and ERbetab was HPTE>OH-MXC>MXC, while the opposite order was seen for ERbetaa. HepG2 cells did not substantially metabolize MXC to the active metabolites, thus the activity of MXC was not due to metabolism. When examining the effects of increasing concentrations of MXC at a fixed concentration of E(2), all three ERs show increased activity compared to that with E(2) alone, showing that the effects of MXC and E(2) are additive. However, when this experiment was repeated with increasing concentrations of HPTE at a fixed concentration of E(2), the activity of ERalpha was decreased, that of ERbetab was increased, while that of ERbetaa was unaffected compared to E(2) alone. These experiments suggest that HPTE functions as an E(2) antagonist with ERalpha, an E(2) agonist with ERbetab and does not perturb E(2) stimulation of ERbetaa. While it is clear the ERbeta subtypes are the products of different genes (due to a gene duplication in teleosts) the differences in their responses to MXC and its metabolites indicate that their functions diverge, both in their in vivo molecular response to E(2), as well as in their interaction with endocrine disrupting compounds found in the wild.

  17. F2+vF2上线性码的深度谱%ON THE DEPTH SPECTRA OF LINEAR CODES ON RING F2 + vF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐刚

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the depth distribution and the depth spectra of linear codes over ring R = F2 + νF2 are studied. By using two homomorphisms of Abelian groups from R to F2 and the generator matrices of the codes over R, the upper bound and lower bound of the depth spectra of linear codes of type 4k12k22k3 are obtained.%本文研究了环R=F2+vF2上线性码的深度分布和深度谱.利用环R到F2加群的两个同态映射及R上线性码的生成矩阵,给出了环R上4k12k22k3型线性码的深度谱的上下界.

  18. F2上安全的Edwards曲线%Secure Edwards Curves over F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 彭国华

    2009-01-01

    Edwards曲线提供了大量的可以抵挡旁道攻击的椭圆曲线,因此引起了人们特别的关注.最近Bernstein、Lange和Farashahi将一般的Edwards曲线推广到了特征为2的域上,并认为这类椭圆曲线必将会有广泛的应用.但是这类曲线的安全性却仍然是一个值得商榷的问题.文中通过双有理等价映射讨论了F2上的Edwards曲线与Koblitz曲线之间的关系,并由此推出这类Edwards曲线会在一些扩域上具有安全性.%The invention of Edwards curves has attracted much attention from the cryptologists,because they provide a large amount of elliptic curves which are possible to resist the side-channel attack.Recently,Bernstein,Lange and Farashahi generalize Edwards curves to binary field and recommend their wide applications.However,the security of these curves is open to question.In this paper the relation between an ordinary Edwards curve over F2 and one kind of Koblitz curve is discussed,in virtue of the birationally equivalence map,and form this,it is deduced that this Edwards curve is secure in some extension fields.

  19. Main: O2F2BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coxin, the maize b-32 genes and the AP-1 pseudopalindrome; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) GCCACCTCAT ... ...O2F2BE2S1 S000163 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F2 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  20. Analysis list: Pou3f2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou3f2 Embryonic fibroblast,Neural,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.bio...jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f2.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f2.Pluripoten...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  1. Difluorophosphoryl nitrene F2P(O)N: matrix isolation and unexpected rearrangement to F2PNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoqing; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Neuhaus, Patrik; Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-12-14

    Triplet difluorophosphoryl nitrene F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') was generated on ArF excimer laser irradiation (lambda=193 nm) of F(2)P(O)N(3) in solid argon matrix at 16 K, and characterized by its matrix IR, UV/Vis, and EPR spectra, in combination with DFT and CBS-QB3 calculations. On visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm) at 16 K F(2)P(O)N reacts with molecular nitrogen and some of the azide is regenerated. UV irradiation (lambda=255 nm) of F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') induced a Curtius-type rearrangement, but instead of a 1,3-fluorine shift, nitrogen migration to give F(2)PON is proposed to be the first step of the photoisomerization of F(2)P(O)N into F(2)PNO (difluoronitrosophosphine). Formation of novel F(2)PNO was confirmed with (15)N- and (18)O-enriched isotopomers by IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations predict a rather long P-N bond of 1.922 A [B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)] and low bond-dissociation energy of 76.3 kJ mol(-1) (CBS-QB3) for F(2)PNO.

  2. Excretion of metabolites in urine and faeces from rats dosed with the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2004-01-01

    conjugated metabolites were characterised. Three minor metabolites were characterised as AalphaC-N-2-glucuronide and glucuronic acid conjugates of 3-OH-AalphaC and 6-OH-AalphaC. Four metabolites were all characterised as sulphuric acid conjugates and accounted for the largest amount of metabolites excreted...... in urine. The two major sulphuric acid conjugates were identified as AalphaC-3-O-sulfate and AalphaC-6-O-sulfate, while the minor sulphuric acid conjugates were proposed to be other O-sulfonated metabolites. In faeces only AalphaC was excreted and accounted for about 12% of dose during the first 24 hours...

  3. Theoretical calculations of the high-pressure phases of ZnF2 and CdF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Wu, Z.

    2006-04-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory were used to study the high-pressure phases of both ZnF2 and CdF2. We found that the sequence of the pressure-induced phase transitions is: Rutile (P42/mnm) ↦ CaCl2 (Pnnm) ↦ PdF2 (Pa-3) and CaF2 (Fm3m) ↦ PbCl2 (Pnma) ↦ Ni2In (P63/mmc) for ZnF2 and CdF2 respectively. In ZnF2 the behavior of the ground-state total energy, of the Gibbs free energy and of the lattice constant vs. pressure shown that the phase transition at 4 GPa from the rutile-type phase to the CaCl2-type phase is a second-order phase transition. The mechanism of the structural change was also revealed by the transition from the PbCl2-type phase to the Ni2In-type phase in CdF2. Moreover, the high-pressure behavior of divalent metal fluorides was compared and discussed.

  4. Morphine metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring

    1997-01-01

    , morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) are the major metabolites of morphine. The metabolism of morphine occurs not only in the liver, but may also take place in the brain and the kidneys. The glucuronides are mainly eliminated via bile and urine. Glucuronides as a rule...

  5. Nuclear medium modification of the F2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function $F_{2}(x, Q^2)$ in nuclei in the deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. The ratios $R_{F2}^A(x,Q^2)=\\frac{2F_2^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2}^{Deut}(x,Q^2)}$ are obtained and compared with the recent JLAB results for light nuclei that show a non trivial A dependence.

  6. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior of...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  7. General formulae for f1 -> f2 γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoura, L.

    2003-07-01

    At one-loop level the decay f_1 to f_2 γ, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin - interacting with the fermions through the Dirac matrices 1 and γ_5 - or spin 1 - with V+ A and V- A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f_1 to f_2 γ in all these cases.

  8. General formulae for f1 --> f2 gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoura, L

    2003-01-01

    At one-loop level the decay f1 --> f2 gamma, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin 0 - interacting with the fermions through Dirac matrices 1 and gamma5 - or spin 1 - with V+A and V-A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f1 --> f2 gamma in all these cases.

  9. Current status of the Standard Model CKM fit and constraints on $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Descotes-Genon, S; Lacker, H; Menzel, A; Monteil, S; Niess, V; Ocariz, J; Orloff, J; Perez, A; Qian, W; Tisserand, V; Trabelsi, K; Urquijo, P; Silva, L Vale

    2015-01-01

    This letter summarises the status of the global fit of the CKM parameters within the Standard Model performed by the CKMfitter group. Special attention is paid to the inputs for the CKM angles $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ and the status of $B_s\\to\\mu\\mu$ and $B_d\\to \\mu\\mu$ decays. We illustrate the current situation for other unitarity triangles. We also discuss the constraints on generic $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  10. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  11. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  12. PHOTOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PbSe/BaF2/CaF2 FILMS ON Si(111)%硅基PbSe/BaF2/CaF2薄膜及其光电特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金进生; 常勇; 等

    2001-01-01

    PbSe films were grown on Si(111) by incorporation of BaF2/CaF2 buffers using molecular beam epitaxy. The measurements of both scanning electronic microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction showed high crystalline quality of the PbSe films. The surface of PbSe was mirror-like and no cracks were observed. The full width at half-maximum of PbSe diffraction peak was only 153 arcsec. The epitaxial PbSe films were used to fabricate photodiodes. For the first time, metallic aluminum was used to form Al-PbSe Schottky diodes, which demonstrated better and more stable current-voltage characteristics than that obtained from Pb-PbSe Schottky diodes.%采用分子束外延方法在Si(111)衬底上生长了PbSe/BaF2/CaF2薄膜,扫描电镜和X-光衍射分析显示,通过生长BaF2/CaF2缓冲层的方法,在Si(111)衬底上外延的PbSe薄膜晶体质量高,PbSe表面光亮,无开裂现象发生,X-光衍射峰峰宽窄(153arcs).外延生长的PbSe薄膜被应用于制作光电二极管,首次采用热蒸发金属铝膜在PbSe表面形成Al-PbSe肖特基结光电二极管,获得了比Pb-PbSe肖特基结更为稳定和理想的电流-电压特性曲线.

  13. Metals suitable for fluorine gas target bodies: first use of aluminum for the production of [18F]F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A; Satyamurthy, N; Bida, G; Phelps, M; Barrio, J R

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of different metals (aluminum, silver, copper, nickel, and gold-plated copper) was undertaken for the fabrication of target bodies with straight and conical bore shapes for the production of [18F]F2 via the 20Ne(d,alpha)18F nuclear reaction. Of these metals, aluminum, silver and copper have never been used for the production of [18F]F2. All these target bodies were easily passivated using a mild beam-induced plasma technique in the presence of 1% F2 in neon or argon. The recovery of 18F activity was higher with electroformed nickel and silver bodies, probably due to favorable thermal conductivities. Aluminum proved to be a useful material for fluorine gas targets. The consistent recovery of 18F activities, ease and low cost of manufacturing and low nuclear activation properties all make aluminum an ideal choice for fluorine gas targetry. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to highlight the use of aluminum as a target body material for the routine production of [18F]F2. A reasonable mechanism based on the Langmuir-Rideal surface atom recombination is also proposed for the behavior of [18F]F2 recovery from a nickel target body.

  14. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  15. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Osipenko; G. Ricco; S. Simula; M. Battaglieri; M. Ripani

    2005-07-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  16. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Simula, S; Battaglieri, M; Ripani, M; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Li, J; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nefedov, G; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2005-01-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  17. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin Hamilton......Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  18. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites on prostaglandins secretion from epithelial cells of bovine oviduct, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michal H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-04-11

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) markedly stimulate bovine uterine contractions and prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secreted from both, myometrial and endometrial cells is essentially involved in this process. Since contractions of the oviduct are crucial for gametes and embryo transport, therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the influence of PCBs on PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion from oviductal epithelium. Epithelial cells of the oviduct, from cows and heifers on days 1-5 of estrous cycle, were treated with PCBs: technical mixture (Aroclor 1248; Ar 1248), individual congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 153) and hydroxylated metabolites (PCB 30-OH and PCB 50-OH). Viability of the cells after treatment with PCBs (10 and 100 ng/ml) was determined after 24, 48 and 72 h. The concentration of PGFM (metabolite of PGF2alpha) and PGE2 in culture medium was determined after 2 and 48 h of incubation with PCBs (0.1, 1 and 10 ng/ml). None of the PCBs affected (P>0.05) cell viability, whereas all of them, except PCB 30 after 48 h of treatment, increased (P<0.05-0.01) PGF2alpha secretion from epithelial cells. All PCBs also stimulated (P<0.05) the PGE2 secretion after 2h of incubation, but this effect was less evident or there was no effect after 48 h of treatment. We conclude that oviductal secretion of PGF2alpha and PGE2 is affected by PCBs and this can be a part of the mechanism by means of which PCBs may affect the contractions of bovine oviduct.

  19. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-2 - Certain foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain foreign corporations. 1.672(f)-2 Section... foreign corporations. (a) Application of general rule. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this... to section 672(f) is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957), a passive...

  20. The INGV Software for automatic Scaling of foF2 and MUF(3000)F2 from Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzopane, M.; Scotto, C.

    The INGV software (AUTOSCALA) for automatic scaling of critical frequency f0F2 and MUF(3000)F2 was applied to the ionograms produced by the new Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS-INGV). A test based on large amount of ionograms was performed comparing the automatic scaled parameters with the corresponding ones obtained by the standard manual method. The results of a comparison between the data obtained by AUTOSCALA and ARTIST programs are also shown and particular attention has been paid to the case of a strong ionospheric storm.

  1. Alpha Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha Thalassemia Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect 1 on the anemia. αα αα Normal alpha ...

  2. About SnF 2 stannous fluoride. II. Crystal structure of β- and γ-SnF 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, G.; Pannetier, J.; Lucas, J.

    1980-06-01

    Two new structural modifications (β and γ) of SnF 2 have been prepared and their structures refined from X-ray powder data by analogy with high- and low-pressure TeO 2. Both structures are described and discussed using Galy's and Brown's models. Topological relationships to rutile and cristobalite structures are outlined.

  3. Transcriptomic and bioinformatics analysis of the early time-course of the response to prostaglandin F2a in the bovine corpus luteum

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA expression analysis was performed on the corpus luteum tissue at five time points after prostaglandin F2 alpha treatment of midcycle cows using an Affymetrix Bovine Gene v1 Array. The normalized linear microarray data was uploaded to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE94069). Subsequent statistical ana...

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2F2OA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-2F2OA 1CLM 2F2O A A LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQN...PTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS---... 1CLM A 1CLMA VMTNLGE

  5. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  6. Measurements of $F_{2}$ and $xF_{3}^{\

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, U K; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Fleming, B T; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Suwonjandee, N; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vaitaitis, A G; Vakili, M; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2001-01-01

    We report on the extraction of the structure functions F_2 and Delta xF_3 = xF_3(nu)-xF_3(nubar) from CCFR nu_mu-Fe and nubar_mu-Fe differential cross sections. The extraction is performed in a physics model independent (PMI) way. This first measurement of Delta xF_3, which is useful in testingmodels of heavy charm production, is higher than current theoretical predictions. The ratio of the F_2(PMI) values measured in nu_mu and nubar_mu scattering is in agreement (within 5%) with the predictions of NLO PDFS using massive charm production schemes, thus resolvin long-standing discrepancy between the two sets of data.

  7. BaF2 TIME DIFFERENTIAL PERTURBED ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION SPECTROMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱升云; 勾振辉; 等

    1994-01-01

    A BaF2 time differential perturbed angular distribution spectrometer has been established at the HI-13 tandem accelerator in CIAE.The time resolution of the spectrometer is 195ps and the nonlinearity is less than 2%.The spectrometer works very stably and no time drift is found over a period of experimental runs.This spectrometer has been successfully used in the g-factor measurement of 43Sc(19/2-,3.1232MeV).

  8. Development of a cw Co : MgF 2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lieto, A.

    2003-03-01

    The results obtained in the development of a cryogenic cw Co : MgF 2 laser, realized at the Dipartimento di Fisica of the Università di Pisa are presented. The laser can be tuned continuously in the range between 1.6 and 2.1 μm, with a typical output power of 1-2 W. A preliminary application to the spectroscopy of a Tm : YLF doped crystal is reported by using a photoacoustic apparatus.

  9. Upsilon(1S)->gamma+f2'(1525); f2'(1525)->K0sK0s decays

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Brisbane, S; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Tarbert, C M

    2011-01-01

    We report on a study of exclusive radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S) resonance into a final state consisting of a photon and two K0s candidates. We find evidence for a signal for Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525); f_2'(1525)->K0sK0s, at a rate (4.0+/-1.3+/-0.6)x10^{-5}, consistent with previous observations of Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525); f_2'(1525)->K+K-, and isospin. Combining this branching fraction with existing branching fraction measurements of Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525) and J/psi->gamma f_2'(1525), we obtain the ratio of branching fractions: B(Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525))/B(J/psi->gamma f_2'(1525))=0.09+/-0.02, approximately consistent with expectations based on soft collinear effective theory.

  10. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  11. p-Benzoquinone, a reactive metabolite of benzene, prevents the processing of pre-interleukins-1{alpha} and -1{beta} to active cytokines by inhibition of the processing enzymes, calpain, and interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalf, G.F.; Renz, J.F.; Niculescu, R. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to benzene affects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and leads to aplastic anemia. The stromal macrophage, a target of benzene toxicity, secretes interieukin-1 (IL-1), which induces the stromal fibroblast to synthesize hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors. In a mouse model, benzene causes an acute marrow hypocellularity that can be prevented by the concomitant administration of IL-1{alpha}. The ability of benzene to interfere with the production and secretion of IL-1{alpha} was tested. Stromal macrophages from benzene-treated mice were capable of the transcription of the IL-1{alpha} gene and the translation of the message but showed an inability to process the 34-kDa pre-IL-1{alpha} precursor to the 17-kDa biologically active cytokine. Treatment of normal murine stromal macrophages in culture with hydroquinone (HQ) also showed an inhibition in processing of pre-IL-1{alpha}. Hydroquinone is oxidized by a peroxidase-mediated reaction in the stromal macrophage to p-benzoquinone, which interacts with the sulfhydryl (SH) groups of proteins and was shown to completely inhibit the activity of calpain, the SH-dependent protease that cleaves pre-IL-1{alpha}. In a similar manner, HQ, via peroxidase oxidation to p-benzoquinone, was capable of preventing the IL-1{beta} autocrine stimulation of growth of human B1 myeloid tumor cells by preventing the processing of pre-IL-1{beta} to mature cytokine. Benzoquinone was also shown to completely inhibit the ability of the SH-dependent IL-1{beta} converting enzyme. Thus benzene-induced bone marrow hypocellularity may result from apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells brought about by lack of essential cylokines and deficient IL-1{alpha} production subsequent to the inhibition of calpain by p-benzoquinone and the prevention of pre-IL-1 processing. 34 refs., 8 figs.

  12. The $f_2(1810)$ as a triangle singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    We perform calculations showing that a source producing $K^* \\bar{K}^*$ in $J = 2$ and $L=0$ gives rise to a triangle singularity at $1810$ MeV with a width of about $200$ MeV from the mechanism $K^* \\to \\pi K$ and then $K\\bar{K}^*$ merging into the $a_1(1260)$ resonance. We suggest that this is the origin of the present $f_2(1810)$ resonance and propose to look at the $\\pi a_1(1260)$ mode in several reactions to clarify the issue.

  13. Investigation of rare nuclear decays with BaF$_2$ crystal scintillator contaminated by radium

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of a BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 101 hours in the low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was measured as $T_{1/2}(^{212}$Po) = 298.8$\\pm$0.8(stat.)$\\pm$1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events' pulse profiles. The $^{222}$Rn nuclide is known as 100% decaying via emission of $\\alpha$ particle with $T_{1/2}$ = 3.82 d; however, its $\\beta$ decay is also energetically allowed with $Q_\\beta = 24\\pm21$ keV. Search for decay chains of events with specific pulse shapes characteristic for $\\alpha$ or for $\\beta/\\gamma$ signals and with known energies and time differences allowed us to set, for the first time, the limit on the branching ratio of $^{222}$Rn relatively to $\\beta$ decay as $B_\\beta 8.0$ y). Half-life limits of $^{212}$Pb, $^{222}$Rn and $^{226}$Ra rel...

  14. Yb:CaF2 thin-disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentsch, Katrin Sarah; Weichelt, Birgit; Günster, Stefan; Druon, Frederic; Georges, Patrick; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Graf, Thomas

    2014-01-27

    We present Ytterbium-doped CaF2 as a laser active material with good prospects for high-power operation in thin-disk laser configuration owing to its favorable thermal properties. Thanks to its broad emission bandwidth the material is also suitable for the generation of ultra-short pulses. The properties of the crystal as well as the challenges related to the coating, polishing, mounting and handling processes which are essential to achieve high power laser oscillation in thin-disk configuration are discussed. A wavelength tunability of 92 nm is demonstrated, which confirms the potential of Yb:CaF2 for the generation of ultra-short pulses. An output power of 250 W with an optical efficiency of η opt = 47% was measured in CW multimode thin-disk laser operation with a pump spot diameter of 3.6 mm. Using a smaller pump spot diameter of 1 mm the fundamental mode output power was 13 W with an optical efficiency of η opt = 34%.

  15. The 2009-2012 Ionosonde and IRI2012 Variability of foF 2, hmF 2, M3000F2, B 0, B1 Parameters over Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwabowski Michał

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons of variability and accordance of ionospheric parameters foF2, hmF2, M3000F2, B0, B1 over the middle latitude station in Warsaw (52.21°N, 21.06°E. Examination included observational data from Space Research Centre ionosonde in Poland and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2012 model, for the time period of increasing solar activity from 2009 to 2012. The analysis concerned: trend, monthly median differences in twenty-four hours variability, local minima and maxima. Results are presented as tables of semi-annual data, and plots of difference in four-year period. The study indicated good agreement of foF2 and hmF2 parameters. Underestimations of B1 and M3000F2, variability of B0 parameter in Bil-2000, Gul-1987, and ABT-2009 option, were taken into consideration.

  16. Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P

    2009-08-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.

  17. Radioluminescence and photoluminescence of Th:CaF$_2$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmer, Simon; Schumm, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study thorium-doped CaF$_2$ crystals as a possible platform for optical spectroscopy of the Th-229 nuclear isomer transition. We anticipate two major sources of background signal that might cover the nuclear spectroscopy signal: VUV-photoluminescence, caused by the probe light, and radioluminescence, caused by the radioactive decay of Th-229 and its daughters. We find a rich photoluminescence spectrum at wavelengths above 260 nm, and radioluminescence emission above 220 nm. This is very promising, as fluorescence originating from the isomer transition, predicted at a wavelength shorter than 200 nm, could be filtered spectrally from the crystal luminescence. Furthermore, we investigate the temperature-dependent decay time of the luminescence, as well as thermoluminescence properties. Our findings allow for an immediate optimization of spectroscopy protocols for both the initial search for the nuclear transition using synchrotron radiation, as well as future optical clock operation with narrow-linewidth lase...

  18. Comment on "first accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2"

    CERN Document Server

    Gibble, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the treatment of the systematic frequency shifts due to microwave lensing and distributed cavity phase in "First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2" 2014 Metrologia 51 174-182. We explain that the microwave lensing frequency shift is generally non-zero and finite in the limit of no applied microwave field. This systematic error was incorrectly treated and we find that it contributes a significant frequency offset. Accounting for this shift implies that the measured microwave amplitude dependence (e.g due to microwave leakage) is comparable to the total reported inaccuracy. We also discuss the importance of vertically aligning the fountain perpendicular to the axis of the cavity feeds, when the cavity has only two independent feeds. Finally, we note that background gas collisions have a different behavior for cold clock atoms than for clock atoms at room-temperature, and therefore room temperature measurements do not directly apply to laser-cooled clocks.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Kraemer, T; Ledvinka, O; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A

    1997-02-07

    GC-MS is the method of choice for toxicological analysis of toxicants volatile in GC while non-volatile and/or thermally labile toxicants need LC-MS for their determination. Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic clobenzorex in urine by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation and by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDx (meth)amphetamine II). After ingestion of 60 mg of clobenzorex, the parent compound and/or its metabolites could be detected by GC-MS for up to 84 h or by FPIA for up to 60 h. Since clobenzorex shows no cross-reactivity with the used immunoassay, the N-dealkylated metabolite amphetamine is responsible for the positive TDx results. The intake of clobenzorex instead of amphetamine can be differentiated by GC-MS detection of hydroxyclobenzorex which is detectable for at least as long as amphetamine. In addition, the described GC-MS procedure allows the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs. Furthermore, studies are described on the atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin, toxic peptides of amanita mushrooms, in urine after solid-phase extraction on RP-18 columns. Using the single ion monitoring mode with the ions m/z 919 and 920 the amanitins could be detected down to 10 ng/ml of urine which allows us to diagnose intoxications with amanita mushrooms.

  20. Tests on the molecular structure \\\\of $f_2(1270)$, $f'_2(1525)$ from $\\psi (nS)$ and $\\Upsilon (nS)$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lianrong

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous studies that support the vector-vector molecular structure of the $f_2(1270)$, $f'_2(1525)$, $\\bar{K}^{*\\,0}_2(1430)$, $f_0(1370)$ and $f_0(1710)$ resonances, we make predictions for $\\psi (2S)$ decay into $\\omega(\\phi) f_2(1270)$, $\\omega(\\phi) f'_2(1525)$, $K^{*0}(892) \\bar{K}^{*\\,0}_2(1430)$ and radiative decay of $\\Upsilon (1S),\\Upsilon (2S), \\psi (2S)$ into $\\gamma f_2(1270)$, $\\gamma f'_2(1525)$, $\\gamma f_0(1370)$, $\\gamma f_0(1710)$. Agreement with experimental data is found for three available ratios, without using free parameters, and predictions are done for other cases.

  1. X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering from MBE grown (CaF 2-SrF 2)/Si(111) superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, J.; Itoh, Y.; Shimura, T.; Takahashi, I.; Alvarez, J. C.; Sokolov, N. S.

    1994-01-01

    Flouride CaF 2-SrF 2 superlattices (SLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometry for the first time. The diffraction patterns showed reasonably good crystalline quality of the SLs and a type-B epitaxial relation to the Si(111) substrate. From the analysis of the crystal truncation rod (CTR) profiles, based on the pseudomorphic model, it was obtained that despite the same high temperature (770°C) of formation of the CaF 2/Si(111) interface its structure depended on the growth temperature of the SLs. The shape of the CTR profiles confirmed the existence of the superlattice which consists of one or two monolayer thick SrF 2 layers. Some CaF 2/SrF 2-interface roughness was noticeable.

  2. Defect-induced wetting on BaF 2(111) and CaF 2(111) at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, M.; Verdaguer, A.; Fraxedas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of water with freshly cleaved (111) surfaces of isostructural BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals at ambient conditions (room temperature and under controlled humidity) has been studied using scanning force microscopy in different operation modes and optical microscopy. Such surfaces exhibit contrasting behaviors for both materials: while on BaF2(111) two-dimensional water layers are formed after accumulation at step edges, CaF2(111) does not promote the formation of such layers. We attribute such opposed behavior to lattice match (mismatch) between hexagonal water ice and the hexagonal (111) surfaces of BaF2(CaF2). Optical microscope images reveal that this behavior also determines the way the surfaces become wetted at a macroscopic level.

  3. Computation of the chiral condensate using $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Shindler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We apply the spectral projector method, recently introduced by Giusti and L\\"uscher, to compute the chiral condensate using $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions. We present our results for several quark masses at three different lattice spacings which allows us to perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition we report our analysis on the $O(a)$ improvement of the chiral condensate for twisted mass fermions. We also study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors.

  4. Identification of metabolites in urine and feces from rats dosed with the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2004-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAalphaC) is a proximate mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems, MeAalphaC can be formed by pyrolyses of either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study, the in vivo...... the first 24 h. Thirty-four percent of the dose was found in the rat urine samples collected to 24 h. In addition to unmetabolized MeAalphaC and two phase I metabolites, 6-OH-MeAalphaC and 7-OH-MeAalphaC, the following conjugated metabolites were identified: MeAalphaC-N-2-glucuronide, AalphaC-3-CH2O......-glucuronide, 3-carboxy-AalphaC and 3-carboxy-AalphaC-glucuronide, and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of 6-OH-MeAalphaC and 7-OH-MeAalphaC. Also, a large amount of a rather unstable compound proposed to be of MeAalphaC-N1-glucuronide was found. About 21% of the dose was excreted in feces during the first 24 h...

  5. Neural-network-based prediction techniques for single station modeling and regional mapping of the foF2 and M(3000F2 ionospheric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Neural-Network-based single-station hourly daily foF2 and M(3000F2 modelling of 15 European ionospheric stations is investigated. The data used are neural networks and hourly daily values from the period 1964- 1988 for training the neural networks and from the period 1989-1994 for checking the prediction accuracy. Two types of models are presented for the F2-layer critical frequency prediction and two for the propagation factor M(3000F2. The first foF2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12 and the local noon F2- layer critical frequency of the previous day. The second foF2 model, which introduces a new regional mapping technique, employs the Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon. The first M(3000F2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, its ± 3 h deviations and the local noon cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos c12. The second model, which introduces a new M(3000F2 mapping technique, employs Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon.

  6. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-21

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e., styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. A dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes; however, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knockout and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed a susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene similar to that of the wild-type animals; however, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene.

  7. B-physics with $N_f=2$ Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardoni, F; Bulava, J; Della Morte, M; Fritzsch, P; Garron, N; Gerardin, A; Heitger, J; von Hippel, G; Simma, H; Sommer, R

    2014-01-01

    We report the final results of the ALPHA collaboration for some B-physics observables: $f_B$, $f_{B_s}$ and $m_b$. We employ CLS configurations with 2 flavors of $O(a)$ improved Wilson fermions in the sea and pion masses ranging down to 190 MeV. The b-quark is treated in HQET to order $1/m_b$. The renormalization, the matching and the improvement were performed non-perturbatively, and three lattice spacings reaching $a=0.048$ fm are used in the continuum extrapolation.

  8. Distinguishing between MSSM and NMSSM through $\\Delta F=2$ processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    We study deviations between MSSM and $Z_3$ -invariant NMSSM, with respect to their predictions in $\\Delta F = 2$ processes. We find that potentially significant effects arise either from the well known double-penguin diagrams, due to the extra scalar NMSSM states, or from neutralino-gluino box contributions, due to the extended neutralino sector. Both are discussed to be effective in the large $tan \\beta$ regime. Enhanced genuine-NMSSM contributions in double penguins are expected for a light singlet spectrum (CP-even,CP-odd), while the magnitude of box effects is primarily controlled through singlino mixing. The latter is found to be typically subleading (but non-negligible) for $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.5$, however it can become dominant for $\\lambda \\sim$ $O(1)$. We also study the low $\\tan \\beta$ regime, where a distinction between MSSM and NMSSM can come instead due to experimental constraints, acting differently on the allowed parameter space of each model. To this end, we incorporate the recent limits from $...

  9. Nucleon isovector couplings from $N_f=2$ lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Glässle, Benjamin; Göckeler, Meinulf; Najjar, Johannes; Rödl, Rudolf H; Schäfer, Andreas; Schiel, Rainer W; Söldner, Wolfgang; Sternbeck, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We compute the axial, scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar isovector couplings of the nucleon as well as the induced tensor and pseudoscalar charges in lattice simulations with $N_f=2$ mass-degenerate non-perturbatively improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermions. The simulations are carried out down to a pion mass of 150 MeV and linear spatial lattice extents of up to 4.6 fm at three different lattice spacings ranging from approximately 0.08 fm to 0.06 fm. Possible excited state contamination is carefully investigated and finite volume effects are studied. The couplings, determined at these lattice spacings, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass. In this limit we find agreement with experimental results, where these exist, with the exception of the magnetic moment. A proper continuum limit could not be performed, due to our limited range of lattice constants, but no significant lattice spacing dependence is detected. Upper limits on discretization effects are estimated and these dominate the error budget...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17f-2 - Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. 240.17f-2 Section 240.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Activities § 240.17f-2 Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. (a) Exemptions for the fingerprinting...

  11. RI/MOM renormalization constants (N_f=4) and the strong coupling constant (N_f=2+1+1) from twisted-mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Brinet, M; De Soto, F; Du, X; Gravina, M; Liu, Z; Morenas, V; Pène, O; Petrov, K; Rodríguez-Quintero, J

    2011-01-01

    We study RI/MOM renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators for $N_f=4$ and the strong coupling constant for $N_f=2+1+1$ using Wilson twisted-mass fermions. We use the "egalitarian" method to remove H(4) hypercubic artifacts non-perturbatively, which enables us to study physical quantities in a wide range of momenta. We then apply OPE in studying the running behavior of $Z_q$ and $\\alpha_s$, from which we are able to extract the Landau gauge dimension-two gluon condensate $$ which is of phenomenological interest.

