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Sample records for f1 cows sired

  1. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P carcass quality traits, but not for carcass yield traits, among these three breeds.

  2. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  3. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

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    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  4. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

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    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  5. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

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    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  6. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

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    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  7. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

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    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Influence of sire and sire breed (Gyr versus Holstein) on establishment of pregnancy and embryonic loss in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorer, Marcelo F; Vasconcelos, José L M; Trinca, Luzia A; Hansen, Peter J; Barros, Ciro M

    2007-03-01

    Heat stress has negative effects on pregnancy rates of lactating dairy cattle. There are genetic differences in tolerance to heat stress; Bos taurus indicus (B. t. indicus) cattle and embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus taurus (B. t. taurus). In the present study, the effects of sire and sire breed on conception and embryonic/fetal loss rates of lactating Holstein cows during the Brazilian summer were determined. In Experiment 1, cows (n=302) were AI after estrus detection or at a fixed-time with semen from one Gyr (B. t. indicus) or one Holstein sire (B. t. taurus). Pregnancy was diagnosed 80 days after AI. In Experiment 2, cows (n=811) were AI with semen from three Gyr and two Holstein sires. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 30-40 and at 60-80 days after AI. Cows diagnosed pregnant at the first examination but non-pregnant at the second were considered as having lost their embryo or fetus. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. The model considered the effect of sire within breed, sire breed, days postpartum, period of lactation, and AI type (AI after estrus versus fixed-time). There was no effect of the AI type, days postpartum or milk production on conception or embryonic loss rates. The use of Gyr bulls increased pregnancy rate when compared to Holstein bulls [9.1% (60/657) versus 5.0% (23/456), respectively, P=0.008; data from Experiments 1 and 2 combined]. Additionally, in Experiment 2, cows inseminated using semen from sire #4 (Gyr) had lower embryonic loss (10%) when compared with other B. t. indicus (35.3% and 40%) or B. t. taurus sires (18.2% and 38.5%, P=0.03). In conclusion, the use of B. t. indicus sires may result in higher conception rates in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress. Moreover, sire can affect embryonic loss and selection of bulls according to this criterion may result in higher parturition rates in lactating Holstein cows.

  9. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  10. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

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    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

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    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P Brahman (P Brahman-sired cows took longer to mature than Boran- (P=0.03) or Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.003). Belgian Blue-sired cows were faster maturing than Tuli-sired cows (P=0.02). Brahman-sired cows had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P=0.003), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.001). Boran-sired cows tended to have reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights

  12. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk yield in a herd of Holstein cows in Yemen.

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    Al-Samarai, F R; Abdulrahman, Y K; Mohammed, F A; Al-Zaidi, F H; Al-Anbari, N N

    2015-01-01

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h(2)) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were - 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM were - 470.38, 380.88 kg and - 370.12, 388.50 kg respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients among BLUP, TALSM and TAM ranged from 0.81 to 0.67. These results provide evidence that the selection of sires will improve the TMY in this herd because of the wide differences in genetic poetical among sires, and a moderate estimation of heritability.

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

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    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  14. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

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    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( Angus cows and lower ( Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to 28.6 ± 9.4 kg for cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive ability of Romosinuano in temperate fescue regions may be favorable with respect to relative cow and calf weight but may be a consequence of

  15. Comparison of innate immune responses and somatotropic axis components of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows during the transition period.

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    Mendonça, L G D; Litherland, N B; Lucy, M C; Keisler, D H; Ballou, M A; Hansen, L B; Chebel, R C

    2013-06-01

    Objectives were to compare parameters related to innate immune responses and somatotropic axis of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde (MO)-sired crossbred cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. Cows (40 HO and 47 MO-sired crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45d before expected calving date (study d 0=calving). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) isolated from blood samples collected weekly from study d -7 to 21 and on study d 42 were used for determination of percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis (PA+) and oxidative burst (OB+), intensity of PA and OB, percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 (CD18+) and L-selectin (LS+), and intensity of CD18 and LS expression. Blood was sampled weekly from study d -7 to 14 and on study d 28, 42, and 56 for determination of insulin, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations. Blood sampled weekly from study d -14 to 21 and on study d 42 was used to determine cortisol concentration. Liver biopsies were performed on study d -14, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of mRNA expression for insulin receptor B (IRB), total GH receptor (GHRtot), GHR variant 1A (GHR1A), and IGF-1. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures or by ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intensity of CD18 expression was greater in PMNL from crossbred cows compared with PMNL from HO cows [1,482.1 ± 82.3 vs. 1,286.6 ± 69.8 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)]. Furthermore, among HO cows, the percentage of PA+ PMNL on study d -7 (64.4 ± 5.2%) tended to be greater than on study d 0 (57.1 ± 5.1%), but no differences in percentage of PA+ PMNL between study d -7 and 0 were observed in crossbred cows. Similarly, intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from HO cows decreased from study d -7 to 0 (4,750.6 ± 1,217.0 vs. 1,964.7 ± 1,227.9 GMFI), but no changes in intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from crossbred cows were observed. On study d 0, intensity of PA tended to be

  16. Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service-sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic fertility evaluation based on conventional (nonsexed) inseminations from parities 1 through 5, was implemented by USDA in August 2008. Using insemination data from 2005 through 2009, the SCR procedure was applied separately for nulliparous heifer inse...

  17. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

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    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  18. Interaction of energy balance, feed efficiency, early lactation health events, and fertility in first-lactation Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal F1 crossbred cows.

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    Olson, K M; Cassell, B G; Hanigan, M D; Pearson, R E

    2011-01-01

    First-lactation Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crossbred cows (HJ and JH, with sire breed listed first, followed by dam breed) were observed for cumulative energy intake (CEI15) and energy used for milk production (CEL15) at wk 15 of lactation in addition to recordings of health problems and pregnancy. Cumulative energy balance (CEB15) was calculated from CEI15 and estimates of expenditures at wk 15 of lactation. Feed efficiency (FE15) was calculated by dividing CEL15 by CEI15. Data included 140 cows with 43, 34, 41, and 22 in the HH, HJ, JH, and JJ groups, respectively. The first incidence of displaced abomasum (DA), ketosis (KET), mastitis (MAST), and metritis (MET) was recorded in the first 100 d of lactation with an incidence of the disease coded as 1 and no incidence coded as 0. Pregnancy (PREG) at d 150 was recorded as 1 if a cow had conceived by d 150 and 0 if she had not. Logistic regression was used to analyze health and fertility with fixed effects in the model including genetic group, linear and quadratic effects for age at calving, and year-season of freshening group. Pregnancy was analyzed with the same variables and the addition of CEB15. In other analyses, CEB15, CEI15, CEL15, and FE15 were response variables with the same explanatory variables plus health events (MAST, DA, MET, and KET), where each health event was a separate analysis. Genetic group effects were significant in the occurrence of MAST and a trend for MET, but were not significant for PREG, DA, and KET. Significant odds ratio for MAST was 19.6 for HJ cows when compared with that for HH cows. Thus, HJ cows were 19.6 times more likely than HH cows to have an incidence of MAST. The trend was for HJ and JH to have a lower odds ratio of MET than that of HH. No other genetic group effects were significant in any of the disease and PREG models. The linear and quadratic terms for age at calving were not significant. An occurrence of MAST decreased FE15 by 5.2±2.2%. Mastitis also decreased

  19. A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F1 cross with regard to milk yield, somatic cell score, mastitis, and milking characteristics under grazing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendiville, R; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2010-06-01

    The key objectives of this study were to investigate differences in milking characteristics and udder health between Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (J), and Jersey x Holstein-Friesian (F(1)) cows and to determine possible associations between milking characteristics and udder health. Records were available from 329 lactations (162 cows): 65 HF, 48J, and 49F(1). Data included lactation mean milk yield, somatic cell score (SCS), incidence of mastitis, average milk flow (AMF), peak milk flow (PMF), and milking duration (MD). Breed group had a significant effect on milk yield and was higher with the HF cows (18.0 kg/d) compared with the J cows (14.2 kg/d). Udder health (SCS and incidence of mastitis at least once during lactation) were similar across the breed groups. Average milk flow was greater with the HF cows (1.36 kg/min) compared with the J cows (1.09 kg/min). Peak milk flow also tended to greater with the HF cows. No difference in MD was observed between the breed groups. The performance of the F(1) cows tended to be similar to the mid-parent (breed) mean for udder health and MD, but heterosis was evident for milk yield, AMF, and PMF. Correlations examined showed that phenotypic milk yield was negatively associated with SCS. Increased milk yield was synonymous with increased AMF, PMF, and MD. Correlations between SCS and milking characteristics were weak. Correlations also showed that cows with low AMF and PMF had extended MD. Therefore, no difference in udder health was observed between HF, J, or F(1) cows. The fact that higher yielding animals exhibit faster milking speeds was confirmed; however, no difference in MD was observed between the breed groups. Such findings indicate that regularity in the milking process will be maintained within mixed-breed herds. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal and reproductive performance of Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x Angus cows in the subtropics.

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    Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W; Hammond, A C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the maternal and reproductive performance of F1 cows in the subtropics, 42 Brahman x Angus, 34 Senepol x Angus, and 50 Tuli x Angus cows were bred to Angus bulls to calve first and subsequently bred to Charolais bulls to calve as 3- to 8-yr-olds. Age at first calving did not differ among crossbred cows. Angus-sired calf birth weights were heavier (P Brahman x Angus or Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Angus-sired calves were heavier (P Brahman x Angus (213.5 kg) than either Senepol x Angus (194.9 kg) or Tuli x Angus (191.5 kg) cows. As 3- to 8-yr-old cows, calf birth weights were heavier (P Brahman x Angus but not Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Charolais-sired calves were heaviest (P Brahman x Angus cows (268.9 kg), lightest from Tuli x Angus cows (233.4 kg), and intermediate from Senepol x Angus cows (245.0 kg). Calf crop born and calf crop weaned were lowest (P Brahman x Angus (89.0 and 86.1%) and Tuli x Angus (94.7 and 86.5%) cows. Tuli x Angus cows tended (P Brahman x Angus cows but not Senepol x Angus cows. As 3- to 8-yr-olds, weaning weight per cow exposed was greatest (P Brahman x Angus (234.2 kg), least (P Brahman x Angus (42.2) and Tuli x Angus cows (40.7), and both were greater (P Brahman x Angus cows, except for lower calf survivability and weaning weight.

  1. Efeito do pai do feto sobre as características produtivas e reprodutivas de vacas da raça pitangueiras Effect of the sire of fetus on productive and reproductive traits of cow from pitangueiras breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Pereira Bastos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar a magnitude do efeito do pai do feto (PDF sobre as características produtivas e reprodutivas em fêmeas da raça Pitangueiras, foram analisadas 2287 lactações de 618 vacas, filhas de 82 reprodutores e acasaladas com 68 touros. As análises estatísticas foram executadas usando-se o programa LSMLMW (Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. O PDF não influenciou a produção de leite na lactação subseqüente, porém seu efeito foi significativo para produção e porcentagem de gordura, período de serviço, período de gestação e intervalo de partos. As estimativas dos efeitos do PDF, expressas como porcentagem da variância total foram: 0,81; 1,67; e 6,43%, respectivamente, para produção de leite e produção e porcentagem de gordura. Esta contribuição para as características reprodutivas foi estimada em 7,76% para o período de serviço; 1,23% para o período de gestação; e 7,57% para o intervalo de partos. As implicações genéticas do efeito do PDF sobre as características produtivas foram de pequena importância econômica, contudo, no desempenho reprodutivo, este efeito foi significativo e mensurável.To estimate the magnitude of sire of fetus (SOF effects on productive and reproductive traits in females of Pitangueiras breed, 2287 lactations of 618 cows, daughters of 82 bulls, mated with 68 sires were analyzed. The statistical analyses were made using LSMLMW program (Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. Sire of fetus (SOF did not affect the milk production in the subsequent lactation, however its effect was significant for the percent fat and production, days open, gestation length and calving intervals. The estimates of SOF effects, expressed as a percentage of total variance, were .81, 1.67 and 6.43% for milk and percent fat and yield, respectively. This contribution on the reproductive traits was estimated in 7.76% for days open, 1.23% for gestation

  2. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  3. Eficiência biológica de vacas de dois grupos genéticos amamentando bezerros puros ou F1, mantidas em diferentes condições de alimentação Biologic efficiency of cows of two genetic groups nursing straigthbred or F1 calves, mantained on different feeding conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2004-12-01

    ,5 contra 25,6 kg/100 kg. Quando foi considerada a EFTM, observou-se maiores valores nas vacas CH (1,11 kg/UTM em relação às NE (0,99 kg/UTM, quando amamentavam bezerros puros, não havendo diferença quando amamentavam bezerros mestiços.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the biologic efficiency of Charolais (CH and Nellore (NE cows nursing CH and ½NE ½CH (produced by CH cows, NE and ½CH ½NE (produced by NE cows calves, mantained together until weaning, on native pasture (NP or winter (oat + italian rye grass and summer (alexander grass cultivated pasture (CP. Cows and calves were weighted at birth; 14; 42; 70; 98; 126; 154; 182 days; and at weaning. The cows milk yield was evaluated at the same date of the calves weighing, with exception at birth. When the animals were mantained on CP, higher efficiency of converting the quantity of litres (EFLIT (7.7 vs 11 L/kg and dry matter (DM (EFMS of milk (1.06 vs 1.47 kg DM/kg produced by cow into kg of calf weight gain, was observed. Quadratic effect of postpartum period for EFLIT (y=18.222-.141DAY+.000463DAY² and EFMS (y=2.341-.0182DAY+.000063DAY² was verified. Linear reduction of the daily requeriment of total digestible nutrients (mantainance plus milk production (NDT (NDT/day was observed, as the lactation period advanced, for cows mantained on CP (.004 kg and NP (.007 kg. The total requeriment (calving to weaning of NDT (NDT/total was superior for cows mantained on CP (1093.1 vs 1014 kg. However, cows mantained on CP were more efficient for transformation of NDT/dia (7.9 vs 12.5 and NDT/total (5.8 vs 8.2 in calf weight gain. The quantity of kg of calf produced/100 kg of cow (EFKG (.201 vs .159 kg/100kg/day and kg of calf produced per unit of cow metabolic weight (UTM (EFTM (.009 vs .007 kg/UTM/day were higher when the cows were mantained on CP. Cows nursing F1 calves required more NDT/day (5 vs 4.8 kg/day. However, were more efficient for EFKG (27.1 vs 23.5 kg/100 kg and EFTM (1.21 vs 1.05 kg/UTM. For

  4. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  5. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding.

  6. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  7. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  8. Productividad, consumo y eficiencia biológica en vacas Frisón Neozelandés y F1 (Jersey-Frisón Neozelandés paridas a fines de invierno en la X Región, Chile Productivity, intake and biological efficiency in New Zealand Friesian and F1 (Jersey-New Zealand Friesian cows calved during late winter in the Xth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González-Verdugo

    2005-01-01

    significativas (P = 0,0001 en favor de F1. Las mayores diferencias se observaron en producción de grasa (24,6% y PL corregida a 4% de materia grasa (20,5%. Los valores de CMS no difirieron significativamente (P = 0,1642. Sin embargo, al expresarlos en relación a 100 kg de PV el valor de F1 tendió a ser de mayor magnitud (P = 0,0615. La PL y sólidos lácteos por unidad de CMS fueron altamente significativas (P = 0,0284 a favor del F1. La mayor superioridad se obtuvo en materia grasa (17,4%, donde el F1 alcanzó un valor de 63,88 g/kg de CMS. El cuociente entre la producción de proteína láctea y proteína cruda ingerida arrojó valores de 32,70 y 29,33% (P = 0,0003. En F1 la valoración energética de la PL diaria representó un 37,13% de la energía metabolizable consumida, aumentando a 41,38% al corregir por el aporte de reservas corporales. Estos valores fueron menores (P = 0,0002 en las FN. Se concluyó que la mayor producción de sólidos lácteos, menor PV y mejor utilización de la proteína cruda y energía metabolizable le otorgan al F1 una mayor eficiencia biológica respecto del FN. Las aptitudes mencionadas le confieren a las mestizas ventajas comparativas en sistemas donde se premia la producción y contenido de sólidos lácteos.At Oromo Experimental Station, University of Chile, Xth Region, Chile (41º08’ S; 73º09’ W, 47 primiparous cows, 23 New Zealand Friesian (NZF and 24 Jersey-NZF (F1, were used to estimate productivity, intake and biological efficiency, under grazing conditions. The information was obtained in 3 experimental periods (21 days each one, at which the cows were at 66, 126 and 220 days of lactation, respectively. The animals were weighed daily in order to estimate mean live weight (LW and live weight changes. Milk production (MP was measured 9 times each period, and weekly, a sample of milk was used to measure fat and protein content. Pasture dry matter intake (PDMI was estimated relating metabolizable energy requirements (MER and

  9. Comparison between a sire model and an animal model for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... (EBV) from the animal model and the sire-dam model were close to 1 for all the traits, and those between the animal model and the sire model ranged from 0.95 to 0.97. Model ability to predict sire breeding value was assessed using 4 criteria: 1) the correlation between sire EBV from 2 data subsets...... (DATAA and DATAB); 2) the correlation between sire EBV from training data (DATAA or DATAB) and yield deviation from test data (DATAB or DATAA) in a cross-validation procedure; 3) the correlation between the EBV of proven bulls, obtained from the whole data set (DATAT) and from a reduced set of data...

  10. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, BW at 200 d, and ADG were measured in 2,500 calves born and 2,395 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (one-fourth Hereford, one-fourth Angus, one-fourth Pinzgauer, and one-fourth Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breed), Brahman, Tuli, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires. Calves were born during the spring seasons of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sire breed was significant for all traits (P Brahman sires (1.24), whereas the offspring of Tuli sires had the least amount of calving difficulty (1.00). Offspring from all sire breeds had similar perinatal survival and survival from birth to weaning (average of 97.2 and 96.2%, respectively), with the exception of offspring from Brahman sires, which had less (92.8 and 90.4%, respectively). Progeny of Brahman sires were heaviest at birth (45.7 kg), followed by offspring from British breed, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires (average of 42.4 kg). The lightest offspring at birth were from Tuli sires (38.6 kg). Progeny derived from Brahman sires were the heaviest at 200 d (246 kg), and they grew faster (1.00 kg/d) than offspring from any other group. The progeny of British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had an intermediate BW at 200 d (238 kg) and an intermediate ADG (average of 0.98 kg/d). The progeny of Boran and Tuli sires were the lightest at 200 d (227 kg) and had the least ADG (0.93 kg/d). Male calves had a longer gestation length, had a greater incidence of calving difficulty, had greater mortality to weaning, were heavier, and grew faster than female calves. Sire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  11. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer;

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... prediction model to test the hypothesis that the value of cows in reference populations depends on the availability of phenotypic records. To test the hypothesis, we investigated different strategies of building a reference population for a new functional trait over a 10-year period. The trait was either...... recorded on a large scale (30 000 cows per year) or on a small scale (2000 cows per year). For large-scale recording, we compared four scenarios where the reference population consisted of 30 sires; 30 sires and 170 test bulls; 30 sires and 2000 cows; or 30 sires, 2000 cows and 170 test bulls in the first...

  12. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  13. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  14. Impact of genetic merit for milk somatic cell score of sires and maternal grandsires on herd life of their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R H; Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Cole, J B

    2009-05-01

    A retrospective study of the impact of the estimated breeding values of sires and maternal grandsires for somatic cell score (SCS) on productive life (PL) of Holsteins and Jerseys was conducted. Data included records from 2,626,425 Holstein and 142,725 Jersey cows. The sires and maternal grandsires of cows were required to have been available through artificial insemination and to have predicted transmitting ability (PTA) SCS evaluations based on 35 or more daughters. A weighted function (WPTA) of sire and maternal grandsire PTA for SCS was used: (sire PTA + 0.5 maternal grandsire PTA)/1.5. The 3 dependent variables were PL, frequency of cows culled for mastitis, and first-lactation SCS. The model included effects of herd, birth year, and WPTA (WPTA was categorized into groups: or =3.30). For analysis of first-lactation SCS, calving year and calving month were substituted for birth year. Differences among WPTA groups were highly significant: as WPTA increased, PL decreased, whereas percentage culled for mastitis and first-lactation SCS increased. The range in PL from lowest to highest WPTA was 5.07 mo for Holsteins and 4.73 mo for Jerseys. Corresponding differences for percentage culled for mastitis were 7.0 and 5.6% and for SCS were 0.95 and 1.04 (for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively). Although phenotypic studies suggest that cows with extremely low SCS were less resistant to mastitis, our results showed consistent improvements in PL, percentage culled for mastitis, and SCS of daughters when bulls were chosen for low PTA SCS.

  15. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P gestation length (284 d) when compared with female calves (283 d). Males were heavier than females at birth and at 205 d, and grew faster. Sire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  16. Evaluación retrospectiva de la tasa de preñez obtenida por transferencia de embriones en diferentes cruces bovinos en el municipio de Puerto Araujo, Santander, Colombia (Retrospective analysis of pregnancy rate after embryo transfer on F1 cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Luis Edgardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analizó los datos obtenidos en los años 1999-2001 para evaluar el mejor cruce como receptora en un programa de Transferencia de Embriones (T.E., donde se usan principalmente animales F1 como Limbrah, Simbrah, Brabon, Brangus y Girolando. Se contó con una población de 1166 receptoras transferidas, de los cruces anteriormente señalados, de las cuales 577 se realizaron con embriones en fresco y 589 con embriones congelados en glicerol o etilenglicol. Después de transferidas, se evaluó la preñez mediante palpación rectal a los 60 días; ésta información se llevó a registros donde se cruzaron las variables: tipo de cruce de la receptora, morfología y calidad embrionaria y tipo de transferencia (en fresco o congelado. A esta información se le aplicó una prueba de Chi cuadrado, la cual arrojó que las mejores receptoras para un programa de T.E., corresponden a los cruces Brabon y Girolando con 39,58% y 39,56% de preñez respectivamente; así mismo, al comparar estos dos cruces, se pudo evidenciar que el cruce Girolando presenta mayores tasas de preñez al transferirle embriones en estados de desarrollo más tempranos. Abstrac.- The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of bovine F1 recipients (Limousin X Brahman; Simmental x Brahman; Brahman x BON; Brahman x Angus and Gyr x Holstein on a program of embryo transfer. 1166 F1 cows transferred (577 of them with fresh embryos and 589 with frozen embryos between 1999 and 2001 were evaluated according with its pregnancy rate (rectal examination at 60 days. Chi square test was made to probe association between variables as F1 employed, embryo morphology and quality and embryo treatment (fresh Vs. frozen embryos. According with this work, the best F1 recipients were Brahman x BON and Gyr x Holstein each one showing pregnancy rates of 39,58% and 39,56% respectively. Additionally, these F1 is poorly influenced by the others variables evaluated, although seems to be that

  17. Inbreeding depression on beef cattle traits: estimates, linearity of effects and heterogeneity among sire-families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Nuno; Gama, Luis T

    2008-01-01

    Records from up to 19 054 registered cows and 10 297 calves in 155 herds of the Alentejana cattle breed were used to study the effects of individual (Fi) and maternal (Fm) inbreeding on reproductive, growth and carcass traits, as well as assessing the importance of non-linear associations between inbreeding and performance, and evaluating the differences among sire-families in the effect of Fi and Fm on calf weight at 7 months of age (W7M). Overall, regression coefficients of performance traits on inbreeding were small, indicating a minor but still detrimental effect of both Fi and Fm on most traits. The traits with the highest percentage impact of Fi were total number of calvings through life and calf weight at 3 months of age (W3M), followed by longevity and number of calves produced up to 7 years, while the highest effect of Fm was on W3M. Inbreeding depression on feed efficiency and carcass traits was extremely small and not significant. No evidence was found of a non-linear association between inbreeding and performance for the traits analyzed. Large differences were detected among sire-families in inbreeding depression on W7M, for both Fi and Fm, encouraging the possibility of incorporating sire effects on inbreeding depression into selection decisions.

  18. Structural variation around prolactin gene linked to quantitative traits in an elite Holstein sire family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, C M; Dentine, M R; Ax, R L; Schuler, L A

    1990-05-01

    Digestion of genomic DNA with the restriction endonuclease Avail disclosed a probable insertion deletion of approximately 200 base pairs (bp) near the prolactin gene. Two alleles were apparent as three distinct hybridization patterns. These alleles were statistically associated with quantitative trait loci among sons of one elite Holstein sire family. The favorable genotype was correlated with the presence of a 1.15-kb hybridization band inherited from the sire when genomic DNA was probed with a full-length cDNA for prolactin. Pedigree estimates of genetic merit among genotypes were similar, differing by only 19.3 kg for milk in ancestor merit. Comparisons of genetic estimates for quantitative yield traits in offspring of this heterozygous sire showed significant (Pcheese yield dollars, and protein dollars. The estimated differences between homozygous genotypes for USDA Transmitting Abilities of PDM, PD$, Cheese Yield $ and Protein $ were 282.93 kg, $74.35, $48.58 and $53.67, respectively. However, the estimated breeding values from progeny ranged over 900 kg in transmitting ability for milk. Frequency of the favorable marker allele was estimated to be 0.231 in the elite cow population used as dams of sons. These results demonstrate the potential of molecular biological techniques to discriminate between individuals within a family and to predict breeding values for selection schemes.

  19. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  20. Evaluation of Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale breeds of sheep: III. Wool characteristics of F1 ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, C J; Freking, B A; Leymaster, K A

    2004-08-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of five sire breeds (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), two dam breeds (Composite III [CIII] and northwestern whiteface [WF]), and three shearing seasons (December, February, and April, corresponding to August, October, and December breeding seasons) and their interactions on wool and other characteristics of F1 ewes. Fleeces were collected and characterized from six 2-yr-old F1 ewes representing each of the 90 sire breed x dam breed x shearing season x year (three) subclasses. Characteristics measured objectively were grease and clean fleece weights, clean yield, mean fiber diameter and SD, and mean staple length and SD. Visual assessments of fleece color were also made. Data collected on the F1 ewes were analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance procedure. The model included fixed effects of year of birth, sire breed, dam breed, shearing season, six two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction of sire breed x dam breed x shearing season. The random effect of individual sire within year of birth x sire breed was also fitted. Texel- and Montadale-sired ewes produced more clean wool (P wool (28.7 microm) (P wool (0.15 kg and 2.7 microm) than ewes from CIII dams (P wool (P wool production is opposite to that in conception rate (reported previously). Romanov-sired ewes produced the lowest percentage of white fleeces (62.6%), whereas Dorset-sired ewes produced the most (P Estimates of heritability were calculated for grease and clean fleece weights (0.36), percentage of clean yield (0.31), average fiber diameter and SD (0.86 and 0.42, respectively), and average staple length and SD (0.49 and 0.00, respectively). Although necessary for a thorough evaluation of these 10 types of crossbred ewes, it is estimated that wool income would only constitute a small portion (1 to 5%) of overall income from sheep of this type.

  1. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit ... Key words: Heterogeneous rabbit population, Doe productivity, Sire families). ..... Paris, France, 11-14. Cited in:.