  12. Alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, a new inborn error of lysine metabolism; biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard; Bachmann, Dorothea; Lombeck, Ingrid; Becker, K.; Wendel, U.; Wadman, S.K.; Bremer, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of a psychomotorically retarded girl showed excretion of abnormal amounts of alpha-ketoadipic acid, alpha-hydroxyadipic acid, alpha-aminoadipic acid, 1,2-butenedicarboxylic acid and elevation of plasma alpha-aminoadipic acid levels. The identity of these metabolites was established by

  13. High energy factorization predictions for the charm structure function $F_{2}^{c}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Munier, S

    1998-01-01

    High energy factorization predictions for F2^c are derived using BFKL descriptions of the proton structure function F2 at HERA. The model parameters are fixed by a fit of F2 at small x. Two different approaches of the non perturbative proton input are shown to correspond to the factorization at the gluon or quark level, respectively. The predictions for F2^c are in agreement with the data within the present error bars. However, the photon wave-function formulation (factorization at quark level) predicts significantly higher F2^c than both gluon factorization and a next-leading order DGLAP model.

  14. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive side, alpha blockers might decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol). Alpha blockers can ... PreventionTreatmentofHighBloodPressure/Types-of-Blood-Pressure-Medications_UCM_303247_Article.jsp. Accessed June 4, 2016. Kaplan NM, et ...

  15. Validation of the TEC2F2 model over the African equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a statistical method, TEC2F2, of estimating critical F2 layer frequency (foF2) from Global Positioning System (GPS) Vertical Total Electron content (VTEC) is extended from Africa's mid-latitudes to the equatorial region, and the results validated. The equatorial region is one of the most dynamic yet under-represented over Africa in ionospheric studies. The TEC2F2 method was first considered for the South African region (mid-latitudes). This region is covered by a network of ionosondes that provided a validation platform for the TEC2F2 method before being applied to other parts of Africa. The results show that over the African equatorial region, the TEC2F2 method is a potential candidate in more accurately estimating the foF2 parameter than the most recent version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model.

  16. Effect of cryogenic temperature on spectroscopic and laser properties of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Nakladov, Andrei N.; Osiko, Vjatcheslav V.

    2016-03-01

    The laser and spectroscopic properties of crystal Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 at temperature range 80 - 300 K, which is appropriate for generation of radiation around 2.7 um is presented. The sample of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 (concentration Er(0.04), La(0.12):Ca(0.77)Sr(0.07)) had plan-parallel face-polished faces without anti-reflection coatings (thickness 8.2 mm). During spectroscopy and laser experiments the Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was attached to temperature controlled copper holder and it was placed in vacuum chamber. The transmission and emission spectra of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 together with the fluorescence decay time were measured in dependence on temperature. The excitation of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was carried out by a laser diode radiation (pulse duration 5 ms, repetition rate 20 Hz, pump wavelength 973 nm). Laser resonator was hemispherical, 140 mm in length with at pumping mirror (HR @ 2.7 µm) and spherical output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 95 % @ 2.5 - 2.8 µm). Tunability of laser at 80 K in range 2690 - 2765 nm was obtained using MgF2 birefringent filter. With decreasing temperature of sample the fluorescence lifetime of manifold 4I11/2 (upper laser level) became shorter and intensity of up-conversion radiation was increasing. The highest slope efficiency with respect to absorbed power was 2.3 % at 80 K. The maximum output of peak amplitude power was 0.3 W at 80 K, i.e. 1.5 times higher than measured this value at 300 K. The wavelength generated by Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 laser (2.7 µm) is relatively close to absorption peak of water (3 µm) and so, one of the possible usage should be in medicine and spectroscopy.

  17. Assessment of equatorial F2-region peak parameters predictability using the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2012-07-01

    Overall behaviour of the F2-layer is believed to be described by the F2-layer peak parameters, which depend on various geophysical parameters including local time, season, solar and geomagnetic activity conditions. A better understanding of the variability and modeling of ionospheric peak characteristics is crucial for the development of ionospheric prediction capabilities, improvements in existing ionospheric models, and for radio propagation studies. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is used to assess the predictability of F2-region parameters and to validate F2-peak parameters simulation near the dip equator. We examine the main morphological patterns and climatological behaviour of equatorial F2 region over African sector using hourly observational values of F2 peak height of maximum electron density (hmF2), F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2), and propagation factor (M3000F2) hitherto made by the Ibadan ionosonde at 7.4oN, 3.9oE, dip latitude 2.3oS, in Nigeria; between January to December 1958, during a period of high solar activity (yearly averaged R12=190 units) and magnetically quiet conditions (Kp is less or equal to 3). The results of comparisons illustrate that good advancement has been made but reveal some important discrepancies. The trends in the experimental data are found to be in excellent agreement with the trends in the simulation results for maximum electron density and propagation factor, but fair-to-good for F2 layer peak altitude. The model is unable to capture the sharp postsunset and predawn enhancements in hmF2 and M3000F2, respectively. The model results have errors ranging from approximately 8-15 percent, 9-17 percent, and 3-5 percent, respectively, for hmF2, NmF2, and M3000F2. On average, the percent absolute relative difference of the model from the experimental observations varies from nearly 0-20 percent, 0-30 percent, and 0-10 percent for hmF2, NmF2, and M3000F2, in that order. Our results are essentially

  18. Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of Nd(3+), Y(3+)-codoped CaF(2) and SrF(2) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Lu, Shunbin; Su, Liangbi; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-02-01

    By performing the Z-scan measurements at 800 nm using a femtosecond pulsed laser, we are able to characterize the nonlinear refractive indices of Nd, Y codoped CaF(2) and SrF(2) crystals. Based on our measured results, we conclude that the doped fluoride crystal possesses a small nonlinear refractive index and the doping of Nd(3+) and Y(3+) ions in CaF(2) can change its third-order nonlinear index, but the contribution is minor. The doped fluoride crystal may have large potential to be developed as the next generation of gain material for a high-energy laser system.

  19. Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease Using Metabolite Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Heegaard, Niels H H; Færgeman, Nils J K

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered a multifa......Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered...

  20. Transgenerational effects of obesity and malnourishment on diabetes risk in F2 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mervat Y; Saleh, Moustafa M; Saad, Mohamed I; Abdelkhalek, Taha M; Kamel, Maher A

    2016-01-01

    Transgenerational inheritance of various diseases and phenotypes has been demonstrated in diverse species and involves various epigenetic markers. Obesity and malnourishment are nutritional stresses that have effects on offspring through increasing their risk of diabetes and/or obesity. Obesity and malnourishment both affect glucose metabolism and alter oxidative stress parameters in key organs. We induced obesity and malnutrition in F0 female rats by the use of obesogenic diet and protein-deficient diet, respectively. F0 obese and malnourished females were mated with control males and their offspring (F1 generation) were maintained on control diets. The male and female F1 offspring were mated with controls and the resultant offspring (F2 generation) were maintained on control diet. Glucose-sensing markers, glucose metabolism, indicators of insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters were assessed during fetal development and till the adulthood of the offspring. Glucose-sensing genes were significantly over-expressed in distinct fetal tissues of F2 offspring of malnourished F1 females (F2-MF1F), specifically in fetal pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue. Nuclear and mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG DNA content was significantly elevated in F2-MF1F fetal pancreas. Maternal FBG was significantly elevated in F2-MF1F and F2 offspring of obese F1 females (F2-OF1F) during pregnancy. Males and females offspring of F2-OF1 exhibited significantly elevated FBG and impaired OGTT. Offspring of F2-MF1F showed similar results, while that of F2-MF1M did not significantly deviate from controls. F2-OF1F and F2-MF1F offspring exhibited significant deviation in insulin levels and HOMA-IR levels from controls. Malnourishment has a stronger transgenerational effect through maternal line compared to obesity and malnourishment through paternal line in increasing risk of diabetes in F2 generation.

  1. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  2. Complex Refractive Index Measurements for BaF2 and CaF2 via Single-Angle Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; De Vetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-10-01

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to the model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques

  3. Compact setup for the production of $^{87}$Rb $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ Bose-Einstein condensates in a hybrid trap

    CERN Document Server

    Nolli, Raffaele; Marmugi, Luca; Wickenbrock, Arne; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We present a compact experimental apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation of $^{87}$Rb in the $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ state. A pre-cooled atomic beam of $^{87}$Rb is obtained by using an unbalanced magneto-optical trap, allowing controlled transfer of trapped atoms from the first vacuum chamber to the science chamber. Here, atoms are transferred to a hybrid trap, as produced by overlapping a magnetic quadrupole trap with a far-detuned optical trap with crossed beam configuration, where forced radiofrequency evaporation is realized. The final evaporation leading to Bose-Einstein condensation is then performed by exponentially lowering the optical trap depth. Control and stabilization systems of the optical trap beams are discussed in detail. The setup reliably produces a pure condensate in the $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ state in 50 s, which include 33 s loading of the science magneto-optical trap and 17 s forced evaporation.

  4. Computation of the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We apply the spectral projector method, recently introduced by Giusti and Luescher, to compute the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions. We present our results for several quark masses at three different lattice spacings which allows us to perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition we report our analysis on the O(a) improvement of the chiral condensate for twisted mass fermions. We also study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors.

  5. Dipole model analysis of F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ derived from the new D* data in DIS at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I analyse the new D* deep inelastic scattering data from HERA with the help of dipole models. I calculate F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ from the GBW [1] and BGK [2] saturation models. I compare results with the last values determined by H1 at low Q2. I find good agreement with the data.

  6. Low $Q^{2}$ low $\\times$ structure function analysis of CCFR data for $F_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Tamminga, B H; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; Barbaro, L; Barbaro, P D; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D A; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A G; Yang, U K; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of structure functions (SFs) from neutrino and muon deep inelastic scattering data have shown discrepancies in F2 for x < 0.1. A new SF analysis of the CCFR collaboration data examining regions in x down to x=.0015 and 0.4 < Q^2 < 1.0 is presented. Comparison to corrected charged lepton scattering results for F2 from the NMC and E665 experiments are made. Differences between muon and neutrino scattering allow that the behavior of F2 from muon scattering could be different from F2 from neutrino scattering as Q^2 approaches zero. Comparisons between F2 muon and F2 neutrino are made in this limit.

  7. Microstructure and Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouhua Shi(史守华); Zhuoliang Cao(曹卓良); Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇)

    2003-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 cermet films with different Ag fractions were prepared by vacuum evaporation. The microstruc-ture of the films was examined by Raman scattering technique. The surface-enhanced Raman spectrumfor MgF2 molecules in the cermet film strongly suggests the existence of Ag nanoparticles dispersed inMgF2 matrix. The intensities of the Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films increase with Ag fraction.The enhancement of Raman scattering disappears when Ag content reaches wt.20%. The analyses withthe transmission electron microscopy showed that Ag-MgF2 cermet films are mainly composed of amor-phous MgF2 matrix with embedded faced-center-cubic Ag nanoparticles. It suggests that the percolationthreshold should be around wt.20% of Ag content.

  8. Ionospheric foF2 morphology and response of F2 layer height over Jicamarca during different solar epochs and comparison with IRI-2012 model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B O Adebesin; B J Adekoya; S O Ikubanni; S J Adebiyi; O A Adebesin; B W Joshua; K O Olonade

    2014-06-01

    Diurnal, seasonal and annual foF2 variability and the response of the F2-layer height over Jicamarca (11.9°S, 76.8°W, 1°N dip) during periods of low (LSA), moderate (MSA) and high (HSA) solar activities was investigated. The relative standard deviation (R) was used for the analysis. The F2-layer critical frequency pre-noon peak increases by a factor of 2 more than the post-noon peak as the solar activity increases. The variability coefficient (R) is lowest during the day (7–16%) for the three solar epochs; increases during nighttime (20–26%, 14–26%, and 10–20%, respectively for the LSA, MSA and HAS years); and attained highest magnitude during sunrise (21–27%, 24–27%, and 19–30%, respectively in similar order). Two major peaks were observed in R – the pre-sunrise peak, which is higher, and the post-sunset peak. Generally, the variability increases as the solar activity decreases. Annually, R peaks within 23–24%, 19–24% and 15–24% for the LSA, MSA, and HSA periods, respectively. The ionospheric F2-layer height rises to the higher level with increasing solar activity. The foF2 comparison results revealed that Jicamarca is well represented on the IRI-2012 model, with an improvement on the URSI option. The importance of vertical plasma drift and photochemistry in the F2-layer was emphasized.

  9. Additive colouring of CaF2:Yb crystals: determination of Yb2+ concentration in CaF2:Yb crystals and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheulin, A. S.; Angervaks, A. E.; Semenova, T. S.; Koryakina, L. F.; Petrova, M. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Reiterov, V. M.; Garibin, E. A.; Ryskin, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    When growing CaF2 crystal doped with rare-earth ions, most of these ions are present in a trivalent state. However, due to contact with graphite crucible, a small proportion of a number of ions (Eu, Sm, Yb and Tm) are reduced to a bivalent state. A similar situation takes place during fabrication of CaF2 ceramics doped with rare-earth metals. This fact is of particular importance for laser CaF2:Yb crystals (ceramics), a promising material for short-pulse, high-power, high-energy diode-pumped solid state lasers since the presence of bivalent Yb ions can be a source of thermal losses. To date, there has been no technique to determine Yb2+ concentration in as-grown crystals. The proposed technique is based on a total reduction of Yb3+ ions via the heating of as-grown CaF2 crystals with known concentration of Yb in the reducing atmosphere of metal vapour and determining the cross section of absorption bands of Yb2+ ions. The knowledge of these parameters allows estimation of the Yb2+ content in CaF2:Yb crystals or ceramics by analysing their absorption spectra. Examples of using this technique are given. The technology of CdF2 crystals reduction (an "additive colouring") and features of colouring of crystals doped with rare-earth ions are considered.

  10. F2-Isoprostanes in HDL are bound to neutral lipids and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Julie M; Barden, Anne E; Croft, Kevin D; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Bultel-Poncé, Valérie; Giera, Martin; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-12-01

    Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, interventions that raise HDL-C have failed to reduce cardiovascular events. We previously reported that HDL is the main carrier of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) that are markers of oxidative stress formed upon oxidation of arachidonic acid. F2-IsoPs are predominantly associated with phospholipids. However, there is evidence that F2-IsoPs in the liver of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride associate with the neutral lipids. To date it is not known whether F2-IsoPs are found in the neutral lipids in HDL in humans. Possible candidate neutral lipids include cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, and monoglycerides. This study aimed to identify the lipid classes within native and oxidized HDL that contain F2-IsoPs. We showed that F2-IsoPs in HDL are bound to neutral lipids as well as phospholipids. HDL-3 contained the highest concentration of F2-IsoPs in all lipid classes before and after in vitro oxidation. Using targeted LC/MS and high resolution MS, we were unable to provide conclusive evidence for the presence of the synthesized standards 15(R)-15-F2t-isoP cholesterol and 1-ent-15(RS)-15-F2t-isoprostanoyl-sn-glycerol in the neutral lipids of HDL. Our findings show that oxidized lipids such as F2-IsoPs are found in the core and surface of HDL. However, the exact molecular species remain to be definitively characterized. Future studies are required to determine whether the presence of F2-IsoPs in neutral lipids alters HDL function.

  11. On the tensor rank of multiplication in any extension of $\\F_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ballet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain new bounds for the tensor rank of multiplication in any extension of $\\F_2$. In particular, it also enables us to obtain the best known asymptotic bound. In this aim, we use the generalized algorithm of type Chudnovsky with derivative evaluations on places of degree one, two and four applied on the descent over $\\F_2$ of a Garcia-Stichtenoth tower of algebraic function fields defined over $\\F_{2^4}$.

  12. Mechanoluminescence and thermoluminesence in γ-irradiated rare earth doped CaF2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahme, Nameeta; Bisen, D. P.; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2009-08-01

    Mechanoluminescence (ML) and Thermoluminescence (TL) in γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals were studied. The crystals of doped CaF2 were grown by the Bridgman technique. The cleaved crystals were annealed at 450 ∘C for about two hours and cooled very slowly and then irradiated for different time from 60Co source having an exposure rate of 2.8×103 Gy/hr. ML was excited by applying uniaxial pressure on to the samples. Both the ML and TL intensities of CaF2 crystals increase with doping of rare earth impurities. Both the ML and TL intensity of γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals initially increase with increasing concentration of dopants obtaining an optimum value at 0.1 mole% level then further decreases with increasing dopant concentration. ML and TL intensity of γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals initially increases with the irradiation dose and then saturates at higher values of γ-doses. The order of ML and TL intensity for dopants were found similar and their order for decreasing intensity is CaF2:Dy>CaF2:Ce>CaF2:Er>CaF2:Gd. The ML spectra are almost similar to the TL spectra, this suggest that the centres emitting TL and ML may be the same although different processes cause their excitations.

  13. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  15. Measurement of Inclusive $\\rho^{0}, f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1270), K^{*0}_{2}(1430)$ and $f'_{2}(1525)$ Production in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of the neutral mesons$\\rho^0$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1270)$, K$^{*0}_2(1430)$ and $f^{'}_2(1525)$ in hadronic Z$^0$ decays. They are based on about 2 million multihadronic events collected in 1994 and 1995, using the particle identification capabilities of the DELPHI Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and measured ionization losses in the Time Projection Chamber. The total production rates per hadronic Z$^0$ decay have been determined to be: $1.19 \\pm 0.10$ for $\\rho^0$; $0.164 \\pm 0.021$ for $f_0(980)$;$0.214 \\pm 0.038$ for $f_2(1270)$; 0:073 \\pm 0:023 for $K^{*0}_2 (1430)$; and 0:012 \\pm 0:006 for $f_{2}$(1525). The total production rates for all mesons and differential cross-sections for the $\\rho^{0}$, $f_{0}$(980) and $f_{2}$(1270) are compared with the results of other LEP experiments and with models.

  16. X-ray Excitation Triggers Ytterbium Anomalous Emission in CaF2:Yb but Not in SrF2:Yb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B; Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V; Wells, Jon-Paul R; Reid, Michael F; Gordon, Robert A; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2017-02-27

    Materials that luminesce after excitation with ionizing radiation are extensively applied in physics, medicine, security, and industry. Lanthanide dopants are known to trigger crystal scintillation through their fast d-f emissions; the same is true for other important applications as lasers or phosphors for lighting. However, this ability can be seriously compromised by unwanted anomalous emissions often found with the most common lanthanide activators. We report high-resolution X-ray-excited optical (IR to UV) luminescence spectra of CaF2:Yb and SrF2:Yb samples excited at 8949 eV and 80 K. Ionizing radiation excites the known anomalous emission of ytterbium in the CaF2 host but not in the SrF2 host. Wave function-based ab initio calculations of host-to-dopant electron transfer and Yb(2+)/Yb(3+) intervalence charge transfer explain the difference. The model also explains the lack of anomalous emission in Yb-doped SrF2 excited by VUV radiation.

  17. Phosphate Capacities of CaF2-MgO and CaF2-CaO-MgO Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, F.; Pickles, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    Previously published sulphide capacity data and thermodynamic arguments have been employed to calculate the phosphate capacities and the phosphorus partition ratios between a molten carbon saturated iron alloy and binary CaF2-MgO slags and also ternary CaF2 -CaO-MgO slags at 1450 °C. For the CaF2-MgO binary system, a linear relationship was found between the phosphate and the sulphide capacities as follows: log ? = 1.2 log Cs + 25.2. For the ternary CaF2-CaO-MgO system at 1450 °C, the logarithm of the calculated phosphate capacities ranged from 19.47 to 20.15. With the addition of CaO, the phosphate capacities initially increased, reached a maximum and then decreased slightly. The addition of MgO to the CaF2-CaO system resulted in a decrease in the phosphate capacity. The calculated phosphorus partition ratios increased slightly with increasing mole fraction of CaO in the ternary system.

  18. Implementing an analytical formula for calculating M(3000)F2 in the ionosonde operated in Havana

    CERN Document Server

    González, Arian Ojeda; Alazo, Katy; Calzadilla, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Determining the factor M(3000)F2 is very important for ionograms analysis obtained of Ionosonde. M(3000)F2 is the result of the maximum usable frequency (MUF), for to 3000 km distance, divided by the critical frequency of the F2 layer (FoF2). Nowadays, the graphic method to determine the M(3000)F2 is used in Havana station in the ionograms analysis. The purpose of this work is to implement an analytic method that allows us the direct obtaining of M(3000)F2, so it could be programmed and incorporated as part of ionograms elaboration process in Havana station. When is used a PC, some points in the ionogram can be determined. This dataset (f; h') are used to calculate analytically the factor M(3000)F2 . Comparison between the analytic method implemented and the old graphic method are shown. The new method is more accurate and the errors are diminished in the factor M(3000)F2.

  19. Maps of Ionospheric F2-Layer Characteristics Derived from GPS Radio Occultation Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO technique has been used to receive multi-channel GPS carrier phase signals from low Earth or biting (LEO satellites and demon strate active limb sounding of the Earth¡¦s ionosphere. Apply ing Abel inversion through compen sated total electron content (TEC values, the GPS RO observations can obtainion o spheric electron density (ne profiles and then scale F2-layer characteristics including foF2 and hmF2, especially, hmF2 that can not be directly deduced from ionosonde observations. From the GPS/MET and FS3/COS MIC mis sions, we can col lect on average two hundred and eighteen hundred vertical neprofiles, respectively, within one day. The retrieved foF2 and hmF2 re sults have been used to produce numerical maps representing complex prop erties on a world-wide scale. This paperpresents aphysically appeal ing represen tation of foF2 and hmF2 medians based on GPS RO data. The derived numerical maps have also been examined by ground-based ionosonde data.

  20. On the oscillator strengths of MgO and F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Main, R.P.; Schadee, A.

    1969-01-01

    In a recent paper (R. P. Main, D. J. Carlson and R. A. DuPuis, JQSRT 7, 805 (1967)), measurements of oscillator strengths of electronic transitions in the MgO-, MgH-, and F2-molecules were reported. We point out that the results reported in that paper for F2 are almost certainly invalid, and that an

  1. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) i...

  2. Pilot Milt Thompson and the M2-F2 Lifting Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman and Orion D. Billeter assist NASA research pilot Milt Thompson (on the ladder) into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership.

  3. The new readout electronics for the BaF2-calorimeter TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, P; Thoring, U; Bonn, W; van der Duin, HAP; Holzmann, R; van der Kruk, G; Krusche, B; Lohner, H; Metag, [No Value; Nijboer, TW; Novotny, R; Potapov, A; Salz, C; Schadmand, S; Steinacher, M; Thiel, M; Vorenholt, H

    2003-01-01

    A highly compact and fast VME based readout board for BaF2 scintillation detectors has been designed, developed, and finally tested in an in-beam experiment. Adapted to the excellent properties of BaF2, the unit allows to digitize time, energy, and pulse-shape information of four detector channels i

  4. A Theoretical Study of Super-Excited States of F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; HE Chun-long; HAO Yu-Song; MO Yu-Xiang; Li Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of quantum defect theory, we study super-excited states of F2 molecules which can dissociate into F+(3P2,1,0) and F-(1So) ion-pair. Based on our calculation, we present a vibrational resolved assignment of the high precision photofragment yield spectra for F- from the F2 ion-pair production.

  5. Optical properties of Cr3+ in fluorite-structure hosts and in MgF*2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.

    1987-03-01

    We have examined the optical properties of Cr3+ in MgF2 and in the fluorite-structure hosts: CdF2, CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2. The properties of Cr3+ in MgF2 are similar to those observed for other fluoride crystals that have octahedral substitutional metal sites. Interestingly, Cr3+ is also found to be sixfold coordinated in the fluorite hosts, despite the fact that the metal sites of these crystal lattices are eightfold coordinated. The smaller ionic radius of Cr3+ compared to, say, Ca2+, undoubtedly results in considerable relaxation at the metal site. However, the crystal field stabilization energy present in the 4A2(d3) ground state also provides for the energetic preference of sixfold vs eightfold coordination. The similarity of the observed absorption spectra of Cr3+ in MgF2 and in fluorite give evidence that the ground state is octahedrally coordinated in all of these hosts. The reduction of this electronic stabilization energy in the 4T2(d3) excited state is considered to produce a configurational shift relative to the ground state. This shift may be the reason why Cr3+ luminesces effectively in MgF2 whereas it is largely quenched in the fluorite-structure materials.

  6. The new readout electronics for the BaF2-calorimeter TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, P; Thoring, U; Bonn, W; van der Duin, HAP; Holzmann, R; van der Kruk, G; Krusche, B; Lohner, H; Metag, [No Value; Nijboer, TW; Novotny, R; Potapov, A; Salz, C; Schadmand, S; Steinacher, M; Thiel, M; Vorenholt, H

    A highly compact and fast VME based readout board for BaF2 scintillation detectors has been designed, developed, and finally tested in an in-beam experiment. Adapted to the excellent properties of BaF2, the unit allows to digitize time, energy, and pulse-shape information of four detector channels

  7. Enhanced metabolite generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan [Middle Island, NY

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  8. Determination of the ionospheric foF2 using a stand-alone GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Dudy D.; Haralambous, Haris; Oikonomou, Christina; Kuntjoro, Wedyanto

    2017-09-01

    The critical frequency of ionospheric F2 layer (foF2) is a measure of the highest frequency of radio signal that may be reflected back by the F2 layer, and it is associated with ionospheric peak electron density in the F2 layer. Accurate long-term foF2 variations are usually derived from ionosonde observations. In this paper, we propose a new method to observe foF2 using a stand-alone global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The proposed method relies on the mathematical equation that relates foF2 to GPS observations. The equation is then implemented in the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate foF2 at every epoch of the observation (30-s rate). Unlike existing methods, the proposed method does not require any additional information from ionosonde observations and does not require any network of GPS receivers. It only requires as inputs the ionospheric scale height and the modeled plasmaspheric electron content, which practically can be derived from any existing ionospheric/plasmaspheric model. We applied the proposed method to estimate long-term variations of foF2 at three GPS stations located at the northern hemisphere (NICO, Cyprus), the southern hemisphere (STR1, Australia) and the south pole (SYOG, Antarctic). To assess the performance of the proposed method, we then compared the results against those derived by ionosonde observations and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model. We found that, during the period of high solar activity (2011-2012), the values of absolute mean bias between foF2 derived by the proposed method and ionosonde observations are in the range of 0.2-0.5 MHz, while those during the period of low solar activity (2009-2010) are in the range of 0.05-0.15 MHz. Furthermore, the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) values during high and low solar activities are in the range of 0.8-0.9 MHz and of 0.6-0.7 MHz, respectively. We also noticed that the values of absolute mean bias and RMSE between foF2 derived by the proposed method and the

  9. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental

  10. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental access

  11. X-ray excited luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with SrF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Hevyk, V. B.; Yakibchuk, P. M.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    The polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles up to 40 wt% have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles upon the pulse X-ray excitation have been investigated. The luminescence intensity of the pure polystyrene scintillator film significantly increases when it is loaded with the inorganic SrF2 nanoparticles. The film nanocomposites show fast (∼2.8 ns) and slow (∼700 ns) luminescence decay components typical for a luminescence of polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and SrF2 nanoparticles, respectively. It is revealed that the fast decay luminescence component of the polystyrene composites is caused by the excitation of polystyrene by the photoelectrons escaped from the nanoparticles due to photoeffect, and the slow component is caused by reabsorption of the self-trapped exciton luminescence of SrF2 nanoparticles by polystyrene.

  12. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species.

  13. The effect of CaF2 on thermodynamics of CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Koo; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Lee, Kwang-Ro; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2004-02-01

    To address the role of CaF2 in the CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slag system employed for the production of low-pressure rotor steels, the thermodynamic aspects of the slag were investigated by equilibrating it with liquid iron at 1873 K in CaO or MgO crucibles. Presaturation of slag with an oxide block piece of CaO or MgO in a Pt crucible and application of a carbon paste to the outside of an oxide crucible were designed to prevent crucible failure during the slag-metal experiments. The liquidus isotherm and phase boundary of the preceding slag system were investigated using the slag-metal equilibria. Also, the effect of CaF2 on the sulfide capacity and the activity coefficient of Fe t O were of particular interest in controlling the sulfur level and cleanliness of low-pressure rotor steels.

  14. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Decomposition treatment of SO2F2 using packed bed DBD plasma followed by chemical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Zheng, Qifeng; Liang, Xiaojiang; Gu, Dayong; Lu, Meizhen; Min, Min; Ji, Jianbing

    2013-07-16

    The technology of packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma followed by a chemical absorption has been developed and was found to be an efficient way for decomposition treatment of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in simulated residual fumigant. The effects of energy density, initial SO2F2 concentration, and residence time on the removal efficiency of SO2F2 for the DBD plasma treatment alone were investigated. It was found that the SO2F2 could be removed completely when initial volume concentration, energy density, and residence time were 0.5%, 33.9 kJ/L, and 5.1 s, respectively. The removal mechanism of SO2F2 in the packed bed DBD reactor was discussed. Based on the detailed analysis of SO2F2 molecular stability and its exhaust products in the DBD plasma reactor, it was concluded that the energetic electrons generated in the packed bed DBD reactor played a key role on the removal of SO2F2, and the major decomposition products of SO2F2 detected were SO2, SiF4, and S (Sulfur). Among these products, SiF4 was formed by the F atom reacted with the filler-quartz glass beads (SiO2) in the packed bed DBD reactor. Aqueous NaOH solution was used as the chemical absorbent for the gaseous products of SO2F2 after plasma pretreatment. It was found that the gaseous products in the plasma exhaust could be absorbed and fixed by the subsequent aqueous NaOH solution.

  16. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Amber M [UNIV OF UTAH; Adler, Frederick R [UNIV OF UTAH; Mcauley, Julie L [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH; Mccullers, Jonathan A [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral polymerase activity in vitro, and produces enhanced inflammation and increased secondary pneumonia in vivo. However, the effects the PB1-F2 protein have in vivo remain unclear. To address the mechanisms involved, we intranasally infected groups of mice with either influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8 background, PR8-PB1-F2(1918). Mice inoculated with PR8 had viral concentrations peaking at 72 hours, while those infected with PR8-PB1-F2(1918) reached peak concentrations earlier, 48 hours. Mice given PR8-PB1-F2(1918) also showed a faster decline in viral loads. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate parameter values and select the best model. This model supports a lower viral clearance rate and higher infected cell death rate with the PR8-PB1-F2(1918) virus, although the viral production rate may also be higher. We hypothesize that the higher PR8-PB1-F2(1918) viral titers early in an infection are due to both an increase in viral production with decreased viral clearance, and that the faster decline in the later stages of infection result from elevated cell death rates. We discuss the implications these mechanisms have during an infection with a virus expressing a virulent PBI-F2 on the possibility of a pandemic and on the importance of antiviral treatments.

  17. Nuclear medium effects in $F_{2A}^{EM}(x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{Weak}(x,Q^2)$ structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Recent phenomenological analysis of experimental data on DIS processes induced by charged leptons and neutrinos/antineutrinos beams on nuclear targets by CTEQ collaboration has confirmed the observation of CCFR and NuTeV collaborations, that weak structure function $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ is different from electromagnetic structure function $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ in a nucleus like iron, specially in the region of low $x$ and $Q^2$. In view of this observation we have made a study of nuclear medium effects on $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ for a wide range of $x$ and $Q^2$ using a microscopic nuclear model. We have considered Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects to incorporate nuclear medium effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using a relativistic nucleon spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. The numerical results in the case of iron nucleus are compared wi...

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  19. Vibrational spectra of (BaF2)n (n=1-6) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ratnesh K.; Waters, Kevin; Nigam, Sandeep; Pandey, Ravindra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2016-05-01

    The vibrational properties of alkaline-earth metal fluoride clusters (BaF2)n (n=1-6) are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The calculated Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra reveals shift in Raman and IR peak position towards lower frequency region with the increase in the cluster size. Further the calculated spectra have been compared with the experimental vibrational spectra of bulk BaF2 crystal. Even though the smaller size cluster lacks translational symmetry, the structural and vibrational characteristic of (BaF2)5-6 are nearer to bulk counterpart.

  20. Optical Properties of MgF2 / MgF2 / Glass and MgF2 / TiO2 / Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghahramani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 thin films by thickness of 93 nm were deposited on MgF2 / glass and TiO2 / glass thin layers by resistance evaporation method under ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions, rotating pre layer for sample one and normal deposition for second one. Optical properties were measured via spectrophotometer in spectral range of 300-1100 nm wave length. The optical constants such as, real part of refractive index (n, imaginary part of refractive index (k, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function ε1, ε2 respectively and absorption coefficient (, were obtained from Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity curves. Band-gap energy was also estimated for these films.

  1. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA enhance exploratory, anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior and increase levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2008-02-11

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) influence the onset and duration of sexual behavior and are also associated with changes in behaviors that may contribute to mating, such as exploration, anxiety, and social behaviors (socio-sexual behaviors). In the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), the P4 metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), modulates lordosis of E2-primed rodents; 3alpha,5alpha-THP can also influence anxiety and social behaviors. To examine if 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the VTA mediates socio-sexual behaviors, we infused 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA of diestrous and proestrous rats. As expected, proestrous, compared to diestrous, rats showed more exploratory (open field), anxiolytic (elevated plus maze), pro-social (partner preference, social interaction), and sexual (paced mating) behavior and had increased E2, P4, dihydroprogesterone (DHP), and 3alpha,5alpha-THP in serum, midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA, but not control sites, such as the substantia nigra (SN) or central grey (CG), of diestrous rats produced behavioral and endocrine effects akin to that of proestrous rats and increased DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon. Levels of DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP, but neither E2 nor P4 concentrations, in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and/or cortex were positively correlated with socio-sexual behaviors. Thus, 3alpha,5alpha-THP infusions to the VTA, but not SN or CG, can enhance socio-sexual behaviors and increase levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon.

  2. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.

    2008-03-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  3. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from ... Key words: Solanum, genome, phenotype, taxonomy, evolution, interspecific hybridization, pollen viability, ..... This development affirms the views of .... The origins of.

  4. Measurement of the neutron F2 structure function via spectator tagging with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, N; Zhang, J; Bosted, P; Bultmann, S; Christy, M E; Fenker, H; Griffioen, K A; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, S E; Melnitchouk, W; Tvaskis, V; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfini, M; Arrington, J; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Battaglieri, M; Biselli, A S; Branford, 5 D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Domingo, J; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hungerford, E; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ispiryan, M; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Kalantarians, N; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Markov, N; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Ni, A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, I; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Pisano, S; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zana, L; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the F2 structure function of the neutron from semi-inclusive scattering of electrons from deuterium, with low-momentum protons detected in the backward hemisphere. Restricting the momentum of the spectator protons to < 100 MeV and their angles to < 100 degrees relative to the momentum transfer allows an interpretation of the process in terms of scattering from nearly on-shell neutrons. The F2n data collected cover the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions over a wide range of x for 0.65 < Q2 < 4.52 GeV2, with uncertainties from nuclear corrections estimated to be less than a few percent. These measurements provide the first determination of the neutron to proton structure function ratio F2n/F2p at 0.2 < x < 0.8, essentially free of nuclear corrections.

  5. QCD analysis of neutrino charged current structure function F2 in deep inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Aleem, F.

    1985-08-01

    An analytic expression for the neutrino charged current structure function F2 (x, Q2) in deep inelastic scattering, consistent with quantum chromodynamics, is proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Microstructural and Optical Absorption Properties of Cu-MgF2 Nanoparticle Cermet Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兆奇; 孙大明; 阮图南

    2002-01-01

    We examine the microstructural and optical absorption spectra of 10-30 vol% Cu-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films prepared by co-evaporation in vacuum. The results show that the Cu-MgF2 cermet films are mainly composed of the amorphous MgF2 matrix with embedded fcc Cu nanoparticles of average size 12-24 nm. The results also show that the optical absorption of the films decreases as the wavelength increases in the range of 200-800nm. The surface plasmon resonance absorption peaks of Cu nanoparticles in 10, 20 and 30 vo1% Cu-MgF2 films appear at 578, 588 and 606nm, respectively. The interband transition absorption of Cu starts from 590nm downwards.Based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, the experimental optical absorption properties of the films have been quantitatively evaluated.

  7. On the Rise of the Proton Structure Function F_2 Towards Low x

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement of the derivative (d ln F_2 / d lnx)_(Q^2)= -lambda(x,Q^2) of the proton structure function F_2 is presented in the low x domain of deeply inelastic positron-proton scattering. For 5*10^(-5)=1.5 GeV^2, lambda(x,Q^2) is found to be independent of x and to increase linearly with ln(Q^2).

  8. Basal Plane Fluorination of Graphene by XeF2 via a Radical Cation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun; Noffke, Benjamin W; Qiao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qiqi; Gao, Xinfeng; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Li, Liang-shi

    2015-09-17

    Graphene fluorination with XeF2 is an attractive method to introduce a nonzero bandgap to graphene under mild conditions for potential electro-optical applications. Herein, we use well-defined graphene nanostructures as a model system to study the reaction mechanism of graphene fluorination by XeF2. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies show that the reaction can proceed through a radical cation mechanism, leading to fluorination and sp(3)-hybridized carbon in the basal plane.

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet - photon mediated production of [(18) F]F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyczmonik, Anna; Keller, Thomas; Kirjavainen, Anna; Forsback, Sarita; Solin, Olof

    2017-01-25

    The chemistry of F2 and its derivatives are amenable to facile aliphatic or aromatic substitution, as well as electrophilic addition. The main limitation in the use of [(18) F]F2 for radiopharmaceutical synthesis is the low specific activity achieved by the traditional methods of production. The highest specific activities, 55 GBq/µmol, for [(18) F]F2 have been achieved so far by using electrical discharge in the post-target production of [(18) F]F2 gas from [(18) F]CH3 F. We demonstrate that [(18) F]F2 is produced by illuminating a gas mixture of neon/F2 /[(18) F]CH3 F with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons generated by an excimer laser. We tested several illumination chambers and production conditions. The effects of the initial amount of [(18) F]F(-) , amount of carrier F2 and number of 193 nm laser pulses at constant power were evaluated with regard to radiochemical yield and specific activity. The specific activity attained for [(18) F]F2 derived [(18) F]NFSi was 10.3 ± 0.9 GBq/µmol and the average radiochemical yield over a wide range of conditions was 6.7% from [(18) F]F(-) . The production can be improved by optimization of the synthesis device and procedures. The use of a commercially available excimer laser and the simplicity of the process can make this method relatively easy for adaptation in radiochemistry laboratories.

  10. The gluon density of the proton at low x from a QCD analysis of F$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sciacca, G F; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1995-01-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the proton structure function F_2 measured by the H1 experiment at HERA, combined with data from previous fixed target experiments. The gluon density is extracted from the scaling violations of F_2 in the range 2\\cdot 10^{-4}

  11. A new global model for the ionospheric F2 peak height for radio wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer peak density height hmF2 is one of the most important ionospheric parameters characterizing HF propagation conditions. Therefore, the ability to model and predict the spatial and temporal variations of the peak electron density height is of great use for both ionospheric research and radio frequency planning and operation. For global hmF2 modelling we present a nonlinear model approach with 13 model coefficients and a few empirically fixed parameters. The model approach describes the temporal and spatial dependencies of hmF2 on global scale. For determining the 13 model coefficients, we apply this model approach to a large quantity of global hmF2 observational data obtained from GNSS radio occultation measurements onboard CHAMP, GRACE and COSMIC satellites and data from 69 worldwide ionosonde stations. We have found that the model fits to these input data with the same root mean squared (RMS and standard deviations of 10%. In comparison with the electron density NeQuick model, the proposed Neustrelitz global hmF2 model (Neustrelitz Peak Height Model – NPHM shows percentage RMS deviations of about 13% and 12% from the observational data during high and low solar activity conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding deviations for the NeQuick model are found 18% and 16%, respectively.

  12. Luminescence and scintillation properties of BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Sahi, Sunil; Groza, Michael; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Burger, Arnold; Kenarangui, Rasool; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Selim, Farida A.

    2016-08-01

    Cerium doped Barium Fluoride (BaF2sbnd Ce) transparent ceramic was fabricated and its luminescence and scintillation properties were studied. The photoluminescence shows the emission peaks at 310 nm and 323 nm and is related to the 5d-4f transitions in Ce3+ ion. Photo peak at 511 keV and 1274 keV were obtained with BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic for Na-22 radioisotopes. Energy resolution of 13.5% at 662 keV is calculated for the BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic. Light yield of 5100 photons/MeV was recorded for BaF2sbnd Ce(0.2%) ceramic and is comparable to its single crystal counterpart. Scintillation decay time measurements shows fast component of 58 ns and a relatively slow component of 434 ns under 662 keV gamma excitation. The slower component in BaF2sbnd Ce(0.2%) ceramic is about 200 ns faster than the STE emission in BaF2 host and is associated with the dipole-dipole energy transfer from the host matrix to Ce3+ luminescence center.

  13. Generation of (F+2)_AH Centres in Sodium Ion Doped KCl:CO^{2-3}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaf, M.; Chihi, I.; Hamaïdia, A.; Akrmi, El.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that (F+2)AH centres of KCl may be obtained from crystals doped with K{2}CO{3} and NaCl, grown by the Czochralski method in open atmosphere. The optical properties of (F+2)AH centres thus produced are exactly the same as those of (F+2)AH centres prepared by the usual technique, which involves superoxide doping and a controlled atmosphere. Nous montrons que les centres (F+2)AH de KCl peuvent être obtenus à partir de cristaux dopés par K{2}CO{3} et NaCl, fabriqués par la méthode de Czochralski à l'air libre. Les propriétés optiques des centres (F+2)AH ainsi produits sont exactement les mêmes que celles des centres (F+2)AH préparés par la technique habituelle, qui comporte le dopage par un superoxyde et l'emploi d'une atmosphère contrôlée.

  14. Daytime F2-layer positive storm effect at middle and lower latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available Daytime F2-layer positive storm effects at middle and lower latitudes in the winter thermosphere are analyzed using AE-C, ESRO-4 neutral gas composition data, ground-based ionosonde observations and model calculations. Different longitudinal sectors marked by the storm onset as 'night-time' and 'daytime' demonstrate different F2-layer positive storm mechanisms. Neutral composition changes in the 'night-time' sector with increased [O] and [N2] absolute concentrations, while (N2/Ostorm/(N2/Oquietapprox1 at F2-layer heights, are shown to contribute largely to the background NmF2 increase at lower latitudes lasting during daytime hours. Storm-induced surges of the equatorward wind give rise to an additional NmF2 increase above this background level. The mid-latitude F2-layer positive storm effect in the 'daytime' sector is due to the vertical plasma drift increase, resulting from the interaction of background (poleward and storm-induced (equatorward thermospheric winds, but not to changes of [O] and [N2] concentrations.

  15. LATS refining ladle slag modifying with CaO-CaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Wang; Guirong Li; Zhongming Ren; Bo Li; Xuejun Zhang; Guomin Shi

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the slag sticking onto the snorkel of the ladle during the ladle alloying treatment station (LATS) process, CaO-CaF2 (the mass ratio of CaO/CaF2 is 1:1) was employed as the modifier of the LATS refining ladle slag. The effect of CaO-CaF2 on the melting point, viscosity, and desulfurizing capability of the ladle slag was investigated. The melting point of the unmodified ladle slag is 1439°C. When adding 20wt% CaO-CaF2, the melting point is decreased to 1327°C. At 1500°C, the viscosity of the unmodified ladle slag is 6.5 Pa·s, which can be decreased lower than 2 Pa·s by adding more than 10wt% CaO-CaF2. The experimental results of desulfurization of the melts show that the desulfurizing power of the ladle slag can be enhanced by adding CaO-CaF2.

  16. Synthesis and optical characterizations of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zaichun; Mei, Bingchu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoya; Su, Liangbi

    2017-09-01

    Highly transparent Nd, Y co-doped calcium fluoride (Nd, Y: CaF2) ceramics with different Y3+ ions doped concentrations were fabricated by hot-pressed method using Nd, Y: CaF2 nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation method. According to the XRD calculations and SEM observations, the average grain size of nanopowders was about 22 nm. From the SEM micrograph of the nanopowders, it clearly shows that the nanoparticles exhibit nearly spherical morphology and agglomerated slightly. For 2 mm thickness sample, the transmittance of the as-fabricated Nd, Y: CaF2 (1 at.% Nd and 2 at.% Y) ceramic at 1400 nm reached up to 87%. The microstructure, absorption spectra and emission spectra of the Nd, Y: CaF2 ceramics were measured and discussed. Compared with the Nd: CaF2 ceramic, the Nd, Y: CaF2 ceramics fluorescent intensity increased drastically with the increase of Y3+ ions doped concentration.

  17. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites.

  18. Biodegradation of clofibric acid and identification of its metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal do Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setubal (Portugal); Oehmen, A. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. da Republica (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Noronha, J.P. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Reis, M.A.M., E-mail: amr@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Metabolites produced during clofibric acid biodegradation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clofibric acid is biodegradable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mainly heterotrophic bacteria degraded the clofibric acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metabolites of clofibric acid biodegradation were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metabolic pathway of clofibric acid biodegradation is proposed. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CLF) is the pharmaceutically active metabolite of lipid regulators clofibrate, etofibrate and etofyllinclofibrate, and it is considered both environmentally persistent and refractory. This work studied the biotransformation of CLF in aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mixed microbial cultures, monitoring the efficiency of biotransformation of CLF and the production of metabolites. The maximum removal achieved was 51% biodegradation (initial CLF concentration = 2 mg L{sup -1}), where adsorption and abiotic removal mechanisms were shown to be negligible, showing that CLF is indeed biodegradable. Tests showed that the observed CLF biodegradation was mainly carried out by heterotrophic bacteria. Three main metabolites were identified, including {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid, lactic acid and 4-chlorophenol. The latter is known to exhibit higher toxicity than the parent compound, but it did not accumulate in the SBRs. {alpha}-Hydroxyisobutyric acid and lactic acid accumulated for a period, where nitrite accumulation may have been responsible for inhibiting their degradation. A metabolic pathway for the biodegradation of CLF is proposed in this study.

  19. Ionospheric weather: cloning missed foF2 observations for derivation of variability index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Gulyaeva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A techique for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied for the derivation of the ionospheric weather index, characterizing the degree of disturbance at each particular station. A daily-hourly analysis of ionosonde observations of foF2 for 16 stations at latitude range 37° to 70° N, longitudes of 10° W to 150° E, is performed during the solar minimum, 2006. Missed ionosonde observations are reconstructed by cloning data of another station. The process of gap filling considers hourly values of the F peak density NmF2 (deduced from foF2, normalized to the respective median, and assumes that this ratio remains the same for the parent and cloned data. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between cloned fcF2 and observed foF2 is greater than 0.75 for the positive and negative ionospheric disturbed days during a year at solar minimum, independent of the distance between the stations in high and middle latitudes. The quiet reference is determined as a running daily-hourly median for 27 days, preceding the day of observation calibrated for a seasonal trend with ITU-R foF2 predictions. The hourly deviation DNmF2 is defined as the logarithm of ratio of NmF2/NmF2med. A segmented logarithmic scale of the ionospheric weather index, W, is introduced, so that W=±1 refers to the quiet state, W=±2 to a moderate disturbance, W=±3 to the ionospheric storm, and W=±4 to the extreme or anomalous conditions. The catalog of the ionospheric disturbances for W exceeding ±2 at least during 3 consecutive hours is produced and presented online at the SRC and IZMIRAN web pages. It is found that the moderate disturbance is a prevailing state of the ionospheric weather for all stations. The stormy conditions comprise 1 to 20% of the times which occur more frequently at high latitudes, by night, during equinox and winter.

  20. Ionospheric weather: cloning missed foF2 observations for derivation of variability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislwska, I.; Tomasik, M.

    2008-02-01

    A techique for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied for the derivation of the ionospheric weather index, characterizing the degree of disturbance at each particular station. A daily-hourly analysis of ionosonde observations of foF2 for 16 stations at latitude range 37° to 70° N, longitudes of 10° W to 150° E, is performed during the solar minimum, 2006. Missed ionosonde observations are reconstructed by cloning data of another station. The process of gap filling considers hourly values of the F peak density NmF2 (deduced from foF2), normalized to the respective median, and assumes that this ratio remains the same for the parent and cloned data. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between cloned fcF2 and observed foF2 is greater than 0.75 for the positive and negative ionospheric disturbed days during a year at solar minimum, independent of the distance between the stations in high and middle latitudes. The quiet reference is determined as a running daily-hourly median for 27 days, preceding the day of observation calibrated for a seasonal trend with ITU-R foF2 predictions. The hourly deviation DNmF2 is defined as the logarithm of ratio of NmF2/NmF2med. A segmented logarithmic scale of the ionospheric weather index, W, is introduced, so that W=±1 refers to the quiet state, W=±2 to a moderate disturbance, W=±3 to the ionospheric storm, and W=±4 to the extreme or anomalous conditions. The catalog of the ionospheric disturbances for W exceeding ±2 at least during 3 consecutive hours is produced and presented online at the SRC and IZMIRAN web pages. It is found that the moderate disturbance is a prevailing state of the ionospheric weather for all stations. The stormy conditions comprise 1 to 20% of the times which occur more frequently at high latitudes, by night, during equinox and winter.

  1. Measurement of F_2^ccbar and F_2^bbbar at High Q^2 using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Böhme, J; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dingfelder, J; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garutti, E; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Grab, C; Grässler, Herbert; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoting, P; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Koblitz, B; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kroseberg, J; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Kuhr, T; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N A; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morozov, I; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nagovizin, V; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ossoskov, G; Ozerov, D; Paramonov, A A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vargas, A; Trevino; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Woerling, E E; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2004-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality Q^2 > 150 GeV^2 and of inelasticity 0.1 < y < 0.7. The charm and beauty fractions are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. The data are divided into four regions in Q^2 and Bjorken x, and values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  2. Broadly Tunable Room-temperature Operation Co∶MgF2 Laser%宽调谐室温Co∶MgF2激光器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔益本; 张伟; 张增明; 姜芸芸; 纪玉峰; 戎春华

    2001-01-01

    用双折射滤光片不同干涉级次和多组谐振腔镜连续调谐室温Co∶MgF2激光器,波长调谐范围达到1700~2550 nm,在2090 nm峰值波长的输出能量及效率分别为115 mJ和16%.

  3. Understanding and classifying metabolite space and metabolite-likeness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Peironcely

    Full Text Available While the entirety of 'Chemical Space' is huge (and assumed to contain between 10(63 and 10(200 'small molecules', distinct subsets of this space can nonetheless be defined according to certain structural parameters. An example of such a subspace is the chemical space spanned by endogenous metabolites, defined as 'naturally occurring' products of an organisms' metabolism. In order to understand this part of chemical space in more detail, we analyzed the chemical space populated by human metabolites in two ways. Firstly, in order to understand metabolite space better, we performed Principal Component Analysis (PCA, hierarchical clustering and scaffold analysis of metabolites and non-metabolites in order to analyze which chemical features are characteristic for both classes of compounds. Here we found that heteroatom (both oxygen and nitrogen content, as well as the presence of particular ring systems was able to distinguish both groups of compounds. Secondly, we established which molecular descriptors and classifiers are capable of distinguishing metabolites from non-metabolites, by assigning a 'metabolite-likeness' score. It was found that the combination of MDL Public Keys and Random Forest exhibited best overall classification performance with an AUC value of 99.13%, a specificity of 99.84% and a selectivity of 88.79%. This performance is slightly better than previous classifiers; and interestingly we found that drugs occupy two distinct areas of metabolite-likeness, the one being more 'synthetic' and the other being more 'metabolite-like'. Also, on a truly prospective dataset of 457 compounds, 95.84% correct classification was achieved. Overall, we are confident that we contributed to the tasks of classifying metabolites, as well as to understanding metabolite chemical space better. This knowledge can now be used in the development of new drugs that need to resemble metabolites, and in our work particularly for assessing the metabolite

  4. Effects of flunixin meglumine and prostaglandin F2 α treatments on the development and quality of bovine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Bang, J-I; Fakruzzaman, M; Lee, K-L; Ko, D-H; Ghanem, N; Wang, Z; Kong, I-K

    2014-12-01

    Assisted reproduction procedures, such as embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), in cattle could induce the secretion of prostaglandin F2 -alpha (PGF2 α) from uterine horns which may in turn interrupt embryo development and implantation. This study investigated the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and FM combined with PGF2α supplementation in culture medium (IVC-II) on the development and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The development rate of embryos was significantly higher in the FM group (33.3%) than in control (24.3%), PGF2 α (23.9%) and FM + PGF2 α groups (24.5%). The percentage of hatched blastocysts was also higher (p < 0.05) in the FM group (41.2%) than in the control (27.8%) and PGF2 α groups (19.8%). While, there was no significant difference in total cell number in all experimental groups, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the PGF2 α group (8.2 ± 6.6) than in the control (4.7 ± 3.2), FM (4.7 ± 2.5) and FM + PGF2 α (4.9 ± 3.4) groups. Detected by real-time PCR, secreted vesicle seminal protein 1 (SSLP1) and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression decreased (p < 0.05) in the PGF2 α group. However, SSLP1 and PTGS2 gene expression in the FM + PGF2 α group returned to their baseline levels, similar to the control and FM groups. Caspase 3 (CAPS3) gene expression increased in the PGF2 α group compared with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of FM in vitro culture significantly improved embryo development as well as alleviated the negative impact of PGF2 α.

  5. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Mühle, Jens; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Rigby, Matthew; Montzka, Stephen A.; Harth, Christina M.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Henne, Stephan; Krummel, Paul B.; Hall, Bradley D.; Young, Dickon; Kim, Jooil; Arduini, Jgor; Wenger, Angelina; Yao, Bo; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Etheridge, David M.; Li, Shanlan; Verdonik, Daniel P.; Park, Sunyoung; Dutton, Geoff; Steele, L. Paul; Lunder, Chris R.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Wang, Ray H. J.; Hill, Matthias; Salameh, Peter K.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Zhou, Lingxi; Blunier, Thomas; Schwander, Jakob; Elkins, James W.; Butler, James H.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Fraser, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We report ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates for the halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2) from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration global networks. We also include results from archived air samples in canisters and from polar firn in both hemispheres, thereby deriving an atmospheric record of nearly nine decades (1930s to present). All three halons were absent from the atmosphere until ˜1970, when their atmospheric burdens started to increase rapidly. In recent years H-1211 and H-2402 mole fractions have been declining, but H-1301 has continued to grow. High-frequency observations show continuing emissions of H-1211 and H-1301 near most AGAGE sites. For H-2402 the only emissions detected were derived from the region surrounding the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Based on our observations, we derive global emissions using two different inversion approaches. Emissions for H-1211 declined from a peak of 11 kt yr-1 (late 1990s) to 3.9 kt yr-1 at the end of our record (mean of 2013-2015), for H-1301 from 5.4 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 1.6 kt yr-1, and for H-2402 from 1.8 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 0.38 kt yr-1. Yearly summed halon emissions have decreased substantially; nevertheless, since 2000 they have accounted for ˜30% of the emissions of all major anthropogenic ozone depletion substances, when weighted by ozone depletion potentials.

  6. The HgF2 Ionic Switch: A Triumph of Electrostatics against Relativistic Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kelling J; Kretz, William J; Omorodion, Oluwarotimi

    2015-11-16

    A remarkable transition in the chemical bonding in (HgF2)n clusters as a function of n is identified and characterized. HgF2 is a fascinating material. Certain significant consequences of relativistic effects on the structure of the HgF2 molecule, dimer, and trimer disappear in the extended solid. Relativistic effects in Hg ensure that HgX2 molecules (X≡F, Cl, Br, and I) are linear, rigid, and form weakly bound dimers and trimers held together by weak electrostatic and van der Waals-type forces (unlike ZnX2 and CdX2 systems in which the intermonomer contacts are strong polar covalent bonds). For HgF2, the location and nature of an apparent transition from weak interactions in the smallest (HgF2)n clusters to ionic bonding in the (fluorite) HgF2 extended solid has remained a mystery. Computational evidence obtained at the M06-2X, B97D3, and MP2 levels of theory and reported herein indicate that polar covalent bonding in (HgF2)n begins as early as n=5. For n=2 through to n=13, the transition or switch from weak (primarily dipole-dipole-type) intermonomer interactions to a preference for polar covalent bonding occurs within the range 5

  7. Knockdown of E2F2 inhibits tumorigenicity, but preserves stemness of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daniela Emi; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2014-06-01

    Tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells is a major threat limiting their application in cell therapy protocols. It remains unclear, however, whether suppression of tumorigenic potential can be achieved without critically affecting pluripotency. A previous study has identified hyperexpressed genes in cancer stem cells, among which is E2F2, a gene involved in malignant transformation and stem cell self-renewal. Here we tested whether E2F2 knockdown would affect the proliferative capacity and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Transient E2F2 silencing in hESC significantly inhibited expression of the proto-oncogenes BMI1 and HMGA1, in addition to proliferation of hESC, indicated by a higher proportion of cells in G1, fewer cells in G2/M phase, and a reduced capacity to generate hESC colonies in vitro. Nonetheless, E2F2-silenced cells kept expression of typical pluripotency markers and displayed differentiation capacity in vitro. More importantly, E2F2 knockdown in hESC significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo, which was considerably smaller than tumors generated from control hESC, although displaying typical teratoma traits, a major indicator of pluripotency retention in E2F2-silenced cells. These results suggest that E2F2 knockdown can inhibit hESC proliferation and tumorigenicity without significantly harming stemness, providing a rationale to future protocols aiming at minimizing risks related to therapeutic application of cells and/or products derived from human pluripotent cells.

  8. Trends in the critical frequency foF2 after 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. D.; Konstantinova, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of how the deep minimum of solar activity of 2008-2009 influenced trends in the critical frequency of the F2 layer and whether the negative trends in foF2 are conserved in the following five years is considered in the paper. The initial data series used in previous publications by the authors are completed by data to 2014 (2015). Methods of searching for trends that were described in the past several times by the authors were applied. It was found that, in the vast majority of cases, the monotonous change in the curves used to derive the foF2 trend was distorted in years close to the anomalously low minimum of solar activity in 2008-2009. That decreased the obtained trend in the critical frequency as compared with the results based on the data to 2009. However, subsequent years again lead to a tendency toward monotonous decrease in foF2. The causes of the anomalies indicated above lie apparently in the inadequacy of the solar activity index F10.7 for the description of changes in the aeronomical parameters determining the foF2 behavior in the period of a very deep minimum of activity that is widely described in some publications.

  9. Rare variants in NR2F2 cause congenital heart defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Saeed; Manickaraj, Ashok K; Mercer, Catherine L; Gerety, Sebastian S; Hitz, Marc-Phillip; Lindsay, Sarah; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Bentham, Jamie; Arndt, Anne-Karin; Louw, Jacoba; Low, Jacoba; Breckpot, Jeroen; Gewillig, Marc; Thienpont, Bernard; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Harnack, Christine; Hoff, Kirstin; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Schubert, Stephan; Siebert, Reiner; Toka, Okan; Cosgrove, Catherine; Watkins, Hugh; Lucassen, Anneke M; O'Kelly, Ita M; Salmon, Anthony P; Bu'lock, Frances A; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Brook, J David; Mulder, Barbara; Klaassen, Sabine; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Devriendt, Koen; Fitzpatrick, David F; Wilson, David I; Mital, Seema; Hurles, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect worldwide and are a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Nonsyndromic atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are an important subtype of CHDs for which the genetic architecture is poorly understood. We performed exome sequencing in 13 parent-offspring trios and 112 unrelated individuals with nonsyndromic AVSDs and identified five rare missense variants (two of which arose de novo) in the highly conserved gene NR2F2, a very significant enrichment (p = 7.7 × 10(-7)) compared to 5,194 control subjects. We identified three additional CHD-affected families with other variants in NR2F2 including a de novo balanced chromosomal translocation, a de novo substitution disrupting a splice donor site, and a 3 bp duplication that cosegregated in a multiplex family. NR2F2 encodes a pleiotropic developmental transcription factor, and decreased dosage of NR2F2 in mice has been shown to result in abnormal development of atrioventricular septa. Via luciferase assays, we showed that all six coding sequence variants observed in individuals significantly alter the activity of NR2F2 on target promoters.

  10. Protocols for the measurement of the F2-isoprostane, 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, in biological samples by GC-MS or GC-MS/MS coupled with immunoaffinity column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Suchy, Maria-Theresia

    2016-04-15

    Arachidonic acid, the origin of the eicosanoids family, occurs in biological samples as free acid and as ester in lipids. Free arachidonic acid is oxidized to numerous metabolites by means of enzymes including cyclooxygenase (COX). Arachidonic acid esterified to lipids is attacked by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to generate numerous oxidized arachidonic acid derivatives. Generally, it is assumed that ROS-derived arachidonic acid derivatives are distinct from those generated by enzymes such as COX. Therefore, ROS-generated eicosanoids are considered specific biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, there are serious doubts concerning a strict distinction between the enzyme-derived eicosanoids and the ROS-derived iso-eicosanoids. Prominent examples are prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α) which have been originally considered to exclusively derive from COX and ROS, respectively. There is convincing evidence that both COX and ROS can oxidize arachidonic acid to PGF2α and 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α. Thus, many results previously reported for 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α as exclusive ROS-dependent reaction product, and consequently as a specific biomarker of oxidative stress, require a careful re-examination which should also consider the analytical methods used to measure 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α. This prominent but certainly not the only example underlines more than ever the importance of the analytical chemistry in basic and clinical research areas of oxidative stress. In the present work, we report analytical protocols for the reliable quantitative determination of 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α in human biological samples including plasma and urine by mass spectrometry coupled to gas chromatography (GC-MS, GC-MS/MS) after specific isolation of endogenous 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α and the externally added internal standard [3,3',4,4'-(2)H4]-15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α by immunoaffinity column chromatography (IAC). 15(S)-8-iso-PGF2α esterified to plasma lipids is

  11. Solar Cycle variations of ƒoF2 from IGY to 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Goel

    Full Text Available Noontime monthly median values of F2-layer critical frequency foF2 (m for some ionospheric stations representing low- and mid-latitudes are examined for their dependence on solar activity for the years 1957 (IGY to 1990. This is the period for which ionospheric data in digital form is available in two CD-ROMs at the World Data Center, Boulder. It is observed that at mid-latitudes, foF2 (m shows nearly a linear relationship with R12 (the 12-month running average of the Zurich sunspot number, though this relation is nonlinear for low-latitudes. These results indicate some departures from the existing information often used in theoretical and applied areas of space research.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  12. Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi

    1992-06-01

    The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.

  13. Role of MgF2 on properties of glass–ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ghasemzadeh; A Nemati

    2012-10-01

    Formation of machinable glass–ceramic in the system MgO–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–F with and without addition of MgF2 has been investigated. Crystallization of glass sample was done by controlled thermal heat treatment at nucleation and crystallization temperatures. The results showed that MgF2 in high concentration had a synergistic effect and enhanced the formation of interlockedmica crystals. Non-isothermal DTA experiments showed that the crystallization activation energies of base glasses were changed in the range of 235–405 kJ/mol, while the crystallization activation energies of samples with addition of MgF2 were changed in the range of 548–752 kJ/mol.