  2. Sire effect on early and late embryonic death in French Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, D; Ponsart, C; Grimard, B; Gatien, J; Deloche, M C; Fritz, S; Lefebvre, R; Humblot, P

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effect of maternal sire on early pregnancy failure (between D0, day of insemination and D90) in their progeny during the first and second lactations (n=3508) in the Holstein breed. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for cow fertility of 12 bulls (reliability⩾0.95) was used to create the following three groups: low, medium and high EBV (EBV from -0.7 to 1 expressed as genetic standard deviation relative to the mean of the breed). In their daughters (93 to 516 per bull), progesterone measurement was carried out on the day of artificial insemination (AI; D0) to check whether the cows were in the follicular phase and on D18 to 25 to assess non-fertilisation-early embryonic mortality (NF-EEM). Late embryonic mortality (LEM) and early foetal death (FD) were determined by ultrasonography on D45 and D90 and by the return to oestrus after the first AI. Frequencies of NF-EEM, LEM, FD and pregnancy were 33.3%, 11.7%, 1.4% and 48.5% and incidences were 35.1, 19.0, 2.7 and 51.1, respectively. Sire EBV was significantly related to the incidences of pregnancy failure between D0 and D90, fertilisation failure-early embryonic mortality (FF-EEM) and LEM but not to the incidence of FD between D45 and D90 of pregnancy. The relative risk (RR) of FF-EEM was significantly higher (RR=1.2; P<0.05) for the progeny group of low EBV bulls when compared with high EBV bulls. The same effect was observed when comparing LEM of the progeny groups from the low EBV bulls to those from moderate and high EBV bulls (RR, respectively, of 1.3 and 1.4; P<005). The incidence of FF-EEM was significantly higher when cows were inseminated before 80 days postpartum compared with later, and for the extreme values of the difference between milk fat and protein content measured during the first 3 months of lactation. FF-EEM was also significantly related to the year of observation. The incidence of LEM was higher for the highest producing cows and was influenced by interaction between milk

  3. Potential consequences of selection to change gestation length on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Miller, R H

    2011-02-01

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were also assessed by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls with ≥ 300 calvings between 1998 and 2005 were stratified into the following 7 groups using predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service sire GL: <-3.00, -3.00 to -2.01, …, 1.00 to 1.99, and ≥ 2.00 d. An independent set of 261,598 first-parity cows mated later to the same bulls and calving between 2006 and 2009 were segregated by the service sire PTA GL groups (group had 8,317 to 73,324 gestations), and these mates' GL were examined to determine effectiveness of service sire PTA GL. The model included fixed effects for herd-year and service sire group, plus covariates for conception dates to account for time opportunity among mates. Mean GL for mates by service sire group (from lowest to highest PTA GL) were 275.3, 276.5, 277.8, 278.6, 279.5, 280.6, and 281.7 d. Thus, service sire PTA GL was effective in identifying bulls that modified GL. Subsequent yield and fitness traits were also examined for the (independent) mates with the same service sire groups. Intermediate service sire PTA GL was optimal for yield traits and days open; performance for productive life and culling generally became less favorable as service sire PTA GL increased. A second examination was made by replacing service sire PTA GL groups in the model with phenotypic cow GL groups. Relationships between GL and subsequent performance for milk yield and fitness traits were examined using 9 phenotypic cow GL groups: ≤ 271, 272-273, …, 284-285, and ≥ 286 d. Performance generally improved for subsequent lactation yield as cow GL increased; however, intermediate GL was optimal for productive life, calving ease, stillbirth, culling, and days open. Results indicated that neither shortening nor increasing

  4. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother-offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection.

  5. Concealed target detection using augmented reality with SIRE radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, Philip; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Ranney, Kenneth; Sullivan, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) forward-looking radar, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), can detect concealed targets using ultra-wideband synthetic aperture technology. The SIRE radar has been mounted on a Ford Expedition and combined with other sensors, including a pan/tilt/zoom camera, to test its capabilities of concealed target detection in a realistic environment. Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to combine the SIRE radar image with the live camera stream into one view, which provides the user with information that is quicker to assess and easier to understand than each separated. In this paper we present an AR system which utilizes a global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to overlay a SIRE radar image onto a live video stream. We describe a method for transforming 3D world points in the UTM coordinate system onto the video stream by calibrating for the intrinsic parameters of the camera. This calibration is performed offline to save computation time and achieve real time performance. Since the intrinsic parameters are affected by the zoom of the camera, we calibrate at eleven different zooms and interpolate. We show the results of a real time transformation of the SAR imagery onto the video stream. Finally, we quantify both the 2D error and 3D residue associated with our transformation and show that the amount of error is reasonable for our application.

  6. Sources of (co)variation in alternative siring routes available to male great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G.; Kuhn, Sylvia; Mathot, Kimberley J.; Mouchet, Alexia; Mutzel, Ariane; Nicolaus, Marion; Wijmenga, Jan J.; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2016-01-01

    Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the

  7. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P Brahman, and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman-Angus cows excelled.

  8. F1的学前班

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 从CART比赛进入F1 美国一直缺少比F1更低级别的方程式比赛,美国(一些其它美洲国家也是这样)车手想要进入F1通常会去欧洲参加比赛或者在美国尝试与F1接近的CART赛车.

  9. Edificio de oficinas. Gualca – Sire, Turín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casalegno, G.

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available Aunque puede considerarse como una unidad arquitectónica, puesto que constituye una sola manzana, en realidad está dividido en dos partes casi iguales: una, orientada al mediodía, propiedad de la sociedad "Gualca", proyectada por Casalegno y dedicada a departamentos de alquiler, y otra, propiedad de la sociedad "Sire", con proyecto de Ceresa y Levi-Montalcini.

  10. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior. Copyright

  11. SIRE: a MIMO radar for landmine/IED detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojowu, Ode; Wu, Yue; Li, Jian; Nguyen, Lam

    2013-05-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to have significant performance improvements over their single-input multiple-output (SIMO) counterparts. For transmit and receive elements that are collocated, the waveform diversity afforded by this radar is exploited for performance improvements. These improvements include but are not limited to improved target detection, improved parameter identifiability and better resolvability. In this paper, we present the Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction Radar (SIRE) Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar designed by the Army Research Lab (ARL) for landmine and improvised explosive device (IED) detection as a 2 by 16 MIMO radar (with collocated antennas). Its improvement over its SIMO counterpart in terms of beampattern/cross range resolution are discussed and demonstrated using simulated data herein. The limitations of this radar for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) suppression are also discussed in this paper. A relaxation method (RELAX) combined with averaging of multiple realizations of the measured data is presented for RFI suppression; results show no noticeable target signature distortion after suppression. In this paper, the back-projection (delay and sum) data independent method is used for generating SAR images. A side-lobe minimization technique called recursive side-lobe minimization (RSM) is also discussed for reducing side-lobes in this data independent approach. We introduce a data-dependent sparsity based spectral estimation technique called Sparse Learning via Iterative Minimization (SLIM) as well as a data-dependent CLEAN approach for generating SAR images for the SIRE radar. These data-adaptive techniques show improvement in side-lobe reduction and resolution for simulated data for the SIRE radar.

  12. The effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull log-normal sire frailty models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Simonsen, J;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was, by means of simulation, to quantify the effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull sire frailty models on parameter estimates and to address the consequences for genetic inferences. Three simulation studies were evaluated, which included 3 levels...... the software Survival Kit for the incomplete sire model. For the incomplete sire model, the Monte Carlo and Survival Kit parameter estimates were similar. This study established that when unobserved individual heterogeneity was ignored, the parameter estimates that included sire effects were biased toward zero...

  13. Main: E2F1OSPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2F1OSPCNA S000396 21-May-2002 (last modified) uchi re2f-1 found in the promoter of rice PCN...ividing cells and tissue; E2F; PCNA; meristematic tissue; cell cycle; rice (Oryza sativa); tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) GCGGGAAA ...

  14. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  15. The effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull log-normal sire frailty models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, L H; Korsgaard, I R; Simonsen, J; Dalsgaard, O; Andersen, A H

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was, by means of simulation, to quantify the effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull sire frailty models on parameter estimates and to address the consequences for genetic inferences. Three simulation studies were evaluated, which included 3 levels of individual heterogeneity combined with 4 levels of censoring (0, 25, 50, or 75%). Data were simulated according to balanced half-sib designs using Weibull log-normal animal frailty models with a normally distributed residual effect on the log-frailty scale. The 12 data sets were analyzed with 2 models: the sire model, equivalent to the animal model used to generate the data (complete sire model), and a corresponding model in which individual heterogeneity in log-frailty was neglected (incomplete sire model). Parameter estimates were obtained from a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling, and also from the software Survival Kit for the incomplete sire model. For the incomplete sire model, the Monte Carlo and Survival Kit parameter estimates were similar. This study established that when unobserved individual heterogeneity was ignored, the parameter estimates that included sire effects were biased toward zero by an amount that depended in magnitude on the level of censoring and the size of the ignored individual heterogeneity. Despite the biased parameter estimates, the ranking of sires, measured by the rank correlations between true and estimated sire effects, was unaffected. In comparison, parameter estimates obtained using complete sire models were consistent with the true values used to simulate the data. Thus, in this study, several issues of concern were demonstrated for the incomplete sire model.

  16. Short Communication: Use of culling Information in Genetic Evaluation of fertility, and Mastitis in Norwegian Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtsmark, M; Heringstad, B; Madsen, P

    2008-01-01

    Breeding values for clinical mastitis, interval from calving to first insemination, and 56-d nonreturn rate for heifers and primiparous cows, were predicted using multivariate linear-threshold sire models, with or without including information on culling during the first lactation. Breeding values...... rates (heifer and primiparous cow), sire evaluations based on reduced size of daughter groups tended to predict performance of the future daughters slightly better when including data on early culling. Hence, for breeding programs with direct selection for health and fertility traits there is little...

  17. Sources of (co)variation in alternative siring routes available to male great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Kuhn, Sylvia; Mathot, Kimberley J; Mouchet, Alexia; Mutzel, Ariane; Nicolaus, Marion; Wijmenga, Jan J; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the fertilization routes to siring success, as well as behaviors that have been hypothesized to affect siring success, over a five-year period for a wild population of great tits Parus major. We considered siring success and its fertilization routes as "interactive phenotypes" arising from phenotypic contributions of both members of the social pair. We show that siring success is strongly affected by the fecundity of the social (female) partner. We also demonstrate that a strong positive correlation between extra-pair fertilization success and paternity loss likely constrains the evolution of these two routes. Moreover, we show that more explorative and aggressive males had less extra-pair fertilizations, whereas more explorative females laid larger clutches. This study thus demonstrates that (co)variation in siring routes is caused by multiple factors not necessarily related to characteristics of males. We thereby highlight the importance of acknowledging the multilevel structure of male fertilization routes when studying the evolution of male mating strategies.

  18. Activation of Ftz-F1-Responsive Genes through Ftz/Ftz-F1 Dependent Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Amanda; Xiang, Jie; Anderson, W. Ray; Graham, Patricia; Pick, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ftz-F1 is expressed in all somatic nuclei in Drosophila embryos, but mutations result in a pair-rule phenotype. This was explained by the interaction of Ftz-F1 with the homeodomain protein Ftz that is expressed in stripes in the primordia of segments missing in either ftz-f1 or ftz mutants. Ftz-F1 and Ftz were shown to physically interact and coordinately activate the expression of ftz itself and engrailed by synergistic binding to composite Ftz-F1/Ftz binding sites. However, attempts to identify additional target genes on the basis of Ftz-F1/ Ftz binding alone has met with only limited success. To discern rules for Ftz-F1 target site selection in vivo and to identify additional target genes, a microarray analysis was performed comparing wildtype and ftz-f1 mutant embryos. Ftz-F1-responsive genes most highly regulated included engrailed and nine additional genes expressed in patterns dependent on both ftz and ftz-f1. Candidate enhancers for these genes were identified by combining BDTNP Ftz ChIP-chip data with a computational search for Ftz-F1 binding sites. Of eight enhancer reporter genes tested in transgenic embryos, six generated expression patterns similar to the corresponding endogenous gene and expression was lost in ftz mutants. These studies identified a new set of Ftz-F1 targets, all of which are co-regulated by Ftz. Comparative analysis of enhancers containing Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites that were or were not bona fide targets in vivo suggested that GAF negatively regulates enhancers that contain Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites but are not actually utilized. These targets include other regulatory factors as well as genes involved directly in morphogenesis, providing insight into how pair-rule genes establish the body pattern. PMID:27723822

  19. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznań University of ... Jersey cows, very similar levels were recorded for four culling reasons: "sterility and reproductive ... specialization of large farms have been observed.

  20. Somatic development and embryo yield in crossbred F1 mice generated by different mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITP. Batista

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different mating strategies among endogamic strains to create F1 populations of mice, minimising the effect of inbreeding depression on somatic development and embryo yield. Females from the strains Swiss, CBA and C57Bl/6 were divided in nine experimental mate arrangements. The total numbers of pups born alive per dam and somatic development, estimated by weighing and measuring the crown-rump length, were recorded. Superovulation response was evaluated in outbreed females. Litter size differed among endogamic dams, irrespective of the sire. Somatic development results suggest heterosis and imprinting phenomena, once a differential parental effect was demonstrated. There was no difference in corpora lutea, ova or embryos recovered (P > 0.05, but recovery and viability rates differ among F1 groups (P < 0.05. The association of dam prolificity with somatic development and superovulation response of the pups should be considered for experimental F1 populations establishment. The use of outbreed animals, however, did not reduce response variability to hormone treatment.

  1. Genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data. I. Incidence rates, heritability estimates, and sire breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, N R; Weigel, K A; Chang, Y M; Welper, R D; Clay, J S

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of genetic selection for health traits in dairy cattle using data recorded in on-farm herd management software programs. Data regarding displaced abomasum (DA), ketosis (KET), mastitis (MAST), lameness (LAME), cystic ovaries (CYST), and metritis (MET) were collected between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2003 in herds using Dairy Comp 305, DHI-Plus, or PCDART herd management software programs. All herds in this study were either participants in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage progeny testing program or customers of the Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC) processing center. Minimum lactation incidence rates were applied to ensure adequate reporting of these disorders within individual herds. After editing, DA, KET, MAST, LAME, CYST, and MET data from 75,252 (313), 52,898 (250), 105,029 (429), 50,611 (212), 65,080 (340), and 97,318 (418) cows (herds) remained for analysis. Average lactation incidence rates were 0.03, 0.10, 0.20, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.21 for DA, KET, MAST, LAME, CYST, and MET (including retained placenta), respectively. Data for each disorder were analyzed separately using a threshold sire model that included a fixed parity effect and random sire and herd-year-season of calving effects; both first lactation and all lactation analyses were carried out. Heritability estimates from first lactation (all lactation) analyses were 0.18 (0.15) for DA, 0.11 (0.06) for KET, 0.10 (0.09) for MAST, 0.07 (0.06) for LAME, 0.08 (0.05) for CYST, and 0.08 (0.07) for MET. Corresponding heritability estimates for the pooled incidence rate of all diseases between calving and 50 d postpartum were 0.12 and 0.10 for the first and all lactation analyses, respectively. Mean differences in PTA for probability of disease between the 10 best and 10 worst sires were 0.034 for DA, 0.069 for KET, 0.130 for MAST, 0.054 for LAME, 0.039 for CYST, and 0.120 for MET. Based on the results of this study, it

  2. Evaluación retrospectiva de la tasa de preñez obtenida por transferencia de embriones en diferentes cruces bovinos en el municipio de Puerto Araujo, Santander, Colombia (Retrospective analysis of pregnancy rate after embryo transfer on F1 cows.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Luis Edgardo; Camacho Wilson; Serrano-Novoa César Augusto

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo analizó los datos obtenidos en los años 1999-2001 para evaluar el mejor cruce como receptora en un programa de Transferencia de Embriones (T.E.), donde se usan principalmente animales F1 como Limbrah, Simbrah, Brabon, Brangus y Girolando. Se contó con una población de 1166 receptoras transferidas, de los cruces anteriormente señalados, de las cuales 577 se realizaron con embriones en fresco y 589 con embriones congelados en glicerol o etilenglicol. Después de tran...

  3. Revising the $f_1(1420)$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Debastiani, V R; Liang, Wei-Hong; Oset, E

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the production and decay of the $f_1(1285)$ into $\\pi a_0(980)$ and $K^* \\bar K$ as a function of the mass of the resonance and find a shoulder around 1400 MeV, tied to a triangle singularity, for the $\\pi a_0(980)$ mode, and a peak around 1420 MeV with about 60 MeV width for the $K^* \\bar K$ mode. Both these features agree with the experimental information on which the $f_1(1420)$ resonance is based. In addition, we find that if the $f_1(1420)$ is a genuine resonance, coupling mostly to $K^* \\bar K$ as seen experimentally, one finds unavoidably about a 20\\% fraction for $\\pi a_0(980)$ decay of this resonance, in drastic contradiction with all experiments. Altogether, we conclude that the $f_1(1420)$ is not a genuine resonance, but the manifestation of the $\\pi a_0(980)$ and $K^* \\bar K$ decay modes of the $f_1(1285)$ at higher energies than the nominal one.

  4. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  5. Reference: E2F1OSPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2F1OSPCNA Kosugi S, Ohashi Y E2F sites that can interact with E2F proteins cloned from rice are require...d for meristematic tissue-specific expression of rice and tobacco proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoters Plant J 29: 45-59 (2002) PubMed: 12060226; ...

  6. The inclusion of herd-year-season by sire interaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three separate models were used in the DFREML analysis of the data. In the first ... by sire interaction was included, also as an additional random factor. Both these ..... Mixed model least squares and maximum likelihood computer program.

  7. Evaluation of Dormer sires for litter size and lamb mortality using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Categorical traits, Dormer sheep, sire evaluation, threshold model. * To whom .... for Newton-Raphson iterations was l0 and 12 for litter size and mortality, respectively. ... The mathematical theory of quantitative gene- tics. Clarendon ...

  8. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  9. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  10. EVALUATION OF CROSSBRED CALF AND COW TYPES; SUBJECTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin PALA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Data in this experiment consisted of birth weight, calving score, thickness and grade records of 600 crossbred calves. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2. Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3. The traits evaluated were birth weight, thickness and feeder grade of calves and degree of calving diffi culty. Calving diffi culty, grade, muscling or thickness evaluation is a subjective assessment. Progeny of Angus cattle were lighter at birth and were born easier than progeny of Brangus and Gelbvieh cattle. Angus-Hereford cows were more likely to have medium grade calves than Brangus-Hereford cows (odds ratio=1.69 and that was the only signifi cant difference for grade in all data sets. Brangus calves had thicker muscles than Angus and Gelbvieh calves. Adding Bos Indicus genes to a cross may increase birth weight, calving diffi culty and muscle thickness.

  11. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus cow performance was acceptable, but for most traits, those pairs of breeds had lower heterosis than Brahman-Angus.

  12. Adequacy of genetic evaluation of dairy cows for milk yield using different testing schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative milk recording schemes, as alternate a.m.-p.m. (AT procedures, have been proposed in order to reducerecording costs per cow thereby increasing the number of cows and young bulls that can be tested. The objective of thispaper is to compare predicted breeding values using alternative recording schemes for estimating lactation yields, specificallyfor dams of sires. Over 4 million test day records for milk yield of 306,148 Italian Friesian cows collected in 649herds in the province of Milan (Italy between 1990 and 1997 were used. The simulation of alternative testing schemeswas carried out using A4 single milking data. The alternative schemes to estimate daily milk yield from AM and PM data,were: a alternate scheme using a doubling; b alternate scheme using a correction for milking interval applying (MIdirect or inverse factors; c non-alternate scheme using a correction for MI applying inverse factors; d random schemeusing a correction for MI applying inverse factors. A mixed model procedure to estimate breeding values was used. Therank correlation between EBV with A4 method and other testing schemes resulted around 99% at the population leveland around 89% with regard to the top 1% of cows. About 10% of cows ranked with A4 method were excluded from thelist of the top 1% when alternative testing schemes were applied. A negligible effect on the reduction of selection intensityfor the dams of sires path was found.

  13. Influence of strain of sire on channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish embryo production and fingerling performance under commercial farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is presently the desired aquaculture species in US farm-raised catfish industry. Even though production and performance has improved over the last two decades, several production and performance parameters needs to be improved to maximize the genetic potential of this ...

  14. Adding cows to the reference population makes a small dairy population competitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2014-01-01

    of scenarios for maintaining and updating the reference population over a period of 15 yr were investigated: a turbo scheme exclusively using genotyped young bulls and a hybrid scheme with mixed use of genotyped young bulls and progeny-tested bulls. Two types of modifications were investigated: (1) number......Small dairy breeds are challenged by low reliabilities of genomic prediction. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of including cows in the reference population for small dairy cattle populations with a limited number of sires in the reference population. Using detailed simulations, 2 types...... of progeny-tested bulls per year was tested at 6 levels: 15, 40, 60, 100, 250, and 500; and (2) each year, 2,000 firstlactation cows were randomly selected from the cow population for genotyping or, alternatively, an additional 2,000 first-lactation cows were randomly selected and typed in the first 2 yr...

  15. Analysis list: Pou3f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou3f1 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f1.Plu

  16. Reducing the bias of estimates of genotype by environment interactions in random regression sire models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehammer, Marie; Odegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo H E

    2009-03-19

    The combination of a sire model and a random regression term describing genotype by environment interactions may lead to biased estimates of genetic variance components because of heterogeneous residual variance. In order to test different models, simulated data with genotype by environment interactions, and dairy cattle data assumed to contain such interactions, were analyzed. Two animal models were compared to four sire models. Models differed in their ability to handle heterogeneous variance from different sources. Including an individual effect with a (co)variance matrix restricted to three times the sire (co)variance matrix permitted the modeling of the additive genetic variance not covered by the sire effect. This made the ability of sire models to handle heterogeneous genetic variance approximately equivalent to that of animal models. When residual variance was heterogeneous, a different approach to account for the heterogeneity of variance was needed, for example when using dairy cattle data in order to prevent overestimation of genetic heterogeneity of variance. Including environmental classes can be used to account for heterogeneous residual variance.

  17. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p bulls with the CR of their 27 sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated.

  18. Analysis list: Pou5f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou5f1 Embryonic fibroblast,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.5.tsv h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou5f1....Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou5f1

  19. Development of supersonic intensity in reverberant environments (sire) with applications in underwater acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Andrew R.

    A new measurement technique, Supersonic Intensity in Reverberant Environments (SIRE), has been developed analytically, and validated numerically and experimentally. The SIRE technique permits the measurement of narrowband radiated sound power and directivity in an environment with unknown field conditions. This type of measurement has previously been limited to environments with exact field conditions, such as the free field. Due to long acoustic wavelengths, underwater anechoic tanks are not cost-effective for low frequency measurements, nor are at-sea measurements time- or cost-effective. Unlike SIRE, techniques like nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) rely on knowledge of exact field conditions, which are usually unknown in a realistic measurement environment. SIRE is a cost effective, repeatable laboratory technique for narrowband evaluation of complex structural acoustic sources submerged in water. The technique leverages underwater acoustic intensity vector sensors in the near field of a source and allows the outgoing acoustic waves to be separated from unwanted incoming acoustic waves. Supersonic wavenumber filtering rejects the evanescent potions of the acoustic pressure and particle velocity from the separated, outward-propagating sound pressure and particle velocity. The SIRE technique was applied to a monopole source, dipole source, and point-driven, thin-walled cylinder with massive end caps. All sources were placed in an underwater reverberant tank and measured using custom underwater vector sensors specifically designed and built to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The results are compared with theory, the ANSI S12.51 standard one-third-octave reverberation room method, and free field NAH. SIRE is shown to accurately measure radiated sound power to within the limits of ANSI S12.51. SIRE is also shown to accurately measure the directivity indices of simple sources to within +/-3 dB. Finally, a coupled finite element/boundary element (FE

  20. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  1. Charmless hadronic $B \\to (f_1(1285),f_1(1420)) P$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Li, Jing-Wu; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2014-01-01

    We study twenty charmless hadronic $B \\to f_1 P$ decays, with $f_1$ representing axial-vector mesons $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$ that resulting from a mixing of quark-flavor $f_{1q}$ and $f_{1s}$ states with the angle $\\phi_{f_1}$, in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) formalism. The estimations of branching ratios and CP asymmetries of the considered $B \\to f_1 P$ decays are presented in the pQCD approach with $\\phi_{f_1} \\sim 24^\\circ$ from recently measured $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays. It is found that (a) the tree dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 \\pi^+$ and the penguin dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 K^+$ decays with large branching ratios[${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$] and large direct CP violations(around $14\\% \\sim 28\\%$ in magnitude) simultaneously are believed to be clearly measurable at the LHCb and Super-B factory experiments; (b) the nearly pure penguin-dominated $B_d \\to f_1 K_S^0$ and $B_s \\to f_1 (\\eta, \\eta')$ modes with safely negligible tree pollution also have large decay rates in the order of $10^{-6} \\sim 10^{-5}$, w...

  2. Within-clutch variation in offspring sex determined by differences in sire body size: cryptic mate choice in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Sinervo, Barry

    2004-03-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that paternal quality should drive female investment in progeny. We tested whether polyandrous female side-blotched lizards, Uta stansburiana, would adjust within-clutch progeny investment according to sire phenotypes. In two different years, polyandrous females selectively used sperm from larger sires to produce sons and used sperm from smaller sires to produce daughters. This cryptic sperm choice had significant effects on progeny survival to maturity that were consistent with sexually antagonistic effects associated with sire body size. Large sires produced sons with high viability and small sires produced daughters with high viability. These results are consistent with our previous findings that alleles for male body size have different fitness effects in male and female progeny. Breeding experiments in the laboratory indicate that results from the wild are more likely due to female choice than biased sperm production by males. Our results demonstrate highly refined gender-specific female choice for sperm and indicate that sire body size may signal the quality of sons or daughters that a sire will produce.

  3. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregating plans. 1.415(f)-1 Section 1.415(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(f)-1 Aggregating plans. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section (regarding multiemployer plans), and taking...

  4. Territorial males can sire more offspring in nests with smaller doors in the cichlid Lamprologus lemairii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Awata, Satoshi; Morita, Masaya; Yokoyama, Ryota; Kohda, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    To examine how territorial males counter reproductive parasites, we examined the paternity of broods guarded by territorial males using 5 microsatellite loci and factors that determine siring success in a wild population of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lamprologus lemairii. Females enter rock holes (nests) and spawn inside, and territorial males release milt over the nest openings. Sneakers attempt to dart into the nests, but territorial males often interrupt the attempt. The body size of territorial males (territorial defense ability) and the size of nest opening (the ability to prevent sneakers from nest intrusions) are predicted to be factors that affect paternity at the premating stage, whereas milt quality traits are factors that affect paternity at the postmating stage. Parentage analyses of 477 offspring revealed that most clutches have few or no cuckolders, and territorial males sired >80% of eggs in 7 of the 10 analyzed clutches. Larger territorial males that spawned in nests with narrower openings had greater siring success. In contrast, none of the milt traits affected the siring success. These suggest that territorial male L. lemairii adopt premating strategies whereby they effectively prevent reproductive parasitism.

  5. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one...