  14. Behavior of Parameters of Nighttime Electron Density Enhancements of the Ionospheric F2 Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina

    2017-04-01

    There is known a wide class of disturbances of the F2-layer of the ionosphere, which are superimposed on the regular diurnal variations of the electron density. Different types of disturbances are characterized by different mechanisms of their generation. Traveling ionospheric disturbances appear to be the most characteristic features of the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere. Another type of ionospheric disturbances presents the nighttime electron density enhancements in the ionospheric F2- layer maximum (NmF2). This type of irregularities is described in numerous papers. There is a concept that, in spite of the various mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances generation a response of F2-layer parameters exhibits similar features associated with the upward lift and the simultaneous expansion of the layer and then its subsequent downward movement, including layer compression, which results in the formation of the electron density peak in the layer maximum at the moment of greatest compression. The aim of this study is a verification of this concept on the example of disturbances related with the nighttime electron density enhancements, and the definition of precise quantitative relationships between the variations of different F2-layer parameters for such disturbances. By using the data of the ionospheric vertical sounding in Almaty, (76° 55'E, 43°15'N) during 2001-2012, analysis of the behavior the F2-layer parameters during the night electron density enhancements was carried out within framework of a single concept of effects of various types of ionospheric plasma perturbations in variations of height and half-thickness of the F2-layer, accompanied by increasing and decreasing NmF2 at moments of maximum compression and expansion of the layer. For a quantitative analysis of the parameters of nighttime enhancements we have selected 20 nights characterized by low magnetic activity (Dst> - 50 nT) and evident manifestations of the nighttime electron density

  15. Microwave, High-Resolution Infrared, and Quantum Chemical Investigations of CHBrF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Cludi, Lino; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    analysis by high-level quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level. In this context, the importance of relativistic effects, which are of the order of 6.5% and included in the present work using second-order direct perturbation theory, needs to be emphasized for accurate predictions......A combined microwave, infrared, and computational investigation of CHBrF2 is reported. For the vibrational ground state, measurements in the millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave regions for (CHBrF2)-Br-79 and (CHBrF2)-Br-81 provided rotational and centrifugal-distortion constants up to the sextic...... terms as well as the hyperfine parameters (quadrupole-coupling and spin-rotation interaction constants) of the bromine nucleus. The determination of the latter was made possible by recording of spectra at sub-Doppler resolution, achieved by means of the Lamb-dip technique, and supporting the spectra...

  16. F2∑+-X2∑+ Band System of Cobalt Carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-ru Guo; Zhao-xia Zhang; Ting-ting Wang; Cong-xiang Chen; Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of CoC was recorded in the spectral region from 13500 cm-1 to 22000 cm-1, in which the CoC molecules were produced by the reaction of sputtered cobalt atoms with methanol under supersonic jet cooled conditions. Much of the visible spectrum was assigned to transitions between the X2∑+ ground state and F2∑+ state. The 11 bands assigned as (v1=3-13, 0) transi-tions of the F2∑+-X2∑+ band system were observed and rotationally analyzed. Equilibrium constants for the F2∑+ state were Te=13628 cm-1,w,e=669 cm-1,weXe=4.3 cm-1, Be=0.546 cm-1, and Re=1.758 A. Some new bands were observed.

  17. Genetic analysis of F2 and transgressive segregants for seed yield in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Shivani, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of F2 variability for seed yield, number of capitula per plant and number of seeds per capitulum in 24 crosses ofline x tester set indicated potential of the crosses to throw large number of variable segregants. Maximum number of positivetransgressive segregants was found in TSF-1 x SFS 9920, TSF-1 x SSF 658, TSF-2 x ASD-07-10, Sagarmutyalu x SFS 9920andManjira x SSF 698 crosses. F1 per se performance, relative heterosis, D2 and GCA effects of parents were found to be goodindicators for predicting the phenotypic variance and genetic advance for seed yield in F2. Average GCA effects of parents hadmoderate degree of influence on the mean of 10% top yielding plants in F2.

  18. Analysis of laser durability of CaF2 for optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabosch, Guenter; Parthier, Lutz; Natura, Ute; Poehl, Karin; Letz, Martin; Muehlig, Christian; Knapp, Konrad

    2005-02-01

    Photolithography is a key technolgoy for the production of semiconductor devices. It supports the continuing trend towards higher integration density of microelectronic devices. The material used in the optics of lithography tools has to be of extremely high quality to ensure the high demand of the imaging. Due to its properties CaF2 is a material of choice for the application in lithography systems. Because of the compexity of the lithography tools single lenses or lens system modules cannot be replaced. Therefore the lens material has to last the full lifetime of the tool without major degradation. According to the roadmap for next generation of optical lithography tools, like immersion lithography, the requirements of CaF2 for radiation hardness are increasing considerably. We will present a detailed analysis of the key factors influencing the laser hardness covering the complete production chain. Some aspects of the evaluation methods for testing CaF2 laser durability will be presented.

  19. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  20. A measurement of the proton structure function F$_{2}$(x,Q$^{2}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Danilov, M V; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Deffur, E; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johannsen, K; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Savitsky, M M; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Seehausen, U; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Taylor, R E; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Vecko, M; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W; Niebergall, Friedrich

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function F_{\\!2}(x,Q^2) is reported for momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 4.5 GeV^2 and 1600 GeV^2 and for Bjorken x between 1.8\\cdot10^{-4} and 0.13 using data collected by the HERA experiment H1 in 1993. It is observed that F_{\\!2} increases significantly with decreasing x, confirming our previous measurement made with one tenth of the data available in this analysis. The Q^2 dependence is approximately logarithmic over the full kinematic range covered. The subsample of deep inelastic events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap in the hadronic energy flow close to the proton remnant is used to measure the "diffractive" contribution to F_{\\!2}.

  1. Optical constants and their dispersion of Ag-MgF2 nanoparticle composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇); Daming Sun(孙大明)

    2004-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 composite films with different Ag fractions were prepared through a co-evaporation method.Microstructure analysis shows that the films are composed of amorphous MgF2 matrix and embedded fcc-Ag nanoparticles. The optical constants and their dispersion of the films, within the wavelength range of 250 - 650 nm, were measured by reflecting spectroscopic ellipsometry. The maximum of the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric permittivity attributing to the surface plasmon resonance polarization of the Ag nanoparticles in an Ag-MgF2 film, and the tangent of the phase-shift angle δ resulting from the dielectric loss of the film, occur at λ = 435 nm and λ = 420 nm, respectively. Based on Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory, the experimentally observed dispersion spectra were reasonably described.

  2. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).  Methods: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α......]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease [OND] with no signs of inflammation) and 62 patients with MS. Oxidation products were correlated with disease severity and validated biomarkers of inflammation (chemokine ligand 13; matrix metalloproteinase-9; osteopontin) and axonal damage...... (neurofilament light protein).  Results: Compared with OND controls, plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and PGF2α were significantly lower in patients with progressive disease, and decreased with increasing disability score (Expanded Disability Status Scale). In contrast, CSF concentrations of PGF2α...

  3. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Martin; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Bee, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E) F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C) of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03) and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09), fat thickness at the 10(th) rib (P = 0.08) and at the croup (P = 0.09) as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07). Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  4. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braunschweig

    Full Text Available We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03 and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09, fat thickness at the 10(th rib (P = 0.08 and at the croup (P = 0.09 as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07. Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  5. Measurement of the hadronic photon structure function F(2)(gamma) with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Baksay, Liza Gyongyi

    2005-01-01

    The photon is one of the basic components of our present understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The theory of Quantum Electrodynamics describes this object as being the mediator of the electromagnetic force between charged particles. Contrary to earlier assumptions the photon turns out to have a "structure" due to quantum fluctuations into fermion anti-fermion pairs that can further interact with other particles. In this case the photon reveals its structure. The structure of the photon can be described by the concept of photon structure functions, which are studied at high energy accelerators like the Large Electron Positron Collider at the European Center for Particle Physics. With the large amount of data (L = 608 pb-1) collected with the L3 detector at center-of-mass energies 189 GeV < s < 209 GeV and the analysis method used in this dissertation, a measurement of the hadronic structure function F2gamma (x,Q2)/alpha is obtained with better precision than previous measurements....

  6. Dispersive calculation of complex Regge trajectories for the lightest $f_2$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, J A; Pelaez, J R; Szczepaniak, A P

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed dispersive formalism to calculate the Regge trajectories of the $f_2(1270)$ and $f_2'(1525)$ mesons. Trajectories are calculated, not fitted to a family of resonances. Assuming that these spin-2 resonances can be treated in the elastic approximation the only input are the pole position and residue of the resonances. In both cases, the predicted Regge trajectories are almost real and linear, with slopes in agreement with the universal value of order 1 GeV$^{-2}$.

  7. Luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Luminescence-kinetic properties of polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles were studied. The electron emission from the nanoparticles due to the photoelectric effect is the main luminescence excitation mechanism in the case of polystyrene composites loaded with small BaF2 nanoparticles (~20 nm). Scintillation pulse of polystyrene composites possesses only fast decay component with the time constant τ~2 ns, and its emission intensity considerably exceeds the one for pure polystyrene scintillator upon the X-ray excitations.

  8. Low lying baryon spectrum with N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Carbonell, Jaume; Papinutto, Mauro [UJF, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present first results on the octet and decuplet strange baryon spectrum with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass quarks. We use an Osterwalder Seiler valence strange quark with a mass tuned to the kaon and compare the results with those obtained in the unitary setup. This comparison allows to perform a first study of the lattice artefacts introduced by the mixed action approach. We investigate the effect of the strange and charm quarks in the sea by using two lattice spacings and comparing with preceding N{sub f}=2 twisted mass fermion calculations. (orig.)

  9. Crystal structure of bis(fluorosulfato-κOxenon(II, Xe(SO3F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Malischewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermally unstable Xe(SO3F2 has been prepared by the reaction of XeF2 with HSO3F. Single crystals were obtained from HSO3F by slow cooling in a sealed tube. The molecular structure is characterized by the Xe atom covalently bonded to two O atoms of two fluorosulfate tetrahedra in an almost linear fashion [O—Xe—O = 179.13 (4°]. The crystal packing is strongly influenced by intermolecular van der Waals forces.

  10. Low lying baryon spectrum with $N_f = 2+1+1$ dynamical twisted quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Drach, Vincent; Carbonell, Jaume; Papinutto, Mauro; Alexandrou, Constantia

    2010-01-01

    We present first results on the octet and decuplet strange baryon spectrum with $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass quarks. We use an Osterwalder Seiler valence strange quark with a mass tuned to the kaon and compare the results with those obtained in the unitary setup. This comparison allows to perform a first study of the lattice artefacts introduced by the mixed action approach. We investigate the effect of the strange and charm quarks in the sea by using two lattice spacings and comparing with preceding $N_f = 2$ twisted mass fermion calculations.

  11. Vertical motions of the midlatitude F2 layer during magnetospheric substorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C. G.; Meng, C.

    1971-01-01

    Use of ground-based ionosonde records from midlatitude stations during winter nights to study vertical motions of the F2 layer associated with magnetospheric substorms. The results show that during substorms the F2 layer is lifted upward in the premidnight sector and pushed downward in the postmidnight sector. These motions are interpreted in terms of E x B drifts, the electric field being eastward on the eveningside and westward on the morningside. The results emphasize the importance of substorm effects on the midlatitude F region and the potential of ground-based hf sounding techniques in studying magnetospheric substorms.

  12. A Perturbative QCD Analysis of the Nucleon's Pauli Form Factor F_2(Q^2)

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V; Yuan, F; Belitsky, Andrei V.; Ji, Xiangdong; Yuan, Feng

    2003-01-01

    We perform a perturbative QCD analysis of the nucleon's Pauli form factor $F_2(Q^2)$ in the asymptotically large $Q^2$ limit. We find that the leading contribution to $F_2(Q^2)$ goes like $1/Q^6$, consistent with the well-known folklore. Its coefficient is expressed in terms of an overlap integral involving the leading and subleading light-cone wave functions of the nucleon, the latter describing the quark state with one unit of orbital angular momentum. We estimate the numerical size of the coefficient and comment on the contribution from the end-point region.

  13. Microstructure and optical absorption of Au-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhao-Qi; Cai Qi; Song Xue-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and optical absorption of Au-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films with different Au contents are studied.The microstructural analysis shows that the films are mainly composed of the amorphous MgF2 matrix with embedded fcc Au nanoparticles with a mean size of 9.8-21.4nm.Spectral analysis suggests that the surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption peak of Au particles appears at λ=492-537nm.With increasing Au content,absorption peak intensity increases,profile narrows and location redshifts.Theoretical absorption spectra are calculated based on Maxwell-Garnett theory and compared with experimental spectra.

  14. Semiannual and annual variations in the height of the ionospheric F2-peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available Ionosonde data from sixteen stations are used to study the semiannual and annual variations in the height of the ionospheric F2-peak, hmF2. The semiannual variation, which peaks shortly after equinox, has an amplitude of about 8 km at an average level of solar activity (10.7 cm flux = 140 units, both at noon and midnight. The annual variation has an amplitude of about 11 km at northern midlatitudes, peaking in early summer; and is larger at southern stations, where it peaks in late summer. Both annual and semiannual amplitudes increase with increasing solar activity by day, but not at night. The semiannual variation in hmF2 is unrelated to the semiannual variation of the peak electron density NmF2, and is not reproduced by the CTIP and TIME-GCM computational models of the quiet-day thermosphere and ionosphere. The semiannual variation in hmF2 is approximately "isobaric", in that its amplitude corresponds quite well to the semiannual variation in the height of fixed pressure-levels in the thermosphere, as represented by the MSIS empirical model. The annual variation is not "isobaric". The annual mean of hmF2 increases with solar 10.7 cm flux, both by night and by day, on average by about 0.45 km/flux unit, rather smaller than the corresponding increase of height of constant pressure-levels in the MSIS model. The discrepancy may be due to solar-cycle variations of thermospheric winds. Although geomagnetic activity, which affects thermospheric density and temperature and therefore hmF2 also, is greatest at the equinoxes, this seems to account for less than half the semiannual variation of hmF2. The rest may be due to a semiannual variation of tidal and wave energy transmitted to the thermosphere from lower levels in the atmosphere.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere - composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere

  15. Neurotoxicity of Ecstasy metabolites in rat cortical neurons, and influence of hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, João Paulo; Meisel, Andreas; Abreu, Artur Reis; Branco, Paula Sério; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Lobo, Ana Maria; Remião, Fernando; Bastos, Maria Lurdes; Carvalho, Félix

    2006-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") is a widely abused, psychoactive recreational drug. There is growing evidence that the MDMA neurotoxic profile may be highly dependent on both its hepatic metabolism and body temperature. Metabolism of MDMA involves N-demethylation to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which is also a drug of abuse. MDMA and MDA are O-demethylenated to N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-alpha-MeDA) and alpha-methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA), respectively, both of which are catechols that can undergo oxidation to the corresponding ortho-quinones. In the presence of glutathione (GSH), ortho-quinones may be conjugated with GSH to form glutathionyl adducts. In this study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity of MDMA and three of its metabolites obtained by synthesis, N-Me-alpha-MeDA, alpha-MeDA, and 5-(GSH)-alpha-MeDA [5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine] in rat cortical neuronal serum-free cultures under normal (36.5 degrees C) and hyperthermic (40 degrees C) conditions. Cell viability was assessed, and the mechanism of cell death was also evaluated. Our study shows that these metabolites are more neurotoxic [5-(GSH)-alpha-MeDA being the most toxic] than the parent compound MDMA. The neurotoxicity of MDMA metabolites was partially prevented by the antioxidants N-acetylcystein and also, in a minor extent, by alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone. All the tested compounds induced apoptotic cell death in cortical neurons, and their neurotoxic effect was potentiated under hyperthermic conditions. These data suggest that MDMA metabolites, especially under hyperthermic conditions, contribute to MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. Effect of Krebs cycle metabolites on frog heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopde, C T; Dorle, A K; Brahmankar, D M

    1975-01-01

    All the Krebs metabolites except pyruvate, lactate, acetate and succinate reduced the force and rate of myocardial contractions and also decreased cardiac output in frog. Succinate on the contrary was found to augment the rate and force of heart. The cardiac stimulation produced by epinephrine was reduced by fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate and alpha-oxoglutarate, whereas transaconitate and citrate produced only a slight inhibition. Pyruvate, lactate, acetate and succinate did not alter cardiac response to epinephrine.

  17. Measurement of the $F_{2}^{n}/F_{2}^{p}$ and d/u Ratios in Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering off $^{3}H$ and $^{3}He$

    CERN Document Server

    Petratos, G G; Bissey, F; Gómez, J; Katramatou, A T; Melnitchouk, W; Thomas, A W

    2000-01-01

    We discuss a possible measurement of the ratio of the nucleon structure functions, F2n/F2p, and the ratio of the up to down quark distributions, u/d, at large x, by performing deep inelastic electron scattering from the 3H and 3He mirror nuclei with the 11 GeV upgraded beam of Jefferson Lab. The measurement is expected to be almost free of nuclear effects, which introduce a significant uncertainty in the extraction of these two ratios from deep inelastic scattering off the proton and deuteron. The results are expected to test perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms of spin-flavor symmetry breaking in the nucleon, and constrain the structure function parameterizations needed for the interpretation of high energy e-p, p-p and p-pbar collider data. The precision of the expected data can also allow for testing competing parameterizations of the nuclear EMC effect and provide valuable constraints on models of its dynamical origin.

  18. PREPARATION OF BaF2 POWDERS BY HYDROTHERMAL METHOD%水热法制备BaF2粉体材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 赵星

    2012-01-01

    以销酸钡和氟化铵为原料,以柠檬酸为络合剂,采用水热法合成了BaF2粉体。用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)对产物的形貌和结构进行了表征,结果表明反应温度及pH值对产物的形状和尺寸有很大影响,可以通过改变温度和pH值调控产物的形貌。%BaF2 powders were synthesized by hydrothermal methods. For this preparation, Ba(NO3)2 and NH4F as the starting materials and citric acid served as chelator. The morphology and the structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the temperature and pH value of the reaction have significant effects on the particle size and shape. The morphology could be controlled synthesized by the temperature and pH value.

  19. Production of Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said...... micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid...

  20. 粉尘螨Der f2变应原的分离纯化及其特征%Purification and Characterization of Der f2 Allergen in Dermatophagoides f arinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁雁; 张剑霞; 江世益; 温廷桓; 项黎

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To purify Der f2 allergen from the spent culture medium extract of Dermatophagoides farinae mite(Dff). Methods We purified Der f2 with the aid of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected the molecular weight of Der f2 using SDS-PAGE method,and analysed the thermostability of Der f2 by heating at 100℃ for 15 min. Results The pure Der f2 was obtained from Dff. The molecular weight of Der f2 was 14 000.The heated-treated Der f2 retained 50% ~83.3% of the activity of the native allergen. Conclusions The properties of purified allergen coincided with the characterization of Der f2.%目的用粉尘螨(Dermatophagoides farnae)代谢培养基浸液(Dff)分离纯化粉尘螨2类变应原(Der f2)。方法采用Sephadex G-100层析、DEAE离子交换层析、PAGE等方法分离纯化Der f2,并对Der f2作 SDS-PAGE测定和热稳定性测定。结果从Dff分离纯化得到较纯的Der f2,经SDS-PAGE测定其相对分子质 量为14 000,并经100℃加热15 min后,仍保留50%~83.3%生物学活性。结论从Dff中分离纯化的变应原, 其物化性质符合Der f2特征。

  1. Finding column depedencies in sparse matrices over $ F_ 2 $ by block Wiedemann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninga, O.

    1998-01-01

    Large systems of linear equations over $mathbb{F_2$ with sparse coefficient matrices have to be solved as a part of integer factorization with sieve-based methods such as in the Number Field Sieve algorithm. In this report, we first discuss the Wiedemann algorithm to solve these systems and investig

  2. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ±...

  3. Brillouin Lasing with a CaF_2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultra high Q CaF_2 resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has a Brillouin lasing threshold of 3.5 microwatt. Potential applications include optical generation of microwaves and sensitive gyros.

  4. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.10f-2...

  5. Effect of CaF2 on Interfacial Phenomena of High Alumina Refractories with Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interfacial phenomena between Al-alloy and industrial grade high alumina refractories containing varying contents of CaF2 at 1250 °C. Interfacial reaction products and phases formed in the heat-treated refractory samples were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while interfacial phenomena including dynamic wetting behavior were analyzed using the sessile drop technique. Refractories containing less than 5 wt pct CaF2 showed good resistance to reactions with the molten alloy, due to the dominance of corundum, and the presence of anorthite at the interface. However, with a further increase in the additive content, a glassy matrix of anorthite with CaF2 was formed. Formation of this phase significantly increased the intensity of reactions resulting in the buildup of an interfacial layer. The study thus revealed the strong catalytic effect of CaF2 on reactions of high alumina refractories with Al-alloy.

  6. Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei

    2003-01-01

    Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.

  7. eta and eta ' mesons from N-f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottnad, Konstantin; Michael, Chris; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We determine mass and mixing angles of eta and eta' states using N-f = 2 + 1 + 1 Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We describe how those flavour singlet states need to be treated in this lattice formulation. Results are presented for three values of the lattice spacing, a = 0.061 fm, a = 0.078 fm and

  8. Clock Distributing for BaF2 Readout Electronics at CSNS-WNS

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bing; De-Liang-Zhang,; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; Qi-An,

    2016-01-01

    aF2 (Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed for the measurement of (n,{\\gamma}) cross section precisely at CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4{\\pi}solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF2 crystal elements. To discriminate signals from BaF2 detector, pulse shape discrimination methodology is used, which is supported by waveform digitization technique. There are total 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, the clock prototype for BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate synchronously through coaxial cable over long distance, while in the second stage, clock is further distributed to each electronic module through PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tre...

  9. Response of MEDEA BaF 2 detectors to 20-280 MeV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, G.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Frascaria, N.; Lhenry, I.; Roynette, J. C.; Suomijärvi, T.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sida, J. L.; Silveira Gomes, P. R.

    1993-05-01

    The response function of MEDEA BaF 2 crystals to high energy photons, up to 280 MeV, has been studied using monochromatic γ-rays from the in flight annihilation of positron beams. The experimental response functions are compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations based on the EGS3 code and parametrized over the whole investigated energy range.

  10. Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci using immortalized F2 populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Wen

    Full Text Available Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTLs is helpful for understanding the effects of genomic imprinting on complex traits in animals and plants. At present, the experimental designs and corresponding statistical methods having been proposed for iQTL mapping are all based on temporary populations including F2 and BC1, which can be used only once and suffer some other shortcomings respectively. In this paper, we propose a framework for iQTL mapping, including methods of interval mapping (IM and composite interval mapping (CIM based on conventional low-density genetic maps and point mapping (PM and composite point mapping (CPM based on ultrahigh-density genetic maps, using an immortalized F2 (imF2 population generated by random crosses between recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines. We demonstrate by simulations that imF2 populations are very desirable and the proposed statistical methods (especially CIM and CPM are very powerful for iQTL mapping, with which the imprinting effects as well as the additive and dominance effects of iQTLs can be unbiasedly estimated.

  11. Ground state charmed meson spectra for N_f=2+1+1

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, T D

    2015-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of the charmed meson spectra using the electrically neutral subset of the new Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal N_f=2+1+1 gauge configurations that utilise the 3-HEX smeared clover action. The analysis is performed with a focus on the hyperfine splitting.

  12. Relationship between Kinematics, F2 Slope and Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthria Due to Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Panying; Loucks, Torrey; Kim, Heejin; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A multimodal approach combining acoustics, intelligibility ratings, articulography and surface electromyography was used to examine the characteristics of dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP). CV syllables were studied by obtaining the slope of F2 transition during the diphthong, tongue-jaw kinematics during the release of the onset consonant,…

  13. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  14. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC- 12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare

  15. In-Situ Conductivity Measurement of BaF2 under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ai-Min; LI Xiao-Dong; LIU Jing; GAO Chun-Xiao; LI Ming; HE Chun-Yuan; HUANG Xiao-Wei; ZHANG Dong-Mei; YU Cui-Ling; ZOU Guang-Tian; LI Yan-Chun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We perform the in-situ conductivity measurement on BaF2 at high pressure using a microcircuit fabricated on a diamond anvil cell. The results show that BaF2 initially exhibits the electrical property of an insulator at pressure below 25 Gpa, it transforms to a wide energy gap semiconductor at pressure from 25 to 30 Gpa, and the conductivity increases gradually with increasing pressure from 30 Gpa. However, the metallization predicted by theoretical calculation at 30-33 Gpa cannot be observed. In addition, we measure the temperature dependence of the conductivity at several pressures and obtain the relationship between the energy gap and pressure. Based on the experimental data, it is predicted that BaF2 would transform to a metal at about 87 Gpa and ambient temperature. The conductivity of BaF2 reaches the order of 10-3Ω-1 cm-1 at 37 Gpa and 2400 K, the superionic conduction is not observed during the experiments, indicating the application of pressure elevates greatly the transition temperature of the superionic conduction.

  16. The Rho Resonance from $N_f=2+1+1$ Twisted Mass Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Helmes, C; Knippschild, B; Liu, L; Urbach, C; Werner, M; Wang, Z

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on the $\\rho$ resonance parameters obtained with $N_f=2+1+1$ Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. Using ensembles of the ETM collaboration, we provide results for two values of the lattice spacing and a range of pion mass values.

  17. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  18. Measurement of the Proton Structure Function $F_{2}$ at Very Low $Q^{2}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Piccioni, D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Burgard, C; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Johnson, K F; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Monteiro, T; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Tassi, E; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Bell, M; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Riveline, M; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, M V; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Quadt, A; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Turcato, M; Voci, C; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is presented in the kinematic range 0.045 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 0.65 GeV^2 and 6*10^{-7} < x < 1*10^{-3}. The results were obtained using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.9pb^-1 in e^+p reactions recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Information from a silicon-strip tracking detector, installed in front of the small electromagnetic calorimeter used to measure the energy of the final-state positron at small scattering angles, together with an enhanced simulation of the hadronic final state, has permitted the extension of the kinematic range beyond that of previous measurements. The uncertainties in F_2 are typically less than 4%. At the low Q^2 values of the present measurement, the rise of F_2 at low x is slower than observed in HERA data at higher Q^2 and can be described by Regge theory with a constant logarithmic slope. The dependence of F_2 on Q^2 is stronger than at higher Q^2 values, approaching, at the lowest Q...

  19. A status report of the QCDSF N{sub f}=2+1 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, Meinulf [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, Roger [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Yoshifumi [DESY, Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann Institute NIC] (and others)

    2007-12-20

    We report about on-going simulations of N{sub f}=2+1 lattice QCD. We use a tadpole improved Symanzik gauge action and stout link smeared Wilson fermions with a clover term. We employ the Hasenbusch trick for the degenerate u- and d-quarks, and the RHMC algorithm for the simulation of the strange quark. (orig.)

  20. Protein-protein docking with F(2Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Chowdhury

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. RESULTS: The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. AVAILABILITY: The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server

  1. Protein-protein docking with F(2)Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rezaul; Rasheed, Muhibur; Keidel, Donald; Moussalem, Maysam; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-01-01

    Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2) Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA) based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2) Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol) which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  2. Protein-Protein Docking with F2Dock 2.0 and GB-Rerank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rezaul; Rasheed, Muhibur; Keidel, Donald; Moussalem, Maysam; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA) based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. Results The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. Availability The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol) which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  3. Degradation of the potato glycoalkaloids--alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia H; Jacobsen, Ole S; Henriksen, Trine; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B

    2009-06-01

    The potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine are produced in high amounts in potato plants from where release to soil takes place. Degradation of the compounds in groundwater was investigated, as their fate in the terrestrial environment is unknown. Abiotic and microbial degradation were followed in groundwater sampled from below a potato field and spiked with the glycoalkaloids (115 nmol/l). Degradation was primarily microbial and the glycoalkaloids were degraded within 21-42 days. The metabolites beta(1)-solanine, gamma-solanine, and solanidine were formed from alpha-solanine, while beta-chaconine, gamma-chaconine and solanidine were detected from alpha-chaconine. Thus, indigenous groundwater microorganisms are capable of degrading the glycoalkaloids.

  4. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F settings during a computer programming in the fall semester of the year 2010. The study was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University. This online course is one of the required courses for students majoring in Mathematics. It is delivered in a learning management system developed in house through a project funded by Istanbul University. The goal is to introduce students with structured programming using the programming language C. Two topics -“Functions in C Programming” and “Loops in C Programming” - were presented to students online and F2F. The total of 62 students formed two groups: the online and F2F groups. The content analysis statistical technique is used, as well as a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, which performed as a data collection tool to find out the views of the students in context to the process. While some results concluded that the performance of online students was satisfactory, but that their aggregate final grade was significantly lower than that of students who took an equivalent F2F class, others arrived at a conclusion reporting that there were no significant differences in overall outcomes. In case of making transition from F2F to online mode of teaching, prepossession about a new way of teaching is always an important barrier in students’ perceptions. One of the further researches is investigation of strategies for incorporating blended learning opportunities in programming courses.

  5. ITO-MgF2 Film Development for PowerSphere Polymer Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, Paul D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-kilogram class microsatellites with a PowerSphere electric power system are attractive for fulfilling a variety of potential NASA missions. However, PowerSphere polymer surfaces must be coated with a film that has suitable electrical sheet resistivity for electrostatic discharge control, be resistant to atomic oxygen attack, be transparent to ultraviolet light for composite structure curing and resist ultraviolet light induced darkening for efficient photovoltaic cell operation. In addition, the film must be tolerant of polymer layer folding associated with launch stowage of PowerSphere inflatable structures. An excellent film material candidate to meet these requirements is co-sputtered, indium oxide (In2O3) - tin oxide (SnO2), known as 'ITO', and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). While basic ITO-MgF2 film properties have been the subject of research over the last decade, further research is required in the areas of film durability for space-inflatable applications and precise film property control for large scale commercial production. In this paper, the authors present film durability results for a folded polymer substrate and film resistance to vacuum UV darkening. The authors discuss methods and results in the area of film sheet resistivity measurement and active control, particularly dual-channel, plasma emission line measurement of ITO and MgF2 plasma sources. ITO-MgF2 film polymer coupon preparation is described as well as film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed microscopically and electrically. Results show that an approx. 500A ITO-18vol% MgF2 film is a promising candidate to protect PowerSphere polymer surfaces for Earth orbit missions. Preliminary data also indicate that in situ film measurement methods are promising for active film resistivity control in future large scale production. Future film research plans are also

  6. Clock distribution for BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Cao, Ping; Zhang, De-Liang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; An, Qi

    2017-01-01

    A BaF2 (Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed to precisely measure the (n, γ) cross section at the CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4π solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF2 crystal elements. To discriminate signals from the BaF2 detector, a pulse shape discrimination method is used, supported by a waveform digitization technique. There are 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, a clock prototype for the BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on the PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is synchronously distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate through a coaxial cable over a long distance, while in the second stage, the clock is further distributed to each electronic module through a PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tree node can fan out up to 20 clocks with 3U size. Test results show the clock jitter is less than 20 ps, which meets the requirements of the BaF2 readout electronics. Besides, this clock system has the advantages of high density, simplicity, scalability and cost saving, so it can be useful for other clock distribution applications. Supported by National Research and Development plan (2016 YFA0401602) NSAF (U1530111) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107)

  7. F2 region response to geomagnetic disturbances across Indian latitudes: O(1S) dayglow emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhayaya, A. K.; Gupta, Sumedha; Brahmanandam, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    The morphology of ionospheric storms has been investigated across equatorial and low latitudes of Indian region. The deviation in F2 region characteristic parameters (foF2 and h'F) along with modeled green line dayglow emission intensities is examined at equatorial station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 76.8°E, 0.63°S geomagnetic latitude) and low-latitude station Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E,19.2°N geomagnetic latitude) during five geomagnetic storm events. Both positive and negative phases have been noticed in this study. The positive storm phase over equatorial station is found to be more frequent, while the drop in ionization in most of the cases was observed at low-latitude station. It is concluded that the reaction as seen at different ionospheric stations may be quite different during the same storm depending on both the geographic and geomagnetic coordinates of the station, storm intensity, and the storm onset time. Modulation in the F2 layer critical frequency at low and equatorial stations during geomagnetic disturbance of 20-23 November 2003 was caused by the storm-induced changes in O/N2. It is also found that International Reference Ionosphere 2012 model predicts the F2 layer characteristic (foF2 and h'F) parameters at both the low and equatorial stations during disturbed days quite reasonably. A simulative approach in GLOW model developed by Solomon is further used to estimate the changes in the volume emission rate of green line dayglow emission under quiet and strong geomagnetic conditions. It is found that the O(1S) dayglow thermospheric emission peak responds to varying geomagnetic conditions.