  6. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  7. Main: O2F1BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quences of be2S1 promoter; F1 is hybrid C/G box; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; F1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa); TCCACGTCGA ... ...O2F1BE2S1 S000162 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F1 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  8. Analysis list: E4f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E4f1 Embryonic fibroblast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E4f1.Embryonic_fibr

  9. Analysis list: Gtf2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2f1 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2f1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  10. Analysis list: Pou2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou2f1 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2f1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2...f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou2f1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  11. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  12. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  13. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value.

  14. Factors Affecting on Somatic Cells Count in Slovak Simmental Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bujko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to analyse factors affecting on the somatic cells count in Slovak Simmental dairy cows. Data were analysed using the SAS version 9.1.3. and linear model with fixed effects of herd, years and months controls, sire and breeding types. The analyses by the effect on somatic cells count was the highest effect of herd-years-months of control R2 = 0.151316 and effect of sire R2 = 0.054182. These effects were high statistical significant P<0.01. Correlation coefficients between milk in kg, fat, protein, lactose in % with somatic cells count were r= -0.25096, r= 0.02593, r= 0.22321and r=-0.39567.

  15. Impact of areas and sire by herd interaction on heritability estimates for somatic cell count in Italian Holstein Friesian cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoré, A.B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groen, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to estimate variance components for somatic cell scores for Italian Holsteins using data from three different areas of the country. A total of 2,202,804 first-parity test-day records, collected from 1990 to 1997 in three areas of Italy (Mantova, Milano, and Parmigiano cheese

  16. Analysis list: E2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2f1 Blood,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  17. Analysis of F1F0-ATPase from Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The adaptive mechanisms that permit Helicobacter species to survive within the gastric mucosa are not well understood. The proton-translocating F1F0-ATPase is an important enzyme for regulating intracellular pH or synthesizing ATP in many other enteric bacteria; therefore, we used degenerate primers derived from conserved bacterial F1F0-ATPase sequences to PCR amplify and clone the gene (atpD) encoding the H. pylori F1F0-ATPase beta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the F1F0-ATPase...

  18. Analysis list: POU5F1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available POU5F1 Epidermis,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/POU5F1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/POU5F1.Epidermis...U5F1.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Epidermis.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  19. Metabolic and endocrine profiles and reproductive parameters in dairy cows under grazing conditions: effect of polymorphisms in somatotropic axis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study hypothesized that GH-AluI and IGF-I-SnabI polymorphisms do change the metabolic/endocrine profiles in Holstein cows during the transition period, which in turn are associated with productive and reproductive parameters. Methods Holstein cows (Farm 1, primiparous cows, n = 110, and Farm 2, multiparous cows, n = 76 under grazing conditions were selected and GH and IGF-I genotypes were determined. Blood samples for metabolic/endocrine determinations were taken during the transition period and early lactation in both farms. Data was analyzed by farm using a repeated measures analyses including GH and IGF-I genotypes, days and interactions as fixed effects, sire and cow as random effects and calving date as covariate. Results and Discussion Frequencies of GH and IGF-I alleles were L:0.84, V:0.16 and A:0.60, B:0.40, respectively. The GH genotype was not associated with productive or reproductive variables, but interaction with days affected FCM yield in multiparous (farm 2 cows (LL yielded more than LV cows in early lactation. The GH genotype affected NEFA and IGF-I concentrations in farm 1 (LV had higher NEFA and lower IGF-I than LL cows suggesting a better energy status of LL cows. There was no effect of IGF-I genotype on productive variables, but a trend was found for FCM in farm 2 (AB cows yielded more than AA cows. IGF-I genotype affected calving first service interval in farm 1, and the interaction with days tended to affect FCM yield (AB cows had a shorter interval and yielded more FCM than BB cows. IGF-I genotype affected BHB, NEFA, and insulin concentrations in farm 1: primiparous BB cows had lower NEFA and BHB and higher insulin concentrations. In farm 2, there was no effect of IGF-I genotype, but there was an interaction with days on IGF-I concentration, suggesting a greater uncoupling somatropic axis in AB and BB than AA cows, being in accordance with greater FCM yield in AB cows. Conclusion The GH and

  20. The influence of season and sire on the results of superovulation and embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hegedűšová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of season and sires on profit and quality of embryos after superovulated treatment. Next we evaluated the conception rate after transfer of fresh and frozen embryos.In 1991–2004 there were used the beef cattle. Into the basic statistic evaluation it was involved 487 realised embryo recoveries and 2008 realised transfers in 1991–2004. Data for database were obtaining from ETprotocols – ET team Research Institute for Cattle Breeding, Ltd., Rapotin, prof. Říha. The data processing was carried out by means of the common variation-statistical methods.The best results were achieved in summer (suitable 3.68 ± 3.65; the ratio of the suitable and total: 59.3% and in autumn (suitable 3.54 ± 3.80; the ratio: 54.48% and the good results, little different from the summer and autumn results, were achieved in spring.The average number of the recovered ova of the chosen breeds sires were variable (from 6.60 ± 6.17 in Blonde d´Aquitaine to 17.16 ± 6.66 in Charolais. The most of the suitable embryos was recovered in the donors inseminated by the Hereford breed sires (7.15 ± 6.42. It was evaluated the above-average conception in the Simmental breed (63.43 %.

  1. Intramuscular fat in the longissimus muscle is reduced in lambs from sires selected for leanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Geesink, G H; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Gardner, G E

    2014-02-01

    Selection for lean growth through Australian Sheep Breeding Values (ASBVs) for post weaning weight (PWWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and c-site fat depth (PFAT) raises concerns regarding declining intramuscular fat (IMF) levels. Reducing PFAT decreased IMF by 0.84% for Terminal sired lambs. PEMD decreased IMF by 0.18% across all sire types. Female lambs had higher IMF levels and this was unexplained by total carcass fatness. The negative phenotypic association between measures of muscling (shortloin muscle weight, eye muscle area) and IMF, and positive association between fatness and IMF, was consistent with other literature. Hot carcass weight increased IMF by 2.08% between 12 and 40 kg, reflective of development of IMF as lambs approach maturity. Selection objectives with low PFAT sires will reduce IMF, however the lower impact of PEMD and absence of a PWWT effect, will enable continued selection for lean growth without influencing IMF. Alternatively, the negative impact of PFAT could be off-set by inclusion of an IMF ASBV. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sires with different weight gain potentials and varying planes of nutrition on growth of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duck-Min; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Park, Byung-Chul; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of two groups of sires with 'medium' and 'high' weight gain potentials (M-sires and H-sires, respectively) on growth of their progenies on varying planes of nutrition during the growing-finishing period. The ADG of the M-sires' progeny was greater (P plane of nutrition (H plane) followed by the medium (M) and low (L) planes (0.65, 0.61, and 0.51 kg, respectively; P planes vs. L plane (0.63, 0.62, and 0.54 kg, respectively). The ADG of pigs on the M or H plane during the grower phase and switched to the H plane thereafter (M-to-H or H-to-H planes) was greater than that of pigs on the L-to-L planes (0.99 vs. 0.78 kg) during the early finisher phase in the M-sires' progeny (P planes did not differ from that of pigs on the M-to-M or H-to-M planes (0.94 vs. 0.96 kg). Results suggest that the H-to-H or H-to-M planes and M-to-M or M-to-L planes are optimal for maximal growth of the M- and H-sires' progenies, respectively.

  3. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND SIRE LINE ON YOUNG CATTLE BEHAVIOUR TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Broucek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test effects of age, gender, and sire line on dairy cattle behaviour. We have analyzed results of ethological tests for 40 Holstein breed animals (23 males and 17 females, offsprings of three sires. Maintenance behaviour were observed at the age of 90, 130 and 170 days. Behaviour in the maze was conducted at the age of 119 days, an open-field test was applied at the age of 124, 168, and 355 days. The social behaviour was determined by feeding on 155th day of the age. The times and the number of periods in all activities of maintenance behaviour were changing significantly (P<0.001 according to the age. The total time of lying, lying with ruminating, ruminating, feeding was increasing from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days, on the other hand the time of standing was decreasing. The times of total lying, lying with ruminating, total ruminating, feeding were increased, and time of standing was decreased from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days. Calves spent more time lying on the left side than on the right side. The number of ruminating periods was increasing according to the age. Eating periods were decreasing from the age of 90 to 170 days. The most of lying periods were recorded at the age of 130 days. The differences between sex were found in total time of lying, lying on the right side (P<0.05, and the males rest longer and had more periods of lying than females. We have found differences in times of feeding (P<0.001, total lying, standing (P<0.01, and lying on the left side (P<0.05 according to sire by comparing behaviour of the calves. Sire genotypes were significantly manifested in period number of total lying (P<0.001, lying on the right side, feeding (P<0.01, and standing (P<0.05. Males stood in the first part of maze longer than females (P<0.001, also length of total standing was longer by bulls (P<0.01. Heifers took shorter time to leave the maze than bulls (P<0.05. Sire lineages significantly

  4. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  5. Progress of the NTSC-F1 primary frequency standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN; Jun; WANG; Xinliang; LIU; Dandan; GUAN; Yong; ZHANG; Hui; CHEN; Jiang; LIN; Rui; YU; Fengxiang; SHI; Junru; ZHANG; Shougang

    2015-01-01

    The SI "second"is realized by caesium primary frequency standards( PFSs) using laser cooled atoms in a fountain configuration. Four sub systems and operation procedure of the NTSC-F1 primary frequency standard are introduced in the paper.The frequency stability of NTSC-F1 is 3.0×10-13/ τ-1 / 2compared to hydrogen maser. Four terms of frequency shift and uncertainty including second order Zeeman frequency shift,cold collision shift,gravity shift and blackbody shift are evaluated. The improvement of NTSC-F1 is introduced.

  6. General formulae for f1 -> f2 γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoura, L.

    2003-07-01

    At one-loop level the decay f_1 to f_2 γ, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin - interacting with the fermions through the Dirac matrices 1 and γ_5 - or spin 1 - with V+ A and V- A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f_1 to f_2 γ in all these cases.

  7. General formulae for f1 --> f2 gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoura, L

    2003-01-01

    At one-loop level the decay f1 --> f2 gamma, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin 0 - interacting with the fermions through Dirac matrices 1 and gamma5 - or spin 1 - with V+A and V-A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f1 --> f2 gamma in all these cases.

  8. EVALUATION OF CROSSBRED CALF AND COW TYPES; SUBJECTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin PALA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Data in this experiment consisted of birth weight, calving score, thickness and grade records of 600 crossbred calves. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2. Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3. The traits evaluated were birth weight, thickness and feeder grade of calves and degree of calving diffi culty. Calving diffi culty, grade, muscling or thickness evaluation is a subjective assessment. Progeny of Angus cattle were lighter and born easier than progeny of Brangus and Gelbvieh cattle. Gelbvieh crosses had the highest frequency of thickness 1 calves and Brangus crosses had the highest frequency of medium size calves. Angus calves were lighter than Brangus calves in all the data sets but they had thicker muscles. Adding Bos Indicus genes to a cross may increase birth weight while decreasing muscling and calving ease.

  9. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  11. Paternal Retrieval Behavior Regulated by Brain Estrogen Synthetase (Aromatase) in Mouse Sires that Engage in Communicative Interactions with Pairmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Huang, Zhiqi; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Yuhi, Teruko; Lopatina, Olga; Salmina, Alla B; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Matsuo, Mie; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups) when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase [cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19)], which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. Interestingly, the number of nuclei with aromatase immunoreactivity in sires left together with maternal mates in the home cage after pup-removing was significantly larger than that in sires housed with a whole family. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of 5 days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the dam significantly stimulates aromatase in the male brain and that the presence of the pups has an inhibitory effect on this increase. These results also suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR male mice.

  12. Integrating Bioengineered F1 Motors into Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    Cindy Berrie, Fei Gao. Insertion of a Rigid Structural Element into the Regulatory Domain of the Chloroplast F1-ATPase Gamma Subunit for Rotational...Studies., 15th International Photosynthesis Congress. 2010/08/22 01:00:00, . : , 12/27/2011 3.00 . The Mutation E242K in the chloroplast ATP synthase... chloroplast F1-ATPase gamma subunit for rotational studies. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Photosynthesis, 2011, pp.123-126. 2. Colvert

  13. IZK OLIMP F1 - NEW BULGARIAN TOMATO VARIETY FOR PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is developed by a team at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv as a result of hybridization between female line М-441 and male line R-469. The F1 hybrid was tested in the Executive Agency for Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control in 2009-2010. It was recognised as a new tomato F1 hybrid variety by the Expert commission in 2009 and has a certificate №10987/ 31.08.2012 issued by the Patent Office of Republic of Bulgaria. Hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is a determinate, high-yielding tomato variety for mid-early field production. The total yield and earliness of this F1 hybrid are close to those of the hybrid var. Vodolei F1 and exceeds the direct var. Bela and var. Zhaklin. The fruits are oval-elongated, with an average weight of 55-68 g, uniform red coloured, thick, firm, crack resistant, with small and low pedicle hole. Being with good chemical and technological properties this hybrid is suitable for processing.

  14. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  15. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  16. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  17. Linear vs. piecewise Weibull model for genetic evaluation of sires for longevity in Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Raguž

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on genetic evaluation of longevity in Croatian Simmental cattle using linear and survival models. The main objective was to create a genetic model that is most appropriate to describe the longevity data. Survival analysis, using piecewise Weibull proportional hazards model, used all information on the length of productive life including censored as well as uncensored observations. Linear models considered culled animals only. The relative milk production within herd had a highest impact on cows’ longevity. In comparison of estimated genetic parameters among methods, survival analysis yielded higher heritability value (0.075 than linear sire (0.037 and linear animal model (0.056. When linear models were used, genetic trend of Simmental bulls for longevity was slightly increasing over the years, unlike a decreasing trend in case of survival analysis methodology. Average reliability of bulls’ breeding values was higher in case of survival analysis. The rank correlations between survival analysis and linear models bulls’ breeding values for longevity were ranged between 0.44 and 0.46 implying huge differences in ranking of sires.

  18. A comparison of pollen-siring ability and life history between males and hermaphrodites of subdioecious Silene acaulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Jakobsen, Ruth Bruus; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2009-01-01

    , hermaphrodite, and male individuals. The sex expression of males and hermaphrodites can vary over years for the same individual, while females are always females. Previous studies have shown that outcrossed seeds from females become seedlings with higher survival and growth rates than those from outcrossed...... seeds from hermaphrodites.Questions: (1) Do pollen grains from males exhibit some advantage over pollen from (1) Do pollen grains from males exhibit some advantage over pollen from hermaphrodites? In particular, do they sire more seeds than hermaphrodites? (2) Is the reproductive system of S. acaulis...... stable or is it evolving towards one with fewer morphs (i.e. dioecy or gynodioecy)?Hypothesis: Pollen from male plants is better at siring seeds on females than pollen from Pollen from male plants is better at siring seeds on females than pollen from hermaphrodites.Study system: A subdioecious population...

  19. Milk quality, coagulation properties, and curd firmness modeling of purebred Holsteins and first- and second-generation crossbred cows from Swedish Red, Montbéliarde, and Brown Swiss bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi, F; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how the crossbreeding of Holstein (HO) cows with bulls from Nordic and Alpine European breeds affect milk quality traits, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firmness modeling obtained from individual milk samples. A total of 506 individual milk samples were collected from evening milking at 3 commercial farms located in Northern Italy. Over the past decade, the 3 farms have followed crossbreeding programs in part of their herds, whereas the remainder of the animals consisted of purebred HO. The basic scheme was a 3-breed rotation based on the use of Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR × HO), the use of Montbéliarde (MO) semen on first-cross cows [MO × (SR × HO)], and the use of HO semen in the third cross. In all herds, a smaller proportion of purebred HO were mated to M and Brown Swiss (BS) bulls, and these first crosses were mated to SR and MO bulls, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and MCP, and parameters for curd firmness were modeled. Compared with purebred HO, crossbred cows produced less milk with lower lactose content, higher fat and protein content, and a tendency for higher casein content. Crossbred cows generally produced milk with a more favorable curd-firming rate (k₂₀) and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition, among traditional MCP, and better trends of curd firmness measures as shown by model parameters: estimated rennet coagulation time, asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and curd-firming instant rate constant. Among crossbred cows, SR × HO presented longer rennet coagulation time compared with MO × HO and BS × HO cows, and MO × HO showed shorter k₂₀ compared with BS × HO cows. Among second-generation cows, those sired by SR bulls showed a lower incidence of noncoagulated samples, higher curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition and asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and faster curd-firming instant

  20. Comparison of growth performance of Berkshire purebreds and crossbreds sired by Hereford and Tamworth breeds raised in alternative production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present study was to compare growth performance of Berkshire purebred pigs (BB, Hereford (HB and/or Tamworth (TB sired Berkshire crossbred pigs reared in a hoop structure in two experiments. Methods In the first experiment, BB was compared to TB while HB and TB were compared in the second. Body weights (BW were recorded at 3 days of age and every 28 days from birth until 140 days of age. There was no significant difference between the BW of BB and TB, but HB was heavier than TB by 84 days of age. Least square means of average daily gain (ADG were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. Results The mean parity (±standard deviation of the sows was 3.42±2.14 and a total of 45 farrowing occurred from year 2012 to 2014. The mean number of total born, number born alive, number of mummies, and number weaned were 9.23±2.52, 7.87±2.53, 0.04±0.21, and 5.94±2.74, respectively. Parity did not have a significant effect on the growth performance of the pigs. For BB and TB, there was only one time frame in which there was a significant difference in the ADG: between 28 and 56 days of age. For HB and TB, the overall ADG of HB was significantly greater than the total ADG of TB. Conclusion The breed of the sire did not affect the growth performance of the progeny between Berkshire purebreds and Tamworth×Berkshire crossbreds. The breed of the sire did have an effect between Hereford and Tamworth sired Berkshire crossbreds (p<0.05. The Hereford sired pigs were found to have increased growth performance compared to Tamworth sired.

  1. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  2. f(1)、f(0)、f(-1)表示f(x)=ax2+bx+c解竞赛题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严启国; 陈纯亮

    2003-01-01

    @@ 设函数f(x)=ax2+bx+c(-1≤x≤1),则f(1)=a+b+c,f(0)=c,f(-1)=a-b+c,解得a=1/2f(1)+1/2f(-1)-f(0),b=1/2f(1)-1/2f(-1),c=f(0),从而有f(x)=[1/2f(1)+1/2f(-1)-f(0)]x2+[1/2f(1)-1/2f(-1)]x+f(0),利用这一表示形式可以解下列竞赛题.

  3. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  4. Robustness of the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-11

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.

  5. Supercongruences satisfied by coefficients of 2F1 hypergeometric series

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Heng Huat; Krattenthaler, Christian; Osburn, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Chan, Cooper and Sica conjectured two congruences for coefficients of classical 2F1 hypergeometric series which also arise from power series expansions of modular forms in terms of modular functions. We prove these two congruences using combinatorial properties of the coefficients.

  6. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  7. Late foetal life nutrient restriction and sire genotype affect postnatal performance of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Tauson, Anne-Helen; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation on the offsprings' postnatal metabolism and performance. Forty purebred Shropshire twin lambs born to ewes fed either a high-nutrition diet (H) (according to standard) or a low-nutrition (L) diet (50% during...... the last 6 weeks of gestation) were studied from birth until 145 days of age. In each feeding group, two different sires were represented, ‘growth' (G) and ‘meat' (M), having different breeding indices for the lean : fat ratio. Post partum all ewes were fed the same diet. Lambs born to L-ewes had...... significantly lower birth weights and pre-weaning growth rates. This was especially pronounced in L-lambs born to the M-ram, which also had markedly lower pre-weaning glucose concentrations than the other three groups of lambs. L-lambs converted milk to live weight with an increased efficiency in week 3 of life...

  8. Comparison of muscle fibre characteristics and production traits among offspring from Meishan dams mated to different sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Chang Hong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated how various porcine sires affected muscle fibre characteristics, with respect to production traits. Sires from Berkshire, Duroc, Meishan, and Yorkshire pigs were mated to Meishan dams (BM, DM, MM, and YM offspring, respectively. A total of 96 pigs were evaluated for muscle fibre characteristics and production traits. The progeny from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had the greatest number of total fibres (P<0.05 and exhibited less backfat thickness (P<0.001 and larger loin muscle areas (P<0.05 than BM pigs. The DM and BM crossbreds showed higher marbling (P<0.01, and colour scores (P<0.05, as well as lower shear force scores (P<0.001. The MM pigs had greater proportional area of type IIb muscle fibres (P<0.05, and also displayed higher drip loss (P<0.01, higher lightness (P<0.001, and a greater incidence of PSE pork (pale, soft, and exudative; 25% than DM, BM, and YM. These results showed that a greater number of total muscle fibres without increasing the cross sectional area of fibres improved lean meat production, and that a lower proportion of type IIb fibres was associated with better meat quality. For these reasons, the Duroc sire × Meishan dam crossbreed emerged as the most appropriate mating type examined herein to simultaneously enhance both lean meat production and meat quality.

  9. A comparison of pollen-siring ability and life history between males and hermaphrodites of subdioecious Silene acaulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Jakobsen, Ruth Bruus; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2009-01-01

    was performed in which females were hand A pollen-competition experiment was performed in which females were hand pollinated with a mixture of pollen from males and hermaphrodites, all with known isozyme alleles, which allowed determination of who sired each seed. We recorded plant size, flower morphology...

  10. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  11. Should genetic groups be fitted in BLUP evaluation? Practical answer for the French AI beef sire evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaloŅ Denis

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some analytical and simulated criteria were used to determine whether a priori genetic differences among groups, which are not accounted for by the relationship matrix, ought to be fitted in models for genetic evaluation, depending on the data structure and the accuracy of the evaluation. These criteria were the mean square error of some extreme contrasts between animals, the true genetic superiority of animals selected across groups, i.e. the selection response, and the magnitude of selection bias (difference between true and predicted selection responses. The different statistical models studied considered either fixed or random genetic groups (based on six different years of birth versus ignoring the genetic group effects in a sire model. Including fixed genetic groups led to an overestimation of selection response under BLUP selection across groups despite the unbiasedness of the estimation, i.e. despite the correct estimation of differences between genetic groups. This overestimation was extremely important in numerical applications which considered two kinds of within-station progeny test designs for French purebred beef cattle AI sire evaluation across years: the reference sire design and the repeater sire design. When assuming a priori genetic differences due to the existence of a genetic trend of around 20% of genetic standard deviation for a trait with h2 = 0.4, in a repeater sire design, the overestimation of the genetic superiority of bulls selected across groups varied from about 10% for an across-year selection rate p = 1/6 and an accurate selection index (100 progeny records per sire to 75% for p = 1/2 and a less accurate selection index (20 progeny records per sire. This overestimation decreased when the genetic trend, the heritability of the trait, the accuracy of the evaluation or the connectedness of the design increased. Whatever the data design, a model of genetic evaluation without groups was preferred to a model

  12. Dystocia in dairy cattle breeding [:with special attention to sire evaluation for categorical traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, A.

    1986-01-01

    Field data recorded in the early seventies showed that dystocia (calving difficulty) in the main Dutch cattle breeds occurred at a rate of 15-17% in heifers and 5-6% in cows. Corresponding stillbirth rates were 9-12% and 2.5-3.5% respectively. In the sixties and seventies many research papers on

  13. Dystocia in dairy cattle breeding. With special attention to sire evaluation for categorical traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, A.

    1986-01-01

    Field data recorded in the early seventies showed that dystocia (calving difficulty) in the main Dutch cattle breeds occurred at a rate of 15-17% in heifers and 5-6% in cows. Corresponding stillbirth rates were 9-12% and 2.5-3.5% respectively. In the sixties and seventies many research papers on dys

  14. The Appell function F1 and Regge string scattering amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that each 26D open bosonic Regge string scattering amplitude (RSSA can be expressed in terms of one single Appell function F1 in the Regge limit. This result enables us to derive infinite number of recurrence relations among RSSA at arbitrary mass levels, which are conjectured to be related to the known SL(5,C dynamical symmetry of F1. In addition, we show that these recurrence relations in the Regge limit can be systematically solved so that all RSSA can be expressed in terms of one amplitude. All these results are dual to high energy symmetries of fixed angle string scattering amplitudes discovered previously [4–8].

  15. Polymorphisms of POU1F1 and STAT5A genes and their associate on with milk production traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zakizadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific trait candidate genes are sequenced genes with known biological activity. The effects of POU1F1 and STAT5A on milk production traits have been studied in several studies. POU1F1 affects on transcription of prolactin and growth hormone gene, as well as, STAT5A is known as a main mediator of growth hormone action on target genes and intracellular mediator of prolactin signaling. Since these genes are essential for development of mammary system, the aim of this study was to determine association of their polymorphism with milk production breeding values in Brown Swiss cattle. Blood of ninety milking cow were randomly obtained. DNA was extracted from whole blood using modified salting out method, then the desired fragments were PCR amplified and digested by specific restriction endonuclease enzymes. Gene and genotype frequencies, heterozygosity indexes, the real and effective allele number were calculated by PopGene software; and the breeding values of production traits were estimated by DFREML. SAS software was used to analyze association between genotypes and breeding values. The frequency of 'A' and 'C' alleles of POU1F1 and STAT5A were 0.455 and 0.489, respectively. This population was in hardy-weinburg equilibrium for both loci. There was no significant association between genotypes and breeding values, although POU1F1*B tended to produce higher milk and POU1F1*A showed higher fat and protein percent.

  16. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  17. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  18. Rotation and structure of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is one of the most ubiquitous enzymes; it is found widely in the biological world, including the plasma membrane of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. However, this enzyme has a unique mechanism of action: it is composed of two mechanical rotary motors, each driven by ATP hydrolysis or proton flux down the membrane potential of protons. The two molecular motors interconvert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis and proton electrochemical potential via the mechanical rotation of the rotary shaft. This unique energy transmission mechanism is not found in other biological systems. Although there are other similar man-made systems like hydroelectric generators, F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase operates on the nanometre scale and works with extremely high efficiency. Therefore, this enzyme has attracted significant attention in a wide variety of fields from bioenergetics and biophysics to chemistry, physics and nanoscience. This review summarizes the latest findings about the two motors of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase as well as a brief historical background.

  19. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) in F1 8- to 10-mm diameter follicles of scEndo cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P < 0.05) between F1 follicle size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid

  20. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance.

  1. f~(-1)[f(x)]=x和f[f~(-1)(x)]=x(高一、高二、高三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾家骏

    2002-01-01

    请看下面两个题目: 1.已知函数f(x)=(3x-2)/(2x+7),则f[f-1(x)]=_______; 2.若g(x)=2x3+4,则g1[g(x)]=_______. 这是一本高中数学辅导书上的两个练习题,原解答是先分别求出反函数f-1(x)和g-1(x)后,再代入复合计算得出结果,答案都是x.其实,这些计算都是多余的,无论f(x)和

  2. Genetic analysis of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, K; Heringstad, B; Whist, A C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) in Norwegian Red cows. In Norway, breeding values for mastitis are predicted based on records of veterinary treatments of clinical mastitis. Bacteriological milk sample results from the mastitis laboratories have been recorded routinely into the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System since 2000, but have so far not been used in genetic analyses. This additional source of data may provide valuable information on pathogen-specific CM. Records from 234,088 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows, daughters of 1,656 sires, were used for genetic analyses of unspecific, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli CM. The 4 CM traits were defined as binary and scored as 1 if the cow had at least 1 case of the CM in question and 0 otherwise. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied, and a multivariate threshold liability model was used for the analyses. The posterior mean (SD ≤ 0.01) of the heritabilities were 0.06 for liability of unspecific CM, 0.04 for Staph. aureus CM, 0.02 for Strep. dysgalactiae CM, and 0.03 for E. coli CM. The posterior mean (SD) of the genetic correlations were all high, ranging from 0.75 (0.14) to 0.87 (0.07). The highest genetic correlation was found between unspecific CM and Strep. dysgalactiae CM, whereas the lowest was found for E. coli CM and Staph. aureus CM. Genetic correlations lower than 1 indicate that mastitis caused by different pathogens can be considered as partly different traits. In spite of high rank correlations (0.95-0.98), some re-ranking of sires was observed. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Residual feed intake of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows predicted from high-density genotypes and phenotyping of growing heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Spelman, R J

    2014-03-01

    dry matter (DM) per day for the high and low classes, respectively. Further, we found evidence of sire differences for RFIlac, with one sire, in particular, being highly represented in the low RFIgro class, having a mean RFIlac of -0.83 kg of DM per day in 47 daughters. In conclusion, genomic prediction of RFIgro based on RFI measured during growth will discriminate for RFIlac in an independent group of lactating cows. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Piceatannol, a stilbene phytochemical, inhibits mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity by targeting the F1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Ramirez, V D

    1999-08-02

    Piceatannol is a stilbene phytochemical from the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae, previously identified as an antileukemic principle. Piceatannol is considered an inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases. We recently reported that resveratrol, another stilbene phytoalexin from grape seeds, was an inhibitor of ATP synthase. Here, we demonstrated that piceatannol potently inhibited the rat brain mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity in both solubilized and submitochondrial preparations (IC50 of 8-9 microM), while having relatively small effect on the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of porcine cerebral cortex (no effect up to 7 microM). Piceatannol inhibited the ATPase activity of the purified rat liver F1 with IC50 of about 4 microM, while resveratrol was slightly less active (IC50 of about 14 microM). Our results indicate that piceatannol and resveratrol inhibit the F-type ATPase by targeting the F1 sector, which is located to the inner membrane of mitochondria and plasma membrane of normal endothelial cells and several cancer cell lines. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the multiple effects of these chemopreventive phytochemicals. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  6. Predicting tissue distribution and partitioning in terminal sire sheep using x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J M; Lewis, R M; Emmans, G C; Young, M J; Simm, G

    2009-01-01

    The utility of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in predicting carcass tissue distribution and fat partitioning in vivo in terminal sire sheep was examined using data from 160 lambs representing combinations of 3 breeds (Charollais, Suffolk, and Texel), 3 genetic lines, and both sexes. One-fifth of the lambs were slaughtered at each of 14, 18, and 22 wk of age, and the remaining two-fifths at 26 wk of age. The left side of each carcass was dissected into 8 joints with each joint dissected into fat (intermuscular and subcutaneous), lean, and bone. Chemical fat content of the LM was measured. Tissue distribution was described by proportions of total carcass tissue and lean weight contained within the leg, loin, and shoulder regions of the carcass and within the higher-priced joints. Fat partitioning variables included proportion of total carcass fat contained in the subcutaneous depot and intramuscular fat content of the LM. Before slaughter, all lambs were CT scanned at 7 anatomical positions (ischium, midshaft of femur, hip, second and fifth lumbar vertebrae, sixth and eighth thoracic vertebrae). Areas of fat, lean, and bone (mm(2)) and average fat and lean density (Hounsfield units) were measured from each cross-sectional scan. Areas of intermuscular and subcutaneous fat were measured on 2 scans (ischium and eighth thoracic vertebra). Intramuscular fat content was predicted with moderate accuracy (R(2) = 56.6) using information from only 2 CT scans. Four measures of carcass tissue distribution were predicted with moderate to high accuracy: the proportion of total carcass (R(2) = 54.7) and lean (R(2) = 46.2) weight contained in the higher-priced joints and the proportion of total carcass (R(2) = 77.7) and lean (R(2) = 55.0) weight in the leg region. Including BW in the predictions did not improve their accuracy (P > 0.05). Although breed-line-sex combination significantly affected fit of the regression for some tissue distribution variables, the values

  7. Non-leptonic decays of $B \\to ( f_1(1285),f_1(1420) ) V$ in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the branching ratios, the polarization fractions, the direct CP-violating asymmetries, and the relative phases in 20 non-leptonic decay modes of $B \\to f_1 V$ within the framework of perturbative QCD approach at leading order with $f_1$ including two $^3\\!P_1$-axial-vector states $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$. Here, $B$ denotes $B^+$, $B^0$, and $B_s^0$ mesons and $V$ stands for the lightest vector mesons $\\rho$, $K^*$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$ , respectively. The $B_s^0 \\to f_1 V$ decays are studied theoretically for the first time in the literature. Together with the angle $\\phi_{f_1} \\approx (24^{+3.2}_{-2.7})^\\circ$ extracted from the measurement through $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ modes for the $f_1(1285)-f_1(1420)$ mixing system, it is of great interest to find phenomenologically that some modes such as the tree-dominated $B^+ \\to f_1 \\rho^+$ and the penguin-dominated $B^{+,0} \\to f_1 K^{*+,0}, B_s^0 \\to f_1 \\phi$ with large branching ratios around ${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$ or even ${\\cal O}(10^{-...

  8. Effects of Fleckvieh on the Performance of Dual-Purpose Cattle Improved by Hybridization with Local Beef Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Lian Hongxia; Yan Ping; Liu Xian; Liu Yan; Wang Wenhui; Zhu Ruiguang; Li Ming; Yang Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study the improved effect of local beef cattle with Fleckvieh cattle and provide theoretical basic data for local cattle industry in central plain agricultural area in China. [Method] With 500 local beef cattle as female parents and Fleckvieh cattle as male parents,hybridization improvement was conducted via artificial insemination. The growth performance,slaughter performance,milk performance and milk components of F1 and F2 hybrids were measured. [Result] The birth body weights of F2 were significantly higher than those of local beef cow,but there was no remarkable difference between F1 and local beef cow or F1 and F2. The growth rates of F1 and F2 at different stages were higher than those of local beef cattle. The slaughter performance,such as carcass weight( P < 0. 05),dressing percentage,net meat rate( P < 0. 05),marbling score of F1 and F2 were higher than those of local beef cow. Milk production performance,such as actual milk yield,305 d corrected milk yield and 4% standard milk yield of F2 were signally higher than those of F1 and local beef cattle( P< 0. 05),and F1 was markedly higher than local beef cattle( P < 0. 05). For milk composition,although milk fat percentage,milk protein rate,lactose rate and total solids( TS) of F1 and F2 were slightly lowered compared with local beef cattle at varying degrees,they were still at high levels compared with Holstein cows.[Conclusion]Fleckvieh cattle,as a male parent,can significantly improved growth performance,slaughter performance and milk performance of offsprings. It would also increases the economic efficiency of local beef cattle by higher quality and price,as well as changing production model from beef to dual purpose of beef and milk.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  10. On fundamental groups related to the Hirzebruch surface F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; FRIEDMAN; Mina; TEICHER

    2008-01-01

    Given a projective surface and a generic projection to the plane,the braid monodromy factorization(and thus,the braid monodromy type)of the complement of its branch curve is one of the most important topological invariants,stable on deformations.From this factorization,one can compute the fundamental group of the complement of the branch curve,either in C2 or in CP2.In this article,we show that these groups,for the Hirzebruch surface F1,(a,b),are almost-solvable.That is, they are an extension of a solvable group,which strengthen the conjecture on degeneratable surfaces.

  11. On fundamental groups related to the Hirzebruch surface F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael FRIEDMAN; Mina TEICHER

    2008-01-01

    Given a.projective surface and a generic projection to the plane,the braid monodromy factorization (and thus,the braid monodromy type) of the complement of its branch curve is one of the most important topological invariants,stable on deformations.From this factorization,one can compute the fundamental group of the complement of the branch curve,either in C2 or in CP2.In this article,we show that these groups,for the Hirzebruch surface F1,(a,b),are almost-solvable.That is,they are an extension of a solvable group,which strengthen the conjecture on degeneratable surfaces.

  12. E2F-1 as an anticancer drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Bertino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that the E2F transcription factors play an essential role in all aspects of cellular functions. Many human malignancies have been shown to overexpress one or more of the ‘‘activating’’ E2Fs. In some circumstances, down regulation as well as overexpression of E2F-1, leads to inhibition of cell growth. The emphasis in this review is placed on new data implicating microRNAs in the regulation of E2F activity and the efforts thus far to target this activity in order to cause tumor regression.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1COBB-1F1GD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1COBB-1F1GD 1COB 1F1G B D ATKAVCVLKGDGPVQGTIHFEAKG--DTVVVTGSITGLTE-GDHGFHVHQFGD...NTQGCTSAGPHFNPLSKKHGGPKDEERHVGDLGNVTADKNGVAIVDIVDPLISLSGEYSIIGRTMVVHEKPDDLGRGGNEESTKTGNAGSRLAC...GVIGIAK -VQAVAVLKGDAGVSGVVKFEQASESEPTTVSYEIAGNSPNAERGFHIHEFGDATNGCVSAGPHFNPFKKTHGAPTDEVRHVGDMGN...VKTDENGVAKGSFKDSLIKLIGPTSVVGRSVVIHAGQDDLGKGDTEESLKTGNAGPRPACGVIGLTN ...pdbID>1F1G D 1F1GD FEQASESEPTTV

  14. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  15. Photoproduction of the $f_1(1285)$ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, R

    2016-01-01

    The $f_1(1285)$ meson with mass $1281.0 \\pm 0.8$ MeV/$c^2$ and width $18.4 \\pm 1.4$ MeV (FWHM) was measured for the first time in photoproduction from a proton target using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. Differential cross sections were obtained via the $\\eta\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, $K^+\\bar{K}^0\\pi^-$, and $K^-K^0\\pi^+$ decay channels from threshold up to a center-of-mass energy of 2.8 GeV. The mass, width, and an amplitude analysis of the $\\eta\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ final-state Dalitz distribution are consistent with the axial-vector $J^P=1^+$ $f_1(1285)$ identity, rather than the pseudoscalar $0^-$ $\\eta(1295)$. The production mechanism is more consistent with $s$-channel decay of a high-mass $N^*$ state, and not with $t$-channel meson exchange. Decays to $\\eta\\pi\\pi$ go dominantly via the intermediate $a_0^\\pm(980)\\pi^\\mp$ states, with the branching ratio $\\Gamma(a_0\\pi \\text{ (no} \\bar{K} K\\text{)}) / \\Gamma(\\eta\\pi\\pi \\text{(all)}) = 0.74\\pm0.09$. The branching ratios $\\Gamma(K \\bar{K} \\pi)/\\Gamma(\\eta\\pi\\pi) = 0.216\\pm0.033$...

  16. Cool Cow Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  17. cDNA library Table: F1mg [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F1mg NA F1mg F1 (J150 x J203) midgut fourth instar larval stage D2 mixed pBluescrip...t SK- EcoR1 for 5' Xho1for 3' sequenced from T3 primer (5' -> 3') BY917461-BY918785,BY925786-BY927071 E_ET_F1mg_[number]_F_0,E_ET_F1mg_[number]_R_0 ...

  18. Growth performance and carcass quality of immunocastrated and surgically castrated pigs from crossbreds from Duroc and Pietrain sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J I; Serrano, M P; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; López, J P; Mateos, G G

    2013-08-01

    In total, 240 pigs were used to compare growth performance and carcass quality traits of immunocastrated males (ICM), surgically castrated males (SCM), and intact females (IF) of crossbreds from Large White × Landrace females and Duroc (DU) or Pietrain (PI) sires destined to the dry-cured industry. Between the 2 Improvac injections (87 and 137 d of age), ICM and IF had less ADG than SCM (P SCM (2.33, 2.55, and 2.77 kg/d; respectively; P SCM and IF (P SCM (0.346, 0.323, and 0.300 g/g; respectively; P SCM had greater ADG than IF (P SCM or IF. Carcasses from IF were leaner than carcasses from SCM with carcasses from ICM being intermediate (P SCM. Intramuscular fat content was lower for IF than for SCM with that of ICM being intermediate (3.5 vs. 3.9 and 3.7%; P SCM and IF. Intramuscular fat content in LM was less for IF than for SCM with ICM intermediate. Crossbreds from Duroc sires grew faster and had more intramuscular fat but less ham yield than crossbreds from Pietrain sires. Therefore, ICM should be preferred to SCM and Duroc crossbreds should be preferred to Pietrain crossbreds to produce carcasses destined to the production of primal cuts for the dry-cured industry.

  19. E2F-1 binding affinity for pRb is not the only determinant of the E2F-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Fikret; Sladek, Todd L

    2010-07-04

    E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation. Interaction between pRB and E2F-1 is dependent on the phosphorylation status of pRB. Despite the fact that E2F-1 and pRB have antagonistic activities when they are overexpressed, the role of the E2F-1-pRB interaction in cell growth largely remains unknown. Ideally, it would be better to study the properties of a pRB mutant that fails to bind to E2F, but retains all other activities. To date, no pRB mutation has been characterized in sufficient detail to show that it specifically eliminates E2F binding but leaves other interactions intact. An alternative approach to this issue is to ask whether mutations that change E2F proteins binding affinity to pRB are sufficient to change cell growth in aspect of cell cycle and tumor formation. Therefore, we used the E2F-1 mutants including E2F-1/S332-7A, E2F-1/S375A, E2F-1/S403A, E2F-1/Y411A and E2F-1/L132Q that have different binding affinities for pRB to better understand the roles of the E2F-1 phosphorylation and E2F-1-pRB interaction in the cell cycle, as well as in transformation and gene expression. Data presented in this study suggests that in vivo phosphorylation at amino acids 332-337, 375 and 403 is important for the E2F-1 and pRB interaction in vivo. However, although E2F-1 mutants 332-7, 375 and 403 showed similar binding affinity to pRB, they showed different characteristics in transformation efficiency, G(0) accumulation, and target gene experiments.

  20. Measurement of Inclusive $f_1$(1285) and $f_1$(1420) Production in Z Decays with the DELPHI Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2003-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of two (K Kbar pi)^0 states in the mass region 1.2-1.6 GeV/c^2 in hadronic Z decays at LEP I. The measured masses (widths) are 1274 +/- 6 MeV/c^2 (29 +/- 12 MeV/c^2) and 1426 +/- 6 MeV/c^2 (51 +/- 14 MeV/c^2) respectively. A partial-wave analysis of the (K Kbar pi)^0 system shows that the first peak is consistent with the I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(1^{++})/(0^{-+}) a_0(980)pi and the second with the I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(1^{++}) K^*(892)Kbar + c.c. assignments. The total hadronic production rates per hadronic Z decay are (0.165 +/- 0.051) and (0.056 +/- 0.012) respectively. These measurements are consistent with the two states being the f_1(1285) and f_1(1420) mesons.

  1. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  2. Single molecule energetics of F1-ATPase motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneyuki, Eiro; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masasuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Motor proteins are essential in life processes because they convert the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. However, the fundamental question on how they work when different amounts of free energy are released after ATP hydrolysis remains unanswered. To answer this question, it is essential to clarify how the stepping motion of a motor protein reflects the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and P(i) in its individual actions at a single molecule level. The F(1) portion of ATP synthase, also called F(1)-ATPase, is a rotary molecular motor in which the central gamma-subunit rotates against the alpha(3)beta(3) cylinder. The motor exhibits clear step motion at low ATP concentrations. The rotary action of this motor is processive and generates a high torque. These features are ideal for exploring the relationship between free energy input and mechanical work output, but there is a serious problem in that this motor is severely inhibited by ADP. In this study, we overcame this problem of ADP inhibition by introducing several mutations while retaining high enzymatic activity. Using a probe of attached beads, stepping rotation against viscous load was examined at a wide range of free energy values by changing the ADP concentration. The results showed that the apparent work of each individual step motion was not affected by the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, but the frequency of each individual step motion depended on the free energy. This is the first study that examined the stepping motion of a molecular motor at a single molecule level with simultaneous systematic control of DeltaG(ATP). The results imply that microscopically defined work at a single molecule level cannot be directly compared with macroscopically defined free energy input.

  3. Genetic Relationship between Culling, Milk Production, Fertility, and Health Traits in Norwegian Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtsmark, M; Heringstad, B; Madsen, P

    2008-01-01

    First-lactation records on 836,452 daughters of 3,064 Norwegian Red sires were used to examine associations between culling in first lactation and 305-d protein yield, susceptibility to clinical mastitis, lactation mean somatic cell score (SCS), nonreturn rate within 56 d in heifers and primiparous...... cows, and interval from calving to first insemination. A Bayesian multivariate threshold-linear model was used for analysis. Posterior mean of heritability of liability to culling of primiparous cows was 0.04. The posterior means of the genetic correlations between culling and the other traits were -0.......41 to 305-d protein yield, 0.20 to lactation mean SCS, 0.36 to clinical mastitis, 0.15 to interval from calving to first insemination, -0.11 to 56-d nonreturn as heifer, and -0.04 to 56-d nonreturn as primiparous cow. As much as 66% of the genetic variation in culling was explained by genetic variation...

  4. Desiccation tolerance, longevity and seed-siring ability of entomophilous pollen from UK native orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Timothy R; Seaton, Philip T; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2014-09-01

    Pollinator-limited seed-set in some terrestrial orchids is compensated for by the presence of long-lived flowers. This study tests the hypothesis that pollen from these insect-pollinated orchids should be desiccation tolerant and relatively long lived using four closely related UK terrestrial species; Anacamptis morio, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, D. maculata and Orchis mascula. Pollen from the four species was harvested from inflorescences and germinated in vitro, both immediately and also after drying to simulate interflower transit. Their tolerance to desiccation and short-term survival was additionally assessed after 3 d equilibration at a range of relative humidities (RHs), and related to constructed sorption isotherms (RH vs. moisture content, MC). Ageing of D. fuchsii pollen was further tested over 2 months against temperature and RH, and the resultant survival curves were subjected to probit analysis, and the distribution of pollen death in time (σ) was determined. The viability and siring ability, following artificial pollinations, were determined in D. fuchsii pollen following storage for 6 years at -20 °C. The pollen from all four species exhibited systematic increases in germinability and desiccation tolerance as anthesis approached, and pollen from open flowers generally retained high germinability. Short-term storage revealed sensitivity to low RH, whilst optimum survival occurred at comparable RHs in all species. Similarly, estimated pollen life spans (σ) at differing temperatures were longest under the dry conditions. Despite a reduction in germination and seeds per capsule, long-term storage of D. fuchsii pollen did not impact on subsequent seed germination in vitro. Substantial pollen desiccation tolerance and life span of the four entomophilous orchids reflects a resilient survival strategy in response to unpredictable pollinator visitation, and presents an alternative approach to germplasm conservation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  5. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  6. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  7. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  8. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  9. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low

  10. F1t3 RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ON THE SURFACE OF MALIGNANT HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS AND RESPONSES TO F1t3 LIGAND STIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the F1t3 receptor expression on the surface of malignant hematopoietic cells, the effect of TNFa and dexamethasone (DXM) on its expression and the responses of those cells to recombinant human F1t3 ligand (rhFL). Methods: Eighteen malignant hematopoietic cell lines were determined for the F1t3 receptor expression by flow cytometric analysis. The effect of rhFL on the proliferation of malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro was measured using MTT assay. Results: The expressions of F1t3 receptor on the surface of Raji, Daudi, HL-60, 8266 and XG-6 cells were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Following incubation with 20 ng/ml TNFa for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in Raji and 8266, increased in HL-60 and XG-6, and no difference in Daudi cells. After incubation with 10-6 mol/L DXM for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in all the 5 F1t3 receptor positive cell lines. rhFL stimulated the proliferation of HL-60 and Raji cells. Conclusion: For most of the malignant hematopoietic cells, there was neither the expression of F1t3 receptor nor the response to rhFL. DXM may be useful to reduce the effect of FL on the proliferation of some F1t3 receptor positive malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Mg2+ coordination in catalytic sites of F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J; Hammond, S T; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E

    1998-01-13

    Coordination of the Mg2+ ion in Mg-nucleotide substrates by amino acid residue side chains in the catalytic site of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase was investigated. From the X-ray structure of the mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G. W., Lutter, R., and Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628], it may be inferred that the hydroxyl of betaThr-156 is a direct ligand of Mg2+, whereas the carboxyls of betaGlu-181, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 might contribute via intervening water molecules. Elimination of each respective functional group by site-directed mutagenesis, followed by determination of Mg-nucleotide and uncomplexed nucleotide binding affinities using a tryptophan probe, showed that betaThr-156, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 are all involved in Mg2+ coordination, whereas betaGlu-181 is not. A derived structural model for the octahedral coordination around the Mg2+ ion is presented. The results indicate that the ADP-containing site in the X-ray structure is the catalytic site of highest affinity. Correct Mg2+ coordination is required for catalytic activity at physiological rates. Elimination of any one of the Mg2+-coordinating residues led to complete loss of Mg2+-dependent nucleotide binding cooperativity of the catalytic sites.

  12. The biomechanical properties of F1C pili

    CERN Document Server

    Castelain, Mickaël; Klinth, Jeanna; Lindberg, Stina; Andersson, Magnus; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express various kinds of organelles, so-called pili or fimbriae, that mediate adhesion to host tissue in the urinary tract through specific receptor-adhesin interactions. The biomechanical properties of these pili have been considered important for the ability of bacteria to withstand shear forces from rinsing urine flows. Force measuring optical tweezers have been used to characterize individual organelles of F1C type expressed by UPEC bacteria with respect to such properties. Qualitatively, the force-vs.-elongation response was found to be similar to that of other types of helix-like pili expressed by UPEC, i.e. type 1, P, and S, with force-induced elongation in three regions of which one represents the important uncoiling mechanism of the helix-like quaternary structure. Quantitatively, the steady-state uncoiling force was assessed to 26.4(1.4) pN, which is similar to those of other pili (which range from 21 pN for SI to 30 pN for type 1). The corner velocity for dynam...

  13. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Otsuki, Koko; da Silva, Rosa Ferreira FC; Francisco, Moises; da Silva, Filomena Gomes; Serrano, Ducelina; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971). Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s. PMID:19386115

  14. Mechanistic Basis for Differential Inhibition of the F1Fo-ATPase by Aurovertin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase performs the terminal step of oxidative phosphorylation. Small molecules that modulate this enzyme have been invaluable in helping decipher F1Fo-ATPase structure, function, and mechanism. Aurovertin is an antibiotic that binds to the β subunits in the F1 domain and inhibits F1Fo-ATPase-catalyzed ATP synthesis in preference to ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive study and the existence of crystallographic data, the molecular basis of the differential inhibition and ...

  15. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Ducelina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971. Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s.

  16. GENETIC MARKERS OF COW MILK PRODUCTIVENESS OF THE RED STEPPE BREED

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, M. A.; L. V. Getmantseva; KOLOSOV A.YU.; PRISTUPA V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the effect gene polymorphism pituitary transcription factor (POU1F1), kappa-casein gene (k-CSN) and prolactin gene (PRL) on milk production of cows of red steppe breed. Analysis of the genotypes was performed by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism). Contains information describing how to conduct research and reagent kits for each of the genes studied. POU1F1 gene controls the transcription of genes PRL, TS...

  17. Principal component approach in variance component estimation for international sire evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Jette

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dairy cattle breeding industry is a highly globalized business, which needs internationally comparable and reliable breeding values of sires. The international Bull Evaluation Service, Interbull, was established in 1983 to respond to this need. Currently, Interbull performs multiple-trait across country evaluations (MACE for several traits and breeds in dairy cattle and provides international breeding values to its member countries. Estimating parameters for MACE is challenging since the structure of datasets and conventional use of multiple-trait models easily result in over-parameterized genetic covariance matrices. The number of parameters to be estimated can be reduced by taking into account only the leading principal components of the traits considered. For MACE, this is readily implemented in a random regression model. Methods This article compares two principal component approaches to estimate variance components for MACE using real datasets. The methods tested were a REML approach that directly estimates the genetic principal components (direct PC and the so-called bottom-up REML approach (bottom-up PC, in which traits are sequentially added to the analysis and the statistically significant genetic principal components are retained. Furthermore, this article evaluates the utility of the bottom-up PC approach to determine the appropriate rank of the (covariance matrix. Results Our study demonstrates the usefulness of both approaches and shows that they can be applied to large multi-country models considering all concerned countries simultaneously. These strategies can thus replace the current practice of estimating the covariance components required through a series of analyses involving selected subsets of traits. Our results support the importance of using the appropriate rank in the genetic (covariance matrix. Using too low a rank resulted in biased parameter estimates, whereas too high a rank did not result in

  18. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate...

  19. Factors associated with the differential in actual gestational age and gestational age predicted from transrectal ultrasonography in pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine (1) how gestational age predicted using transrectal ultrasonography related to actual gestational age derived as the number of days from the most recent artificial insemination date, (2) what factors, if any, were associated with the differential between the two measures, and (3) the association between this differential in gestational age and the likelihood of subsequent pregnancy loss, stillbirth, or calving dystocia. The data set contained 7340 ultrasound records from 6805 Holstein Friesian dairy cows in 175 herds. Ultrasonography assessment underestimated gestational age relative to days since last service by 0.51 days (standard error [SE]: 0.040), although the differential was less during embryonic development phase (i.e., ≤42 days of gestation; mean overestimation of 0.31 days) versus fetal development phase (i.e., >42 days of gestation; mean underestimation of 0.81 days). Predicted calving date calculated from ultrasonography was 1.41 days (SE: 0.040) later than the actual subsequent calving date and was, on average, 0.52 days later than predicted calving date, assuming a gestation length of 282 days. Parity of the dam (P gestation length. Gestation length was 1.27 days longer (SE: 0.01) for bull calves compared to heifer calves. Calves from beef sires had a longer gestation length than calves from dairy sires, and older parity cows had a longer gestation length than younger cows. The results highlight factors associated with differences in gestational age obtained from ultrasonography and insemination data and illustrate the value of ultrasonography for the prediction of calving date and pregnancy loss.

  20. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  1. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  2. E2F-1 binding affinity for pRb is not the only determinant of the E2F-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Sahin, Todd L. Sladek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation. Interaction between pRB and E2F-1 is dependent on the phosphorylation status of pRB. Despite the fact that E2F-1 and pRB have antagonistic activities when they are overexpressed, the role of the E2F-1-pRB interaction in cell growth largely remains unknown. Ideally, it would be better to study the properties of a pRB mutant that fails to bind to E2F, but retains all other activities. To date, no pRB mutation has been characterized in sufficient detail to show that it specifically eliminates E2F binding but leaves other interactions intact. An alternative approach to this issue is to ask whether mutations that change E2F proteins binding affinity to pRB are sufficient to change cell growth in aspect of cell cycle and tumor formation. Therefore, we used the E2F-1 mutants including E2F-1/S332-7A, E2F-1/S375A, E2F-1/S403A, E2F-1/Y411A and E2F-1/L132Q that have different binding affinities for pRB to better understand the roles of the E2F-1 phosphorylation and E2F-1-pRB interaction in the cell cycle, as well as in transformation and gene expression. Data presented in this study suggests that in vivo phosphorylation at amino acids 332-337, 375 and 403 is important for the E2F-1 and pRB interaction in vivo. However, although E2F-1 mutants 332-7, 375 and 403 showed similar binding affinity to pRB, they showed different characteristics in transformation efficiency, G0 accumulation, and target gene experiments.