  8. Identification of oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds as a formyl peptide receptor 1 partial agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Ruijun; Sun, Baoshan; Wang, Lihui; Hou, Yue; Li, Xiaoqin; Wu, Chunfu

    2013-04-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in the rapid progression of glioblastoma and has been considered as a molecular target for the treatment. Previously, we have shown that oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2, degree of polymerization 2-15), isolated from grape seeds, inhibited FPR1-mediated chemotaxis of U-87 glioblastoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of F2 to interact with FPR1. The cross attenuation of chemotaxis revealed that F2 shared FPR1 with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), which is a prototype agonist of FPR1. F2 was chemotactic for U-87 cells, and the chemotactic response was abolished when FPR1 gene was silenced or FPR1 was competitively occupied. We further show that F2 specifically blocked the binding of fluorescent agonist to FPR1. Interestingly, F2 exhibited the characteristic of a partial agonist for FPR1, as shown by its capacity to activate FPR1-mediated PI3K-PKC-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, F2 also attenuated fMLF-triggered MAPK activation, suggesting that F2 could antagonize the effect of an agonist. Furthermore, F2 abolished the invasion of U-87 cells induced by fMLF. Thus, we have identified F2 as a novel, partial agonist for FPR1, which may be useful for glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Bouguyon, Edwige; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina; Da Costa, Bruno; Leymarie, Olivier; Bourdieu, Christiane; Decamps, Laure; Dhorne-Pollet, Sophie; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-10-15

    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. PB1-F2 was shown to modulate apoptosis and to be targeted by the CD8(+) T cell response. In this study, we examined the downstream effects of PB1-F2 protein during IAV infection by measuring expression of the cellular genes in response to infection with wild-type WSN/33 and PB1-F2 knockout viruses in human lung epithelial cells. Wild-type virus infection resulted in a significant induction of genes involved in innate immunity. Knocking out the PB1-F2 gene strongly decreased the magnitude of expression of cellular genes implicated in antiviral response and MHC class I Ag presentation, suggesting that PB1-F2 exacerbates innate immune response. Biological network analysis revealed the IFN pathway as a link between PB1-F2 and deregulated genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR and IFN-β gene reporter assay, we determined that PB1-F2 mediates an upregulation of IFN-β expression that is dependent on NF-κB but not on AP-1 and IFN regulatory factor-3 transcription factors. Recombinant viruses knocked out for the PB1-F2 and/or the nonstructural viral protein 1 (the viral antagonist of the IFN response) genes provide further evidence that PB1-F2 increases IFN-β expression and that nonstructural viral protein 1 strongly antagonizes the effect of PB1-F2 on the innate response. Finally, we compared the effect of PB1-F2 variants taken from several IAV strains on IFN-β expression and found that PB1-F2-mediated IFN-β induction is significantly influenced by its amino acid sequence, demonstrating its importance in the host cell response triggered by IAV infection.

  10. Regulation of prostaglandin F2α against β amyloid clearance and its inflammation induction through LXR/RXR heterodimer antagonism in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhang, Haikun; Zhou, Rong; Chen, Lili; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposit of β-amyloid (Aβ) and accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is one of the major metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), and plays essential roles in a series of key physiological processes like luteolysis and parturition. Additionally, PGF2α is also involved in the regulation of chronic and acute inflammation processes. Recent clinical studies have revealed the high content of PGF2α metabolite, 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α in AD patients, implying the activation of in vivo PGF2α biosynthesis. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of PGF2α in the progression of AD still remains unclear. Here we discovered that PGF2α selectively antagonized LXR (liver X receptors)/RXR (retinoid X receptor α) and RXR/RXR dimers. Cell based assays indicated that PGF2α effectively antagonized the activation of LXR agonist (t0901317) on Aβ clearance via inhibiting apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression, and cell apoptosis alleviation by accelerating inflammatory response to Aβ or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in microglia. Therefore, our current findings have addressed the potential association of PGF2α with AD progression, and highlighted that inhibition of PGF2α biosynthesis might be a useful therapeutic strategy against AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Sylvia K; Varner, Kurt J; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A

    2009-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown, oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included alpha-methyl dopamine, N-methyl alpha-methyl dopamine and 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA. Dihydroethidium was used to detect drug-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in ventricular myocytes. Contractile function and changes in intracellular calcium transients were measured in paced (1 Hz), Fura-2 AM loaded, myocytes using the IonOptix system. Production of ROS in ventricular myocytes treated with MDMA was not different from control. In contrast, all three metabolites of MDMA exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increases in ROS that were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The metabolites of MDMA, but not MDMA alone, significantly decreased contractility and impaired relaxation in myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz. These effects were prevented by NAC. Together, these data suggest that MDMA-induced oxidative stress in the left ventricle can be due, at least in part, to the metabolism of MDMA to redox active metabolites.

  12. Increasing 3alpha,5alpha-THP following inhibition of neurosteroid biosynthesis in the ventral tegmental area reinstates anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior of naturally receptive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Paris, Jason J; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    The progesterone metabolite and neurosteroid, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), has actions in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) to modulate lordosis, but its effects on other reproductively relevant behaviors are not well understood. Effects on exploration, anxiety, and social behavior resulting from inhibition of 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation, as well as 3alpha,5alpha-THP enhancement, were investigated in the midbrain VTA. Naturally sexually receptive, female rats (n=8-10/group) received infusions aimed at the midbrain VTA of vehicle, PK11195 (an inhibitor of neurosteroidogenesis), and/or indomethacin (an inhibitor of 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation from prohormones), and were subsequently infused with vehicle or FGIN 1-27 (a neurosteroidogenesis enhancer). The rats were then assessed in a behavioral battery that examined exploration (open field), anxiety (elevated plus maze), social (social interaction), and sexual (paced mating) behavior. Inhibition of 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation decreased exploratory, anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior, as well as midbrain 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels. Infusions of FGIN 1-27 following 3alpha,5alpha-THP inhibition restored these behaviors and midbrain 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels to those commensurate with control rats that had not been administered inhibitors. These findings suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation in the midbrain VTA may influence appetitive, as well as consummatory, aspects of mating behavior.

  13. The relation between foF2 and ICF during the solar eclipse%日食期间foF2与ICF的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张添益

    2001-01-01

    本文初步分析了1995年10月24日日食期间,F2层临界频率(foF2)和高频干扰重心频率(ICF)之间的相关性较差的原因.认为高频干扰重心频率ICF不仅受foF2的影响,还可能受D层吸收等因素影响.在探讨ICF与foF2的关系时,应综合加以考虑.

  14. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Jørgensen, Monica; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa

    2010-01-01

    . RESULTS: Eight diterpenes were isolated and identified including a new abietane diterpene being the epirosmanol ester of 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and 20-hydroxyferruginol, which was isolated from Salvia officinalis for the first time, as well as viridiflorol, oleanolic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid. 12......-O-methyl carnosic acid and alpha-linolenic acid were able to significantly activate PPARgamma whereas the remaining metabolites were either unable to activate PPARgamma or yielded insignificant activation. CONCLUSIONS: Selected metabolites from Salvia officinalis were able to activate PPARgamma...

  15. EPR study of concentration dependence in Ce, Ce : La and Ce:Y doped SrF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert, O.; Vainchtein, David; Datema, H.C.; den Hartog, Hendrik

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results of an EPR-study of the concentration dependence of the doubly integrated intensity and linewidth of the signals associated with tetragonal Ce3+-F--dipoles in Sr1-xCexF2+x, Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005LaxF2+0.005+x and Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005YxF2+0.005+x are presented. Both show a nonlinear

  16. F2 slope as a Perceptual Cue for the Front-Back Contrast in Standard Southern British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládková, Kateřina; Hamann, Silke; Williams, Daniel; Hellmuth, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago. Subsequently, we test whether the direction of F2 slope also serves as a reliable cue to the /iː/-/uː/ contrast in perception. The findings show that F2 slope direction is used as a cue (additional to midpoint formant values) to distinguish /iː/ from /uː/ by both young and older Standard Southern British English listeners: an otherwise ambiguous token is identified as /iː/ if it has a rising F2 slope and as /uː/ if it has a falling F2 slope. Furthermore, our results indicate that listeners generalize their reliance on F2 slope to other contrasts, namely /ɛ/-/ɒ/ and /æ/-/ɒ/, even though F2 slope is not employed to differentiate these vowels in production. This suggests that in Standard Southern British English, a rising F2 seems to be perceptually associated with an abstract feature such as [+front], whereas a falling F2 with an abstract feature such as [-front].

  17. Long-term trends in the relation between daytime and nighttime values of foF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The data from the vertical ionospheric sounding for 12 stations over the world were analyzed to find the relation between the values of foF2 for 02:00 LT and 14:00 LT of the same day. It is found that, in general, there exists a negative correlation between foF2(02 and foF2(14. The value of the correlation coefficient R(foF2 can be in some cases high enough and reach minus 0.7–0.8. The value of R(foF2 demonstrates a well pronounced seasonal variations, the highest negative values being observed at the equinox periods of the year. It is also found that R(foF2 depends on geomagnetic activity: the magnitude of R(foF2 is the highest for the choice of only magnetically quiet days (Ap<6, decreasing with the increase of the limiting value of Ap. For a fixed limitation on Ap, the value of R(foF2 depends also on solar activity. Apparently, the effects found are related to thermospheric winds. Analysis of long series of the vertical sounding data shows that there is a long-term trend in R(foF2 with a statistically significant increase in the R(foF2 magnitude after about 1980. Similar analysis is performed for the foF2(02/foF2(14 ratio itself. The ratio also demonstrates a systematic trend after 1980. Both trends are interpreted in terms of long-term changes in thermospheric circulation.

  18. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  19. NMR-based metabolic profiling of rice wines by F(2)-selective total correlation spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masanori; Furihata, Kazuo; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-05-16

    In this study, we performed NMR-based metabolic profiling of major rice wines (Japanese sake, Chinese Shaoxing wine, and Korean makgeolli). In the (1)H NMR spectra, the rice wines showed broad resonances in the region of about 7.9-9.0 ppm. These resonances showed many and complex correlations with approximately 0.5-4.5 ppm in the F(2)-selective TOCSY (total correlation spectroscopy) spectra, and these correlations were attributed mainly to peptides. These spectral patterns were characteristic of individual rice wines, and the combination of F(2)-selective TOCSY spectra and principal component analysis enabled us to classify the rice wine species. Furthermore, it also provided information about raw materials, namely, what type of koji (rice koji or wheat koji) was used. These spectra may be useful as a new "fingerprint" for quality control or food authentication.

  20. Cryogenic Ho:CaF2 laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Ma, Weiwei; Zhao, Beibei; Jiang, Dapeng; Su, Liangbi

    2016-06-01

    The laser operation in the pulsed as well as continuous-wave regime of a modified-Bridgeman-grown 0.5 at.% Ho:CaF2 crystal at 83 K pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is reported. The maximum output power was 2.37 W at 2060 nm or 1.3 W at 2110 and 2130 nm. Continuous tuning range over 90 nm from 2030 to 2120 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter. The Ho:CaF2 fundamental spectroscopic properties as absorption and fluorescence spectra at 83 and 293 K are also presented.

  1. 七色炫灯翻盖萌作三星Nori F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    三星电子去年在韩国市场推出一款以鲜艳色彩和LED炫灯为主打的翻盖手机Nori F。如今.三星又推出了该机的续作Nori F2(型号SHW—A280),该机仍然以年轻用户为目标客户群体.相对于前代产品.F2增加了七彩炫灯功能,用户可对来电和短信定制7种个性化的闪灯.效果也够萌。

  2. Excited state absorption of Sm2+ in SrF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.

    1988-10-01

    The excited state absorption spectrum of Sm2+ in SrF2 has been observed. The absorption peaks associated with the 5D0(4f6) excited state were found to be displaced by approximately 3000 cm-1 from the absorption bands arising from the 7F0(4f6) ground state (after taking the 5D0-7F0 energy separation into account). The observed peak separation is ascribed to the 4f-5d exchange interaction. From the measured peak positions, the exchange energy for the Sm2+ impurity was determined to be about the same order of magnitude as expected for the free ion. The implications of the properties of the excited state absorption bands for the performance of the SrF2:Sm2+ laser are considered.

  3. Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminov, R.G., E-mail: Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Tagirov, L.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, Augsburg D-86159 (Germany); Gaifullin, R.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Karminskaya, T.Yu.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Fominov, Ya.V. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Golubov, A.A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the critical temperature T{sub c} of F2/F1/S trilayers (Fi is a ferromagnetic metal and S is a singlet superconductor), where the long-range triplet superconducting component is generated at noncollinear magnetizations of the F layers. In this paper we demonstrate a possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection (standard switching effect, the triplet spin-valve effect or reentrant T{sub c}(α) dependence) by the variation of the F2/F1 interface transparency. - Highlights: • T{sub c} of FFS trilayer as a function of angle between magnetizations is calculated. • T{sub c} of FFS structure for arbitrary FF interface transparencies γ{sub B} is calculated. • Possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection by the variation of γ{sub B} is shown.

  4. Nanostructuring CaF2 surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Ritter, R.; Wachter, G.; Facsko, S.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years the potential of slow highly charged ions (HCI) as tools for nanostructuring purposes has received considerable attention and a wide range of material classes, from insulating ionic crystals, polymers and ultrathin films, to semiconducting and conducting substrates have been investigated regarding their response to individual HCI impact. For the majority of investigated materials, however, consistent theoretical modeling to supplement with experimental evidence and to satisfactorily explain the complete physical process from ion approach and impact to the formation of an individual nanostructure is still lacking. CaF2, from both an experimental and theoretical point of view, might be considered the most thoroughly investigated material. Combining results from numerous studies has allowed for the generation of a "phase diagram" for nanostructuring of CaF2 in dependence of ion beam parameters. This paves the way for a first unified picture, as implications from this phase diagram should be applicable to similar materials as well.

  5. The Importance of Magnetic Reflection Condition and Polarization Factor: Case Study of MnF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Purwanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction has been widely accepted as a versatile tool to investigate magnetic structure of crystalline materials, which contribute significantly to the scientific and technological advances. Starting from a general formulation of the magnetic structure factor, one can often simplify the formulation depending on the crystallographic structure and the magnetic wave propagation vector of the sample. The simplification allows magnetic moment coupling and polarization deduction without the need of the refinement process. This paper elaborates such simplification for MnF2 to provide the determination of the magnetic moment coupling and polarization direction simply based on the reflection condition and polarization factor. The determination of the magnetic structure excluding its magnitude by the reflection condition and polarization factor is much more conclusive than by any magnetic structure refinement. Furthermore, MnF2 illustrates a rare compound that has antiferromagnetic structure with zero magnetic wave propagation vector, i.e.; it has the same antiferromagnetic and crystallographic unit cell.

  6. Comparison of the ionospheric F2 peak height between ionosonde measurements and IRI2016 predictions over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiukuan; Ning, Baiqi; Zhang, Man-Lian; Hu, Lianhuan

    2017-10-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the most frequently used community empirical model. The latest version IRI2016 provides three options for the F2 peak height hmF2: AMTB2013, SHU-2015, and BSE-1979. In this paper, we used the hmF2 data derived by the ionosondes at Mohe, Beijing, Wuhan and Sanya ranging from year 2007 to 2016 to assess the performance of these three options in the model. The results show that the variability of the observed hmF2 versus local time, seasons and levels of solar activity could be reproduced well by the three options. However, the SHU-2015 option performs best at these four stations, followed by BSE-1979, and the AMTB2013 option is worst. Generally, the AMTB2013 and BSE-1979 options overestimate the hmF2 values, while the SHU-2015 option mainly underestimates the hmF2 values. This is the first evaluations of the three IRI2016 hmF2 options by manually scaled ionosonde data over China area to our knowledge. Overall, we recommend the usage of SHU-2015 hmF2 option over China region when using IRI2016 model in terms of hmF2 calculation.

  7. Adsorption behaviour of PuF6 on UO2F2 by the use of 236Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Minoru; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Kirishima, Akira

    2010-03-01

    To know the behavior of plutonium in the fluoride volatility process (FLUOREX PROCESS) for the spent nuclear fuel, both UO2 and PuO2 are fluorinated by fluorine forming volatile UF6 and PuF6, respectively. Then PuF6 is separated and recovered from UF6 by using adsorption materials such as uranyl fluoride UO2F2. In this paper, adsorption behavior of PuF6on UO2F2 was examined by the use of 236Pu tracer. First, the stability of UO2F2 in F2atmosphere was analyzed by TG-DTA method showing that uranium volatilized completely over 350 °C by the formation of UF6 and the adsorption of plutonium by UO2F2 should be done at temperatures lower than 250 °C. The behavior of PtF6 as a chemical analogue of PuF6 was also conducted for comparison and it showed that the deposition of PtF4 on UO2F2 at 200 °C. When the 236Pu doped U3O8 was reacted with 10%F2-He gas, the PuF6 vaporized at ca. 600 °C. Then adsorption of 236Pu on UO2F2 was observed by α ray measurement. The adsorption mechanism of Pu on UO2F2 was discussed with experimental data and thermodynamic consideration.

  8. Arachidonic acid metabolites in pathogenic yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ells Ruan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although most of what is known about the biology and function of arachidonic acid metabolites comes from the study of mammalian biology, these compounds can also be produced by lower eukaryotes, including yeasts and other fungi. It is also in this group of organisms that the least is known about the metabolic pathways leading to the production of these compounds as well as the functions of these compounds in the biology of fungi and yeasts. This review will deal with the discovery of oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more specifically the arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as 3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin F2α and prostaglandin E2, in yeasts starting in the early 1990s. This review will also focus on what is known about the metabolic pathways and/or proteins involved in the production of these compounds in pathogenic yeasts. The possible roles of these compounds in the biology, including the pathology, of these organisms will be discussed.

  9. Joint QTL analysis of three connected F2-crosses in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennewitz Jörn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous QTL mapping resource populations are available in livestock species. Usually they are analysed separately, although the same founder breeds are often used. The aim of the present study was to show the strength of analysing F2-crosses jointly in pig breeding when the founder breeds of several F2-crosses are the same. Methods Three porcine F2-crosses were generated from three founder breeds (i.e. Meishan, Pietrain and wild boar. The crosses were analysed jointly, using a flexible genetic model that estimated an additive QTL effect for each founder breed allele and a dominant QTL effect for each combination of alleles derived from different founder breeds. The following traits were analysed: daily gain, back fat and carcass weight. Substantial phenotypic variation was observed within and between crosses. Multiple QTL, multiple QTL alleles and imprinting effects were considered. The results were compared to those obtained when each cross was analysed separately. Results For daily gain, back fat and carcass weight, 13, 15 and 16 QTL were found, respectively. For back fat, daily gain and carcass weight, respectively three, four, and five loci showed significant imprinting effects. The number of QTL mapped was much higher than when each design was analysed individually. Additionally, the test statistic plot along the chromosomes was much sharper leading to smaller QTL confidence intervals. In many cases, three QTL alleles were observed. Conclusions The present study showed the strength of analysing three connected F2-crosses jointly. In this experiment, statistical power was high because of the reduced number of estimated parameters and the large number of individuals. The applied model was flexible and was computationally fast.

  10. Scientific and regulatory standards for assessing product performance using the similarity factor, f2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

    2015-03-01

    The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective.

  11. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy -ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ray; S R Banerjee; P Das

    2001-07-01

    We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. This detector can also be used to measure photons from quark–gluon plasma at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) in USA.

  12. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F) settings during a computer programming in the fall seme...

  13. Diode-pumped Yb,Y:CaF2 laser mode-locked by monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongtong; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Shouzhen; Xu, Shicai; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Qian, Xiaobo; Xu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The large-area and high-quality monolayer graphene saturable absorber with a sandwich structure is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition technique. Using graphene saturable absorber, the mode locking operation of a diode-pumped Yb,Y:CaF2 laser is demonstrated. Without extra negative dispersion elements, 4.8 ps pulses are yielded at 1051 nm. The pulse repetition rate is 60 MHz.

  14. Agraphia and acalculia after a left prefrontal (F1, F2) infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tohgi, H; Saitoh, K.; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Takahashi, H; Utsugisawa, K; Yonezawa, H.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1995-01-01

    A patient presented with agraphia and acalculia associated with a left frontal (F1, F2) infarction. He made mainly phonological but also lexical errors in writing (syllabograms), but his ability to write kanji (morphograms) was relatively preserved. Although he could add and subtract numbers, he could neither multiply nor divide them because of a difficulty in retrieving the multiplication tables and calculation procedures. Positron emission tomography showed decreased cerebral blood flow and...

  15. Evolution of dislocation structure and modelling of deformation resistance in CaF2 single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrabadi, Peiman

    2007-01-01

    he evolution of dislocation structure during plastic deformation in pure 111}-oriented CaF2 single crystals was investigated at constant strain rate (10−5 s−1) and constant stress (1 < / MPa < 22) in the temperature range of 0.5 < T/Tm < 0.8. The steady state and transient deformation behavior of the material is described by the composite model on the basis of microstructural data. In the following sections the important conclusions are briefly summarized. Microstructure evolution...

  16. Moments of structure functions for $N_f=2$ near the physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Gläßle, B; Göckeler, M; Najjar, J; Rödl, R; Schäfer, A; Schiel, R; Sternbeck, A; Söldner, W

    2013-01-01

    We report on our on-going study of the lower moments of iso-vector polarised and unpolarised structure functions, $g_A$ and $\\langle x\\rangle_{u-d}$, respectively, and the iso-vector scalar and tensor charge, for $N_f=2$ non-perturbatively improved clover fermions. With pion masses which go down to about 150 MeV, we investigate finite volume effects and excited state contributions.

  17. On the order of the deconfining transition in N_f=2 QCD

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C

    2004-01-01

    A careful study is made on the lattice of the phase diagram of QCD with two staggered flavors, to investigate the order of the chiral transition of N_f=2 QCD. The specific heat and the susceptibility of the chiral condensate are determined for different spatial sizes of the system, and a finite size scaling analysis provides a determination of the (pseudo)critical indices. The result is a strong indication that the chiral transition is first order.

  18. $_{3}$F$_{2}$(1) hypergeometric function and quadratic R-matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V B

    1994-01-01

    We construct a class of representations of the quadratic R-matrix algebra, given by the reflection equation with the spectral parameter, in terms of certain ordinary difference operators. These operators turn out to act as parameter shifting operators on the 3_F_2(1) hypergeometric function and its limit cases and on classical orthogonal polynomials. The relationship with the factorization method will be discussed.

  19. $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ Pairing in Dense Neutron Matter The Spectrum of Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zverev, M V; Khodel, V A

    2003-01-01

    The $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model is generally considered to provide an adequate description of the superfluid states of neutron matter at densities some 2-3 times that of saturated symmetrical nuclear matter. The problem of solving the system of BCS gap equations expressing the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ model is attacked with the aid of the separation approach. This method, developed originally for quantitative study of S-wave pairing in the presence of strong short-range repulsions, serves effectively to reduce the coupled, singular, nonlinear BCS integral equations to a set of coupled algebraic equations. For the first time, sufficient precision becomes accessible to resolve small energy splittings between the different pairing states. Adopting a perturbative strategy, we are able to identify and characterize the full repertoire of real solutions of the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model, in the limiting regime of small tensor-coupling strength. The P-F channel coupling is seen to lift the striking parametric degeneracie...

  20. Sintering of CaF 2 pellets as nuclear fuel analog for surface stability experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, José R. A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2011-12-01

    To enable a detailed study of the influence of microstructure and surface properties on the stability of spent nuclear fuel, it is necessary to produce analogs that closely resemble nuclear fuel in terms of crystallography and microstructure. One such analog can be obtained by sintering CaF 2 powder. This paper reports the microstructures obtained after sintering CaF 2 powders at temperatures up to 1240 °C. Pellets with microstructure, density and pore structure similar to that of UO 2 spent nuclear fuel pellets were obtained in the temperature range between 900 °C and 1000 °C. When CaF 2 was sintered above 1100 °C the formation of CaO at the grain boundaries caused the disintegration of the pellet due to hydration occurring after sintering. First results from a novel set-up of dissolution experiments show that changes in roughness, dissolution rate and etch pit shape of fluorite surfaces are strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientation of the expose surface. Consequently, the differences observed for each orientation will affect the overall dissolution rate and will lead to uncertainties in the estimation of dissolution rates of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. Growth and characterization of epitaxial SrF2 on InP(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, S.; Hoffman, R. A.; Rieger, J. H.; Warner, J. D.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of 100-262.5-nm SrF2 films on n-type and p-type (100)InP in a conventional baked UHV system at base pressure about 200 ptorr, temperature 250-350 C, and growth rate from less than 100 to about 200 pm/s. Substrates are chemicomechanically polished, degreased, bombarded with 500-eV Ar ions for 3-4 min at 350 C, and annealed for 23-30 min at 350 C, producing a slightly In-rich (In/P = 1.02) In-island-free surface with a (4 x 1) or (1 x 1) LEED structure. Films grown at 350 C and less than 100 pm/s are found to be smooth and free of cracks in most cases, with a highly faceted (1 x 1) LEED structure. The electrical properties of the SrF2 films are found to be acceptable only when the ohmic contacts are applied prior to the substrate prior to SrF2 growth.

  2. On the diurnal variability in F2-region plasma density above the EISCAT Svalbard radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two long runs of EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, in February 2001 and October 2002, have been analysed with respect to variability in the F2 region peak density and altitude. The diurnal variation in the F2 peak density exhibits one maximum around 12:00 MLT and another around 23:00 MLT, consistent with solar wind controlled transport of EUV ionized plasma across the polar cap from day to night. High density plasma patch material is drawn in through the cusp inflow region independent of IMF BY. There is no apparent IMF BY asymmetry on the intake of high density plasma, but the trajectory of its motion is strongly BY dependent. Comparison with the international reference ionosphere model (IRI2001 clearly demonstrates that the model does not take account of the cross-polar transport of F2-region plasma, and hence has limited applicability in polar cap regions.

  3. One-step ahead prediction of foF2 using time series forecasting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belehaki

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of one-step ahead prediction of the critical frequency (foF2 of the middle-latitude ionosphere, using time series forecasting methods, is considered. The whole study is based on a sample of about 58000 observations of foF2 with 15-min time resolution, derived from the Athens digisonde ionograms taken from the Digisonde Portable Sounder (DPS4 located at Palaia Penteli (38° N, 23.5° E, for the period from October 2002 to May 2004. First, the embedding dimension of the dynamical system that generates the above sample is estimated using the false nearest neighbor method. This information is then utilized for the training of the predictors employed in this study, which are the linear predictor, the neural network predictor, the persistence predictor and the k-nearest neighbor predictor. The results obtained by the above predictors suggest that, as far as the mean square error is considered as performance criterion, the first two predictors are significantly better than the latter two predictors. In addition, the results obtained by the linear and the neural network predictors are not significantly different from each other. This may be taken as an indication that a linear model suffices for one step ahead prediction of foF2.

  4. Excited state absorption of Sm2+ in SrF2 and SrCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.; Boatner, L. A.

    1988-06-01

    The excited state absorption spectrum of Sm2+ diluted as an impurity in the single crystal hosts SrF2 and SrCl2 has been observed. The absorption peaks associated with the 5D0(4f6) excited state were found to be displaced by approximately 3000 cm-1 from the absorption bands arising from the 7F0(4f6) ground state when the 5D0-7F0 energy was taken into account. The observed peak separation is ascribed to the 4f-5d exchange interaction. From the measured peak positions and band intensities, the exchange energy for the Sm2+ impurity in the two host crystals was determined to be about the same order of magnitude as that expected for the free ion. The implications of the properties of the excited state absorption bands for the performance of CaF2:Sm2+ and SrF2:Sm2+ lasers are considered.

  5. Psychoacoustical and ear canal cancellation of (2f1-f2)-distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, E; Harris, F P

    1990-06-01

    Level and phase of the (2f1-f2)-difference tone were measured as a function of primary-tone level using the psychoacoustical method of cancellation and the objective method of emission cancellation for four frequency separations of f1 = 1620 Hz and f2 in four subjects. Differences between hearing- and emission-cancellation levels ranged from 60-33 dB as delta f = f2-f1 increased from 180 to 432 Hz. For smaller separations of the primaries, phase changes for emission cancellation covered a wide range and had sharp "steps," whereas for hearing cancellation, the phase varied only slightly. With wider separations of the primaries, the phase became more varied for hearing cancellation and more homogeneous for emission cancellation. Both emission- and hearing-cancellation level functions were nonmonotonic as a function of constant SL1 and varied SL2. Remarkable phase shifts always appeared near minima in level at all separations of the primaries for emission cancellation. Four sources may be contributing to the differences in results: (a) the frequency-dependent attenuation of the middle-ear transfer function, (b) the frequency-dependent mismatch of the acoustical impedances at the eardrum, (c) the frequency dependence of the microphone's sensitivity mounted within the probe, and (d) the different reaction of active nonlinear cochlear processes on the hearing- and emission-cancellation tones.

  6. Effect of CaF2 content on rate of fluoride release from filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J; Zhang, N-Z; Shen, C

    2005-05-01

    Information on the time-dependent release of fluoride from filled resins containing fluoride particles as a function of particle content and solution pH is limited. This study characterized the fluoride ion release from filled resins containing CaF2 particles as a function of filler content and pH. Urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resins were used to make filled-resin disks containing 9.09, 23.08, or 33.33 mass% CaF2 filler. Fluoride ion release for the 9.09 mass% concentration was independent of pH. Increasing the filler content from 9.09 to 33.33 mass% increased the fluoride release rate in pH 4.0 buffer solution, because of greater surface degradation. Fluoride ion release from disks stored in pH 6.0 buffer solutions occurred mainly by diffusion from disk surfaces, while fluoride release from disks in pH 4.0 buffers was controlled by diffusion from disk surfaces and degeneration of the resin matrix, which exposed more CaF2 particle surface area.

  7. Evaluation Software for BaF2 Detector Array Electronics at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxi; Cao, Ping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Deliang; He, Bing; Qi, Xincheng; An, Qi

    2017-06-01

    The “in programming barium fluoride (BaF2) detector array” is one of the experiment facilities at China Spallation Neutron Source-White Neutron Sources, which is designed for the measurement of neutron capture cross section with high accuracy. It consists of 92 crystal elements with completely 4π solid-angle coverage, which needs 92 analog channels and 92 digitization channels for data acquisition. Accordingly, the readout electronics is comprised with four distributed readout PXIe crates, containing 46 field digitization modules (FDMs). Each FDM supports two valid channels for signal digitizing. In this paper, evaluation software is designed for evaluating the performance of BaF2 readout electronics. It focuses on evaluating the performance of data transmission, waveform digitizing, and working status monitoring. Test results show that the evaluation software can correctly acquire and assemble data from the BaF2 readout system and evaluate the analog digital converter (ADC) performance under ADC test mode. FDMs in the readout system can also be monitored and controlled by this software in real time.

  8. The essential role of charge-shift bonding in hypervalent prototype XeF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braïda, Benoît; Hiberty, Philippe C.

    2013-05-01

    Hypervalency in XeF2 and isoelectronic complexes is generally understood in terms of the Rundle-Pimentel model (which invokes a three-centre/four-electron molecular system) or its valence bond version as proposed by Coulson, which replaced the old expanded octet model of Pauling. However, the Rundle-Pimentel model is not always successful in describing such complexes and has been shown to be oversimplified. Here using ab initio valence bond theory coupled to quantum Monte Carlo methods, we show that the Rundle-Pimentel model is insufficient by itself in accounting for the great stability of XeF2, and that charge-shift bonding, wherein the large covalent-ionic interaction energy has the dominant role, is a major stabilizing factor. The energetic contribution of the old expanded octet model is also quantified and shown to be marginal. Generalizing to isoelectronic systems such as ClF3, SF4, PCl5 and others, it is suggested that charge-shift bonding is necessary, in association with the Rundle-Pimentel model, for hypervalent analogues of XeF2 to be strongly bonded.

  9. Maduramicin. alpha. : Characterization of sup 14 C-derived residues in turkey excreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S.J.; daCunha, A.R.; Lee, A. (American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Jinn Wu; King, K.G. (XenoBiotic Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Maduramicin {alpha}, a highly potent polyether ionophore antibiotic for preventing coccidiosis in poultry, is passed predominantly in turkey excreta following oral feeding. Following isolation and purification, the turkey excreta metabolites were characterized primarily by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Maduramicin {alpha} and its metabolites generate a characteristic pair of ions corresponding to (M + NH{sub 4}){sup +} and (M + Na){sup +} which assist in differentiating the metabolites from matrix coextractives. These two ions also fragment differently in tandem mass spectrometry, thus providing structural information for characterizing the nature of unknown metabolites. The primary metabolic pathway of maduramicin {alpha} in the turkey is O-demethylation at one or more of the methoxy groups. Hydroxylation and glucuronide conjugation are minor secondary metabolic processes.