  3. Modulation of the E2F1-driven cancer cell fate by the DNA damage response machinery and potential novel E2F1 targets in osteosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liontos, Michalis; Niforou, Katerina; Velimezi, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer. Mutations of the RB gene represent the most frequent molecular defect in this malignancy. A major consequence of this alteration is that the activity of the key cell cycle regulator E2F1 is unleashed from the inhibitory effects of pRb. Studies...... in animal models and in human cancers have shown that deregulated E2F1 overexpression possesses either "oncogenic" or "oncosuppressor" properties, depending on the cellular context. To address this issue in osteosarcomas, we examined the status of E2F1 relative to cell proliferation and apoptosis...... in a clinical setting of human primary osteosarcomas and in E2F1-inducible osteosarcoma cell line models that are wild-type and deficient for p53. Collectively, our data demonstrated that high E2F1 levels exerted a growth-suppressing effect that relied on the integrity of the DNA damage response network...

  4. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  5. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  6. RESEARCH ON THE MILK PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE CALVING MONTH OF THE DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to assess the effect of the calving month on milk production and to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor in order to increase the precision in the breeding value estimation and assure a better evaluation of candidate cows as mothers of sires and bulls used in the artificial insemination to improve genetic gain in the dairy herds. A specific mathematical model, xij=m . ai . eij, where xij – the milk record of the daughter „j” in the month „i” (i=1,2,....12, m – a constant factor, ai –multiplicative effect of the month „i”, eij – the residual multiplicative effect, was used to process the data regarding milk yield and fat yield by month of calving collected from 4,100 Friesian dairy cows under milk testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the calvings carried out in the fall-winter months recorded a milk yield by 3.5 % higher in January, by 5.4 % in September, by 6.3 % in December and by 10.5 % in November. The cows with early spring calving have been distadvantaged by 0.4 % in February, by 1.8 % in August up to 7.9 % in May. Therefore, correction factors are imposed to be used in order to increase precision in milk production estimation and finnaly to assure an accurate breeding value for dairy cows and bulls.

  7. Hydrops associated with chondrodysplasia of the fetus in a miniature Scottish Highland cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Cabrera, L; McNabb, Bret R; Woods, Sarah E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Busch, Rosie C

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old primiparous miniature Scottish Highland cow with an unknown breeding date was evaluated for suspected hydrops. CLINICAL FINDINGS Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonographic examination identified a large amount of hypoechoic fluid within an enlarged uterus; the fetus could not be identified. Presence of a severely distended uterus and concerns regarding associated health risks to the cow led to the decision to induce labor. Although fluids were expelled, parturition did not progress further over the following 48 hours. Vaginal examination revealed a partially dilated cervix and an abnormally shaped fetus that was too large to pass vaginally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Supportive care was provided to the cow, and a stillborn bull calf was delivered by cesarean section. Grossly evident chondrodystrophic dwarfism with hydrocephalus, compatible with so-called bulldog calf malformations, was confirmed by diagnostic imaging and histopathologic evaluation. The cow recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Genetic analysis of DNA from hair roots collected from the sire and dam confirmed both were carriers of an aggrecan-1 gene mutation (bulldog dwarfism1) previously associated with dwarfism and bulldog calf malformations in Dexter cattle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bulldog calf malformations associated with an aggrecan-1 gene mutation in miniature Scottish Highland cattle, confirming that at least 1 genetic mutation associated with this condition is found in cattle breeds other than Dexter. The findings highlighted the clinical importance of testing for known genetic diseases in breeding cattle, particularly among miniature breeds.

  8. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  9. Characterisation of terminal sire sheep farm systems, based on a range of environmental factors: a case study in the context of genotype by environment interactions using Charollais lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Lambe, N R; Morgan-Davies, C; Mrode, R; Brotherstone, S; Conington, J; Morgan-Davies, J; Bunger, L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were analysed using principal coordinate and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the results of which identified three distinct environmental cluster groups. The type of grazing, climatic conditions and the use of vitamins and mineral supplements were found to be the most important factors in the clustering of flocks. The presence of G×E was then investigated using data from the Charollais flocks only. Performance data were collected for 12 181 lambs, between 1990 and 2010, sired by 515 different sires. Fifty six of the sires had offspring in at least two of the three different cluster groups and pedigree information was available for a total of 161 431 animals. Traits studied were the 21-week old weight (21WT), ultrasound muscle depth (UMD) and log transformed backfat depth (LogUFD). Heritabilities estimated for each cluster, for each trait, ranged from 0.32 to 0.45. Genetic correlations estimated between Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 were all found to be significantly lower than unity, indicating the presence of G×E. They were 0.31 (±0.17), 0.68 (±0.14) and 0.18 (±0.21) for 21WT, UMD and LogUFD, respectively. Evidence of sires re-ranking across clusters was also observed. Providing a suitable strategy can be identified, there is potential for the optimisation of future breeding programmes, by taking into account the G×E observed. This would enable farmers to identify and select animals with an increased knowledge as to how they will perform in their specific farm environment thus reducing any unexpected differences in performance.

  10. Efeito da interação reprodutor x rebanho sobre as produções de leite e de gordura na raça Pardo-Suíça Effects of sire x herd interaction on milk and fat yields in Brown-Swiss herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Leme Franco Geraldini Sirol

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dados de 4.959 lactações de 2.414 vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça, filhas de 70 reprodutores, distribuídos em 51 rebanhos, foram utilizados para se estimar o componente de variância para a interação reprodutor x rebanho das produções de leite e de gordura e verificar o efeito desta interação sobre a avaliação genética dos reprodutores, por meio de modelos que diferiam na presença e ausência do termo de interação. As produções de leite e de gordura foram ajustadas para duas ordenhas diárias, 305 dias de lactação e idade adulta da vaca. O teste da razão de verossimilhança foi utilizado na verificação da efetividade da inclusão da interação no modelo. As médias das produções de leite e de gordura foram 6085,79 ± 1629,73 kg e 225,61 ± 60,44 kg, respectivamente. A proporção da variância total decorrente da interação reprodutor x rebanho foi 0,4%, para a produção de leite, e 1%, para a produção de gordura. A estimativa de herdabilidade foi 0,38, para a produção de leite, utilizando-se ambos os modelos, e reduziu de 0,40 para 0,39, para a produção de gordura, quando o modelo com interação foi considerado. A função de verossimilhança aumentou significativamente com a inclusão da interação no modelo. A correlação de Spearman foi próxima de um para ambas as características, quando todos os reprodutores foram considerados. Houve redução de 1% na estimativa de acurácia dos valores genéticos preditos para ambas as características, porém, a correlação de Pearson estimada entre as acurácias obtidas para cada modelo estudado foi próxima à unidade. A interaçãoreprodutor x rebanho não afetou as estimativas de componentes de variâncias genética e residual e a ordem de classificação dos reprodutores para ambas as características.Data comprising 4,959 lactations of 2,414 Brown-Swiss cows, daughters of 70 sires, from 51 herds, were used to estimate the variance component for sire x herd

  11. The nonlinear chemo-mechanic coupled dynamics of the F 1 -ATPase molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Liu, Fang

    2012-03-01

    The ATP synthase consists of two opposing rotary motors, F0 and F1, coupled to each other. When the F1 motor is not coupled to the F0 motor, it can work in the direction hydrolyzing ATP, as a nanomotor called F1-ATPase. It has been reported that the stiffness of the protein varies nonlinearly with increasing load. The nonlinearity has an important effect on the rotating rate of the F1-ATPase. Here, considering the nonlinearity of the γ shaft stiffness for the F1-ATPase, a nonlinear chemo-mechanical coupled dynamic model of F1 motor is proposed. Nonlinear vibration frequencies of the γ shaft and their changes along with the system parameters are investigated. The nonlinear stochastic response of the elastic γ shaft to thermal excitation is analyzed. The results show that the stiffness nonlinearity of the γ shaft causes an increase of the vibration frequency for the F1 motor, which increases the motor's rotation rate. When the concentration of ATP is relatively high and the load torque is small, the effects of the stiffness nonlinearity on the rotating rates of the F1 motor are obvious and should be considered. These results are useful for improving calculation of the rotating rate for the F1 motor and provide insight about the stochastic wave mechanics of F1-ATPase.

  12. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  13. Formando lotes uniformes de reprodutores múltiplos e usando-os em acasalamentos dirigidos, em populações Nelore Forming uniform lots of multiple sires and using them in designed matings in a Nelore population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso

    2003-08-01

    é e no pós-desmama; o segundo discriminou entre animais melhores em desenvolvimento e nas avaliações visuais à desmama e o contrário ao sobreano, e animais com características opostas a estas; o terceiro componente ressaltou diferenças em precocidade reprodutiva. Para os touros e grupos de reprodutores, mesmo após intensa seleção, a maior parte da variação ainda existente esteve associada a diferenças em precocidade.Cluster analysis principles were used to allot bulls to be used as Multiple Service sires (MS. Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs on pre- and postweaning traits were used to calculate distances between bulls. EPDs were standardized and weighed to form a final selection index. The criteria to form lots was based on minimizing the sum of all standardized distances for all possible pairs of bulls. The program was tested on a set of 158 top bulls from a Nelore herd. A set of 4,740 breeding cows was used to evaluate three breeding strategies with the goal of producing genetically superior individuals: (1 random mating; (2 single sire under designed matings by a specific program (PAD; and (3 lots of multiple sires under designed matings using PAD. Principal components was used to obtain the genetic biotypes existing in these populations. Extreme values in EPDs amongst MS lots averages and overall were very similar, indicating the program's ability to preserve total variance. Variances of EPDs from calf crops obtained under the use of PAD were increased three fold. Using designed matings by PAD allowed an increase of 70% in the number of animals which would be recognized with official and fiscal benefits in comparison with random mating. First principal components for cows, indicated that most genetic variability is accounted for preweaning traits and visual scores at postweaning; the second indicated animals can be contrasted as good weaners and poor performer at yearling and vice-versa; the third component showed diferences in sexual precocity. For

  14. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: I. Ewe productivity and crossbred lamb survival and preweaning growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate Columbia, Suffolk, USMARC-Composite (Composite), and Texel breeds as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system. The objective was to estimate breed-of-ram effects on ewe fertility, prolificacy, and dystocia, and sire breed effe...

  15. The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenal, Mathias; Trinh, Emmanuelle; Britschgi, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that cooperates with p53 to suppress cancer development. We and others recently showed that HIC1 is a transcriptional target of p53. To identify additional transcriptional regulators of HIC1, we screened...... to the HIC1 promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human TIG3 fibroblasts expressing tamoxifen-activated E2F1. In agreement, activation of E2F1 in TIG3-E2F1 cells markedly increased HIC1 expression. Interestingly, expression of E2F1 in the p53(-/-) hepatocellular carcinoma cell line...

  16. E. coli F1-ATPase: site-directed mutagenesis of the beta-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, D; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E

    1988-05-09

    Residues beta Glu-181 and beta Glu-192 of E. coli F1-ATPase (the DCCD-reactive residues) were mutated to Gln. Purified beta Gln-181 F1 showed 7-fold impairment of 'unisite' Pi formation from ATP and a large decrease in affinity for ATP. Thus the beta-181 carboxyl group in normal F1 significantly contributes to catalytic site properties. Also, positive catalytic site cooperativity was attenuated from 5 X 10(4)- to 548-fold in beta Gln-181 F1. In contrast, purified beta Gln-192 F1 showed only 6-fold reduction in 'multisite' ATPase activity. Residues beta Gly-149 and beta Gly-154 were mutated to Ile singly and in combination. These mutations, affecting residues which are strongly conserved in nucleotide-binding proteins, were chosen to hinder conformational motion in a putative 'flexible loop' in beta-subunit. Impairment of purified F1-ATPase ranged from 5 to 61%, with the double mutant F1 less impaired than either single mutant. F1 preparations containing beta Ile-154 showed 2-fold activation after release from membranes, suggesting association with F0 restrained turnover on F1 in these mutants.

  17. Clustering of conformational IgE epitopes on the major dog allergen Can f 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, Mirela; Weber, Milena; Hofer, Gerhard; Apostolovic, Danijela; Keller, Walter; Reininger, Renate; Swoboda, Ines; Spitzauer, Susanne; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-09-22

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy affects more than 25% of the population. Can f 1 is the major dog allergen associated with respiratory symptoms but the epitopes recognized by allergic patients IgE on Can f 1 are unknown. To characterize IgE epitopes of Can f 1 recognized by dog allergic patients, six overlapping peptides spanning the Can f 1 sequence were synthesized. In direct IgE epitope mapping experiments peptides were analyzed for IgE reactivity by dot blot and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with sera from dog allergic patients. For indirect epitope-mapping, rabbits were immunized with the peptides to generate specific IgG antibodies which were used to inhibit allergic patients' IgE binding to Can f 1. IgE binding sites were visualized on a model of the Can f 1 three-dimensional structure. We found that Can f 1 does not contain any relevant sequential IgE epitopes. However, IgE inhibition experiments with anti-peptide specific IgGs showed that Can f 1 N- and C-terminal portion assembled a major conformational binding site. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify the major IgE epitope-containing area of the dog allergen Can f 1. This finding is important for the development of allergen-specific treatment strategies.

  18. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  19. ASSOCIATIONS OF DGAT1 POLYMORPHISM WITH MILK CHARACTERISTICS IN SLOVAK DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vašíčková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available DGAT1 encodes diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20, a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. It was shown that the QTL variation is most likely caused by a nonconservative base substitution in the candidate gene DGAT1 changing lysine to alanine (K232A in the enzyme diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT. In particular, the allele encoding the lysine 232 variant proved to be more efficient with regard to milk fat synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine the allele frequencies and to verify the effects of the two DGAT variants (K232A polymorphism, A and K alleles on milk production traits in Slovak dairy cows. Samples of 196 dairy cows originating from 61 sires were genotyped for DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (A and K alleles using the PCR-RFLP technique. The frequencies of DGAT1 alleles were 0.88 (A and 0.12 (K. The performance data were collected during one season in order to minimize this effect. The overall milk yield (MILK, fat yield (FAT_Y, fat content (FAT_C, protein yield (PROT_Y, protein content (PROT_C and age at first calving (AGE1 were studied. The effect of DGAT1 polymorphism on fat and protein content in milk was confirmed. Further study is needed for explanation of effect of DGAT1 on the age at first calving.

  20. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  1. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  2. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Marie Lassen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees. The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies.

  3. Microsatellite primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) reveal that a single plant sires all seeds per pod1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. • Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. • Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies. PMID:25202634

  4. The polar domain of the b subunit of Escherichia coli F1F0-ATPase forms an elongated dimer that interacts with the F1 sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S D

    1992-04-15

    A soluble form of the b subunit of the F0 sector of the F1F0-ATPase of Escherichia coli has been produced, purified, and characterized. In this form of the protein, designated bsol, residues 25-146 (the carboxyl terminus) of b have been fused to an amino-terminal octapeptide extension derived from the vector pUC8. The inferred subunit molecular weight of bsol is 15,459. bsol protein was expressed in E. coli as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and was readily purified to homogeneity by conventional methods. The molecular weight of bsol, determined by sedimentation equilibrium, was 31,200, indicating that the protein is dimeric. Chemical cross-linking studies supported this conclusion. However, bsol sedimented with a coefficient of just 1.8 S and behaved on size exclusion chromatography with an apparent molecular weight of 80,000-85,000. These results indicate that the protein exists in solution as a highly elongated dimer. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that bsol is highly alpha-helical. Binding of bsol to F1-ATPase was directly demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography. bsol also inhibited the binding of F1-ATPase to F1-depleted membrane vesicles, as measured by reconstitution of energy-dependent quinacrine fluorescence quenching. This result implies that bsol and F0 compete for binding to the same site on F1. The apparently normal interaction of bsol with F1-ATPase strongly suggests that the recombinant protein assumes the correct structure. No substantial effects of bsol on the ATPase activity of purified F1 were observed.

  5. A role of the sires and dams in the hermaphrodite phenomenon linked with polled Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection for polled character as preferential in Damascus breed leads to spread homozygous individuals for the polled gene and polled intersexes and consequently further economic losses in this breed. It’s very important to study the genetic origin, the role of sirs and dams in the development of intersexuality linked with hornlessness, and evaluate some other effects in the excess of the intersexes in caprine herd. To perform this work data of 52 intersexes issues from mating 19 polled bucks with 12 horned and 37 polled goats in Humeimeh research station, belonging to General commission for agricultural scientific research, were collected and analyzed by mean of Chi-Square (SAS, 1998. The results showed the statistical effect of sires (P≤0.007 and the unstististical effect (P≥0.05 of dames on the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed. The number of kids intersexes were repeated 10, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for 1, 2, 2 and 1, five and eight sire number respectively. Whereas the number of kids intersexes were repeated only 2 and 1 for 3 and 46 goat number respectively. The sex of the kids, kidding type and horned goat character have all highly significant effect (P≤0.001 and this because intersex cases issues of single births and twin birth: twin to male, twin to female, and triple births: twin to male and female, and twin to tow males respectively were repeated 17, 18, 14, 2 and 1 respectively. Also, single births, twin births and triple births were repeated 17, 32 and 3 respectively. Cases of intersexuality issues from horned and polled goats were repeated 14 and 38 respectively. It was concluded the important role of hornlessness genetic and multiple births in the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed.

  6. Lasteaeda kujundatakse lapsekesksemaks / Punamäe, Anita; Sarap, Anu; Peterson, Ester; Kala, Sire; Laanemäe-Räim, Consuelo; küsitlenud Kaile Kabun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vestlusringis on maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna peaspetsialist Anita Punamäe, Parksepa lasteaia juhataja Anu Sarap, Päkapiku lasteaia juhataja asetäitja õppekasvatustöö alal Ester Peterson, Sõlekese lasteaia õpetaja Sire Kala, lapsevanem ja lasteaia Punamütsike hoolekogu liige Consuelo Laanemäe-Räim

  7. Characterization of an F1 Deletion Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92, Pathogenic Role of F1 Antigen in Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague, and Evaluation of Sensitivity and Specificity of F1 Antigen Capture-Based Dipsticks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Endsley, Janice J.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Foltz, Sheri M.; Huante, Matthew B.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Yeager, Linsey A.; Zudina, Irina V.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Peterson, Johnny W.; DeBord, Kristin L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of CO92 (Δcaf) was generated by homologous recombination and used as a negative control. Based on genetic, antigenic/immunologic, and electron microscopic analyses, the Δcaf mutant was devoid of a capsule. The growth rate of the Δcaf mutant generally was similar to that of the wild-type (WT) bacterium at both 26 and 37°C, although the mutant's growth dropped slightly during the late phase at 37°C. The Δcaf mutant was as virulent as WT CO92 in the pneumonic plague mouse model; however, it was attenuated in developing bubonic plague. Both dipsticks had similar sensitivities, requiring a minimum of 0.5 μg/ml of purified F1 antigen or 1 × 105 to 5 × 105 CFU/ml of WT CO92 for positive results, while the blood samples were negative for up to 1 × 108 CFU/ml of the Δcaf mutant. Our studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of two plague dipsticks in detecting capsular-positive strains of Y. pestis in bubonic and pneumonic plague. PMID:21367990

  8. 26 CFR 5c.44F-1 - Leases and qualified research expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases and qualified research expenses. 5c.44F-1 Section 5c.44F-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c...

  9. Catalytic properties of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase depleted of endogenous nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, A E; Lee, R S; al-Shawi, M K; Weber, J

    1992-09-01

    Nucleotide-depleted Escherichia coli F1 was prepared by the procedure of Wise et al. (1983, Biochem. J. 215, 343-350). This enzyme had high rates of steady-state ATPase and GTPase activity. When "unisite" ATP hydrolysis was measured using an F1/ATP concentration ratio of 10, all of the substoichiometric ATP became bound to the high-affinity catalytic site and none became bound to noncatalytic sites. The association rate constant for ATP binding was 7 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and the KdATP was 7.9 x 10(-10) M, as compared to values of 3.8 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and 1.9 x 10(-10) M, respectively, in native (i.e., nucleotide-replete) F1. Rate constants for bound ATP hydrolysis, ATP resynthesis, and P(i) release, and the reaction equilibrium constant, were similar in nucleotide-depleted and native F1. Therefore, we conclude that occupancy of the noncatalytic sites is not required for formation of the high-affinity catalytic site of F1 and has no significant effect on unisite catalysis. In further experiments we looked for the occurrence of inhibitory, catalytic-site-bound MgADP in E. coli F1. Such an entity has been reported for chloroplast and mitochondrial F1. However, our experiments gave no indication for inhibitory MgADP in E. coli F1.

  10. E2F-1-Induced p53-independent apoptosis in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Helin, K.; Sehested, M.;

    1998-01-01

    involving increased apoptosis in the germinal epithelium. This effect was potentiated by simultaneous overexpression of DP-1. Testicular atrophy as a result of overexpression of E2F-1 and DP-1 is independent of functional p53, since p53-nullizygous transgenic mice overexpressing E2F-1 and DP-1 also suffered...

  11. 26 CFR 1.665(f)-1A - Undistributed capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed capital gain. 1.665(f)-1A Section... Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(f)-1A Undistributed capital gain. (a) Domestic trusts. (1) The term undistributed capital gain means (in the case of a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.514(f)-1 - Definition of business lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of business lease. 1.514(f)-1 Section... § 1.514(f)-1 Definition of business lease. (a) In general. The term business lease means any lease...) if at the close of the organization's taxable year there is a business lease indebtedness as...

  13. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  14. 77 FR 20038 - Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... minimum course load requirement, unless the student's course of study is in a language study program. See... maintains his or her TPS, then the student maintains F-1 status and TPS concurrently. Under the second... SECURITY RIN 1653-ZA04 Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the...

  16. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  17. Effect of fat source differing in fatty acid profile on metabolic parameters, fertilization, and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, R L A; Juchem, S O; Chebel, R C; Rutigliano, H M; Bruno, R G S; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of source of fatty acids (FA) on embryo quality of dairy cows. A total of 154 Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 sources of FA supplemented at 2% of the dietary dry matter as calcium salts of either palm oil (PO) or linoleic and trans-octadecenoic acids (LTFA) from 25 d prepartum to 80 d in milk (DIM). Cows were presynchronized beginning at 30 +/- 3 DIM and then subjected to the Ovsynch protocol beginning on d 39 +/- 3 postpartum. Timed artificial insemination was performed 12 h after the final GnRH of the Ovsynch protocol with semen from a single sire of proven fertility. The uteri of cows were nonsurgically flushed at 5 d after artificial insemination for collection of embryos-oocytes. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography throughout the synchronization protocol. Blood was sampled and plasma was analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The body condition score and yields of milk and milk components were measured throughout the first 90 DIM. Treatment did not affect concentrations of nonesterified FA, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and progesterone in plasma. Body condition was similar between treatments. Milk production was similar between treatments, but concentrations of fat in milk and yields of fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased in cows fed LTFA, whereas concentration of true protein increased. Source of dietary FA did not influence ovulatory responses, diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and diameter of the corpus luteum during synchronization. Embryo-oocyte recovery relative to the number of corpora lutea did not differ between treatments. Fertilization tended to increase in cows fed LTFA compared with cows fed PO. Feeding LTFA improved the proportion of excellent-, good-, and fair-quality embryos, and embryos from cows fed LTFA had a greater number of blastomeres than embryos from cows fed PO. Feeding a more unsaturated source of FA improved fertilization and embryo

  18. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  19. Evaluation of blood and milk oxidative status during early postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A; Ceci, E; Pantaleo, M; Mutinati, M; Spedicato, M; Minoia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-01-01

    In dairy cows, the intensity of metabolic activity, associated with the negative energy balance (NEBAL), is responsible for an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, subsequently, for the development of the condition of oxidative stress, which may overwhelm the antioxidant potential of the bovine maternal organism, making it prone to the development of many puerperal dysfunctions, as well as to an alteration of colostrum and milk quality. Given these premises, the aims of this study are to evaluate serum and milk concentrations of ROS and lipoperoxides, vitamins A and E, on the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th day postpartum of dairy cows, a particularly critical period during which the NEBAL reaches its nadir, and to compare the trends of these parameters in two different bovine breeds. The study was performed in pluriparous Italian Friesian and Brown dairy cows. On the 10th day postpartum, all cows underwent a clinical examination to exclude the presence of alterations; furthermore, on the same day, a milk sample was collected from each cow, in order to perform the somatic cell count (SCC; (CE) N. 853/2004) and to establish which of them had an SCC ≤400,000/ml or >400,000/ml. In this study, among the 110 cows that were initially selected, the evaluation of these parameters allowed the inclusion of 80 animals, which were divided into four groups of 20 subjects each: Group F and F1: Italian Friesian healthy cows, with SCC ≤400,000/ml and >400,000/ml, respectively; Group B and B1: Italian Brown healthy cows, with SCC ≤400,000/ml and >400,000/ml, respectively. On the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th day postpartum, peripheral blood and milk samples were collected. The results obtained show that in group B1 there were higher concentrations of ROS and milk antioxidants compared with Friesian group cows. This datum let us suppose that even in the presence of higher ROS concentrations the antioxidant status found in group B1 seems to be able to counteract the

  20. Observation of $\\bar{B}^0_{(s)}\\rightarrow J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays and measurement of the $f_1(1285)$ mixing angle

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    Decays of $\\bar{B}^0_(s)$ and $\\bar{B}^0$ mesons into $J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states, produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. $\\bar{B}^0_{(s)}\\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the $f_1(1285)$ mixing angle between strange and non-strange components of its wave function in the $q\\overline{q}$ structure model is determined to be $\\pm(24.0^{\\,+3.1\\,+0.6}_{\\,-2.6\\,-0.8})^{\\circ}$. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the $f_1(1285)$ are discussed.

  1. Observation of B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/ψ π+π-π+π- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

  2. Suppression of F1 Male-Specific Lethality in Caenorhabditis Hybrids by cbr-him-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi Ragavapuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary to Haldane’s Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids are frequently less fit than their homogametic siblings, and that asymmetric results are often obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality in this combination of species. This result implicates epigenetic meiotic silencing in the suppression of F1 male-specific lethality. It is also shown that F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome are fertile. When crossed to C. briggsae hermaphrodites or F1 females derived from C. briggsae hermaphrodites, viable F2 and backcross (B2 progeny were obtained. Sibling males that possessed a C. nigoni X chromosome were sterile. Therefore, the sterility of F1 males bearing a C. nigoni X chromosome must result from dysgenic interactions between the X chromosome of C. nigoni and the autosomes of C. briggsae. The fertility of F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome provides an opportunity to identify C. nigoni loci that prevent spermatogenesis, and hence hermaphroditic reproduction, in diplo-X hybrids.

  3. CDK4, pRB and E2F1: connected to insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Emilie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic β-cells are metabolic sensors involved in the control of glucose homeostasis. This particular cell type controls insulin secretion through a fine-tuned process, which dregulation have important pathological consequences, such as observed during type 2 diabetes. We recently implicated E2F1 in the control of glucose homeostasis. First we showed that E2f1-/- mice have decreased pancreatic size, as the result of impaired postnatal pancreatic growth. We observed in this study that E2F1 was highly expressed in non-proliferating pancreatic β-cells, suggesting that E2F1, besides the control of β-cell number could have a role in pancreatic β-cell function. We demonstrate in our recent study, both in vitro and in vivo that E2F1 directly regulates the expression of Kir6.2, a key component of the KATP channel involved in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Expression of Kir6.2 is lost in pancreas of E2f1-/- mice, resulting in insulin secretion defects in these mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated by in tissue chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that regulation of Kir6.2 expression by E2F1 follows the same regulatory pathway that the classical E2F1 target genes, implicating the participation of CDK4 and retinoblastoma protein. Moreover, in this context, E2F1 transcriptional activity is regulated by glucose and insulin through the CDK4-dependent inactivation of the pRB protein. In summary we provide evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis. In our recent study we decipher a new function for these factors in the control of insulin secretion and open up new avenues for the treatment of metabolic diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes.

  4. Multicentric evaluation of a new assay for prothrombin fragment F1+2 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, H D; Conard, J; Mannucci, M; Monteagudo, J; Pelzer, H; Reverter, J C; Samama, M; Tripodi, A; Wagner, C

    1992-10-01

    A multicenter study of a recently developed ELISA for the determination of prothrombin fragment F1+2 was performed in order to evaluate analytical and clinical aspects. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were found to be 11.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The measuring range covered by the calibration curve reaches from 0.04 to 10.0 nM/l F1+2. Testing 133 healthy subjects a reference range of 0.37 to 1.11 nM/l F1+2 (2.5-97.5 percentile) with a median of 0.66 nM/l F1+2 was calculated. Minor difficulties with blood sampling (venous occlusion for 2 min) did not affect F1+2 plasma concentrations. Significantly increased F1+2 levels were measured in patients with leukemia (p < 0.0001), severe liver disease (p < 0.005) and after myocardial infarction (p < 0.01). Elevated F1+2 concentration before the beginning of heparin therapy (1.25 nM/l) decreased to 0.77 nM/l (p < 0.0001) after 1 day of therapy. For patients in the stable phase of oral anticoagulant therapy decreasing F1+2 concentrations were measured with increasing INR. F1+2 levels were already significantly reduced in patients with INR < 2.0 (0.56 nM/l; p = 0.0005). Thus F1+2 determination may be helpful in identifying activation processes as well as in monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  5. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  6. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  7. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  8. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  9. Assessing variability of literature based methane indicator traits in a large dairy cow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel, PB.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4 emissions. Selective breeding represents one method for mitigating CH4 emissions but practical and cheap ways to measure this trait are not currently available. In the present study, four CH4 indicator traits based on milk fatty acid (FA contents were referenced from the literature. Objectives. The aim of the study was to use these literature CH4 indicators for assessing the variability of methane emissions emitted by dairy cows. Method. Literature CH4 indicator traits were originally defined based on the measurements of FA content by gas chromatography. However, these measurements were not available for all the available cows in our studied population. A sample of 602 gas chromatographic analyses was therefore used to develop a calibration equation for predicting the literature CH4 indicators based on milk mid-infrared (MIR spectra. This spectral information was available for all the studied cows. Then, in a second step, in order to predict the literature CH4 indicator traits, the developed MIR prediction equations were applied to the 604,028 recorded spectral data collected between 2007 and 2011 for 70,872 cows in their first three lactations. Genetic parameters for these traits were then estimated using single trait test-day random regression animal models. Results. The predicted MIR literature CH4 estimates were in the expected range from 350 ± 40 to 449 ± 65 g per day. The averaged predicted MIR CH4 emission (g per day increased from the beginning of lactation, reached the highest level at the peak of lactation and then decreased towards the end of lactation. The average daily heritability values were 0.29-.35, 0.26-.40, and 0.22-.37 for the different studied CH4 indicators for the first three lactations, respectively. The largest differences between the estimated breeding values of sires that had daughters in production eructing the highest and

  10. Rotation of subunits during catalysis by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, T M; Bulygin, V V; Zhou, Y; Hutcheon, M L; Cross, R L

    1995-11-21

    During oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, F0F1-ATP synthases couple the movement of protons down an electrochemical gradient to the synthesis of ATP. One proposed mechanistic feature that has remained speculative is that this coupling process requires the rotation of subunits within F0F1. Guided by a recent, high-resolution structure for bovine F1 [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. & Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 621-628], we have developed a critical test for rotation of the central gamma subunit relative to the three catalytic beta subunits in soluble F1 from Escherichia coli. In the bovine F1 structure, a specific point of contact between the gamma subunit and one of the three catalytic beta subunits includes positioning of the homolog of E. coli gamma-subunit C87 (gamma C87) close to the beta-subunit 380DELSEED386 sequence. A beta D380C mutation allowed us to induce formation of a specific disulfide bond between beta and gamma C87 in soluble E. coli F1. Formation of the crosslink inactivated beta D380C-F1, and reduction restored full activity. Using a dissociation/reassembly approach with crosslinked beta D380C-F1, we incorporated radiolabeled beta subunits into the two noncrosslinked beta-subunit positions of F1. After reduction of the initial nonradioactive beta-gamma crosslink, only exposure to conditions for catalytic turnover results in similar reactivities of unlabeled and radiolabeled beta subunits with gamma C87 upon reoxidation. The results demonstrate that gamma subunit rotates relative to the beta subunits during catalysis.

  11. Absence of pRb facilitates E2F1-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baohua; Wingate, Hannah; Swisher, Stephen G; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Hunt, Kelly K

    2010-03-15

    The transcription factor E2F1 is known for its interaction with pRb, controlling cell proliferation; however, E2F1 also has a pivotal role in regulating apoptosis.  The relationship between pRb and E2F1 balances cell proliferation and apoptosis giving pRb tumor suppressive properties. The intricacies of the pRb/E2F1 relationship and thus the regulation of cell fate is cell context dependent. To explore the role of pRb in the E2F1-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells, we examined cell growth and apoptosis induction in isogenic cell systems of immortalized breast epithelial cells lacking either pRb (76NE7) or p53 (76NE6). We found that E2F1 caused accumulation of cells in G2 and S phases of the cell cycle along with apoptosis in 76NE7 but not 76NE6 cells.  Variants of 76NE6 cells with functional p53 did not rescue the apoptotic response in these cells, whereas knocking down pRb resulted in significant E2F1-induced apoptosis. We also determined that the effect of E2F1 overexpression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468, which lack pRb and functional p53, was accumulation of cells in G2/S phase and apoptosis. However, E2F did not cause apotosis  in MCF-7 cells which harbor a functional pRb. Therefore, we conclude that in the absence of Rb, E2F1 overexpression results in apoptosis, not proliferation, and that this effect is independent of p53.

  12. 17 CFR 270.18f-1 - Exemption from certain requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end investment companies which have the right... which have the right to redeem in kind. (a) A registered open-end investment company which has the right... to pay in cash all requests for redemption by any shareholder of record, limited in amount...

  13. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Rotation of subunits during catalysis by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    During oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, F0F1-ATP synthases couple the movement of protons down an electrochemical gradient to the synthesis of ATP. One proposed mechanistic feature that has remained speculative is that this coupling process requires the rotation of subunits within F0F1. Guided by a recent, high-resolution structure for bovine F1 [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. & Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 621-628], we have developed a critical test for rotation ...

  17. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F=1 atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sooshin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of $^{23}$Na atoms in the $F=1$ hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations under a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the $F=1$ absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of $^{23}$Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in quantitative analysis of $F=1$ spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali atoms with $I=3/2$ nuclear spin such as $^{87}$Rb.

  18. ESR-spektroskopische Untersuchungen der F0F1-ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Motz, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Die FoF1-ATP-Synthase katalysiert die Synthese von ATP aus ADP und Pi bei der oxidativen bzw. Photophosphorylierung. Der ATP-Synthase-Komplex läßt sich in zwei funktionelle Einheiten unterteilen: Fo ist ein integraler Membranproteinkomplex, der den Protonenkanal bildet. F1 hingegen ist ein wasserlöslicher Proteinkomplex, der die Nukleotidbindungsstellen trägt. Die ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli hat die Zusammensetzung alpha3beta3gamma delta epsilon für die F1 und ab2c9-12 für den Fo-Teil. ...

  19. Characterization of an F1 deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92, pathogenic role of F1 antigen in bubonic and pneumonic plague, and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of F1 antigen capture-based dipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Endsley, Janice J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Foltz, Sheri M; Huante, Matthew B; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Popov, Vsevolod L; Yeager, Linsey A; Zudina, Irina V; Motin, Vladimir L; Peterson, Johnny W; DeBord, Kristin L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of CO92 (Δcaf) was generated by homologous recombination and used as a negative control. Based on genetic, antigenic/immunologic, and electron microscopic analyses, the Δcaf mutant was devoid of a capsule. The growth rate of the Δcaf mutant generally was similar to that of the wild-type (WT) bacterium at both 26 and 37 °C, although the mutant's growth dropped slightly during the late phase at 37 °C. The Δcaf mutant was as virulent as WT CO92 in the pneumonic plague mouse model; however, it was attenuated in developing bubonic plague. Both dipsticks had similar sensitivities, requiring a minimum of 0.5 μg/ml of purified F1 antigen or 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml of WT CO92 for positive results, while the blood samples were negative for up to 1 × 10(8) CFU/ml of the Δcaf mutant. Our studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of two plague dipsticks in detecting capsular-positive strains of Y. pestis in bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  20. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  1. Karyotype analysis of mithun (Bos frontalis) and mithun bull x Brahman cow hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, K-X; He, Z-X; Nie, W-H; Zhang, J-C; Jin, X-D; Yang, G-R; Yuan, X-P; Huang, B-Z; Zhang, Y-P; Zan, L-S

    2012-01-19

    We examined the cytogenetics of mithun (Bos frontalis), a domesticated version of the Asian gaur, and hybrids (F(1) generation) produced by artificial insemination of Brahman cows (Bos indicus) with mithun semen. Reproductive potential was also examined in the F(1) generation and a backcrossed heifer for utilization of heterosis. Metaphase chromosome spreads were examined by conventional staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization hybridized with the entire chromosome 1 of mithun as a specific probe. Chromosome 1 of mithun was found to be equivalent to Bos taurus chromosomes 2 and 28. The karyotype of the female mithun (N = 4) comprised 58 chromosomes, including 54 acrocentric and four large submetacentric chromosomes, without the four acrocentric chromosomes found in the domesticated species B. indicus. However, one of the four female mithuns with a normal mithun phenotype had an abnormal karyotype (2n = 59), indicating introgression from B. taurus or B. indicus. The F(1) karyotypes (N = 6, 3♂3♀) of the mithun bull × Brahman cow cross had 2n = 59, intermediate between their parents; they were consistent heterozygous carriers with a centric fusion involving rob(2;28), as expected. Two pronounced red signals were seen in the mithun karyotypes, three red signals in the mithun × Brahman hybrids, and four red signals in the Brahman cattle, in good agreement with centric fusion of bovine rob(2;28). The female backcross hybrid (N = 1) with 2n = 59 had a similar chromosome configuration to the F(1) karyotypes and had rob(2;28). Such female backcross hybrids normally reproduce; however, the F(1) bulls (N = 3) had not yet generated normal sperm at 24 months.

  2. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from ... Key words: Solanum, genome, phenotype, taxonomy, evolution, interspecific hybridization, pollen viability, ..... This development affirms the views of .... The origins of.

  3. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Congfei; Karim, Sazzad; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6) functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression), GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active) and RabF1S47N (dominant negative) lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1−29, N-terminus) complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS) than wild-type and rabF1. PMID:28157156

  4. Repression of androgen receptor transcription through the E2F1/DNMT1 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad David Valdez

    Full Text Available Although androgen receptor (AR function has been extensively studied, regulation of the AR gene itself has been much less characterized. In this study, we observed a dramatic reduction in the expression of androgen receptor mRNA and protein in hyperproliferative prostate epithelium of keratin 5 promoter driven E2F1 transgenic mice. To confirm an inhibitory function for E2F1 on AR transcription, we showed that E2F1 inhibited the transcription of endogenous AR mRNA, subsequent AR protein, and AR promoter activity in both human and mouse epithelial cells. E2F1 also inhibited androgen-stimulated activation of two AR target gene promoters. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of E2F-mediated inhibition of AR, we evaluated the effects of two functional E2F1 mutants on AR promoter activity and found that the transactivation domain appears to mediate E2F1 repression of the AR promoter. Because DNMT1 is a functional intermediate of E2F1 we examined DNMT1 function in AR repression. Repression of endogenous AR in normal human prostate epithelial cells was relieved by DNMT1 shRNA knock down. DNMT1 was shown to be physically associated within the AR minimal promoter located 22 bps from the transcription start site; however, methylation remained unchanged at the promoter regardless of DNMT1 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that DNMT1 operates either as a functional intermediary or in cooperation with E2F1 inhibiting AR gene expression in a methylation independent manner.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.669(f)-1A - Character of capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of capital gain. 1.669(f)-1A Section 1... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(f)-1A Character of capital gain. Amounts distributed as a capital gain... the gain had with respect to the trust. Thus, a capital gain that was taxed to the trust as a...

  7. 新西兰Hulme F1公路超级跑车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    新西兰Kiwi公司开发的 F1公路超级跑车将于今年登场。该车以1967年F1大奖赛冠军得主新西兰人Denny Hulme名字命名为Hulme。它用了两年时间进行设计和打造。

  8. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  9. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  10. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  11. NR2F1 controls tumor cell dormancy via SOX9 and RARβ driven quiescence programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Maria Soledad; Parikh, Falguni; Maia, Alexandre Gaspar; Estrada, Yeriel; Bosch, Almudena; Bragado, Paloma; Ekpin, Esther; George, Ajish; Zheng, Yang; Lam, Hung-Ming; Morrissey, Colm; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Farias, Eduardo F.; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases can originate from disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), which may be dormant for years before reactivation. Here we find that the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 is epigenetically upregulated in experimental HNSCC dormancy models and in DTCs from prostate cancer patients carrying dormant disease for 7–18 years. NR2F1-dependent dormancy is recapitulated by a co-treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-C and retinoic acid across various cancer types. NR2F1-induced quiescence is dependent on SOX9, RARβ and CDK inhibitors. Intriguingly, NR2F1 induces global chromatin repression and the pluripotency gene NANOG, which contributes to dormancy of DTCs in the bone marrow. When NR2F1 is blocked in vivo, growth arrest or survival of dormant DTCs is interrupted in different organs. We conclude that NR2F1 is a critical node in dormancy induction and maintenance by integrating epigenetic programs of quiescence and survival in DTCs. PMID:25636082

  12. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. An investigation into beef calf mortality on five high-altitude ranches that selected sires with low pulmonary arterial pressures for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Joseph M; Gould, Daniel H; Garry, Franklyn B; Knight, Anthony P; Dargatz, David A; Holt, Timothy N

    2013-03-01

    Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due to the extensive mountainous terrain over which these calves are grazed with their dams. The objective of the current study was to determine the causes of calf mortality on 5 high-altitude ranches in Colorado that have been selectively breeding sires with low pulmonary pressure (branding (6 weeks of age) in the spring to weaning in the fall (7 months of age). Clinical signs were recorded, and blood samples were taken from sick calves. Postmortem examinations were performed, and select tissue samples were submitted for aerobic culture and/or histopathology. On the principal study ranch, 9.6% (59/612) of the calves that were branded in the spring either died or were presumed dead by weaning in the fall. In total, 28 necropsies were performed: 14 calves (50%) had lesions consistent with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure, and 14 calves (50%) died from bronchopneumonia. Remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was evident in the former and to varying degrees in the latter. There is a need to better characterize the additional risk factors that complicate pulmonary arterial pressure testing of herd sires as a strategy to control pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N; Morrow, W E M; See, M T; Oh, S-H

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY), Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY) or Tamworth (TY) boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg), feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight) or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas) system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d) were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (pgrowth performance in the outdoor environment was satisfactory.

  15. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype F1 in Angola, Brazil and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Gonzalo; Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype F1 is exceptionally prevalent in Angola, Brazil and Romania. The epidemiological context in which the spread of HIV occurred was highly variable from one country to another, mainly due to the existence of a long-term civil war in Angola and the contamination of a large number of children in Romania. Here we apply phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to reconstruct the phylodynamic patterns of HIV-1 subtype F1 in such different epidemiological settings. The phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtype F1 pol sequences sampled worldwide confirmed that most sequences from Angola, Brazil and Romania segregated in country-specific monophyletic groups, while most subtype F1 sequences from Romanian children branched as a monophyletic sub-cluster (Romania-CH) nested within sequences from adults. The inferred time of the most recent common ancestor of the different subtype F1 clades were as follow: Angola=1983 (1978-1989), Brazil=1977 (1972-1981), Romania adults=1980 (1973-1987), and Romania-CH=1985 (1978-1989). All subtype F1 clades showed a demographic history best explained by a model of logistic population growth. Although the expansion phase of subtype F1 epidemic in Angola (mid 1980s to early 2000s) overlaps with the civil war period (1975-2002), the mean estimated growth rate of the Angolan F1 clade (0.49 year(-1)) was not exceptionally high, but quite similar to that estimated for the Brazilian (0.69 year(-1)) and Romanian adult (0.36 year(-1)) subtype F1 clades. The Romania-CH subtype F1 lineage, by contrast, displayed a short and explosive dissemination phase, with a median growth rate (2.47 year(-1)) much higher than that estimated for adult populations. This result supports the idea that the AIDS epidemic that affected the Romanian children was mainly caused by the spread of the HIV through highly efficient parenteral transmission networks, unlike adult populations where HIV is predominantly transmitted through sexual route.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Development of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres vaccine against plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang SS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shih-shiung Huang,1 I-Hsun Li,2,3 Po-da Hong,1 Ming-kung Yeh1,2,41Biomedical Engineering Program, Graduate Institute of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide/polyethylene glycol (PEG (PLGA/PEG microspheres were produced using a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion/solvent extraction technique and assayed for their percent yield, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro release properties, and in vivo animal protect efficacy. The Y. pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres (mean particle size 3.8 µm exhibited a high loading capacity (4.5% w/w, yield (85.2%, and entrapment efficiency (38.1%, and presented a controlled in vitro release profile with a low initial burst (18.5%, then continued to release Y. pestis F1 antigen over 70 days. The distribution (% of Y. pestis F1 on the microspheres surface, outer layer, and core was 3.1%, 28.9%, and 60.7%, respectively. A steady release rate was noticed to be 0.55 µg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres/day of Y. pestis F1 antigen release maintained for 42 days. The cumulative release amount at the 1st, 28th, and 42nd days was 8.2, 26.7, and 31.0 µg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres, respectively. The 100 times median lethal dose 50% (LD50 of Y. pestis Yokohama-R strain by intraperitoneal injection challenge in mice test, in which mice received one dose of 40 µg F1 antigen content of PLGA/PEG microspheres, F1 antigen in Al(OH3, and in comparison with F1 antigen in Al(OH3 vaccine in two doses, was evaluated after given by subcutaneous

  19. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis.

  20. Cooperative activation of tissue-specific genes by pRB and E2F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephen; Xu, Fuhua; Moran, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB is conventionally regarded as an inhibitor of the E2F family of transcription factors. Conversely, pRB is also recognized as an activator of tissue-specific gene expression along various lineages including osteoblastogenesis. During osteoblast differentiation, pRB directly targets Alpl and Bglap, which encode the major markers of osteogenesis alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Surprisingly, p130 and repressor E2Fs were recently found to cooccupy and repress Alpl and Bglap in proliferating osteoblast precursors before differentiation. This raises the further question of whether these genes convert to E2F activation targets when differentiation begins, which would constitute a remarkable situation wherein pRB and E2F would be cotargeting genes for activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in an osteoblast differentiation model shows that Alpl and Bglap are indeed targeted by an activator E2F, i.e., is E2F1. Promoter occupation of Alpl and Bglap by E2F1 occurs specifically during activation, and depletion of E2F1 severely impairs their induction. Mechanistically, promoter occupation by E2F1 and pRB is mutually dependent, and without this cooperative effect, activation steps previously shown to be dependent on pRB, including recruitment of RNA polymerase II, are impaired. Myocyte- and adipocyte-specific genes are also cotargeted by E2F1 and pRB during differentiation along their respective lineages. The finding that pRB and E2F1 cooperate to activate expression of tissue-specific genes is a paradigm distinct from the classical concept of pRB as an inhibitor of E2F1, but is consistent with the observed roles of these proteins in physiological models.

  1. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Talamillo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval-pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor, the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues.

  2. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  3. Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Whitley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY, Berkshire (BY, Large Black (LBY or Tamworth (TY boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg, feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (p<0.05. For birth weight, BY pigs were the lightest, TY and YY pigs were the heaviest but similar to each other and LBY pigs were intermediate. For weaning weights, BY and LBY pigs were heavier than TY and YY pigs. However, litter birth and weaning weights were not influenced by sire breed, and average daily gain was also not significantly different among breed types. Tamworth sired pigs had lower overall body weight gain, and feed conversion was lower in TY and YY groups than BY and LBY groups (p<0.05, however, number of observations was somewhat limited for feed conversion and for Tamworth pigs. Overall, no convincing differences among breed types were noted for this study, but growth performance in

  4. Molecular cloning of chicken FTZ-F1-related orphan receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, T; Sutou, S

    1997-09-15

    FTZ-F1 is a member of the orphan nuclear receptors, which belongs to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, and plays a role in the blastoderm and nervous system development in Drosophila. Recently, several FTZ-F1 family genes have been cloned in several species. SF-1/Ad4BPs have been identified as master regulators controlling steroidogenic P-450 genes in mammals and are considered to be the mammalian homologues of FTZ-F1. Moreover, SF-1/Ad4BP plays a critical role in the sexual differentiation of gonads in mammals. In vertebrates, except for mammals, the functional homologue of SF-1/Ad4BP has not been identified before. Herein, we cloned two chicken cDNAs (OR2.0 and OR2.1), which encode putative FTZ-F1 family receptors, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). OR2.1 consists of 3255 bp, is expressed in the adrenal glands and gonads, and is considered to be the chicken counterpart of mammalian SF-1/Ad4BP. However, OR2.0 consists of 2945 bp, is expressed in the livers and the adrenal glands, and is considered to be the chicken counterpart of mouse LRH-1, which is a member of the FTZ-F1 family in mammals.

  5. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-08-25

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼ 1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than k(B)T per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼ 1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines.

  6. Induction of DNA synthesis and apoptosis are separable functions of E2F-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, A C; Bates, S; Ryan, K M;

    1997-01-01

    The family of E2F transcription factors have an essential role in mediating cell cycle progression, and recently, one of the E2F protein family, E2F-1, has been shown to participate in the induction of apoptosis. Cooperation between E2F and the p53 tumor suppressor protein in this apoptotic...... response had led to the suggestion that cell cycle progression induced by E2F-1 expression provides an apoptotic signal when placed in conflict with an arrest to cell cycle progression, such as provided by p53. We show here that although apoptosis is clearly enhanced by p53, E2F-1 can induce significant...... apoptosis in the absence of p53. Furthermore, this apoptotic function of E2F-1 is separable from the ability to accelerate entry into DNA synthesis. Analysis of E2F-1 mutants indicates that although DNA-binding is required, transcriptional transactivation is not necessary for the induction of apoptosis by E...

  7. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters.

  8. E2F1 in renal cancer: Mr Hyde disguised as Dr Jekyll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weihua; Cui, Fenggong; Esteban, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factor E2F1 has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties, depending on the context. Clarifying the function of E2F1 in different types of cancer is relevant because in those situations in which it acts as an oncogene there may be a route for therapeutic interference. Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent form of kidney cancer in adults and inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene underlies most cases. This malignancy represents a challenge for standard therapies due to drug- and radio-resistance, effects that fit well within the scope of functions of E2F1. A new report by Mans et al postulates that up-regulation of E2F1 in VHL-defective renal cell carcinoma induces cell senescence and can thus be considered a good prognostic factor. Here we discuss these findings in a wider context and propose that E2F1 may actually not play a uniform role in renal cell carcinoma but rather an ambiguous one whose deeper understanding could have practical implications. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Miyagishi, Makoto [Molecular Composite Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Wu, Shourong, E-mail: shourongwu@hotmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  10. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs, which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae. The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1 and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides.

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(f)-1 - Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property. 1.167(f)-1 Section 1.167(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(f)-1 Reduction of salvage value taken into account for...

  12. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  13. Conditional E2F1 activation in transgenic mice causes testicular atrophy and dysplasia mimicking human CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Karl; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Holmberg, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    E2F1 is a crucial downstream effector of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway. To address the consequences of short-term increase in E2F1 activity in adult tissues, we generated transgenic mice expressing the human E2F1 protein fused to the oestrogen receptor (ER) ligand-binding domain...

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Pou2f1 All cell types SRX877595,SRX877...592 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  16. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  17. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    cleanliness was explored but no effect was found. In the second study, potential herd and cow level risk factors for poor hind leg cleanliness were evaluated. Data were obtained from a cross sectional study in 42 commercial dairy herds conducted by senior scientist Peter T. Thomsen. Here, no access to pasture......-sociated with a change in the risk hind leg cleanliness with the data available in the pre-sent study. However, a positive effect of the automatic hoof was found by demonstrating that washed feet were affected by DD lesions in fewer weeks in comparison to unwashed feet. Also, the last study demonstrated that the cows......’ risk of DD occurrence and it prospects of cure might depend on lactation stage and age. Furthermore, the study brings forward evidence that challenge the assumptions of DD as a disease with generally slow healing lesions and rare occurrence of spontaneous healing. Further research is needed to find out...

  18. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo;

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim...... of scoring, age at first calving, lactation stage, and parity in addition to additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. The heritability of the loser cow score was 0.08 and for the underlying traits the heritability ranged from 0.05 to 0.12. The genetic correlations between various pairs...

  19. BMW Sauber F1 Team 车队专用——BMW X PUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian

    2007-01-01

    Puma x F1.第一时间会想起Puma与法拉利车队合作的法拉利系列.还有,Puma更与法拉利签下长期合作协议。可是.最近却杀出个程咬金-BMW Sauber F1 Team车队,说的是Puma与宝马车队联合设计的新系.当中最注目的有这双Kart Cat Ⅱ F1赛车鞋.鞋形延用Puma Cat一贯的流线形设计,除了用上宝马车队专用的宝蓝色外.中底更用上Puma CeⅡ蜂巢缓震系统,算是向法拉利车队示威吧!

  20. The Resistance of Chinese Wild Vitis to Uncinula necator and its Inheritance in F1 Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-xia; WANG Yue-jin; XU Yan

    2002-01-01

    By natural field identification, the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis to Uncinula necator and its inheritance in F1 generation were studied with 35 clones of 9 Chinese wild Vitis species, 171 F1 individuals of 4 inter-species cross between Chinese wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, and 16 individuals of selfpollinated Chinese wild Vitis. Results showed that the phenotypes of resistance to Uncinula necator in Chinese wild Vitis and its F1 generation were rich and diverse. Based on the segregation of resisitance to Uncinula necator in the progenies resulted from both interspecific hybridization and self-pollination, of Chinese native wild Vitis species and clones were controlled by polygenes showing dominant independent heredity. Minor resistant genes were also exist in Chinese wild susceptible Vitis species and clones.