  10. Alpha-amylase inhibition kinetics by caulerpenyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CENGIZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many algae have important secretions which are generally used for defensive purposes. These secretions take attentions of a lot of researchers who are wondering if these metabolites can be used for medical researches or not. Among these metabolites, caulerpenyne (CYN which is the main metabolite of Caulerpa species, have had an important place in Caulerpa researches since the results related to its determined properties such as cytotoxic, antiviral, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects have been proven by many scientific reports. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of CYN isolated from C. prolifera on alpha-amylase was investigated. The inhibition experiments were done with CYN by spectrophotometric determination method. In order to evaluate the type of inhibition Lineweaver–Burk plot was produced. The results obtained from enzyme kinetic studies exhibited an un-competitive type of inhibition, which is characterized by the difference of Vmax and KM from those of the free enzyme, of alpha-amylase in the presence of CYN. The present study showed that Caulerpa species can be a potential target for producing diabetic drugs in the light of the results obtained for CYN.

  11. High-pressure polymorphism of Pb F2 to 75 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Camelia V.; Dutta, Rajkrishna; White, Claire E.; Prakapenka, Vitali; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2016-07-01

    Lead fluoride, Pb F2 , was investigated experimentally in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell by x-ray diffraction to pressures of 75 GPa at room temperature and to 64.5 GPa and 2430 K, as well as through first-principles density functional theory calculations up to 70 GPa. During room temperature compression, no discontinuous changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern or volume were observed, but the lattice parameters displayed highly anomalous trends between 10-22 GPa with enhanced compressibility along the a direction and reduced or even negative compressibility along b and c . Theoretical calculations of valence electron densities at 22 GPa showed that α -Pb F2 underwent a pressure-induced isosymmetric phase transition to a postcotunnite C o2Si structure and also revealed the detailed atomic rearrangements associated with the development of an extra Pb-F bond in the high-pressure phase. Our x-ray results and theoretical calculations are consistent with an isosymmetric phase transition smoothly occurring over 10-22 GPa rather than abruptly as previously suggested. The characteristic values for the cell constants a /c and (a +c )/b , which are used to distinguish among cotunnite-, C o2Si -, and N i2In -type phases, require modification based on our results. An equation of state fit yields a bulk modulus, K0, of 72(3) GPa for the cotunnite-type, and an ambient-pressure volume, V0, of 182 (2 ) Å3 , and K0=81 (4 ) GPa for the C o2Si -type phase when fixing the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, K0 '=4 . Upon heating above 1200 K at pressures at or above 25.9 GPa, Pb F2 partially transformed to the hexagonal N i2In -type phase but wholly or partially reverted back to C o2Si -type phase upon temperature quench. From 43-65 GPa, nearly complete transformation to the N i2In -type Pb F2 was observed at high temperature, but the material partially transformed back to the orthorhombic phase upon temperature quench. Our results show that high-pressure behavior of Pb F

  12. The F1-F2 vowel chart for Czech whispered vowels a, e, i, o, u.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepl, Michal; Furst, Tomas; Pesak, Josef

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present the formant chart of the Czech vowels a, e, i, o, u and show that this can be achieved by means of digital methods of sound processing. A group of 35 Czech students of the Pedagogical Faculty of Palacky University was tested and a record of whispered vowels was taken from each of them. The record was digitalized and processed by the Discrete Fourier Trasform. The result is the power spectrum of the individual vocals - the graphic output consists of a plot of the relative power of individual frequencies in the original sound. The values of the first two maxima which represent the first and the second formants were determined from the graph. The values were plotted on a formant chart. Altogether, 175 spectral analyses of individual vowels were performed. In the resulting power spectrum, the first and the second formant frequencies were identified. The first formant was plotted against the second one and pure vocal formant regions were identified. Frequency bands for the Czech vowel "a" were circumscribed between 850 and 1150 Hz for first formant (F1) and between 1200 and 2000 Hz for second formant (F2). Similarly, borders of frequency band for vowel "e" they were 700 and 950 Hz for F1 and 1700 and 3000 Hz for F2. For vowel "i" 300 and 450 Hz for F1 and 2000 and 3600 Hz for F2, for vowel "o" 600 and 800 Hz for F1 and 600 and 1400 Hz for F2, for vowel "u" 100 and 400 Hz for F1 and 400 and 1200 Hz for F2. At low frequencies it is feasible to invoke the source-filter model of voice production and associate vowel identity with frequencies of the first two formants in the voice spectrum. On the other hand, subject to intonation, singing or other forms of exposed voice (such as emotional speech, focused speech), the formant regions tend to spread. In spectral analysis other frequencies dominate, so specific formant frequency bands are not easily recognizable. Although the resulting formant map is not much different from the formant

  13. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  14. Rethinking cycad metabolite research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura R; Marler, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their numerous pharmacologically active compounds. One compound in particular, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), has been implicated as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson dementia complex (ALS/PDC) on Guam. Previous studies allege that BMAA is produced exclusively by cyanobacteria, and is transferred to cycads through the symbiotic relationship between these cyanobacteria and the roots of cycads. We recently published data showing that Cycas micronesica seedlings grown without endophytic cyanobacteria do in fact increase in BMAA, invalidating the foundation of the BMAA hypothesis. We use this example to suggest that the frenzy centered on BMAA and other single putative toxins has hindered progress. The long list of cycad-specific compounds may have important roles in signaling or communication, but these possibilities have been neglected during decades of attempts to force single metabolites into a supposed anti-herbivory function. We propose that an unbiased, comprehensive approach may be a more appropriate means of proceeding with cycad biochemistry research.

  15. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  16. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  17. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  18. Prefrontal and agranular cingulate projections to the dorsal premotor areas F2 and F7 in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Giuseppe; Rozzi, Stefano; Calzavara, Roberta; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    The superior sector of Brodmann area 6 (dorsal premotor cortex, PMd) of the macaque monkey consists of a rostral and a caudal architectonic area referred to as F7 and F2, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the origin of prefrontal and agranular cingulate afferents to F7 and F2, in the light of functional and hodological evidence showing that these areas do not appear to be functionally homogeneous. Different sectors of F7 and F2 were injected with neural tracers in seven monkeys and the retrograde labelling was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The dorsorostral part of F7 (supplementary eye field, F7-SEF) was found to be a target of strong afferents from the frontal eye field (FEF), from the dorsolateral prefrontal regions located dorsally (DLPFd) and ventrally (DLPFv) to the principal sulcus and from cingulate areas 24a, 24b and 24c. In contrast, the remaining part of F7 (F7-non SEF) is only a target of the strong afferents from DLPFd. Finally, the ventrorostral part of F2 (F2vr), but not the F2 sector located around the superior precentral dimple (F2d), receives a minor, but significant, input from DLPFd and a relatively strong input from the cingulate gyrus (areas 24a and 24b) and area 24d. Present data provide strong hodological support in favour of the idea that areas F7 and F2 are formed by two functionally distinct sectors.

  19. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Boller, Klaus J.; Peters, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal

  20. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  1. 用于ArF准分子激光器的CaF2衬底性能的实验表征%Characterization of CaF2 Substrates for ArF Excimer Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文渊; 金春水; 靳京城

    2011-01-01

    Experimental characterizations of the CaF2 substrates for applications of ArF excimer lasers are performed. The measured absorption for an excimer-grade CaF2 substrate with 5 mm thickness is equal to 922 X 10~6. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface ronghness measured by atomic force microscope (AFM) and white light interferometer (WLI) are 0.22 and 1.24 nm, respectively, and the corresponding calculated surface scattering losses areO.005% andO.25%, respectively. The emission of impurity of Ce3+ and Eu3"1" ions in the ultraviolet (UV)-grade CaF2 substrates is detected and ascertained by fluorescence. No water molecular or other contamination on the surface of CaF2 is detected in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results prove that laser calorimeters are suited to precisely measure the weak absorption of excimer-grade CaF2 substrates; the power spectral densities (PSDs) obtained by different measuring methods should be compared with each other and combined with the practical scattering losses to appropriately evaluate the surface roughness of CaF2 substrates; spectroscopy methods, such as fluorescence, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, can effectively detect the trace impurities or defects in the CaF2 crystal and the contaminations on the surface of the polished CaF2 substrates.%对用于ArF准分子激光器的CaF2衬底进行了表征实验研究.采用分光光度计测量了CaF2衬底的透射光谱和反射光谱,利用激光量热法测量了CaF2衬底吸收,分别利用原子力显微镜(AFM)和白光干涉仪(WLI)测量了CaF2衬底的表面粗糙度,并计算了功率谱密度(PSD)和表面散射,最后分别测量了CaF2衬底的荧光光谱、红外光谱和拉曼光谱.激光量热法测量5 mm厚准分子级CaF2衬底的吸收结果为922×10-6.AFM和WLI测得的CaF2衬底表面粗糙度均方根值分别为0.22和1.24 nm,计算表面散射损耗分别为0.005%和0.25%.荧光光谱在紫外(UV)级CaF2

  2. On the mechanism of the post-midnight winter NmF2 enhancements: dependence on solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Leschinskaya

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the NmF2 peak formation at different levels of solar activity is analyzed using Millstone Hill IS radar observations. The hmF2 nighttime increase due to thermospheric winds and the downward plasmaspheric fluxes are the key processes responsible for the NmF2 peak formation. The electron temperature follows with the opposite sign the electron density variations in this process. This mechanism provides a consistency with the Millstone Hill observations on the set of main parameters. The observed decrease of the nighttime NmF2 peak amplitude with solar activity is due to faster increasing of the recombination efficiency compared to the plasmaspheric flux increase. The E×B plasma drifts are shown to be inefficient for the NmF2 nighttime peak formation at high solar activity.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere; plasma temperature and density

  3. Anomalous increase in the foF2 critical frequency prior to the Spanish earthquake of May 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegai, V. V.; Legen'ka, A. D.; Kim, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    A study of variations in the critical frequency of the F2 layer ( foF2) prior to a shallow-focus eartquake with a magnitude M = 5.1 which occurred in Spain on May 11, 2011, is carried out. The obtained results show that a positive disturbance in the foF2 value was observed at the ionospheric Del'ebre station, which is the closest to the earthquake epicenter. At the same time, no disturbances in foF2 are revealed at ionospheric stations located at a greater distance from the epicenter. This fact makes it possible to conclude that the positive disturbance in the F2 layer observed at the Del'ebre station could have a sesmogenic nature.

  4. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Alpha Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  5. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Manns, David C.; Sacks, Gavin L.; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Luby, James J.; Londo, Jason P.; Reisch, Bruce I.; Cadle-Davidson, Lance E.; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2016-01-01

    In winegrapes (Vitis spp.), fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS), malic acid content (MA), and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, ‘Seyval’. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species. PMID:26974672

  6. On variations of foF2 and F-spread before strong earthquakes in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Liperovskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of the variations of the dayly-mean frequency of the maximum ionospheric electron density foF2 is performed in connection with the occurrence of (more than 60 earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.0, depths h<80 km and distances from the vertical sounding station R<1000 km. For the study, data of the Tokyo sounding station are used, which were registered every hour in the years 1957–1990. It is shown that, on the average, foF2 decreases before the earthquakes. One day before the shock the decrease amounts to about 5%. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is obtained to be better than 0.95. Further, the variations of the occurrence probability of the turbulization of the F-layer (F spread are investigated for (more than 260 earthquakes with M>5.5, h<80 km, R<1000 km. For the analysis, data of the Japanese station Akita from 1969–1990 are used, which were obtained every hour. It is found that before the earthquakes the occurrence probability of F spread decreases. In the week before the event, the decrease has values of more than 10%. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is also larger than 0.95. Examining the seismo-ionospheric effects, here periods of time with weak heliogeomagnetic disturbances are considered. For the foF2 analysis, the Wolf number is less than 100 and the index ΣKp is smaller than 30, and in case of the F-spread study a Wolf number less than 80 and ΣKp smaller than 17 are chosen.

  7. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available In winegrapes (Vitis spp., fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS, malic acid content (MA, and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, 'Seyval'. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species.

  8. Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M J Derry

    Full Text Available To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2 cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans.

  9. Classifying genotype F of hepatitis B virus into F1 and F2 subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Kato; Takanobu Kato; Yuzo Miyakawa; Masashi Mizokami; Kei Fujiwara; Robert G. Gish; Hiroshi Sakugawa; Hiroshi Yoshizawa; Fuminaka Sugauchi; Etsuro Orito; Ryuzo Ueda; Yasuhito Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the propriety of providing hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotypes F and H with two distinct genotypes.METHODS: Eleven HBV isolates of genotype F (HBV/F)were recovered from patients living in San Francisco,Japan, Panama, and Venezuela, and their full-length sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out among them along with HBV isolates previously reported.RESULTS: Seven of them clustered with reported HBV/F isolates in the phylogenetic tree constructed on the entire genomic sequence. The remaining four flocked on another branch along with three HBV isolates formerly reported as genotype H. These seven HBV isolates, including the four in this study and the three reported, had a sequence divergence of 7.3-9.5% from the other HBV/F isolates,and differed by > 13.7% from HBV isolates of the other six genotypes (A-E and G). Based on a marked genomic divergence, falling just short of >8% separating the seven genotypes, these seven HBV/F isolates were classified into F2 subtype and the former seven into F1 subtype provisionally. In a pairwise comparison of the S-gene sequences among the 7 HBV/F2 isolates and against 47HBV/F1 isolates as well as 136 representing the other six genotypes (A-E and G), two clusters separated by distinct genetic distances emerged.CONCLUSION: Based on these analyses, classifying HBV/F isolates into two subtypes (F1 and F2) would be more appropriate than providing them with two distinct genotypes (F and H).

  10. The Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, N.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-03-01

    ALPHA is a new experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The short term goal of ALPHA is trapping of cold antihydrogen, with the long term goal of conducting precise spectroscopic comparisons of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Here we present the current status of ALPHA and the physics considerations and results leading to its design as well as recent progress towards trapping.

  11. Nucleon form factors and couplings with $N_\\mathrm{f} = 2 + 1$ Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Djukanovic, Dalibor; von Hippel, Georg; Junnarkar, Parikshit; Meyer, Harvey B; Wittig, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We present updated results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and axial coupling calculated using CLS ensembles with $N_\\mathrm{f}=2+1$ dynamical flavours of Wilson fermions. The measurements are performed on large, fine lattices with a pseudoscalar mass reaching down to 200 MeV. The truncated-solver method is employed to reduce the variance of the measurements. Estimation of the matrix elements is challenging due to large contamination from excited states and further investigation is necessary to bring these effects under control.

  12. The incorporation site of Er in nanosized CaF 2

    CERN Document Server

    D'Acapito, Francesco; Blanc, Wilfried; Benabdesselam, Mourad; Mady, Franck; Gredin, Patrick; Mortier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation site of Er dopants inserted at high and low concentration (respectively 5 and 0.5 mol %) in nanoparticles of CaF 2 is studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at the Er L III edge. The experimental data are compared with the results of structural modeling based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). DFT-based molecular dynamics is also used to simulate complete theoretical EXAFS spectra of the model structures. The results is that Er substitutes for Ca in the structure and in the low concentration case the dopant ions are isolated. At high concentration the rare earth ions cluster together binding Ca vacancies.

  13. Exploring the chiral regime of $N_f=2$ QCD with mixed actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Garron, Nicolas; Necco, Silvia; Pena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We report on our simulations with Neuberger valence fermions on CLS $N_f=2$ configurations with non-perturbatively $O(a)$-improved Wilson sea quarks. We consider the matching of QCD to ChPT in the so called mixed-regime in which the sea quarks are in the $p$-regime while the valence quarks are in the $\\epsilon$-regime. From this matching, we can get information on $\\Sigma$, $L_6$ and the combination $L_8+2L_6+2L_7$.

  14. Baryon axial charges and momentum fractions with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    We report on recent results of the QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration on investigations of baryon structure using configurations generated with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. With the strange quark mass as an additional dynamical degree of freedom in our simulations we avoid the need for a partially quenched approximation when investigating the properties of particles containing a strange quark, e.g. the hyperons. In particular, we focus on the nucleon and hyperon axial coupling constants and quark momentum fractions. (orig.)

  15. Strange and charmed baryons using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papinutto, Mauro; Carbonell, Jaume [UJF, CNRS/IN2P, INPG (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Drach, Vincent [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We compute the mass spectrum for strange/charmed baryons in the partially quenched approach using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass QCD configurations. We investigate two main issues: the size of lattice artefacts using three values of the lattice spacing (the smallest of which is approximately 0.05 fm) and the dependence of baryon masses on meson (or quark) masses. We thus perform a global fit in order to extrapolate simultaneously to the continuum limit and to the physical point. We estimate the masses of {omega}{sub sss}, {xi}{sub dss}, {lambda}{sub uds}, {omega}{sub ccc}, {xi}{sub dcc}, {lambda}{sub udc}. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  17. Creation of nanohillocks on CaF2 surfaces by single slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A S; Heller, R; Meissl, W; Ritter, R; Facsko, S; Lemell, C; Solleder, B; Gebeshuber, I C; Betz, G; Toulemonde, M; Möller, W; Burgdörfer, J; Aumayr, F

    2008-06-13

    Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 x q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks on the (111) surface of a CaF(2) single crystal. Our investigations reveal a surprisingly sharp and well-defined threshold of potential energy for hillock formation which can be linked to a solid-liquid phase transition.

  18. Primjena industrijskog otpada CaF2 u procesu ozelenjivanja odlagališta fosfogipsa

    OpenAIRE

    Leaković, S.; Lisac, H.; Vukadin, R.

    2012-01-01

    U procesu proizvodnje fosforne kiseline nastaje fosfogips kao sporedni produkt reakcije sirovog fosfata i sumporne kiseline. On se kao neopasni otpad trajno odlaže na posebno uređenom odlagalištu. Prilikom proizvodnje fosforne kiseline nastaje i otpadna voda onečišćena fluoridima i fosforom. Takva otpadna voda se prije ispuštanja u prirodni prijamnik obrađuje neutralizacijom vapnenim hidratom. Nastali produkt neutralizacije je kalcijev fluorid (CaF2), koji se kao neopasni otpad odlaže u po...

  19. On a two Pomeron description of the F_2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, A I

    2003-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the inclusive structure function considering a QCD inspired model describing the ep scattering. In lines of a two Pomeron approach, the structure function F_2 has a hard piece given by the model and the remaining soft contributions: the soft Pomeron and non-singlet content. We have investigated several choices for the soft Pomeron and its implication in the data description. In particular, we carefully estimated the relative role of the hard and the soft contributions in a large span of x and Q^2.

  20. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  1. Strange and charmed baryons using N_f=2 twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Papinutto, Mauro; Drach, Vincent; Alexandrou, Constantia

    2010-01-01

    We compute the mass spectrum for strange/charmed baryons in the partially quenched approach using N_f=2 twisted mass QCD configurations. We investigate two main issues: the size of lattice artefacts using three values of the lattice spacing (the smallest of which is approximately 0.05 fm) and the dependence of baryon masses on meson (or quark) masses. We thus perform a global fit in order to extrapolate simultaneously to the continuum limit and to the physical point. We estimate the masses of Omega_{sss}, Xi_{dss}, Lambda_{uds}, Omega_{ccc}, Xi_{dcc}, Lambda_{udc}.

  2. Pseudoscalar decay constants from N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Farchioni, Federico; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Urbach, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants $f_K$, $f_D$ and $f_{D_s}$ from lattice QCD with N_f=2+1+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory.

  3. Longitudinal Structure Function FL from Charm Structure Function F2c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Rezaei; G.R.Boroun

    2013-01-01

    We predict the effect of the charm structure function on the longitudinal structure function at small x.In NLO analysis we find that the hard Pomeron behavior gives a good description of FL and Fkc (k =2,L) at small x values.We conclude that a direct relation between FL∝ F2c would provide useful information on how to measure longitudinal structure function at high Q2 values.Having checked that this model gives a good description of the data,when compared with other models.

  4. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  5. Changes of NmF2 and hmF2 over Biak (1°S, 136°E) during total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggarani, Sefria; Asnawi, Jiyo; Dear, Varuliantor; Ekawati, Sri

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric responses to solar eclipse is interesting to learn. In this paper, we presented ionspheric F2 responses to total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016 over Indonesia from Biak station (-1 ° 136.0 °) which is within the obscuration 86.55%. The total solar eclipse over Biak occurred at 00:58 UT (09:58 local time) in F2 layer height of ionosphere (h ≈ 300 km). Observation of the ionospheric F2 over Biak during the total solar eclipse investigated using ionosonde with 15 minutes resolution. Ionization and recombination processes that occur in the ionosphere proceed by solar radiation. At the time of the ionosphere receives solar radiation, ionization process dominated in the F2 layer. Diurnal ionosphere parameters changed following the solar radiation. During the solar eclipse, the process of ionization in the F2 layer disturbed. Total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016 affected almost simultaneous decrease in maximum electron density (NmF2) ∼52% and increase hmF2 ∼24% at the elapsed time of totality observed from Biak Station.

  6. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Stahl-Hermes, Vanessa; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; de Vos, Ric C H; Voorrips, Roeland E; Maharijaya, Awang; Molthoff, Jos; Zamora, Marcela Viquez; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental accessions were selected based on their variation in fruit morphological characteristics and fruit content of some target phytonutrients. Clear segregation of fruit colour and fruit metabolite profiles was observed in the F2 population. The F2 plants formed three clusters based on their metabolite profiles. Of the total of 542 metabolites, 52 could be annotated, including a range of flavonoids, such as flavone C-glycosides, flavonol O-glycosides and naringenin chalcone, as well as several phenylpropanoids, a capsaicin analogue, fatty acid derivatives and amino acid derivatives. Interval mapping revealed 279 mQTLs in total. Two mQTL hotspots were found on chromosome 9. These two chromosomal regions regulated the relative levels of 35 and 103 metabolites, respectively. Analysis also revealed an mQTL for a capsaicin analogue, located on chromosome 7. Confirmation of flavonoid mQTLs using a set of six flavonoid candidate gene markers and their corresponding expression data (expression QTLs) indicated the Ca-MYB12 transcription factor gene on chromosome 1 and the gene encoding flavone synthase (FS-2) on chromosome 6 as likely causative genes determining the variation in naringenin chalcone and flavone C-glycosides, respectively, in this population. The combination of large-scale metabolite profiling and QTL analysis provided valuable insight into the genomic regions and genes important for the production of (secondary) metabolites in pepper fruit. This will impact breeding strategies aimed at optimising the content of specific metabolites in pepper fruit.

  7. Metabolite Space of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    van Wietmarschen, Herman; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites play numerous roles in the healthy and diseased body, ranging from regulating physiological processes to providing building blocks for the body. Therefore, understanding the role of metabolites is important in elucidating the etiology and pathology of diseases and finding targets for new treatment options. Rheumatoid arthritis is a complex chronic disease for which new disease management strategies are needed. The aim of this review is to bring together and integrate information a...

  8. Tibolone and its metabolites acutely relax rabbit coronary arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Susan Helene

    2004-01-01

    under curve (AUC). RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent vasodilatation comparable to that of 17 beta-estradiol with the rank of potency: 3 beta-OH-tibolone approximately = to tibolone>3 alpha-OH-tibolone>Delta 4-isomer (ANOVA). l-NAME partly inhibited the relaxation...

  9. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  10. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by IAV virulence protein PB1-F2 contributes to severe pathophysiology and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L McAuley

    Full Text Available The ability for a host to recognize infection is critical for virus clearance and often begins with induction of inflammation. The PB1-F2 of pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV contributes to the pathophysiology of infection, although the mechanism for this is unclear. The NLRP3-inflammasome has been implicated in IAV pathogenesis, but whether IAV virulence proteins can be activators of the complex is unknown. We investigated whether PB1-F2-mediated activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome is a mechanism contributing to overt inflammatory responses to IAV infection. We show PB1-F2 induces secretion of pyrogenic cytokine IL-1β by activating the NLRP3-inflammasome, contributing to inflammation triggered by pathogenic IAV. Compared to infection with wild-type virus, mice infected with reverse engineered PB1-F2-deficient IAV resulted in decreased IL-1β secretion and cellular recruitment to the airways. Moreover, mice exposed to PB1-F2 peptide derived from pathogenic IAV had enhanced IL-1β secretion compared to mice exposed to peptide derived from seasonal IAV. Implicating the NLRP3-inflammasome complex specifically, we show PB1-F2 derived from pathogenic IAV induced IL-1β secretion was Caspase-1-dependent in human PBMCs and NLRP3-dependent in mice. Importantly, we demonstrate PB1-F2 is incorporated into the phagolysosomal compartment, and upon acidification, induces ASC speck formation. We also show that high molecular weight aggregated PB1-F2, rather than soluble PB1-F2, induces IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, NLRP3-deficient mice exposed to PB1-F2 peptide or infected with PB1-F2 expressing IAV were unable to efficiently induce the robust inflammatory response as observed in wild-type mice. In addition to viral pore forming toxins, ion channel proteins and RNA, we demonstrate inducers of NLRP3-inflammasome activation may include disordered viral proteins, as exemplified by PB1-F2, acting as host pathogen 'danger' signals. Elucidating

  11. The ubiquitination of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein is crucial for its biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Košík

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify what influences the short half-life of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein and whether a prolonged half-life affects the properties of this molecule. We hypothesized that the short half-life of PB1-F2 could conceal the phenotype of the protein. Because proteasome degradation might be involved in PB1-F2 degradation, we focused on ubiquitination, a common label for proteasome targeting. A cluster of lysine residues was demonstrated as an ubiquitination acceptor site in evolutionary and functionally distinct proteins. The PB1-F2 sequence alignment revealed a cluster of lysines on the carboxy terminal end of PB1-F2 in almost all of the GenBank sequences available to date. Using a proximity ligation assay, we identified ubiquitination as a novel posttranslational modification of PB1-F2. Changing the lysines at positions 73, 78, and 85 to arginines suppressed the ubiquitination of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. The mutation of the C-terminal lysine residue cluster positively affected the overall expression levels of avian A/Honk Kong/156/1997 (H5N1- and mammalian A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. Moreover, increased PB1-F2 copy numbers strengthened the functions of this virus in the infected cells. The results of a minigenome luciferase reporter assay revealed an enhancement of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in the presence of stabilized PB1-F2, regardless of viral origin. IFNβ antagonism was enhanced in 293T cells transfected with a plasmid expressing stabilized K→R mutant variants of PB1-F2. Compared with PB1-F2 wt, the loss of ubiquitination enhanced the antibody response after DNA vaccination. In summary, we revealed that PB1-F2 is an ubiquitinated IAV protein, and this posttranslational modification plays a central role in the regulation of the biological functions of this protein.

  12. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  13. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pigs to tiamulin and enrofloxacin metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2007-01-01

    -tiamulin (8 alpha-HTIA), and the ENR metabolites were: ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin N-oxide (ENR-N). Bacteria, all of porcine origin, we're selected as representatives of bacterial infections (Stap4ylococcus hyicus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae), zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli......:Susceptibilities to metabolites of tiamulin (TIA) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were tested using selected bacteria with previously defined minimal inhibitory concentrations,(,MIC). The TIA metabolites tested were: N-deethyl-tiamulin (I)TIA), 2 beta-hydroxy-tiamulin (2 beta-HTIA),and Sammhydroxy......) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Furthermore the effects of ithese compounds were tested on the microbial community of active sludge to test any negative effect on colony forming units,(CFU). DTIA had a potency of 12.5-50% of the potency of T1A. 2-HTIA:and 8 alpha HTIA had,potenciesless, than 1...

  14. The thermodynamic behavior of sulfur in BaO-BaF2 slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, Ivan P.; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo

    1991-06-01

    A gas-slag-metal equilibration technique was used to determine the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system at 1473 and 1573 K. The dependence of carbonate capacity on the slag composition was also measured at these temperatures. It was found that the BaO-BaF2 system has the highest sulfide capacities among the fluxes which are of metallurgical interest. The dependence of sulfide and carbonate capacities on the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 was also investigated. The partial pressure of CO2 proved to have a strong effect on these values at the investigated temperatures. The influence of temperature on the sulfide and carbonate capacities was studied in the temperature range between 1423 and 1623 K. The data for sulfide and carbonate capacities were correlated in order to check if the carbonate capacity can be used as a measure of basicity of slags. It was found that the carbonate capacity can be used as a representative measure of the slag basicity at low contents of BaO and at temperatures higher than 1623 K when the carbonate dissolution into the slag is low and the ratio of the activity coefficient of a sulfide ion to that of a carbonate ion is independent of slag composition.

  15. Computation of quark mass anomalous dimension at $O(1/N_{f}^{2})$ in quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, M; Gracey, J A; Manashov, A N

    2000-01-01

    We present the formalism to calculate d-dimensional critical exponents in QCD in the large N_f expansion where N_f is the number of quark flavours. It relies in part on demonstrating that at the d-dimensional fixed point of QCD the critical theory is equivalent to a non-abelian version of the Thirring model. We describe the techniques used to compute critical two and three loop Feynman diagrams and as an application determine the quark wave function, eta, and mass renormalization critical exponents at O(1/N_f^2) in d-dimensions. Their values when expressed in relation to four dimensional perturbation theory are in exact agreement with the known four loop MSbar results. Moreover, new coefficients in these renormalization group functions are determined to six loops and O(1/N_f^2). The computation of the exponents in the Schwinger Dyson approach is also provided and an expression for eta in arbitrary covariant gauge is given.

  16. Long-term trends of foF2 independent of geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the foF2 data at a series of ionospheric stations is performed to reveal long-term trends independent of the long-term changes in geomagnetic activity during the recent decades (nongeomagnetic trends. The method developed by the author and published earlier is used. It is found that the results for 21 out of 23 stations considered agree well and give a relative nongeomagnetic trend of -0.0012 per year (or an absolute nongeomagnetic trend of about -0.012 MHz per year for the period between 1958 and the mid-nineties. The trends derived show no dependence on geomagnetic latitude or local time, a fact confirming their independence of geomagnetic activity. The consideration of the earlier period (1948–1985 for a few stations for which the corresponding data are available provides significantly lower foF2 trends, the difference between the later and earlier periods being a factor of 1.6. This is a strong argument in favor of an anthropogenic nature of the trends derived.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Complete NLO QCD Corrections for Tree Level Delta F = 2 FCNC Processe

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2012-01-01

    Anticipating the important role of tree level FCNC processes in the indirect search for new physics at distance scales as short as 10^-19-10^-21 m, we present complete NLO QCD corrections to tree level Delta F=2 processes mediated by heavy colourless gauge bosons and scalars. Such contributions can be present at the fundamental level when GIM mechanism is absent as in numerous Z' models, gauged flavour models with new heavy neutral gauge bosons and Left-Right symmetric models with heavy neutral scalars. They can also be generated at one loop in models having GIM at the fundamental level and MFV of which Two-Higgs Doublet models with and without SUSY are the best known examples. In models containing vectorial heavy fermions that mix with the standard chiral quarks and models in which Z and SM neutral Higgs H mix with new heavy gauge bosons and scalars also tree-level Z and SM neutral Higgs contributions to Delta F=2 processes are possible. In all these extensions new local operators are generated having Wilson...

  18. UV-vis spectroscopic studies of CaF2 photo-thermo-refractive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Martina; Herrmann, Andreas; Hein, Joachim; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-12-01

    A photo-thermo-refractive glass based on the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/ZnO/SiO2 doped with Ag2O, CeO2, SnO2, Sb2O3 and KBr was investigated. This glass undergoes a permanent refractive index change after UV irradiation and subsequent two step heat treatment at temperatures above Tg. This is due to the formation of Ag metal clusters which act as nucleation centers for CaF2 crystallization. Oxidation of Ce3+ by UV light is the initial reaction and acts as photosensitizer in the glass. The UV-vis absorption spectra during this photo-induced crystallization process were measured. The spectral components that form the absorption spectra of cerium were studied in detail by a band separation with Gaussian functions. Deconvolution of the cerium absorption bands shows an envelope of five spectral components for the trivalent cerium due to the 4f-5d transitions and two spectral components for the tetravalent cerium caused by charge transfer transitions. The effect of different dopants and melting conditions on the photo-thermal process were studied to investigate the influence of glass technology on the photoprocess.