  1. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F =1 atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooshin; Seo, Sang Won; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of 23Na atoms in the F =1 hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations in the presence of a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the F =1 absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of 23Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe-beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in the quantitative analysis of F =1 spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali-metal atoms with I =3 /2 nuclear spin such as 87Rb.

  2. Types of tree growth and fruit setting in F1 apple hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available 1656 F1 hybrid apple seedlings, belonging to 127 combinations, have been screened according to their growing and fruit setting types, as it was phenotypically expressed. LESPINASSE (1977; 1992 amalgamated these two traits into a single one which was named ";ideotype";. The screened F1 individuals have been considered as resembling one of the following four architectural ideotypes of the trees indicated by Lespinasse: columnar, spur, standard and weeping. Different ratios of spur, standard and columnar F1 individuals were obtained depending on genitors and on the fact that a certain genitor had been used as a maternal or paternal partner in direct/reciprocal crosses. The monogenic inheritance of the columnar ideotype, proposed by Kelsey and Brown (1992; Lane (1992, does not seem to be the only genetic mechanism involved in the inheritance of this trait. Our experimental results suggest the polygenic determination of this ideotype as more probable than the monogenic one.

  3. 墨西哥考虑2010年重返F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    F1最早一次造访墨西哥是1962年,中间反复了两次,最后一次承办是1992年。墨西哥此后一直嚷嚷要重新承办F1,但这次是非常认真的,计划在2010年重返F1赛历。据来自墨西哥的消息称,有很多地方考虑新建赛道,其中呼声最高的是位于尤卡坦半岛的坎昆,另外两个地点是Puebla和Tijuana。

  4. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD......; 2) To identify potential risk factors for poor cow leg cleanliness; and 3) To gain more knowledge about potential means of controlling DD. Data was obtained from three studies conducted in commercial Danish dairy herds and the results are presented in four scientific papers. In the first study, cow...

  5. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... act as an infection reservoir. Measures of cow leg cleanliness can be used as a proxy of the hygienic conditions on the floors. Nonetheless, only few studies have used direct measures of cleanliness in association with the risk of DD. Also, little is known about what factors can influence the cow leg...

  6. Cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen levels in cars, dwellings and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesler, A; Ścigała, G; Łudzeń-Izbińska, B

    Pets are an important source of indoor allergens. The aim of the study was to compare cat and dog allergen levels in cars, schools and homes. The study was carried out in 17 cars, 14 classrooms and 19 dwellings located in the highly industrialized and urbanized region of Poland. Dust and air samples were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 using a double monoclonal ELISA assay. The highest amounts of cat and dog allergens (Fel d 1: 1169 μg/g; Can f 1: 277 μg/g) were found in dwellings with pets. Allergen concentrations were correlated with the number of animals kept at home. Although concentrations on automobile seats were lower, Fel d 1 levels exceeded 8 μg/g in 23.5 % of cars and high levels of Can f 1 (>10 μg/g) were found in 17.6 % of cars. The study revealed that cars of pet owners may be reservoirs of cat and dog allergens even when animals are not transported in them. In schools, concentrations of pet allergens did not reach high levels, but the moderate levels of Fel d 1 (≥1-8 μg/g) and Can f 1 (≥2-10 μg/g) were detected in 42.9 and 7.1 % of the investigated classrooms. Concentrations of cat and dog allergen in schools were higher than in homes without pets. While airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels were found low, residential allergen concentrations in settled dust and air were correlated. The study results suggest that classrooms and cars of pet owners may be important sites of exposure to cat and dog allergens, though the highest concentrations of Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are found in homes of pet owners.

  7. Operating principles of rotary molecular motors: differences between F1 and V1 motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Murata, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Among the many types of bioenergy-transducing machineries, F- and V-ATPases are unique bio- and nano-molecular rotary motors. The rotational catalysis of F1-ATPase has been investigated in detail, and molecular mechanisms have been proposed based on the crystal structures of the complex and on extensive single-molecule rotational observations. Recently, we obtained crystal structures of bacterial V1-ATPase (A3B3 and A3B3DF complexes) in the presence and absence of nucleotides. Based on these new structures, we present a novel model for the rotational catalysis mechanism of V1-ATPase, which is different from that of F1-ATPases.

  8. An approximation for zero-balanced Appell function $F_1$ near $(1,1)$

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest an approximation for the zero-balanced Appell hypergeometric function $F_1$ near the singular point $(1,1)$. Our approximation can be viewed as a generalization of Ramanujan's approximation for zero-balanced ${_2F_1}$ and is expressed in terms of ${_3F_2}$. We find an error bound and prove some basic properties of the suggested approximation which reproduce the similar properties of the Appell function. Our approximation reduces to the approximation of Carlson-Gustafson when the Ap...

  9. HMGA2 induces pituitary tumorigenesis by enhancing E2F1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedele, Monica; Visone, Rosa; De Martino, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    HMGA2 gene amplification and overexpression in human prolactinomas and the development of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2 transgenic mice showed that HMGA2 plays a crucial role in pituitary tumorigenesis. We have explored the pRB/E2F1 pathway to investigate the mechanism by which HMGA2 acts. Here we......2 mice. Thus, HMGA2-mediated E2F1 activation is a crucial event in the onset of these tumors in transgenic mice and probably also in human prolactinomas....

  10. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two diffe...

  11. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Jiang

    Full Text Available The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance.

  12. Measurement of growth curve in F1 generation of Rongshui miniature pig%融水小型猪 F1代生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施赫赫; 陈淦; 刘运忠; 刘科; 邝少松; 任海涛; 余细勇; 唐小江

    2015-01-01

    目的:测定融水小型猪F1代体重和体尺。方法选取F1代融水小型猪83头(雌性48头,雄性35头),测定初生至12月龄的体重、体长、体高、胸围、胸宽、胸深、管围、腿围、嘴裂长度共9个生长发育指标,并应用SPSS统计软件和Logistic非线性生长模型进行分析。结果融水小型猪F1代的初生体重雌雄分别为0.61±0.14 kg和0.55±0.13 kg,6月龄体重雌雄分别为17.21±5.20 kg和16.35±5.23 kg,12月龄体重雌雄分别为26.97±6.49 kg和26.53±5.65 kg。雌雄比较,9项指标所测结果接近,除了初生体重和体长、10月龄胸宽有差异( P <0.05),其余指标同月龄雌雄之间均无明显差异。应用Logistic模型分析,体重生长拐点在5~6月龄间,体长和腿围生长拐点在2~3月龄间,体高、胸围、胸宽、胸深、管围和嘴裂长度的生长拐点在1~2月龄间。结论融水小型猪F1代成年体重轻,性情温顺,具备培养成实验用小型猪基本条件。%Objective To measure the body weight and body size of the F1 generation in Rongshui miniature pig ( RMP ).Methods 83 F1 generations of RMPs (48 females and 35 males) were selected randomly.9 traits included body-weight, body-length, body-height, chest-circumference, chest-breadth, chest-depth, circum of pastern, girth of leg and rictus were measured, and analyzed statistically by SPSS statistical software and Logistic nonlinear growth analysis model.Results In the F1 generations of RMP, the weights of birth day、6thmonth and 12th month of female and male were 0.61 ±0.14 kg and 0.55 ±0.13 kg, 17.21 ±5.20 kg and 16.35 ±5.23 kg, 26.97 ±6.49 kg and 26.53 ±5.65 kg respectively.There was no difference significantly between the genders of the 9 measured traits except for born-weight, born-length and chest-breadth in 10th month ( P <0.05 ).According to the analysis in Logistic model, body-weight inflection point was between 5th -6th month, body length

  13. Structures of the thermophilic F1-ATPase epsilon subunit suggesting ATP-regulated arm motion of its C-terminal domain in F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiromasa; Kajiwara, Nobumoto; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2007-07-03

    The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ATP-bound epsilon subunit from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 at 1.9-A resolution. The C-terminal two alpha-helices were folded into a hairpin, sitting on the beta sandwich structure, as reported for Escherichia coli. A previously undescribed ATP binding motif, I(L)DXXRA, recognizes ATP together with three arginine and one glutamate residues. The E. coli epsilon subunit binds ATP in a similar manner, as judged on NMR. We also determined solution structures of the C-terminal domain of the PS3 epsilon subunit and relaxation parameters of the whole molecule by NMR. The two helices fold into a hairpin in the presence of ATP but extend in the absence of ATP. The latter structure has more helical regions and is much more flexible than the former. These results suggest that the epsilon C-terminal domain can undergo an arm-like motion in response to an ATP concentration change and thereby contribute to regulation of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase.

  14. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  15. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  17. 76 FR 28997 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Haitian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... earthquake. See 75 FR 3476. Haiti has limited resources to cope with a natural disaster like this earthquake... students whose country of citizenship is Haiti and who are experiencing severe economic hardship as a... requirements governing on-campus and off-campus employment for F-1 nonimmigrant students whose country...

  18. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  19. E. coli F1-ATPase interacts with a membrane protein component of a proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J E; Saraste, M; Gay, N J

    1982-08-26

    The ATP synthases of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, which use the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient to power the synthesis of ATP, consist of an integral membrane component F0--thought to contain a proton channel--and a catalytic component, F1. To help investigate the way F0 and F1 are coupled, we have sequenced the b-subunit of the Escherichia coli F0, which seems to be the counterpart of a thermophilic bacteria F0 subunit thought to be essential for F1 binding. We report here that its sequence is remarkable, being hydrophobic around the N-terminus and highly charged in the remainder. We propose that the N-terminal segment lies in the membrane and the rest outside. The extramembranous section contains two adjacent stretches of 31 amino acids where the sequence is very similar: in the second of these stretches there is further internal homology. These duplicated stretches of the polypeptide probably fold into two alpha-helices which have many common features able to make contact with F1 subunits. Thus protein b occupies a central position in the enzyme, where it may be involved in proton translocation. It is possibly also important in biosynthetic assembly.

  20. Nucleotide occupancy of F1-ATPase catalytic sites under crystallization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbau, S; Weber, J; Senior, A E

    1997-03-03

    Using site-directed tryptophan fluorescence we studied nucleotide occupancy of the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, under conditions used previously for crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of the bovine mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams et al. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628]. We found that only two of the three catalytic sites were filled in the E. coli enzyme under these conditions (250 microM MgAMPPNP plus 5 microM MgADP), consistent with what was reported in the bovine F1 X-ray structure. However, subsequent addition of a physiological concentration of MgATP readily filled the third catalytic site. Therefore the enzyme form seen in the X-ray structure results from the fact that it is obtained under sub-saturating nucleotide conditions. The data show that the X-ray structure is compatible with a catalytic mechanism in which all three F1-ATPase catalytic sites must fill with MgATP to initiate steady-state hydrolysis [e.g. Weber and Senior (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1275, 101-104]. The data further demonstrate that the site-directed tryptophan fluorescence technique can provide valuable support for F1 crystallography studies.

  1. Localization of Magic-F1 Transgene, Involved in Muscular Hypertrophy, during Early Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Bongio, Matilde; Conte, Silvio; Vercesi, Luigi; Cassano, Marco; Tribioli, Carla; Galli, Daniela; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that Magic-F1 (Met-activating genetically improved chimeric factor 1), a human recombinant protein derived from hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) induces muscle cell hypertrophy but not progenitor cell proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we examined the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Magic-F1 in comparison with Pax3 (paired box gene 3) transcription factor during embryogenesis. Ranging from 9.5 to 17.5 dpc (days post coitum) mouse embryos were analyzed by in situ hybridization using whole mounts during early stages of development (9.5–10.5–11.5 dpc) and cryostat sections for later stages (11.5–13.5–15.5–17.5 dpc). We found that Magic-F1 is expressed in developing organs and tissues of mesenchymal origin, where Pax3 signal appears to be downregulated respect to the wt embryos. These data suggest that Magic-F1 could be responsible of muscular hypertrophy, cooperating with Pax3 signal pathway in skeletal muscle precursor cells. PMID:22187527

  2. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  3. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  4. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  5. Induction og 2n gametes for overcoming F1-sterility in lily and tulip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barba Gonzalez, R.; Miller, C.T.; Ramanna, M.S.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2006-01-01

    For overcoming F1-sterility in interspecific hybrids, mitotic and meiotic polyploidisation is applied in lily and can result in fertile allopolyploids. The mechanism of viable pollen production of mitotic and meiotic polyploidisation is quite different. Mitotic polyploids are obtained by artificial

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BU1F-1OOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BU1F-1OOTA 1BU1 1OOT F A -IIVVALYDYEAIHHEDLSFQKGDQMVVLEES---GEWW...4> 1OOT A 1OOTA ...in> -2.4820001125335693 10.661999702453613 46.814998626708984 ...8 -0.6930000185966492 -0.30300000309944153 tion> 2.081804037094116 A 1OOTA WTGRV--NGREG

  7. Linkage analysis and map construction in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we considered four categories of molecular markers based on the number of distinguishable alleles at the marker locus and the number of distinguishable genotypes in clonal F1 progenies. For two marker loci, there are nine scenarios that allow the estimation of female, male, and/or combined recombination frequencies. In a double cross population derived from four inbred lines, five categories of markers are classified and another five scenarios are present for recombination frequency estimation. Theoretical frequencies of identifiable genotypes were given for each scenario, from which the maximum likelihood estimates of one or more of the three recombination frequencies could be estimated. If there was no analytic solution, then Newton-Raphson method was used to acquire a numerical solution. We then proposed to use an algorithm in Traveling Salesman Problem to determine the marker order. Finally, we proposed a procedure to build the two haploids of the female parent and the two haploids of the male parent in clonal F1. Once the four haploids were built, clonal F1 hybrids could be exactly regarded as a double cross population. Efficiency of the proposed methods was demonstrated in simulated clonal F1 populations and one actual maize double cross. Extensive comparisons with software JoinMap4.1, OneMap, and R/qtl show that the methodology proposed in this article can build more accurate linkage maps in less time.

  8. E2F1 is crucial for E2F-dependent apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Helin, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Loss of the retinoblastoma protein, pRB, leads to apoptosis, and several results have suggested that this is dependent on the E2F transcription factors. However, so far, the ability of the different E2F family members to contribute to apoptosis is controversial. Here, we show that ectopic...... expression of E2F3 results in apoptosis in both primary mouse fibroblasts and transgenic mice. Apoptosis induced by E2F3 is associated with the accumulation of E2F1 and, strikingly, we found that E2F3-induced apoptosis is dependent on E2F1. On the basis of these results, we propose that the accumulation...... of crucial levels of E2F1 activity, and not total E2F activity, is essential for the induction of apoptosis in response to a deregulated pRB pathway. These results are consistent with previous findings that E2F1, but not other E2Fs, can have tumour-suppressing activities....

  9. Less is more: reduced catechol production permits Pseudomonas putida F1 to grow on styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W; Hay, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonas putida F1 is unable to grow on styrene due to the accumulation of 3-vinylcatechol, a toxic metabolite that is produced through the toluene degradation (tod) pathway and causes catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) inactivation. In this study, we characterized a spontaneous F1 mutant, designated SF1, which acquired the ability to grow on styrene and did not accumulate 3-vinylcatechol. Whereas adaptation to new aromatic substrates has typically been shown to involve increased C23O activity or the acquisition of resistance to C23O inactivation, SF1 retained wild-type C23O activity. Surprisingly, SF1 grew more slowly on toluene, its native substrate, and exhibited reduced toluene dioxygenase (TDO) activity (approximately 50 % of that of F1), the enzyme responsible for ring hydroxylation and subsequent production of 3-vinylcatechol. DNA sequence analysis of the tod operon of SF1 revealed a single base pair mutation in todA (C479T), a gene encoding the reductase component of TDO. Replacement of the wild-type todA allele in F1 with todA(C479T) reduced TDO activity to SF1 levels, obviated vinylcatechol accumulation, and conferred the ability to grow on styrene. This novel 'less is more' strategy - reduced catechol production as a means to expand growth substrate range - sheds light on an alternative approach for managing catechol toxicity during the metabolism of aromatic compounds.

  10. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K;

    2001-01-01

    -sensitive retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a shift to a permissive temperature induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. In U2OS cells stably expressing an E2F1-estrogen receptor chimeric protein that could be activated by tamoxifen, PAI-1 gene transcription was markedly reduced by tamoxifen even in the presence of cycloheximide...

  11. Inheritance of S-genotypes in Paviot × Kabaasi apricot F1 progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Tuğba Murathan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility plays an important role in the fertilization of fruit species such as apricot. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shows gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. In this study, S-alleles of 77 F1 progenies derived from Paviot, which is one of the French local cultivars, and Kabaasi, one of the most important Turkish dried apricot cultivars, parents were identified by S-RNase intron regions polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The results from the S-allele PCR analysis revealed that the Paviot female parent had an ScS2 genotype and the Kabaasi male parent had S1S9 alleles. Forty-three of the F1 progenies showed self-compatibility allele (Sc by having either ScS9 or ScS1 alleles. Thirty-four of the F1 progenies were self-incompatible by having either S2S1 or S2S9 alleles. The distributions of detected alleles in F1 progenies were determined as follows: ScS1 31.2%, S1S2 27.3%, ScS9 24.7% and S2S9 16.8%. The results from the study are relevant for the data obtained in apricot breeding programmes in the selection of crossing combinations and in the establishment of commercial orchards.

  12. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  13. 78 FR 69538 - Attestation Process for Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... workers, Employment, Employment and training, Enforcement, Forest and forest products, Fraud, Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers, Nonimmigrant workers, Passports... employers seeking to hire F-1 foreign students as part-time workers off-campus. These subparts...

  14. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  15. In Utero Nutritional Manipulation Provokes Dysregulated Adipocytokines Production in F1 Offspring in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Y. Hanafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as diabetes. Diabetes and obesity are associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal obesity and malnutrition on adipokines production (adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α in F1 offspring in rats. Materials and Methods. Wistar rats were allocated in groups: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CF1-CD and under high-fat diet (CF1-HCD, F1 offspring of obese mothers under CD (OF1-CD and under HCD (OF1-HCD, and F1 offspring of malnourished mothers under CD (MF1-CD and under HCD (MF1-HCD. Every 5 weeks postnatally, blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results. At the end of the 30-week follow-up, OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD exhibited hyperinsulinemia, moderate dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD demonstrated low serum levels of adiponectin and high levels of leptin compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-CD, OF1-HCD, and MF1-HCD had elevated serum levels of TNF-α compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD (p<0.05. Conclusion. Maternal nutritional manipulation predisposes the offspring to development of insulin resistance in their adult life, probably via instigating dysregulated adipokines production.

  16. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  17. Properties of F1-ATPase from the uncD412 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J G; Duncan, T M; Latchney, L R; Cox, D N; Senior, A E

    1983-11-01

    Properties of purified F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli mutant strain AN484 (uncD412) have been studied in an attempt to understand why the amino acid substitution in the beta-subunit of this enzyme causes a tenfold reduction from normal MgATP hydrolysis rate. In most properties that were studied, uncD412 F1-ATPase resembled normal E. coli F1-ATPase. Both enzymes were found to contain a total of six adenine-nucleotide-binding sites, of which three were found to be non-exchangeable and three were exchangeable (catalytic) sites. Binding of the non-hydrolysable substrate analogue adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppA) to the three exchangeable sites showed apparent negative co-operativity. The binding affinities for p[NH]ppA, and also ADP, at the exchangeable sites were similar in the two enzymes. Both enzymes were inhibited by efrapeptin, aurovertin and p[NH]ppA, and were inactivated by dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan and p-fluorosulphonyl-benzoyl-5'-adenosine. Km values for CaATP and MgATP were similar in the two enzymes. uncD412 F1-ATPase was abnormally unstable at high pH, and dissociated into subunits readily with consequent loss of activity. The reason for the impairment of catalysis in uncD412 F1-ATPase cannot be stated with certainty from these studies. However we discuss the possibility that the mutation interrupts subunit interaction, thereby causing a partial impairment in the site-site co-operativity which is required for 'promotion' of catalysis in this enzyme.

  18. Study on the polymorphism of POU1F1 gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan Bai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, POU1F1 gene polymorphism was detected in five sheep populations (large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Lanzhou large-tailed, and Mongolian sheep, using DNA pooling and sequencing, to provide theoretical basis for the breeding of excellent sheep varieties. Three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci of POU1F1 gene were detected in five sheep populations, namely C355T (C/T, C71G (C/G, and C330G (C/G. C and T frequencies of C355T were 0.67/0.33, 0.81/0.19, 0.67/0.33, 1.00/0.00, and 0.93/0.07, respectively, in large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Mongolian, and Lanzhou large-tailed sheep. C of C355T locus was the dominant allele in five sheep populations. C and G allele frequencies of C330G locus were detected in Yuxi fat-tailed sheep; their frequencies were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. C and G allele of C71G locus were only detected in Yuxi fat-tailed and large-tailed Han sheep; their frequencies were 0.87/0.13 and 0.87/0.13, respectively. The cluster analysis based on POU1F1 gene sequence showed that bactrian camel, dromedary, and wild camel clustered first, and dolphin and killer whales clustered according to taxonomy. Although the four species Tibetan antelope, buffalo, goat, and sheep were alone, they got close and the relative genetic relationship was intimate according to the dendrogram. The mutation site analysis of the POU1F1 gene in five sheep populations in this study would be favorable for uncovering the function of POU1F1 gene deeply.

  19. Resveratrol enhances the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by downregulating E2F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuhui; Wei, Xianli; Zhang, Wenyin; Wang, Xiaolan; Wang, Kun; Du, Biaoyan; Xiao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    Identification of safe, effective radiosensitizing agents is urgently needed to improve the outcome of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). In this study, we assessed the ability of the polyphenol resveratrol to act as a radiosensitizer in vitro and in vivo. CNE-1 cells were treated with 50 µM resveratrol for 24 h, then irradiated. E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) was stably knocked down and overexpressed using lentiviruses. A xenograft model of NPC was established in nude mice using CNE-1 cells. Compared to control DMSO‑treated CNE-1 cells, resveratrol inhibited colony-forming ability and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Radiation survival curves confirmed resveratrol significantly sensitized CNE-1 cells, and resveratrol in combination with 2 Gy irradiation synergistically increased apoptosis. Immunoblotting showed resveratrol dose- and time-dependently downregulated E2F1 and phospho-AKT (p-AKT). Knockdown of E2F1 significantly increased radiosensitivity and downregulated p-AKT; overexpression of E2F1 reversed resveratrol-induced radiosensitivity and upregulated p-AKT. In vivo, 50 mg/kg/day resveratrol and 4 Gy irradiation led to significantly lower tumor volume and tumor weight compared to resveratrol or irradiation alone. Our findings show that resveratrol increases the radiosensitivity of NPC cells by downregulating E2F1 and inhibiting p-AKT, and therefore has potential as a radiosensitizer for NPC.

  20. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zejun [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Gong, Chaoju [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Liu, Hong [Zhejiang Normal University – Jinhua People' s Hospital Joint Center for Biomedical Research, Jinhua, Zhejiang, 321004 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Song, Mintao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, 100005 (China); Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Chen, Xiang, E-mail: sychenxiang@126.com [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China)

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  1. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  2. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  3. Purification, crystallization, and properties of F1-ATPase complexes from the thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Achim; Keis, Stefanie; Cook, Gregory M; Dimroth, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported the cloning of the atp operon encoding for the F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase from the extremely thermoalkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1. In this study, the genes encoding the F(1) moiety of the enzyme complex were cloned from the atp operon into the vector pTrc99A and expressed in Escherichia coli in two variant complexes, F(1)-wt consisting of subunits alpha(3)beta(3)gammadeltaepsilon and F(1)Deltadelta lacking the entire delta-subunit as a prerequisite for overproduction and crystallization trials. Both F(1)-wt and F(1)Deltadelta were successfully overproduced in E. coli and purified in high yield and purity. F(1)Deltadelta was crystallized by micro-batch screening yielding three-dimensional crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.1A using a synchrotron radiation source. After establishing cryo and dehydrating conditions, a complete set of diffraction data was collected from a single crystal. No crystals were obtained with F(1)-wt. Data processing of diffraction patterns showed that F(1)Deltadelta crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell parameters of a=121.70, b=174.80, and c=223.50A, alpha, beta, gamma=90.000. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule of bacterial F(1)Deltadelta with a corresponding volume per protein weight (V(M)) of 3.25A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 62.1%. Silver staining of single crystals of F(1)Deltadelta analyzed by SDS-PAGE revealed four bands alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon with identical M(r)-values as those found in the native F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase isolated from strain TA2.A1 membranes. ATPase assays of F(1)Deltadelta crystals exhibited latent ATP hydrolytic activity that was highly stimulated by lauryldimethylamine oxide, a hallmark of the native enzyme.

  4. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1) are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1) produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  5. Production of Hybrid F1 Between Avena magna and Avena nuda and It's Identification%四倍体大燕麦×六倍体裸燕麦的杂种F1的产生及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云云; 周小梅; 杨才

    2003-01-01

    本研究以四倍体大燕麦(Avena magna L.)做母本,六倍体裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)做父本进行杂交,利用幼胚拯救技术获得了杂种F1,并对其后代形态特征进行了观察;对杂种F1同工酶图谱和DNA指纹图谱进行了分析.杂种F1形态特征偏亲本或介于双亲之间;同工酶研究表明多数F1具有双亲互补酶带;RAPD分析不同引物扩增产物F1呈共显性或偏父、偏母.这些结果表明F1为真杂种.

  6. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  7. Further examination of seventeen mutations in Escherichia coli F1-ATPase beta-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, A E; al-Shawi, M K

    1992-10-25

    Seventeen mutations in beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase which had previously been characterized in strain AN1272 (Mu-induced mutant) were expressed in strain JP17 (beta-subunit gene deletion). Six showed unchanged behavior, namely: C137Y; G142D; G146S; G207D; Y297F; and Y354F. Five failed to assemble F1F0 correctly, namely: G149I; G154I; G149I,G154I; G223D; and P403S,G415D. Six assembled F1F0 correctly, but with membrane ATPase lower than in AN1272, namely: K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; D242N; and D242V. AN1272 was shown to unexpectedly produce a small amount of wild-type beta-subunit; F1-ATPase activities reported previously in AN1272 were referable to hybrid enzymes containing both mutant and wild-type beta-subunits. Purified F1 was obtained from K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; and D242N mutants in JP17. Vmax ATPase values were lower, and unisite catalysis rate and equilibrium constants were perturbed to greater extent, than in AN1272. However, general patterns of perturbation revealed by difference energy diagrams were similar to those seen previously, and the new data correlated well in linear free energy relationships for reaction steps of unisite catalysis. Correlation between multisite and unisite ATPase activity was seen in the new enzymes. Overall, the data give strong support to previously proposed mechanisms of unisite catalysis, steady-state catalysis, and energy coupling in F1-ATPases (Al-Shawi, M. K., Parsonage, D. and Senior, A. E. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4402-4410). The K155Q, K155E, D242N, and E181Q mutations caused 5000-fold, 4000-fold, 1800-fold, and 700-fold decrease, respectively, in Vmax ATPase, implying possibly direct roles for these residues in catalysis. Experiments with the D242N mutant suggested a role for residue beta D242 in catalytic site Mg2+ binding.