  19. A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon, K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and World Health Organization (WHO for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

  20. Laser characteristics of TGT-grown Nd,Y-codoped:SrF2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Yuexin; Xu, Jun

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we present spectroscopic and laser properties of TGT (temperature gradient technique) grown Nd,Y:SrF2 crystals with neodymium concentration of 0.4, 0.65 and 0.8 at.%. The absorption cross-section, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay time were measured. For the laser experiments, the noncoated crystal samples 3.5 or 5 mm thick were pumped by a 796 nm laser diode matching the Nd:SrF2 absorption peak. Several output couplers with reflectivity ranging from 70 to 98 % at the generated wavelength were tested. In the pulsed pumping regime (pulseduration 2 ms, frequency 10 Hz), the maximum average output power of 75 mW was obtained with the slope efficiency as high as 48 % and the optical-to-optical efficiency of 42 % with respect to the absorbed pump power. The output beam spatial profile was nearly Gaussian in both axes, oscillations started at the wavelength of 1057 nm. At higher pumping levels, the second emission line at 1050 nm appears corresponding to our fluorescence measurements. Wavelength tuning using birefringent filter from 1048 to 1070 nm is probably given by crystal-field splitting of the 4F3/2 manifold in Nd3+. True-CW laser operation was also successfully obtained at lower pumping level with the maximum output power of 90 mW using output coupler reflectivity of 98 %.

  1. Segregation of Species-Specific Male Attractiveness in F2 Hybrid Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Svensson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F2 hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F2 hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  2. Chiral phase transition of QCD with N f = 2 + 1 flavors from holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danning; Huang, Mei

    2017-02-01

    Chiral phase transition for three-flavor N f = 2 + 1 QCD with m u = m d ≠ m s is investigated in a modified soft-wall holographic QCD model. Solving temperature dependent chiral condensates from equations of motion of the modified soft-wall model, we extract the quark mass dependence of the order of chiral phase transition in the case of N f = 2 + 1, and the result is in agreement with the "Columbia Plot", which is summarized from lattice simulations and other non-perturbative methods. First order phase transition is observed around the three flavor chiral limit m u/ d = 0, m s = 0, while at sufficient large quark masses it turns to be a crossover phase transition. The first order and crossover regions are separated by a second order phase transition line. The second order line is divided into two parts by the m u/ d = m s line, and the m s dependence of the transition temperature in these two parts are totally contrast, which might indicate that the two parts are governed by different universality classes.

  3. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Stephen H; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF$_2$ from Xe 3d$_{5/2}$, Xe 3d$_{3/2}$, and F 1s subshells in the 660--740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d - $\\epsilon$f continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF$_2$ cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods. Several charge states and fragment ions are produced from the atom and molecule due to alternative decay pathways from the inner-shell holes. Total and partial ion yields vary in response to the shape resonances and LUMO resonances. Previous calculations and measurements of atomic Xe 3d core-hole decay channels and our calculated results for XeF$_...

  4. The $N_f=2 chiral phase transition from imaginary chemical potential with Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuteri, Francesca; Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The finite temperature chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at zero density for light and heavy quarks, respectively, have analytic continuations to imaginary chemical potential. At some critical imaginary chemical potential, they meet the Roberge-Weiss transition between adjacent $Z3$ sectors. For light and heavy quarks, where the chiral and deconfinement transitions are first order, the transition lines meet in a triple point. For intermediate masses chiral or deconfinement transitions are crossover and the Roberge-Weiss transition ends in a second order point. At the boundary between these regimes the junction is a tricritical point, as shown in studies with $N_f=2,3$ flavors of staggered and Wilson quarks on $N_\\tau=4$ lattices. Employing finite size scaling we investigate the nature of this point as a function of quark mass for $N_f=2$ flavors of Wilson fermions with a temporal lattice extent of $N_\\tau=6$. In particular we are interested in the change of the location of tricritical points compared...

  5. The Early Universe $f^{2}FF$ Model of Primordial Magnetic Field in Natural Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    AlMuhammad, Anwar S

    2015-01-01

    We study the simple gauge invariant model ${f^2}FF$ as a way to generate primordial magnetic fields (PMF) in Natural Inflation (NI). We compute both magnetic and electric spectra generated by the ${f^2}FF$ model in NI for different values of model parameters and find that both de Sitter and power law expansion lead to the same results at sufficiently large number of e-foldings. We also find that the necessary scale invariance property of the PMF cannot be obtained in NI in first order of slow roll limits under the constraint of inflationary potential, $V\\left( 0 \\right) \\simeq 0$. Furthermore, if this constraint is relaxed to achieve scale invariance, then the model suffers from the backreaction problem for almost all values of model parameters. We show that there is a narrow range of the height of the potential $\\Lambda $ around ${\\Lambda _{\\min }} \\approx 0.00874{M_{{\\rm{Pl}}}}$ and of the co-moving wave number $k$ around ${k_{\\min }} \\sim 0.0173{\\rm{Mp}}{{\\rm{c}}^{ - 1}}$, at which the problem of backreact...

  6. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M; Erekhinsky, M; Morales, R; Schuller, I K; Labarta, A; Batlle, X

    2010-04-30

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF(2) nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 micros) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 +/- 8 to 500 +/- 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 +/- 8 to 1000 +/- 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 +/- 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 +/- 8 to 1200 +/- 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF(2)) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  7. Intense-Field Multiple-Detachment of F2¯: Competition with Photodissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Albeck, Yishai; Strasser, Daniel

    2017-04-07

    The competition of intense-field multiple-detachment with efficient photodissociation of F2¯ is studied as a function of laser peak intensity. The main product channels are disentangled and characterized by 3D coincidence fragment imaging. The presented kinetic energy release spectra, angular distributions as well as two color pump-probe measurements allow identification of competing sequential and non-sequential mechanisms. Dissociative detachment, producing two neutral atoms (F + F) is found to be dominated by a sequential mechanism of photodissociation (F¯ + F) followed by detachment of the atomic anion fragment. In contrast, dissociative ionization (F + F(+)) shows competing contributions of both a sequential two-step mechanism as well as a non-sequential double-detachment of the molecular anion, which are distinguished by the kinetic energy released in the dissociation. Triple-detachment is found to be non-sequential in nature and results in Coulomb explosion (F(+)+F(+)). Furthermore, the measured kinetic energy release for dissociation on the (2)Σg(+) state provides a direct measurement of the F2¯ dissociation energy, D0 = 1.26±0.03 eV.

  8. Response of the Ionospheric F2-region Over Irkutsk and Hainan to Strong Geomagnetic Storms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E B Romanova; G A Zherebtsov; K G Ratovsky; N M Polekh; J K Shi; X Wang; G J Wang

    2013-01-01

    The ionospheric responses to two strong storms on 17-19 August 2003 and 22-23 January 2004 are studied,using the data from Irkutsk (52.5°N,104°E) and Hainan (19.5°N,109°E)ionospheric stations.The analysis of variations in relative deviations of the critical frequency Af0F2 revealed that at middle latitudes (Irkutsk) negative disturbances were observed in the summer ionosphere; positive and negative ones,in the winter ionosphere during the main and recovery phases respectively.At low latitudes (Hainan),the disturbances were positive in all the cases considered.Mechanisms of the disturbances were analyzed with the aid of empirical models of the neutral atmosphere NRLMSISE-00 and thermospheric wind HWM07.The main factors determining Δf0F2 variations at middle latitudes during the storms were demonstrated to be the disturbed equatorward thermospheric wind transporting the disturbed atmospheric composition,the increase in the atomic oxygen concentration,and the passage of internal gravity waves.At low latitudes,the effects associated with neutral composition variations are less significant than those of the thermospheric wind and electric fields.

  9. Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shantala D Patil; V M Jali; R V Anavekar

    2009-12-01

    Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentrations have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity measurements using pulse-echo superposition method. Various elastic moduli have been calculated and their compositional dependence has been examined. The compositional dependence of elastic moduli with the concentration of ZnF2 shows decrease in the moduli initially, with further increase in ZnF2 the moduli sharply increases and then again tend to decrease when ZnF2 concentration is 20 mol%. The values of Poisson’s ratio lie in the range of 0.24–0.30, which is typical to covalent bonded network. The variation of D with ZnF2 indicates complex behaviour of the glass network. The results have been analysed in view of the modified borate glass network. Addition of ZnF2 into the pure glass seems to influence the borate network by replacement of B–O–B linkages with B–O–Zn.

  10. Effect of the CaF2-fraction in the glass-ceramic with abrasion resistance on crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin-liang; Zhao Yun-cai

    2005-01-01

    Investigated the effect of an addition of CaF2 on the crystallization of a glass-ceramic with abrasion resistance. X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the effect. The results showed that a suitable addition of CaF2 promoted crystallization by forming an intermediate crystalline phase. CaF2 can decrease the temperature and active energy of the base-glass for crystallization. When 4 mass-% of CaF2-fraction is added in the glass, the crystallization temperature and active energy is 936℃and 172.75 k J/mol respectively.When CaF2 is increased to 6 mass-%, the temperature and active energy decrease to 890℃ and 88.81 kJ/mol. CaF2 is an efficient nucleating agent for the glass-ceramics with abrasion resistant, the optimal content of CaF2 is about 6 mass-%.

  11. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  12. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside F2 (F2, a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM and shorter duration (12 hour of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment.

  13. A method for f0F2 monitoring over Spain using the El Arenosillo digisonde current observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionosphere monitoring implies: observations, prediction and mapping of ionospheric parameters. A case with one available (El Arenosillo ionosonde is considered. Some statistical methods for f0F2 short-term (1-24 h in advance prediction are compared. The analysis of multi-dimensional regression for Df0F2 (relative deviation from running median with Ap, F10.7 and previous Df0F2 observations has shown that inclusion of additional terms with Ap and F10.7 improves the prediction accuracy for lead time more than 15 h. For lead time 1-6 h a linear regression with earlier observed Df0F2 provides the f0F2 forecast with Relative Mean Deviation (RMD 6-11%. This is acceptable from a practical point of view. A 24-h forecast can be done with RMD 10-11%. Multi-regressional methods provide better prediction accuracy than the usual 10-day running median or quasi-inertial method based on such median. Hourly f0F2 values may be used to calculate the effective index R12eff used as input to the ITU-R monthly median model. This allows the ITU-R model to "breathe" following hour-to-hour f0F2 variations. Then standard surfering methods may be applied for f0F2 mapping over the whole area. The f0F2 mapping accuracy based on the hourly R12eff index is shown to be 9-11% depending on solar activity level.

  14. Molecular characterization of UGT94F2 and UGT86C4, two glycosyltransferases from Picrorhiza kurrooa: comparative structural insight and evaluation of substrate recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajid Waheed Bhat

    Full Text Available Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs are pivotal in the process of glycosylation for decorating natural products with sugars. It is one of the versatile mechanisms in determining chemical complexity and diversity for the production of suite of pharmacologically active plant natural products. Picrorhiza kurrooa is a highly reputed medicinal herb known for its hepato-protective properties which are attributed to a novel group of iridoid glycosides known as picrosides. Although the plant is well studied in terms of its pharmacological properties, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these important secondary metabolites. In this study, we identified two family-1 glucosyltransferases from P. kurrooa. The full length cDNAs of UGT94F4 and UGT86C4 contained open reading frames of 1455 and 1422 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 484 and 473 amino acids respectively. UGT94F2 and UGT86C4 showed differential expression pattern in leaves, rhizomes and inflorescence. To elucidate whether the differential expression pattern of the two Picrorhiza UGTs correlate with transcriptional regulation via their promoters and to identify elements that could be recognized by known iridoid-specific transcription factors, upstream regions of each gene were isolated and scanned for putative cis-regulatory elements. Interestingly, the presence of cis-regulatory elements within the promoter regions of each gene correlated positively with their expression profiles in response to different phytohormones. HPLC analysis of picrosides extracted from different tissues and elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in picroside levels, corroborating well with the expression profile of UGT94F2 possibly indicating its implication in picroside biosynthesis. Using homology modeling and molecular docking studies, we provide an insight into the donor and acceptor specificities of both UGTs identified in this study. UGT94F2 was predicted to be an iridoid

  15. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  16. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of host immune and cell death responses associated with the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Le Goffic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Airway inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza viruses and can lead to a fatal outcome. One of the challenging objectives in the field of influenza research is the identification of the molecular bases associated to the immunopathological disorders developed during infection. While its precise function in the virus cycle is still unclear, the viral protein PB1-F2 is proposed to exert a deleterious activity within the infected host. Using an engineered recombinant virus unable to express PB1-F2 and its wild-type homolog, we analyzed and compared the pathogenicity and host response developed by the two viruses in a mouse model. We confirmed that the deletion of PB1-F2 renders the virus less virulent. The global transcriptomic analyses of the infected lungs revealed a potent impact of PB1-F2 on the response developed by the host. Thus, after two days post-infection, PB1-F2 invalidation severely decreased the number of genes activated by the host. PB1-F2 expression induced an increase in the number and level of expression of activated genes linked to cell death, inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis. When generating interactive gene networks specific to PB1-F2, we identified IFN-γ as a central regulator of PB1-F2-regulated genes. The enhanced cell death of airway-recruited leukocytes was evidenced using an apoptosis assay, confirming the pro-apoptotic properties of PB1-F2. Using a NF-kB luciferase adenoviral vector, we were able to quantify in vivo the implication of NF-kB in the inflammation mediated by the influenza virus infection; we found that PB1-F2 expression intensifies the NF-kB activity. Finally, we quantified the neutrophil recruitment within the airways, and showed that this type of leukocyte is more abundant during the infection of the wild-type virus. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PB1-F2 strongly influences the early host response during IAV infection and provides new insights into the

  18. Measurement of F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} at Low Q^2 and x using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D M; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas1, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2006-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality 12 \\le Q^2 \\le 60 GeV^2 and of the Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002 \\le x \\le 0.005. The fractions of events containing charm and beauty quarks are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. Values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. This is the first measurement of F_2^{b\\bar{b}} in this kinematic range. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics and withprevious measurements of F_2^{c\\bar{c}}.

  19. 克孜尔水库F2断层除险加固防渗效果评价%Evaluation of risk removal reinforcement seepage control effect in Kizil Reservoir F2 fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2016-01-01

    克孜尔水库主副坝之间存在F2断层,且断层仍在活动,本文根据实测资料对F2断层除险加固防渗效果作了评价,认为防渗达到了一定效果,后期仍需加强监测。%There is F2 fault between main dam and auxiliary dam in Kizil Reservoir.The fault is still active.In the paper, risk removal reinforcement effect of F2 fault is evaluated according to measured data.It is believed that the seepage control reaches certain effect,and monitoring still should be strengthened consequently.

  20. Empirical regional models for the short-term forecast of M3000F2 during not quiet geomagnetic conditions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Twelve empirical local models have been developed for the long-term prediction of the ionospheric characteristic M3000F2, and then used as starting point for the development of a short-term forecasting empirical regional model of M3000F2 under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. Under the assumption that the monthly median measurements of M3000F2 are linearly correlated to the solar activity, a set of regression coefficients were calculated over 12 months and 24 h for each of 12 ionospheric observatories located in the European area, and then used for the long-term prediction of M3000F2 at each station under consideration. Based on the 12 long-term prediction empirical local models of M3000F2, an empirical regional model for the prediction of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as RM_M3000F2 was developed. Thanks to the IFELM_foF2 models, which are able to provide short-term forecasts of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2STF up to three hours in advance, it was possible to considerer the Brudley–Dudeney algorithm as a function of foF2STF to correct RM_M3000F2 and thus obtain an empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as RM_M3000F2_BD up to three hours in advance under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. From the long-term predictions of M3000F2 provided by the IRI model, an empirical regional model for the forecast of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2 was derived. IRI_RM_M3000F2 predictions were modified with the Bradley–Dudeney correction factor, and another empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD up to three hours ahead under not quiet geomagnetic conditions was obtained. The main results achieved comparing the performance of RM_M3000F2, RM_M3000F2_BD, IRI_RM_M3000F2, and IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD are (1 in the case of moderate geomagnetic activity, the Bradley–Dudeney correction

  1. Two-step inhibitory effect of kanzo on oxytocin-induced and prostaglandin F2α-induced uterine myometrial contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Genichiro; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Kanamori, Chiharu; Kajimoto, Megumi; Nishigaki, Akemi; Tsuzuki, Tomoko; Cho, Hisayuu; Okada, Hidetaka; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2014-07-01

    We previously reported that shakuyaku-kanzo-to, a kampo medicine consisting of shakuyaku and kanzo, has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractions in pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the effects of kanzo, glycyrrhizin (a major component of kanzo), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin), shakuyaku, and paeoniflorin (a major component of shakuyaku) on agonist-induced contractions of the uterus of pregnant humans and rats. We prepared myometrial strips from the uterus of pregnant humans and rats and induced contractions with oxytocin (50 μU/mL) or prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10(-7) or 10(-6) M). Kanzo (250 μg/mL) and GA (5 × 10(-6) M) inhibited the oxytocin-induced and PGF2α-induced contractions in pregnant human and rat myometrium, but shakuyaku (250 μg/mL), paeoniflorin (10(-5) M), and glycyrrhizin (10(-5) M) did not inhibit contractions in either. Interestingly, kanzo and GA showed an inhibitory effect after temporarily enhancing the PGF2α-induced contractions in the rat myometrium, but not in the human myometrium. These results suggest that kanzo has at least a two-step inhibitory effect on the myometrial contractions that originate from the kanzo itself and a metabolite of glycyrrhizin in kanzo. Furthermore, kanzo was found to be safe for inhibiting PGF2α-induced contractions in humans because it did not temporarily enhance PGF2α-induced contractions.

  2. Identification of a nitrone as an in vitro metabolite of N-methylamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, R T; Jones, G R; Liu, S F

    1978-06-01

    The relatively labile nitrone, alpha-methyl-(N-methylene) benzeneethanamine N-oxide was isolated from incubates of (+/-)-N-methylamphetamine with fortified liver honogenates from rats and rabbit. Identification of the nitrone was confirmed directly by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry and, after its conversion to isoxazolidine adducts by the action of methyl and ethyl acrylate. An authentic sample of the nitrone was synthesized unequivocally form N-hydroxyamphetamine and formaldehyde. The isomeric nitrone, N-(alpha-methylbenzeneethylidene) methylamine N-oxide, was also synthesized and its gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic mass spectrometric characteristics determined to confirm that the metabolically formed nitrone was not N-(alpha-methylbenzeneethylidene) methylamine N-oxide. Two previously unreported metabolites of (+/-)-Nmethylamphetamine, N-hydroxyamphetamine and 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone, were isolated from rat in vitro experiments; the latter metabolite was not produced in vitro by rabbit liver homogenates.

  3. A comparison of intravaginal PGF2 alpha and intravenous oxytocin to stimulate labour after membrane rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A; MacLennan, A; Green, R

    1985-11-01

    A prospective randomized controlled trial of 202 patients was set up to examine the efficiency and safety of 40 mg of intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in a tylose gel to stimulate labour after artificial or spontaneous membrane rupture. The control group received a standard intravenous oxytocin regimen. The PGF2 alpha treated group had a significantly shorter length of labour (6.2 +/- 3.6 hours) compared to the oxytocin group (7.5 +/- 4.3 hours) (p less than 0.05). The analgesic requirements were significantly reduced in the PGF2 alpha treated patients. In PGF2 alpha treated patients 46 of 105 required no analgesia whereas 17 of 97 oxytocin treated patients required no analgesia (p less than 0.001). There were similar reductions for epidural (p less than 0.005) and pethidine requirements (p less than 0.005). No differences were found between groups with regards mode of delivery. There were no adverse maternal side-effects associated with PGF2 alpha usage. A significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy occurred in the PGF2 alpha group. Prostaglandin F2 alpha appears to be a safe, efficient and better alternative to intravenous oxytocin to stimulate labour in the presence of ruptured membranes, allowing ambulation, a reduction in length of labour and less need for analgesia and intravenous therapy.

  4. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  5. Identifying Rare FHB-resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Clark

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.. Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON, a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476 with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over two years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7 % on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012 and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an all

  6. Distribution of Phosphorus between CaO-CaF2 Slag and Fe-C-P Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-xiang; ZHOU Jian-jian; DU Xiao-jian

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium distribution ratio of phosphorus between CaO-CaF2 molten slag and Fe-C-P melt at 1450 ℃ was measured. The phosphate capacity of slag and the activity coefficient of phosphorus oxide were calculated.

  7. Scintillation and storage luminescence properties of MgF2 transparent ceramics doped with Ce3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fumiya; Kato, Takumi; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we report basic optical properties and scintillation and storage luminescence properties of MgF2:Ce transparent ceramics with different doping concentrations of Ce (0.01, 0.1 and 1%) synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS). In scintillation, thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL), the dominant emissions were due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ which appeared in the near-UV region peaking around 320 and 360 nm. The scintillation was evaluated by X-ray irradiation while OSL was observed under 540 nm stimulation. In particular, the TSL sensitivity was high and showed a good linearity from 0.1 mGy to 1000 mGy.

  8. Optimization of dichromatic filters based on photonic heterostructures of Si/MgF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huihuan; Han, Peide; Li, Yuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Ruizhen

    2012-05-01

    The current research work presents the theoretical results of demonstrating novel dichromatic filters, which consist of blue and yellow light. A one-dimensional photonic crystal or photonic heterostructure of Si/MgF2 is analyzed in detail by fully considering the effects of structural parameters using the transfer matrix method. The position and the number of defect modes are shown to have relationships with the repeat cycle counts of various photonic crystals. When the photonic heterostructures have the optimized structural parameters, defect modes can be obtained with high transmittances located in blue and yellow light. This photonic heterostructure is expected to be used in dichromatic filters with wide non-transmission range in a visible range.

  9. DSLR专用超广角镜Pentax 14mm F2.8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    主力发展 DSLR用镜头Pentax自去年推出首部DSLR后,对镜头开发(尤其是专供数码相机使用的镜头)比以前更积极。继早前推出smc P-DA J 16-45mmF4.0ED/AL广角变焦镜后,最近Pentax同样使用数码相机CCD较菲林面积细的特点,推出全新14ramF2.8数码相机专用超广角镜,使*lstD及其他DC用户,可在数码相机上轻易拍摄相等于21.5mm的超广角影像。

  10. B{sub K}-parameter from N{sub f}=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT). Dipt. di Fisica] (and others)

    2011-01-07

    We present an unquenched N{sub f} = 2 lattice computation of the B{sub K} parameter which controls K{sup 0}- anti K{sup 0} oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B{sub K} parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B{sup RGI}{sub K}=0.729{+-}0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the Microwave Lensing shift in NIST-F1 and NIST-F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Barlow, S. E.; Ashby, N.

    2016-06-01

    With several Primary Frequency Standards (PFS) across the world demonstrating systematic fractional frequency uncertainties on order of 1 x 10-16, it is crucial to accurately measure or model even small frequency shifts that could affect the ultimate PFS uncertainty, and thus ultimately impact the rate of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which relies on precision PFS measurements. Recently there has been controversy about the physical causes and size of PFS frequency shifts due to microwave lensing effects. We present here the first measurements of microwave lensing frequency shifts in the PFS NIST-F1 and NIST-F2. The measured frequency shifts agree well with the recent theory of Ashby et al [1].

  12. Renormalization constants for $N_{\\rm f}=2+1+1$ twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, Benoit; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent non-perturbative results obtained for the renormalization constants computed in the RI'-MOM scheme for $N_{\\rm f}=2+1+1$ twisted mass QCD. Our implementation employs the Iwasaki gauge action and four dynamical degenerate twisted mass fermions. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two different volumes and several values of the twisted mass. Our method allows for a precise cross-check of the running, because of the particular proper treatment of the hypercubic artifacts. Preliminary results for twist-2 operators are also presented.

  13. Interaction of F =2 Spinor Bose Condensate with Driven External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhi-Yong; TANG Lian; YU Zhao-Xian

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the interaction of F=2 spinor Bose condensate with a combination of staticand sinusoidal magnetic field bl(t) = b0 + bcos(ωt). We find that the tunneling current among spin 0 and spin ±l,spin 0 and spin ±2, spin ±1 and spin ±2 may exhibit the incremental oscillation behavior, which depends on the fieldparameters of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse and the longitudinal magnetic fields respectively. This meansthat the dynamics spin localization can be adjusted experimentally by selecting the less values of the reduced amplitudesof the transverse magnetic field bx/ω and those of the longitudinal magnetic field b/ω.

  14. Interaction of F = 2 Spinor Bose Condensate with Driven External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAOZhi-Yong; TANGLian; YUZhao-Xian

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the interaction of F=2 spinor Bose condensate with a combination of static and sinusoidal magnetic field bt(t) = b0 + bcos(ωt). We find that the tunneling current among spin 0 and spin ±1, spin 0 and spin ±2, spin ±1 and spin ±2 may exhibit the incremental oscillation behavior, which depends on the field parameters of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse and the longitudinal magnetic fields respectively. This means that the dynamics spin localization can be adjusted experimentally by selecting the less values of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse magnetic field bx/ω and those of the longitudinal magnetic field b/ω.

  15. Measurement of D^(*+-) Meson Production and F_2^c in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    The inclusive production of D^{*+-}(2010) mesons in deep-inelastic scattering is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. In the kinematic region 11.5 GeV and |\\eta_(D^*)|<1.5. Single and double differential inclusive D^(*+-) meson cross sections are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in two different evolution schemes. The charm contribution to the proton structure, F_2^c(x,Q^2), is determined by extrapolating the visible charm cross section to the full phase space. This contribution is found to rise from about 10% at Q^2 = 1.5 GeV^2 to more than 25% at Q^2 = 60 GeV^2 corresponding to x values ranging from 5*10^(-5) to 3*10^(-3)$.

  16. Chiral phase transition of $N_f$=2+1 QCD with the HISQ action

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, H -T; Karsch, F; Maezawa, Y; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P

    2013-01-01

    We present studies of universal properties of the chiral phase transition in $N_f$=2+1 QCD based on the simulations using Highly Improved Staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent $N_\\tau$=6. We analyze the quark mass and volume dependence of the chiral condensates and chiral susceptibilities in QCD with two degenerate light quarks and a strange quark. The strange quark mass is chosen to be fixed to its physical value ($m^{phy}_s$) and five values of light quark masses ($m_l$) that are varied in the interval 1/20$\\gtrsim m_l/m^{phy}_s \\gtrsim$1/80. Here various quark masses correspond to pseudo Goldstone pion masses ranging from about 160 MeV to about 80 MeV. The O(N) scaling of chiral observables and the influence of universal scaling on physical observables in the region of physical quark mass values are also discussed.

  17. Light hadrons from N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P. [Paris 11 Univ., Orsay (FR). Lab. de Physique Theorique] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (N{sub f}=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at three values of the lattice spacing a{approx}0.06 fm, a{approx}0.08 fm and a{approx}0.09 fm with lattice sizes ranging from L{approx}1.9 fm to L{approx}3.9 fm. We perform a preliminary study of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory by combining our lattice data from these three values of the lattice spacing. (orig.)

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (34F2 during iron starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Carlson

    Full Text Available Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F(2 to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340 resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.

  19. Delivery of F2-excimer laser light by aluminum hollow fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Y; Yamamoto, T; Miyagi, M

    2000-06-19

    A hollow fiber composed of a glass-tube substrate and an aluminum thin film coated upon the inside of the tube delivers F2-excimer laser light. A smooth, aluminum thin film was deposited by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylethylamine:alane (DMEAA) as the precursor. It was shown that the transmission loss of the fiber with a 1.0-mm inner diameter was as low as 0.5 dB/m for the fiber with 1.0-mm diameter when the bore of the fiber is pressurized with an inert gas to remove the absorption of air. When the fiber is bent at the radius of 30 cm, the additional loss was 1.6 dB.

  20. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  1. On the origin of the rise of $F_2$ at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H; Royon, C; Schoeffel, L; Wallon, S; Royon, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    We show that, provided that the non-perturbative input is regular at the right of the $\\omega=0$ singularity of the dominant DGLAP anomalous dimension, the rise of $F_2$ at small $x,$ experimentally measured by the averaged observable $\\lambda = ,$ is input-independent in the perturbative $Q^2$ regime at small $x$. $(\\partial ln xF)/(\\partial ln Q^2)$ appears to be more input-dependent in the same range. The GRV-type parametrisations verify these properties. Other models, namely the BFKL kernel(QCD dipoles), DGLAP(hard pomeron singularity) give different predictions for $\\lambda$. At moderate $Q^2,$ there is a possibility of distinguishing these different perturbative QCD predictions in the near future.

  2. Proposal of Readout Electronics for CSNS-WNS BaF2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi; He, Bing; Zhang, Yaxi; Qi, Xincheng; Yu, Tao; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    BaF2 (Barium fluoride) detector is one of the experiment facilities at the under construction CSNS-WNS (White Neutron Source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is designed for precisely measuring (n,gamma) cross section with total 92 crystal elements and completely 4 pi steradian coverage. In this proposal for readout electronics, waveform digitizing technique with 1GSps sampling rate and 12-bit resolution is adopted to precisely capture the detector signal. To solve the problem of massive data readout and processing, the readout electronics system is designed into a distributed architecture with 4 PXIe crates. The digitized detector's signal is concentrated to PXIe crate controller through PCIe bus on backplane and transmitted to data acquisition system over Gigabit Ethernet in parallel. Besides, clock and trigger can be fanned out synchronously to each electronic channel over a high-precision distributing network. Test results showed that the prototype of the readout electronics system achieved good pe...

  3. Phonons in mixed superionic fluorites (BaF2)1–(LaF3)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Sinha

    2002-11-01

    In recent years, the fluorite-structured solid solutions with the general formula, (MF2)1–(RF3) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb and R is a rare-earth element or Y), have been the subject of numerous experimental studies focussed on their superionic properties. The overall cubic crystal symmetry (space group 3) is conserved up to ≤ max, where max 0.4–0.5 depending on M and R. The zone centre phonons and phonon dispersion along three symmetry directions of the mixed superionic compound (BaF2)1–(LaF3) have been investigated by applying de Launey angular force model for ≤ max. The calculated results are compared and explained with available experimental results.

  4. Theoretical study of potential energy surface and vibrational spectra of ArF2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明晖; 谢代前; 鄢国森

    2000-01-01

    An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of ArF2 system has been obtained by using MP4 calculation with a large basis set including bond functions. There are two local minimums on the PES: one is T-shaped and the other is L-shaped. The L-shaped minimum is the global minimum with a well depth of -119.62 cm- 1 at R = 0.3883nm. The T-shaped minimum has a well depth of -85.93cm -1 at R = 0.3486 nm. A saddle point is found at R = 0.3486 and θ = 61° with the well depth of -61.53 cm-1. The vibrational energy levels have been calculated by using VSCF-CI method. The results show that this PES supports 27 vibrational bound states, and the ground states are two degenerate states assigned to the L-type vibration.

  5. Theoretical study of potential energy surface and vibrational spectra of ArF2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of ArF2 system has been obtained by using MP4 calculation with a large basis set including bond functions. There are two local minimums on the PES: one is T-shaped and the other is L-shaped. The L-shaped minimum is the global minimum with a well depth of -119.62 cm-1 at R = 0.3883nm. The T-shaped minimum has a well depth of -85.93cm-1 at R = 0.3486 nm. A saddle point is found at R = 0.3486 and q = 61° with the well depth of -61.53 cm-1. The vibrational energy levels have been calculated by using VSCF-CI method. The results show that this PES supports 27 vibrational bound states, and the ground states are two degenerate states assigned to the L-type vibration.

  6. Charmless chiral perturbation theory for N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The chiral Lagrangian describing the low-energy behavior of N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD is constructed through O(a^2). In contrast to existing results the effects of a heavy charm quark are consistently removed, leaving behind a charmless 3-flavor Lagrangian. This Lagrangian is used to compute the pion and kaon masses to one loop in a regime where the pion mass splitting is large and taken as a leading order effect. In comparison with continuum chiral perturbation theory additional chiral logarithms are present in the results. In particular, chiral logarithms involving the neutral pion mass appear. These predict rather large finite volume corrections in the kaon mass which roughly account for the finite volume effects observed in lattice data.

  7. F2C模式电子商务业务的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保红

    2011-01-01

    物流智联网物(Internet of Things IoT)(下称物联网)代表了未来计算与通信技术发展的方向,被认为是继计算机、Internet之后,信息产业领域的第三次发展浪潮.本文在分析物流智联网的发展和F2C电子商务的三种商业模式,提出物联网下电子商务业务模式的必然趋势,从而得出物流智联网对全球经济的意义.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of Ce(Ⅲ) in LiF-BaF2 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Rushan; YE Guoan; HE Hui; TANG Hongbin; OUYANG Yinggen

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Ce(Ⅲ) was investigated in the molten LiF-BaF2 (81 mo1.%-19 mol.%) on a molybdenum elec-trode in the temperature range of 1098-1188 K using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.It was observed that CeF3 could be reduced into cerium metal in a reversible one-step process exchanging three electrons (Ce(Ⅲ)+3e-→,Ce(0)) at the operating temperatures on amolybdenum cathode.The electrochemical reduction process was controlled by the diffusion of Ce(Ⅲ) in the solution.The Ce(Ⅲ) diffusion coefficients were calculated at different temperatures and the values obeyed the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 87.5 kJ/mol.

  9. Measurement of beauty production in DIS and F_2^bbbar extraction at ZEUS

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Blohm, C; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borodin, M; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Bot, D; Boutle, S K; Brock, I; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruemmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; D'Agostini, G; Corso, F Dal; de Favereau, J; del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; De Pasquale, S; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drugakov, V; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Fang, S; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Forrest, M; Foster, B; Fourletov, S; Gach, G; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Goettlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horton, K; Huettmann, A; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Ishitsuka, M; Jakob, H -P; Januschek, F; Jimenez, M; Jones, T W; Juengst, M; Kadenko, I; Kahle, B; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Katkov, I I; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Koetz, U; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Loehr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Maeda, J; Magill, S; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsumoto, T; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I -A; Miglioranzi, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Oliver, K; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Ota, O; Papageorgiu, K; Parenti, A; Paul, E; Pawlak, J M; Pawlik, B; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinski, P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Reisert, B; Ren, Z; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Robertson, A; Roloff, P; Ron, E; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salii, A; Samson, U; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schoenberg, V; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Sola, V; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tomalak, O; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vazquez, M; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, V; Vlasov, N N; Volynets, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zolko, M; Zotkin, D S; Zulkapli, Z

    2010-01-01

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb^-1. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q^2 > 2 Gev^2, and inelasticity, 0.05 < y < 0.7, with the requirement of a muon and a jet. Total and differential cross sections are presented and compared to QCD predictions. The beauty contribution to the structure function F_2 was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions.

  10. Urinary F2?Isoprostanes in Cats with International Renal Interest Society Stage 1?4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, W; Quimby, J.; Wan, S.; Monaghan, K.; Robbins, R; Trepanier, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background F2?isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidant injury, increase with advancing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. In cats, the relationship between CKD and oxidative stress is poorly understood. Objectives To determine whether cats with advancing CKD have increasing urinary F2?isoprostanes. Animals Control cats without evidence of CKD (?6 years old; n = 11), and cats with IRIS stage 1 (n = 8), 2 (n = 38), 3 (n = 21), and 4 (n = 10) CKD. Methods This was a prospective observational st...

  11. Effect of surface orientation on dissolution rates and topography of CaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, J. R. A.; Piazolo, S.; Evins, L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports how during dissolution differences in surface chemistry affect the evolution of topography of CaF2 pellets with a microstructure similar to UO2 spent nuclear fuel. 3D confocal profilometry and atomic force microscopy were used to quantify retreat rates and analyze topography changes on surfaces with different orientations as dissolution proceeds up to 468 h. A NaClO4 (0.05 M) solution with pH 3.6 which was far from equilibrium relative to CaF2 was used. Measured dissolution rates depend directly on the orientation of the exposed planes. The {1 1 1} is the most stable plane with a dissolution rate of (1.2 ± 0.8) × 10-9 mol m-2 s-1, and {1 1 2} the least stable plane with a dissolution rate 33 times faster that {1 1 1}. Surfaces that expose both Ca and F atoms in the same plane dissolve faster. Dissolution rates were found to be correlated to surface orientation which is characterized by a specific surface chemistry and therefore related to surface energy. It is proposed that every surface is characterized by the relative proportions of the three reference planes {1 1 1}, {1 0 0} and {1 1 0}, and by the high energy sites at their interceptions. Based on the different dissolution rates observed we propose a dissolution model to explain changes of topography during dissolution. Surfaces with slower dissolution rate, and inferred lower surface energy, tend to form while dissolution proceeds leading to an increase of roughness and surface area. This adjustment of the surface suggests that dissolution rates during early stages of dissolution are different from the later stages. The time-dependency of this dynamic system needs to be taken into consideration when predicting long-term dissolution rates.

  12. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  13. High-Pressure Behavior of Difluorides: The Case of SrF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadba, K. E.; Stan, C. V.; Dutta, R.; Prakapenka, V.; Duffy, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    The high-pressure behavior of compounds in the AX2 family has attracted much attention due to their extensive polymorphism, highly coordinated structures, and diverse transformation pathways. The canonical transformation sequence for alkaline earth difluorides is from the fluorite-type structure (8 coordinated) to cotunnite (9 coordinated) to Ni2In (11 coordinated). Lead Fluoride, on the other hand, undergoes an unusual isosymmetric transition from cotunnite to a Co2Si-type structure (10 coordinated) at high pressures, during which it exhibits highly anisotropic lattice parameter trends (Haines et al, 1998; Stan et al 2016). Sr has a similar ionic radius as Pb, and is thus a good candidate for further exploring the compressional anisotropy in alkaline earth fluorides. In this study, we report a detailed examination of the compressional behavior of SrF2 to identify whether an intermediate phase occurs in this system prior to transformation to the Ni2In structure. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction experiments, performed at Princeton University and the Advanced Photon Source GSECARS beamline, respectively, were carried out on SrF2 up to 63 GPa using a diamond anvil cell. From Raman spectroscopy, we observed evidence for a high-pressure phase transition between 38.9 and 51.0 GPa. The x-ray diffraction data in this region show evidence for highly anisotropic compression, most notably a strong negative compressibility in the b direction, in the pressure region from 45.2 to 51.6 GPa. Comparison of our data with lattice parameter systematics for AX2 phases indicates that our results are consistent with the formation of the Co2Si phase in this region, along with a sluggish transformation to the Ni2In-type structure. Our findings contribute to a broader understanding of AX2 compounds and their phase transition pathways.

  14. Long-term trends in foF2: A comparison of various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, J.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ulich, T.; Bremer, J.; Elias, A. G.; Ortiz de Adler, N.; Jara, V.; Abarca Del Rio, R.; Foppiano, A. J.; Ovalle, E.; Danilov, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    Results of various authors on long-term trends in foF2, which is equivalent to the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and their interpretation do not reveal a consistent pattern. Therefore, a joint analysis of one carefully selected dataset was performed by six teams, which used different approaches to trend determination. High-quality data of station Juliusruh (54.6°N, 13.4°E) for noon (average from 10 to 14 UT) were used for the period of two solar cycles from minimum to minimum (1976 1996). Juliusruh is relatively sensitive to geomagnetic activity as an almost subauroral station, which might play some role in interpretation of trend results. Various methods provide results, which differ to some extent, even when one co-author applies different methods. Another source of differences is application of various ways of removal (or at least large suppression) of the effect of solar (and geomagnetic) activity. Nevertheless finally most teams obtained quite comparable results. Interpretation of the observed trends is not unique—co-authors consider either the long-term change in geomagnetic activity, or anthropogenic effects to be predominantly responsible for trends. There is some generally accepted output from the joint analysis. All trends are either negative or insignificant. Data corrections with sunspot number (R), F10.7 adjusted to the Sun Earth distance, observed F10.7, adjusted E10.7 and observed E10.7 result in somewhat different trends; the observed F10.7 and E10.7 appear to be the best correcting factor. The trends in foF2 are very small, of the order of -0.01 MHz/year, much smaller than the solar cycle effect and, therefore, sensitive to the solar activity correction. The Juliusruh dip angle increased very little over the period 1976 1996 and the possible impact of that increase on trends is negligibly small.

  15. Actividad biológica de la prostaglandina F2 alfa y del metil carboprost en el fundus gástrico aislado de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Martínez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la potencia contráctil de una muestra del éster metílico de 15 metil prostaglandina F2 alfa (metil carboprost (I, producida por la Industria Farmacéutica Cubana, con una muestra comercial de prostaglandina F2 alfa (II, de la firma Chinoin, mediante el ensayo de los "tres puntos". También se comparó la duración de la contracción inducida por dichas muestras utilizando un análisis de regresión lineal de la relajación observada en función del tiempo, luego de suprimir el contacto entre la droga y el órgano efector. Se utilizó el fundus gástrico aislado de rata como órgano efector. La actividad contráctil se registró mediante transductores fuerza-desplazamiento. La muestra I presentó una potencia relativa de 164,0 % con respecto a la II, con límites de confianza de 111,2 y 247,8 % (p=0,95; N=7, y mostró un efecto más prolongado en relación con la II. En las tiras contraídas por la muestra I debió transcurrir 6 min y 46 s, luego del lavado, para que la contracción se redujera a la mitad de la respuesta máxima observada (N=7, en tanto que en las tiras contraídas por la II fue de 1 min y 48 s (N= 8.The contractil potency of a sample of methylic ester of 15 methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha (methyl carboprost (I produced by the Cuban Pharmaceutical Industry, was compared to a commercial sample of prostaglandin F2 alpha (II from a Chinoin firm through the "three point" assay. The duration of the contraction induced by such samples was also compared using the analysis of linear regression of the relaxation observed in function of time after the supression of contact between the drug and the effector organ. The gastric fundus isolated from a rat was used as the effector organ. The contractil activity was recorded by strength-displacement transducers. Sample I showed a relative potency of 164.0 % with respect to sample II, with confidence limits of 111.2 and 247.8 % (P = 0.95; N=7 and it also showed a more prolonged

  16. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  17. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of SnF2 nanostructures in the internal channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, I. Yu.; Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Murin, I. V.; Petrov, A. V.; Romantsov, G. A.; Zakalyukin, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of solid tin(II) fluoride nanostructures formed in internal channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been performed using two types of model potentials—without and with inclusion of the polarization of ions. For the potential taking into account the polarization of ions, an ordered SnF2@SWCNT structure is reproduced: in SWCNT(10, 10), it has the form of the SnF2 internal nanotube. At the same time, the SnF2@SWCNT(11,11) structure is substantially disordered (glass-like). It has been found that heating of the SnF2@SWCNT model system produces a superionic state characterized by a high mobility of fluorine ions without migration of tin ions. The model potentials disregard the covalent character of Sn-F bonds and the specific interactions of a lone electron pair of the Sn2+ ion. This makes it impossible to completely reproduce the properties of SnF2 at normal pressures. However, some characteristics of the SnF2 high-pressure modification can be reproduced if the polarization of ions is taken into account.

  19. The influenza virus protein PB1-F2 interacts with IKKβ and modulates NF-κB signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Reis

    Full Text Available PB1-F2, a protein encoded by a second open reading frame of the influenza virus RNA segment 2, has emerged as a modulator of lung inflammatory responses but the molecular mechanisms underlying this are only poorly understood. Here we show that PB1-F2 inhibits the activation of NF-κB dependent signalling pathways in luciferase reporter assays. PB1-F2 proteins from four different viruses interact with IKKβ in yeast two-hybrid assays and by co-immunoprecipitation. PB1-F2 expression did not inhibit IKKβ kinase activity or NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, but NF-κB binding to DNA was severely impaired in PB1-F2 transfected cells as assessed by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Neither the N-terminal 57 amino acid truncated forms nor the C-terminus of PB1-F2 were able to inhibit NF-κB dependent signalling, indicating that the full length protein is necessary for the inhibition.

  20. 2.7 μm emission in Er3+:CaF2 nanocrystals embedded oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guobo; Fan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yuanhao; Chai, Guanqi; Ma, Zhijun; Peng, Mingying; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2013-08-15

    Using conventional melt-quenching and subsequent thermal treatment, Er(3+) doped CaF(2) transparent glass ceramic (GC) was prepared. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation and microstructure of CaF(2) nanocrystals in glass. An energy-dispersive spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution of Er(3+) ions and CaF(2) nanocrystals in glass. It was found that Er(3+) ions prefer to concentrate in the CaF(2) nanocrystals rather than in a glass matrix, and the amount of Er(3+) ions plays a key role in the formation of CaF(2) nanocrystals in a glass matrix with the Er(3+) ions as nucleating agent. An intense 2.7 μm emission due to Er(3+): I(11/2)4 → I(13/2)4 was achieved upon excitation at 980 nm with a laser diode, while the 2.7 μm emission can be neglected in the as-prepared glass counterpart, which confirmed the incorporation of Er(3+) ions into CaF(2) nanocrystals. An obvious enhancement of 2.7 μm emerged in the GC doped with 3% Er(3+) and heat-treated at 620 °C.

  1. Hydrodechlorination of Tetrachloromethane over Palladium Catalysts Supported on Mixed MgF2-MgO Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bonarowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd/MgO, Pd/MgF2 and Pd/MgO-MgF2 catalysts were investigated in the reaction of CCl4 hydrodechlorination. All the catalysts deactivated in time on stream, but the degree of deactivation varied from catalyst to catalyst. The MgF2-supported palladium with relatively large metal particles appeared the best catalyst, characterized by good activity and selectivity to C2-C5 hydrocarbons. Investigation of post-reaction catalyst samples allowed to find several details associated with the working state of hydrodechlorination catalysts. The role of support acidity was quite complex. On the one hand, a definite, although not very high Lewis acidity of MgF2 is beneficial for shaping high activity of palladium catalysts. The MgO-MgF2 support characterized by stronger Lewis acidity than MgF2 contributes to very good catalytic activity for a relatively long reaction period (~5 h but subsequent neutralization of stronger acid centers (by coking eliminates them from the catalyst. On the other hand, the role of acidity evolution, which takes place when basic supports (like MgO are chlorided during HdCl reactions, is difficult to assess because different events associated with distribution of chlorided support species, leading to partial or even full blocking of the surface of palladium, which plays the role of active component in HdCl reactions.

  2. Anticancer properties of Monascus metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Junwen; Luo, Feijun; Lin, Qinlu; Rosol, Thomas J; Deng, Xiyun

    2014-08-01

    This review provides up-to-date information on the anticancer properties of Monascus-fermented products. Topics covered include clinical evidence for the anticancer potential of Monascus metabolites, bioactive Monascus components with anticancer potential, mechanisms of the anticancer effects of Monascus metabolites, and existing problems as well as future perspectives. With the advancement of related fields, the development of novel anticancer Monascus food products and/or pharmaceuticals will be possible with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and mortality of malignancies in humans.

  3. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  4. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  5. Exposures of zebrafish through diet to three environmentally relevant mixtures of PAHs produce behavioral disruptions in unexposed F1 and F2 descendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignet, Caroline; Joassard, Lucette; Lyphout, Laura; Guionnet, Tiphaine; Goubeau, Manon; Le Menach, Karyn; Brion, François; Kah, Olivier; Chung, Bon-Chu; Budzinski, Hélène; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Cousin, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment has increased very substantially over the last decades. PAHs are hydrophobic molecules which can accumulate in high concentrations in sediments acting then as major secondary sources. Fish contamination can occur through contact or residence nearby sediments or though dietary exposure. In this study, we analyzed certain physiological traits in unexposed fish (F1) issued from parents (F0) exposed through diet to three PAH mixtures at similar and environmentally relevant concentrations but differing in their compositions. For each mixture, no morphological differences were observed between concentrations. An increase in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from fish exposed to the highest concentration of a pyrolytic (PY) mixture. On the contrary, a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from heavy oil mixture (HO). In the case of the third mixture, light oil (LO), a reduction of the diurnal activity was observed during the setup of larval activity. Behavioral disruptions persisted in F1-PY juveniles and in their offspring (F2). Endocrine disruption was analyzed using cyp19a1b:GFP transgenic line and revealed disruptions in PY and LO offspring. Since no PAH metabolites were dosed in larvae, these findings suggest possible underlying mechanisms such as altered parental signaling molecule and/or hormone transferred in the gametes, eventually leading to early imprinting. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological disruptions are observed in offspring of fish exposed to PAH mixtures through diet.

  6. Understanding and classifying metabolite space and Metabolite-Likeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peironcely, J.E.; Reijmers, T.; Coulier, L.; Bender, A.; Hankemeier, T.

    2011-01-01

    While the entirety of 'Chemical Space' is huge (and assumed to contain between 1063 and 10200 'small molecules'), distinct subsets of this space can nonetheless be defined according to certain structural parameters. An example of such a subspace is the chemical space spanned by endogenous metabolite

  7. Evaluation of testosterone metabolites/dehydroepiandrosterone as the indicators of testosterone administration in horse doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Racing Association, Kyonggi (Korea); Kyong, J.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, M.H.; Chung, B.C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    The metabolism of testosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one) was confirmed in horse after a single intramuscular administration of testosterone cypionate (750 mg). Solvent extracts of urine obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis and methanolysis were analyzed by GC/MS after oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl (oxime-TBDMS) derivatization. the structures of four urinary metabolite after testosterone administration in horse were determined based on EI mass spectra and 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol and 5a-androstane-3{beta}-ol--17one as major was confirmed with authentic standard. Also the concentrations of 5{alpha}--androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol, 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}-ol-17-one and testosterone were determined in the urine of normal subjects and the urine after administration. The recovery and detection limit in the most drugs were 86.3{approx}94.7% and 1{approx}3 ppb, respectively. Correlation coefficients for calibration were in the range of 0.984{approx}0.999. Excretion profile of testosterone presents the rapid and large increasement up to maximum values as days 5 after administration and the slow regression. The relative ratios of testosterone, its metabolites over DHEA were determined for indication of testosterone administration in horse doping. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量关系的研究进展%Research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism and warfarin maintenance dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爽; 李一石

    2011-01-01

    Currently, warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinic. Since warfarin has narrow therapeutic window and significant individual differences in dose, it easily leads to complications due to improper anticoagulate therapy. In recent 3 years, as the rapid development of pharmacogenomics, it has been found that CYP4F2 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2) gene polymorphism ( rs2108622) relates to warfarin individual dosage requirement. We reviewed research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism. Most studies found that CYP4F2 gene polymorphism relates to warfarin dose, and the mutant T allele was associated with higher warfarin dose requirement, CYP4F2 * 3 polymorphism can explain 1% ~ 10% warfarin individual dosage difference.%华法林是目前临床上应用最广泛的口服抗凝药,其治疗安全范围窄,剂量个体差异大,临床应用中容易出现抗凝不当所致的并发症.近3年来,随着药物基因组学的快速发展,发现细胞色素P450酶4F2(CYP4F2)基因多态性(rs2108622)与华法林个体剂量差异相关.本文综述了近3年来在不同人种中进行的有关CYP4F2*3(rs2108622)与华法林的维持剂量关系的研究.大多数研究发现CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量存在相关性,其中突变的T等位基因与华法林高剂量相关;CYP4F2*3可以解释1%~10%华法林剂量个体差异.

  9. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  10. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2016-01-01

    . In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http...

  11. Dual functions of Lewis acid and base of Se in F2C=Se and their interplay in F 2CSe•••NH 3•••HX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Li, Qingzhong

    2015-06-01

    High-level quantum chemical calculations of the ternary systems F2CSe∙∙∙NH3∙∙∙HX (X=BeH, BH2, OH, CN, OCH3, Cl, and F) and the corresponding binary systems have been carried out in view of geometries, vibrational frequencies, interaction energies, orbital interactions, and electron densities. The molecular electrostatic potentials of F2CSe demonstrate that the Se atom could play a dual role of Lewis acid and base to form a chalcogen bond with NH3 and a hydrogen bond or a covalent interaction with HX, respectively. The chalcogen bond can compete with the hydrogen bond for the complexes involving F2CSe, but the covalent interaction is far stronger than the chalcogen bond. In the ternary complexes, both types of interactions are strengthened by each other, characterized by a shorter binding distance, a larger electron density, and a stronger orbital interaction. The covalent interaction has a greater enhancing effect on the chalcogen bond than the hydrogen bond does, resulting in a prominent shortening of ~0.23 Å distance for the Se∙∙∙N distance in F2CSe∙∙∙NH3∙∙∙BH3. The enhancement of both interactions in the ternary complexes has been understood with the electrostatic potentials and orbital interactions. Graphical Abstract The dual functions of Lewis acid and base of Se in F2CSe are enhanced each other in the ternary complexes.

  12. Room temperature fabrication of dielectric Bragg reflectors composed of a CaF2/ZnS multilayered coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Nessim, Gilbert D; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2015-01-14

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of mechanically stable, reproducible, and highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) composed of thermally evaporated thin films of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). CaF2 and ZnS were chosen as the low and high refractive index components of the multilayer DBR structures, with n = 1.43 and n = 2.38 respectively, because neither material requires substrate heating during the deposition process in order to produce optical quality thin films. DBRs consisting of seven pairs of CaF2 and ZnS layers, were fabricated with thicknesses of 96 and 58 nm, respectively, as characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and exhibited a center wavelength of λc = 550 nm and peak reflectance exceeding 99%. The layers showed good adhesion to each other and to the glass substrate, resulting in mechanically stable DBR coatings. Complete optical microcavities consisting of two such DBR coatings and a CaF2 spacer layer between them could be fabricated in a single deposition run. Optically, these structures exhibited a resonator quality factor of Q > 160. When a CaF2/ZnS DBR was grown, without heating the substrate during deposition, on top of a thin film containing the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G, the fluorescence intensity showed no degradation compared to an uncoated film, in contrast to a MgF2/ZnS DBR coating grown with substrate heating which showed a 92% reduction in signal. The ability to fabricate optical quality CaF2/ZnS DBRs without substrate heating, as introduced here, can therefore enable formation of low-loss high-reflectivity coatings on top of more delicate heat-sensitive materials such as organics and other nanostructured emitters, and hence facilitate the development of nanoemitter-based microcavity device applications.

  13. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  14. Genetically Encoded Sensors for Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Karen; Fehr, Marcus; Hilpert, Melanie; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Looger, Loren L.; Okumoto, Sakiko; Persson, Jörgen; Schmidt, Anja; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolomics, i.e., the multiparallel analysis of metabolite changes occurring in a cell or an organism, has become feasible with the development of highly efficient mass spectroscopic technologies. Functional genomics as a standard tool helped to identify the function of many of the genes that encode important transporters and metabolic enzymes over the past few years. Advanced expression systems and analysis technologies made it possible to study the biochemical properties of the corresponding proteins in great detail. We begin to understand the biological functions of the gene products by systematic analysis of mutants using systematic PTGS/RNAi, knockout and TILLING approaches. However, one crucial set of data especially relevant in the case of multicellular organisms is lacking: the knowledge of the spatial and temporal profiles of metabolite levels at cellular and subcellular levels. Methods We therefore developed genetically encoded nanosensors for several metabolites to provide a basic set of tools for the determination of cytosolic and subcellular metabolite levels in real time by using fluorescence microscopy. Results Prototypes of these sensors were successfully used in vitro and also in vivo, i.e., to measure sugar levels in fungal and animal cells. Conclusions One of the future goals will be to expand the set of sensors to a wider spectrum of substrates by using the natural spectrum of periplasmic binding proteins from bacteria and by computational design of proteins with altered binding pockets in conjunction with mutagenesis. This toolbox can then be applied for four-dimensional imaging of cells and tissues to elucidate the spatial and temporal distribution of metabolites as a discovery tool in functional genomics, as a tool for high-throughput, high-content screening for drugs, to test metabolic models, and to analyze the interplay of cells in a tissue or organ. PMID:15688353

  15. Transformations of DHEA and its metabolites by rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Henry; Marwah, Ashok; Marwah, Padma

    2002-12-01

    Because dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a wide variety of weak beneficial effects in experimental animals and humans, we searched for metabolites of this steroid in the hope of finding more active compounds that might qualify for the title "steroid hormone." Incubation of DHEA with rat liver homogenate fortified with energy-yielding substrates resulted in rapid hydroxylation at the 7alpha-position of the molecule and subsequent conversion to other 7-oxygenated steroids in the sequence DHEA --> 7alpha-hydroxyDHEA --> 7-oxoDHEA --> 7beta-hydroxyDHEA, with branching to diols, triols, and sulfate esters. The ability of these metabolites to induce the formation of liver thermogenic enzyme activity increased from left to right in that sequence. A total of 25 different steroids were characterized, and at least six additional structures that are currently under study were produced from DHEA. 7-OxoDHEA is more effective than DHEA in enhancing memory performance in old mice and in reversing the amnesic effects of scopolamine.

  16. Metabolite profiles of common Stemphylium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Solfrizzo, Michelle; Visconti, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Stemphylium spp. have been analysed for their metabolite profiles. Five metabolites, stemphylin, stemphyloxin II, stemphyperylenol, stemphol and a stemphol related compound, have been detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography...

  17. Laser assisted {alpha} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Cortes, Hector Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Excited or short-lived nuclei often decay by emitting alpha particles that are assumed to be preformed inside the nucleus and confined in the nuclear potential well. In this picture, {alpha} decay refers to the tunneling of the alpha particle through the potential barrier. In this thesis we investigate for the first time how strong laser fields can assist the tunneling of the alpha particle and thus influence the nuclear decay. Generally speaking, laser-assisted {alpha} decay can be described as laser-assisted tunneling of a quasistationary state, i.e, a slowly decaying state. Our theoretical treatment is developed starting from the complex trajectory formulation of the well-known strong-field approximation used to describe laser-induced ionization. We extend this formulation and develop a method to treat the decay of quasistationary states. The effect of both static and optical and X-ray monochromatic fields on the lifetimes and {alpha}-particle emission spectra are investigated for a number of {alpha}-emitting nuclei. We find that even at strong intensities, the laser-induced acceleration of the {alpha} decay is negligible, ranging from a relative modification in the decay rate of 10{sup -3} for static fields of electric field strengths of 10{sup 15} V/m, to 10{sup -8} for strong optical fields with intensities of 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, and to 10{sup -6} for strong X-ray fields with laser intensities around 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the effect of the external field is visible in the spectrum of emitted alpha particles, leading in the case of optical fields even to rescattering phenomena for intensities approaching 6 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}. The dynamics of the alpha particle in laser fields of intensities below the rescattering limit is investigated.

  18. Sensomics mapping and identification of the key bitter metabolites in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelstede, Simone; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-04-23

    Application of a sensomics approach on the water-soluble extract of a matured Gouda cheese including gel permeation chromatography, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction, preparative RP-HPLC, and HILIC combined with analytical sensory tools enabled the comprehensive mapping of bitter-tasting metabolites. LC-MS-TOF and LC-MS/MS, independent synthesis, and sensory analysis revealed the identification of a total of 16 bitter peptides formed by proteolysis of caseins. Eleven previously unreported bitter peptides were aligned to beta-casein, among which 6 peptides were released from the sequence beta-CN(57-69) of the N terminus of beta-casein and 2 peptides originated from the C-terminal sequence beta-CN(198-206). The other peptides were liberated from miscellaneous regions of beta-casein, namely, beta-CN(22-28), beta-CN(74-86), beta-CN(74-77), and beta-CN(135-138), respectively. Six peptides were found to originate from alpha(s1)-casein and were shown to have the sequences alpha(s1)-CN(11-14), alpha(s1)-CN(56-60), alpha(s1)-CN(70/71-74), alpha(s1)-CN(110/111-114), and alpha(s1)-CN(135-136). Sensory evaluation of the purified, synthesized peptides revealed that 12 of these peptides showed pronounced bitter taste with recognition thresholds between 0.05 and 6.0 mmol/L. Among these peptides, the decapeptide YPFPGPIHNS exhibited a caffeine-like bitter taste quality at the lowest threshold concentration of 0.05 mmol/L.

  19. B-physics with N{sub f}=2 Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardoni, F.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)] [and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the final results of the ALPHA collaboration for some B-physics observables: f{sub B}, f{sub B{sub s}} and m{sub b}. We employ CLS configurations with 2 flavors of O(a) improved Wilson fermions in the sea and pion masses ranging down to 190 MeV. The b-quark is treated in HQET to order 1/m{sub b}. The renormalization, the matching and the improvement were performed non-perturbatively, and three lattice spacings reaching a=0.048 fm are used in the continuum extrapolation.

  20. Trajectory length and autocorrelation times. N{sub f} = 2 simulations in the Schroedinger functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Witzel, O. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2006-09-15

    A status report is presented on the large-volume simulations in the Schroedinger functional with two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson quarks performed by the ALPHA collaboration. The physics goal is to set the scale for the computation of the fundamental parameters of QCD. In this talk the emphasis is on aspects of the Hybrid Monte-Carlo algorithm, which we use with (symmetric) even-odd and Hasenbusch preconditioning. We study the dependence of aucorrelation times on the trajectory length. The latter is found to be significant for fermionic correlators, the trajectories longer than unity performing better than the shorter ones. (orig.)

  1. 二倍体鲫鲤F2产生不同倍性卵子的证据%Evidence of Different Ploidy Eggs Produced by Diploid F2 Hybrids of Carassius auratus (♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 孙远东; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    在检测到鲫鲤F2产生3种不同大小(直径分别为0.13 cm,0.17cm和0.2 cm)类型的卵子基础上,进行了F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)及F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)的交配实验.通过染色体计数和流式细胞仪分析,在F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)后代中获得了四倍体、三倍体、二倍体鱼;在F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)后代中获得了四倍体和三倍体鱼.这两个交配组合后代中出现的不同倍性的鱼类为证明鲫鲤F2能产生三倍体、二倍体和单倍体卵子提供了进一步证据.F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)中雄性四倍体鱼的存在说明在四倍体后代中存在基因型为XXXY的个体.对上述两个交配组合后代的四倍体鱼和三倍体鱼的性腺结构观察表明:四倍体鱼是可育的,而三倍体鱼是不育的.作者认为鲫鲤F2能够产生二倍体和三倍体卵子与核内复制机制和生殖细胞的融合有关.%Based on the presence of three types of eggs with different diameters 0.13, 0.17 and 0.2 cm, we made two crosses: F2 (♀)by × diploid red crucian carp (♂), and F2 (♀) × F10 tetraploid (♂). The ploidy levels of the progeny of the two crosses were examined chromosome counting and DNA content measurement by flow cytometer. In the offspring of the former cross, tetraploids, triploids, and diploid were obtained. In the progeny of the latter cross, tetraploids and triploids were observed. The production of the different ploidy level fish in the progeny of the two crosses provided a further evidence that F2 might generate triploid, diploid and XXXY probably existed in the tetraploid progeny. The gonadal structures of the tetraploids and triploids indicated that both female and male tetraploids were fertile and the triploids were sterile. We concluded that the formations of different ploidy level eggs from F2 were contributed by endoreduplication and fusion of germ cells.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Tyrosol Metabolites in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Da-Hye Lee; Yang-Ji Kim; Min Jung Kim; Jiyun Ahn; Tae-Youl Ha; Sang Hee Lee; Young Jin Jang; Chang Hwa Jung

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosol is considered a potential antioxidant; however, little is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of its metabolites. To study the pharmacokinetics of tyrosol-derived metabolites after oral administration of a single dose of tyrosol, we attempted to identify tyrosol metabolites in rat plasma by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Two tyrosol metabolites (M1 and M2) were detected in the plasma. M1 was identified as...

  3. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-12-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  4. The 22-year cycle in the geomagnetic 27-day recurrences