  8. Recombinant bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase inhibitor protein: overproduction in Escherichia coli, purification, and structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heeke, G; Deforce, L; Schnizer, R A; Shaw, R; Couton, J M; Shaw, G; Song, P S; Schuster, S M

    1993-09-28

    A synthetic gene coding for the inhibitor protein of bovine heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine triphosphatase was designed and cloned in Escherichia coli. Recombinant F1-ATPase inhibitor protein was overproduced in E. coli and secreted to the periplasmic space. Biologically active recombinant F1-ATPase inhibitor protein was recovered from the bacterial cells by osmotic shock and was purified to near homogeneity in a single cation-exchange chromatography step. The recombinant inhibitor protein was shown to inhibit bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase in a pH-dependent manner, as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial F1-ATPase. Thorough analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed a potential coiled-coil structure for the C-terminal portion of the protein. Experimental evidence obtained by circular dichroism analyses supports this prediction and suggests F1I to be a highly stable, mainly alpha-helical protein which displays C-terminal alpha-helical coiled-coil intermolecular interaction.

  9. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  10. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  11. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER.

  12. Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminov, R.G., E-mail: Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Tagirov, L.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, Augsburg D-86159 (Germany); Gaifullin, R.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Karminskaya, T.Yu.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Fominov, Ya.V. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Golubov, A.A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the critical temperature T{sub c} of F2/F1/S trilayers (Fi is a ferromagnetic metal and S is a singlet superconductor), where the long-range triplet superconducting component is generated at noncollinear magnetizations of the F layers. In this paper we demonstrate a possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection (standard switching effect, the triplet spin-valve effect or reentrant T{sub c}(α) dependence) by the variation of the F2/F1 interface transparency. - Highlights: • T{sub c} of FFS trilayer as a function of angle between magnetizations is calculated. • T{sub c} of FFS structure for arbitrary FF interface transparencies γ{sub B} is calculated. • Possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection by the variation of γ{sub B} is shown.

  13. Purification and Activity of Antibacterial Substances Derived from Soil Streptomyces sp.CaiF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YANG; Guixiang PENG; Jianmin ZENG; Zhiyuan TAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to separate and purify antibacterial sub- stances from soil Streptomyces sp. CaiF1, and to explore the activities of this sub- stance. [Method] The antibacterial substances were separated and purified by Ethyl acetate extraction, macroporous adsorptive resin, silica gel chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and powdery mildew were taken as the indicating bacterial to study their activities. [Result] Antibacterial substances were purified and the stability analysis of the extracts from Streptomyces CaiF1 fermentation broth showed very stable at pH 2.0-pH 10.0, 100 ~C and changed very little under UV treatment for 24 h. Inhibition rate of powdery mildew was 69.7%. [Conclusion] The purified antibacterial substances showed good stability, which provided theoretical foundation for their structural identifications and future ap- plications.

  14. Effects of Nonylphenol on Brain Gene Expression Profiles in F1 Generation Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN-YIN XIA; PING ZHANG; YANG WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of nonylphenol on brain gene expression profiles in F1 generation rats by microarray technique.Methods mRNA was extracted from the brain of 2-day old F1 generation male rats Whose F0 female generation was either exposed to nonylphenol or free from nonylphenol exposure,and then it was reversely transcribed to cDNA hbeled with cy5 and cy3 fluorescence.Subsequently,cDNA probes were hybridized to two BiostarR-40S cDNA gene chips and fluorescent signals of cy5 and cy3 were scanned and analyzed. Results Two genes were differentially down-regulated.Conclusion Nonylphenol may disturb the neurcendocrine function of male rats when administered perinatally.

  15. Oral vaccination with salmonella simultaneously expressing Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens protects against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Trunkle, Theresa; Bosio, Catharine M; Suo, Zhiyong; Tighe, Mike; Harmsen, Ann; Becker, Todd; Crist, Kathryn; Walters, Nancy; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W

    2007-01-15

    The gut provides a large area for immunization enabling the development of mucosal and systemic Ab responses. To test whether the protective Ags to Yersinia pestis can be orally delivered, the Y. pestis caf1 operon, encoding the F1-Ag and virulence Ag (V-Ag) were cloned into attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors. F1-Ag expression was controlled under a promoter from the caf1 operon; two different promoters (P), PtetA in pV3, PphoP in pV4, as well as a chimera of the two in pV55 were tested. F1-Ag was amply expressed; the chimera in the pV55 showed the best V-Ag expression. Oral immunization with Salmonella-F1 elicited elevated secretory (S)-IgA and serum IgG titers, and Salmonella-V-Ag(pV55) elicited much greater S-IgA and serum IgG Ab titers than Salmonella-V-Ag(pV3) or Salmonella-V-Ag(pV4). Hence, a new Salmonella vaccine, Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags, made with a single plasmid containing the caf1 operon and the chimeric promoter for V-Ag allowed the simultaneous expression of F1 capsule and V-Ag. Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags elicited elevated Ab titers similar to their monotypic derivatives. For bubonic plague, mice dosed with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags and Salmonella-F1-Ag showed similar efficacy (>83% survival) against approximately 1000 LD(50) Y. pestis. For pneumonic plague, immunized mice required immunity to both F1- and V-Ags because the mice vaccinated with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags protected against 100 LD(50) Y. pestis. These results show that a single Salmonella vaccine can deliver both F1- and V-Ags to effect both systemic and mucosal immune protection against Y. pestis.

  16. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  17. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Wu, C L; Fattaey, A R

    1993-01-01

    homolog of DP-1. Human DP-1 and E2F-1 associate both in vivo and in vitro, and this interaction leads to enhanced binding to E2F DNA-binding sites. The association of E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative activation of an E2F-responsive promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 and DP-1 association...

  18. COW DUNG- A BOON FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSHMITA SHRIVASTAVA*, ALKA MISHRA ARTI PAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  19. Agraphia and acalculia after a left prefrontal (F1, F2) infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tohgi, H; Saitoh, K.; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Takahashi, H; Utsugisawa, K; Yonezawa, H.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1995-01-01

    A patient presented with agraphia and acalculia associated with a left frontal (F1, F2) infarction. He made mainly phonological but also lexical errors in writing (syllabograms), but his ability to write kanji (morphograms) was relatively preserved. Although he could add and subtract numbers, he could neither multiply nor divide them because of a difficulty in retrieving the multiplication tables and calculation procedures. Positron emission tomography showed decreased cerebral blood flow and...

  20. VIIRS F1 "best" relative spectral response characterization by the government team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave

    2011-10-01

    The VIIRS Flight 1 (F1) instrument completed sensor level testing, including relative spectral response (RSR) characterization in 2009 and is moving forward towards a launch on the NPP platform late in 2011. As part of its mandate to produce analyses of F1 performance essentials, the VIIRS Government Team, consisting of NASA, Aerospace Corp., and MIT/Lincoln Lab elements, has produced an independent (from that of industry) analysis of F1 RSR. The test data used to derive RSR for all VIIRS spectral bands was collected in the TVAC environment using the Spectral Measurement Assembly (SpMA), a dual monochromator system with tungsten and ceramic glow bar sources. These spectrally contiguous measurements were analyzed by the Government Team to produce a complete in-band + out-of-band RSR for 21 of the 22 VIIRS bands (exception of the Day-Night Band). The analysis shows that VIIRS RSR was well measured in the pre-launch test program for all bands, although the measurement noise floor is high on the thermal imager band I5. The RSR contain expected detector to detector variation resulting from the VIIRS non-telecentric optical design, and out-of-band features are present in some bands; non-compliances on the integrated out-of-band spectral performance metric are noted in M15 and M16A,B bands and also for several VisNIR bands, though the VisNIR non-compliances were expected due to known scattering in the VisNIR integrated filter assembly. The Government Team "best" RSR have been released into the public domain for use by the science community in preparation for the post-launch era of VIIRS F1.

  1. Mitogenic Sonic hedgehog signaling drives E2F1-dependent lipogenesis in progenitor cells and Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Bobby; Hsieh, Michael; Kenney, Anna Marie; Nahlé, Zaher

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation of the Rb/E2F tumor suppressor complex and aberrantion of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling are documented across the spectrum of human malignancies. Exaggerated de novo lipid synthesis is also found in certain highly proliferative, aggressive tumors. Here, we show that in Shh-driven medulloblastomas, Rb is inactivated and E2F1 is up-regulated, promoting lipogenesis. Extensive lipid accumulation and elevated levels of the lipogenic enzyme FASN mark those tumors. In primary cerebella...

  2. Trichloroethylene degradation by Escherichia coli containing the cloned Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zylstra, G J; Wackett, L P; Gibson, D T

    1989-01-01

    Toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 has been implicated as an enzyme capable of degrading trichloroethylene. This has now been confirmed with Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601) that contains the structural genes (todC1C2BA) of toluene dioxygenase under the control of the tac promoter. The extent of trichloroethylene degradation by the recombinant organism depended on the cell concentration and the concentration of trichloroethylene. A linear rate of trichloroethylene degradation was o...

  3. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  4. Studies of carcinogenicity of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, Y; Uchida, K; Nakae, D; Shiraiwa, K; Yamamoto, K; Konishi, Y

    1987-01-01

    The carcinogenic activities of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice were examined. Sodium chlorite was given at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.025% (low dose), or 0.05% (high dose) in the drinking water of 150 female and 150 male mice for 80 weeks, after which time the animals were returned to distilled water without sodium chlorite. All mice were sacrificed 85 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The incidence of tumor-bearing animals was 32% (control), 34% (low dose), and 26% (high dose) in female mice, and 46% (control), 57% (low dose), and 53% (high dose) in male mice. The types and incidence of neoplasms that occurred frequently in each group of both sexes were similar to those observed spontaneously in B6C3F1 mice. The incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in the high dose group of females (2%), however, was lower than that in the control group (15%). Furthermore, the incidence of pulmonary adenomas in the high dose group of males (12%) was higher than that in the control group (0%), but neither dose-related increases in the adenoma incidences nor increased incidences of the adenocarcinomas were observed. These results indicated no clear evidence of a carcinogenic potential of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice. PMID:3447900

  5. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  6. Properties of kojic acid and curcumin: Assay on cell B16-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Ariff, Arbakariya; Ahmad, Syahida; Hamid, Muhajir

    2016-03-01

    Ultra violet (UV) exposure and oxidative stress are casually linked to skin disorders. They can increase melanin synthesis, proliferation of melanocytes, and hyperpigmentation. It is possible that antioxidants or inhibitors may have a beneficial effect on skin health to reduce hyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested to reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to determine and to compare of kojic acid and curcumin properties to viability cell B16-F1. In this study, our data showed that the viability of cell B16-F1 was 63.91% for kojic acid and 64.12% for curcumin at concentration 100 µg/ml. Further investigation assay of antioxidant activities, indicated that IC50 for kojic acid is 63.8 µg/ml and curcumin is 16.05 µg/ml. Based on the data, kojic acid and curcumin have potential antioxidant properties to reduce hyperpigmentation with low toxicity effect in cell B16-F1.

  7. Quaternary structure of V1 and F1 ATPase: significance of structural homologies and diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svergun, D I; Konrad, S; Huss, M; Koch, M H; Wieczorek, H; Altendorf, K; Volkov, V V; Grüber, G

    1998-12-22

    The V1 ATPase from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The radii of gyration (Rg) of the complexes were 6.2 +/- 0.1 and 4.7 +/- 0.02 nm, respectively. The shape of the M. sexta V1 ATPase was determined ab initio from the scattering data showing six masses, presumed to be the A and B subunits, arranged in an alternating manner about a 3-fold axis. A seventh mass with a length of about 11.0 nm extends perpendicularly to the center of the hexameric unit. This central mass is presumed to be the stalk that connects V1 with the membrane domain (V(O)) in the intact V1V(O)-ATPase. In comparison, the shape of the F1 ATPase from E. coli possesses a quasi-3-fold symmetry over the major part of the enzyme. The overall asymmetry of the structure is given by a stem, assumed to include the central stalk subunits. The features of the V1 and F1 ATPase reveal structural homologies and diversities of the key components of the complexes.

  8. Complementation of Escherichia coli unc mutant strains by chloroplast and cyanobacterial F1-ATPase subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Burkovski, A; Altendorf, K; Junge, W; Engelbrecht, S

    1993-10-04

    The genes encoding the five subunits of the F1 portion of the ATPases from both spinach chloroplasts and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were cloned into expression vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant subunits formed inclusion bodies within the cells. Each particular subunit was expressed in the respective unc mutant, each unable to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. The following subunits restored growth under conditions of oxidative phosphorylation: alpha (both sources, cyanobacterial subunit more than spinach subunit), beta (cyanobacterial subunit only), delta (both spinach and Synechocystis), and epsilon (both sources), whereas no growth was achieved with the gamma subunits from both sources. Despite a high degree of sequence homology the large subunits alpha and beta of spinach and cyanobacterial F1 were not as effective in the substitution of their E. coli counterparts. On the other hand, the two smallest subunits of the E. coli ATPase could be more effectively replaced by their cyanobacterial or chloroplast counterparts, although the sequence identity or even similarity is very low. We attribute these findings to the different roles of these subunits in F1: The large alpha and beta subunits contribute to the catalytic centers of the enzyme, a function rendering them very sensitive to even minor changes. For the smaller delta and epsilon subunits it was sufficient to maintain a certain tertiary structure during evolution, with little emphasis on the conservation of particular amino acids.

  9. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation.

  10. Psychoacoustical and ear canal cancellation of (2f1-f2)-distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, E; Harris, F P

    1990-06-01

    Level and phase of the (2f1-f2)-difference tone were measured as a function of primary-tone level using the psychoacoustical method of cancellation and the objective method of emission cancellation for four frequency separations of f1 = 1620 Hz and f2 in four subjects. Differences between hearing- and emission-cancellation levels ranged from 60-33 dB as delta f = f2-f1 increased from 180 to 432 Hz. For smaller separations of the primaries, phase changes for emission cancellation covered a wide range and had sharp "steps," whereas for hearing cancellation, the phase varied only slightly. With wider separations of the primaries, the phase became more varied for hearing cancellation and more homogeneous for emission cancellation. Both emission- and hearing-cancellation level functions were nonmonotonic as a function of constant SL1 and varied SL2. Remarkable phase shifts always appeared near minima in level at all separations of the primaries for emission cancellation. Four sources may be contributing to the differences in results: (a) the frequency-dependent attenuation of the middle-ear transfer function, (b) the frequency-dependent mismatch of the acoustical impedances at the eardrum, (c) the frequency dependence of the microphone's sensitivity mounted within the probe, and (d) the different reaction of active nonlinear cochlear processes on the hearing- and emission-cancellation tones.

  11. Nanosized free-energy transducer F1-ATPase achieves 100% efficiency at finite time operation

    CERN Document Server

    Toyabe, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    The free-energy transduction at 100% efficiency is not prohibited by thermodynamic laws. However, it is usually reached only at the quasi-static limit such as the macroscopic piston pulled or pushed at the infinitely slow velocity. If we operate the piston quickly, turbulence is inevitable and irreversible heat dissipates through the microscopic degrees of freedom. Here, we evaluated the work performed by the nano-sized biological free-energy transducer F1-ATPase by single-molecule experiments on the basis of nonequilibrium theory. We show that the F1-ATPase achieves a nearly 100% free-energy conversion efficiency even far from quasistatic process for both the mechanical-to-chemical and chemical-to-mechanical transductions. Such a high efficiency at a finite-time operation is not expected for macroscopic engines and highlights a remarkable property of the nano-sized engines working in the energy scale of k_{B}T. Some of the microscopic degrees of freedom may not be hidden but accessible to the F1-ATPase. Henc...

  12. Simultaneous F 0-F 1 modifications of Arabic for the improvement of natural-sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ykhlef, F.; Bensebti, M.

    2013-03-01

    Pitch (F 0) modification is one of the most important problems in the area of speech synthesis. Several techniques have been developed in the literature to achieve this goal. The main restrictions of these techniques are in the modification range and the synthesised speech quality, intelligibility and naturalness. The control of formants in a spoken language can significantly improve the naturalness of the synthesised speech. This improvement is mainly dependent on the control of the first formant (F 1). Inspired by this observation, this article proposes a new approach that modifies both F 0 and F 1 of Arabic voiced sounds in order to improve the naturalness of the pitch shifted speech. The developed strategy takes a parallel processing approach, in which the analysis segments are decomposed into sub-bands in the wavelet domain, modified in the desired sub-band by using a resampling technique and reconstructed without affecting the remained sub-bands. Pitch marking and voicing detection are performed in the frequency decomposition step based on the comparison of the multi-level approximation and detail signals. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by listening tests and compared to the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) technique in the third approximation level. Experimental results have shown that the manipulation in the wavelet domain of F 0 in conjunction with F 1 guarantees natural-sounding of the synthesised speech compared to the classical pitch modification technique. This improvement was appropriate for high pitch modifications.

  13. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a contaminated soil using indigenous Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinhui; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Tang, Chongjian; Tong, Haixia; Yuan, Pingfu

    2012-09-30

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1 was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to compare leaching efficiencies of heavy metals between one-step and two-step processes and to determine the transformation of heavy metal fractions before and after bioleaching. The results showed that two-step process had higher leaching efficiencies of heavy metals than one-step process. When the mass ratio of soil to culture medium containing P. chrysogenum strain F1 was 5% (w/v), 50%, 35%, 9% and 40% of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were removed in one-step process, respectively. The two-step process had higher removals of 63% Cd, 56% Cu, 14% Pb and 54% Zn as compared with one-step process. The results of the sequential extraction showed that the metals remaining in the soil were mainly bonded in stable fractions after bioleaching. The results of TEM and SEM showed that during bioleaching process, although the mycelium of P. chrysogenum was broken into fragments, no damage was obviously observed on the surface of the living cell except for thinner cell wall, smaller vacuoles and concentrated cytoplasm. The result implied that P. chrysogenum strain F1 can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted soil.

  14. F0F1-ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli: Untersuchung verschiedener Proteinsysteme mit ESR-Spektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    Das Enzym F0F1-ATP-Synthase katalysiert die Phosphorylierung von ADP zu ATP unter Ausnutzung des durch die Atmungskette entstehenden Protonengradienten an Membranen. Hierbei pumpt der membranintegrale F0-Teil des Proteins Protonen durch die Membran und induziert die ATP-Synthese, welche auf dem peripheren, wasserlöslichen F1-Teil des Proteins (F1-ATPase) stattfindet. F0 besteht aus drei Proteinuntereinheiten der Stöchiometrie a b_2 c_9-12, während F1 aus fünf Untereinheiten der Stöchiometrie ...

  15. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  16. The F1-F2 vowel chart for Czech whispered vowels a, e, i, o, u.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepl, Michal; Furst, Tomas; Pesak, Josef

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present the formant chart of the Czech vowels a, e, i, o, u and show that this can be achieved by means of digital methods of sound processing. A group of 35 Czech students of the Pedagogical Faculty of Palacky University was tested and a record of whispered vowels was taken from each of them. The record was digitalized and processed by the Discrete Fourier Trasform. The result is the power spectrum of the individual vocals - the graphic output consists of a plot of the relative power of individual frequencies in the original sound. The values of the first two maxima which represent the first and the second formants were determined from the graph. The values were plotted on a formant chart. Altogether, 175 spectral analyses of individual vowels were performed. In the resulting power spectrum, the first and the second formant frequencies were identified. The first formant was plotted against the second one and pure vocal formant regions were identified. Frequency bands for the Czech vowel "a" were circumscribed between 850 and 1150 Hz for first formant (F1) and between 1200 and 2000 Hz for second formant (F2). Similarly, borders of frequency band for vowel "e" they were 700 and 950 Hz for F1 and 1700 and 3000 Hz for F2. For vowel "i" 300 and 450 Hz for F1 and 2000 and 3600 Hz for F2, for vowel "o" 600 and 800 Hz for F1 and 600 and 1400 Hz for F2, for vowel "u" 100 and 400 Hz for F1 and 400 and 1200 Hz for F2. At low frequencies it is feasible to invoke the source-filter model of voice production and associate vowel identity with frequencies of the first two formants in the voice spectrum. On the other hand, subject to intonation, singing or other forms of exposed voice (such as emotional speech, focused speech), the formant regions tend to spread. In spectral analysis other frequencies dominate, so specific formant frequency bands are not easily recognizable. Although the resulting formant map is not much different from the formant

  17. Mapping of Hd6-f1 Gene on Rice Heading Date%水稻抽穗期基因 Hd6-f1的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏飞; 柳絮; 张华; 宣宁; 李军; 杨永义; 李广贤; 姚方印; 刘开启

    2015-01-01

    本试验以明恢63(供体)/早熟豫6(受体)的BC4 F2分离群体为材料,采用BSA ( Bulked segrega-tion analysis)法,对控制水稻抽穗期分离的基因进行SSR分子标记定位。 BC4 F2出现抽穗期分离,早抽穗植株为253株,晚抽穗植株为657株,χ2=3.66<P0.05=3.84,符合1∶3的孟德尔分离比,表明F2群体的抽穗期分离受一对等位基因控制,晚抽穗性状为显性。以明恢63×早熟豫6的BC4 F2分离群体的253株隐性单株为定位群体,将该抽穗基因(暂时命名为Hd6-f1)定位在水稻第6染色体分子标记RM19771与RM527之间,遗传距离分别为0.2 cM和2.9 cM,与RM19780共分离。%Using the BC4F2 segregation populations of Minghui 63(donor) and Zaoshuyu 6(receptor) as materials, the SSR markers were located for the gene on rice heading date by the bulked segregation analysis (BSA).The BC4F2 population had 253 early heading plants and 657 late heading plants( χ2 =3.66f1 was mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers RM19771 and RM527 with the genetic distances as 0.2 cM and 2.9 cM respectively, and co-segregated with RM19780 .

  18. Desempenho agronômico de híbridos F1 de tomate de mesa Agronomic attributes of F1 fresh market tomato hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Franco B dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar híbridos experimentais F1 de tomate de mesa do grupo salada quanto ao desempenho agronômico em condições de campo. Conduziu-se o experimento na Estação Experimental da Nunhems do Brasil, em Paulinia-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2008. Obtiveram-se híbridos experimentais entre dez linhagens do BAG de tomate da Nunhems. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental blocos casualizados com 36 tratamentos, quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Com base no agrupamento de médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott, os resultados do desempenho agronômico dos híbridos experimentais para sete características avaliadas mostraram grande variabilidade entre os genótipos para comprimento de fruto e largura de fruto, com quatro grupos de médias. Os híbridos mostraram boa variabilidade para produção de frutos por planta e altura de planta, com três agrupamentos cada e, para as características número de frutos por planta, número de pencas por planta e distância da primeira penca do solo, mostraram-se menos divergentes, com dois grupos de médias. HE-38 e HE-14, com valores heteróticos positivos, destacaram-se como os mais produtivos em relação ao híbrido-padrão Aplauso.The study aims to obtain and select F1 resistant hybrids of tomato for fresh market and evaluate their agronomic attributes in field conditions. The work was carried out at Nunhems Experimental Station, located in Paulínia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to June 2008. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with 36 treatments, four replications and ten plants per plot. Based on the grouping of means by Scott-Knott test, the performance of hybrids for seven agronomic traits showed great variability among genotypes for fruit length and width with four groups of means. There was good variability for yield per plant, and plant height with three groups of means for each character. The traits fruit number per plant, cluster

  19. Interação genótipo-ambiente para a produção de leite em rebanhos da raça holandesa no Brasil: (I modelo de touro Genotype-environment interaction on milk production in Holstein in Brazil: (I sire model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Nogara Rorato

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da interação genótipo-ambiente sobre o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa no Brasil, foram estudados os registros de produção total de leite à primeira lactação de 14.418 vacas filhas de 324 touros e distribuídas em 181 rebanhos em diferentes estados, no período de 1981 a 1991. Os dados foram estratificados de acordo com a produção média de leite do rebanho, em nível baixo (B, médio (M e alto (A. Os componentes de (covariância foram estimados utilizando-se o método da máxima verossimilhança restrita e dois modelos de touro. Os componentes de variância de touro variaram de 116.879 a 274.871 e foram maiores nos níveis mais altos; os residuais variaram de 1.691.879 a 1.956.025, crescendo com o nível de produção dos rebanhos e os da interação variaram de 66.854 a 149.972, tendo o maior valor ocorrido nos níveis extremos de produção. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade variaram de 0,22 a 0,49 e os de correlação genética foram 0,22, 0,46 e 0,69, entre os níveis B e A, B e M e M e A, respectivamente.Records on 14.418 first lactations of Holstein cows sired by 324 bulls distributed in 181 herds in different States from 1981 to 1991, were used to study the effect of genotype-environment interaction on milk production. The data were distributed in three levels (low-B, medium-M, and high-A according to the average of the herd milk production. (Covariances components were estimated by REML using two sire models. The variance components of sire ranged from 116,879 to 274,871 were larger at the higher levels, the residuals ranged from 1,691,879 to 1,956,025, increasing with the production level of the herds and the interaction ranged from 66,854 to 149,972 with the highest value when the daughters performed at the extreme levels. The heritabilities ranged from 0.22 to 0.49 and the genetic correlations were 0.22, 0.46, and 0.69, respectivelly, among the levels low and high, low and

  20. 牛、羊POU1F1基因的研究进展%The Advanced Progress of POU1F1 Gene in Bovine and Caprine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志焕

    2008-01-01

    POU1F1基因是 POU 基因家族的重要成员.POU1F1蛋白在哺乳动物胚胎分化和生长发育过程中起着关键作用.本文综述POU1F1基因的结构特征与功能,POU1F1蛋白的结构特征与作用方式,POU1F1蛋白的调控机制以及近年来对牛、羊POUlFl基因遗传变异及其与经济性状关系研究的最新进展.

  1. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  2. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  3. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  5. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  6. Cows aboveground, protons down below

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On display at Fort l'Écluse from 19 June to 18 September, the works of Augenblick combine photography, sound and video to create a striking instant parallel between the "real world" and the world of particle physics.   The cows are grazing quietly, blissfully unaware of the mini-Big Bang occurring silently 100 metres beneath them. Curious to compare these two worlds - the visible and the invisible, day-to-day life and particle physics - Laurent Mulot, a multi-disciplinary artist whose work delves into some of the planet's more unusual places, has come up with a unique artistic concept. Called Augenblick (German for "instant"), to emphasise that the images relate to the same point in time, his project uses photography, video and sound to superimpose scenes from everyday life and scenes from science. "The idea came to me in June 2008," says Laurent Mulot, "when Jean-Paul Martin, a research scientist at the Institute of Nuclear...

  7. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  8. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  9. 17 CFR 240.17f-1 - Requirements for reporting and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen securities. 240.17f-1 Section 240.17f-1... and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen securities. (a) Definitions. For... not represented by an instrument and the transfer of which is registered upon books maintained...

  10. Expression of genes encoding F-1-ATPase results in uncoupling of glycolysis from biomass production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Pedersen, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    We studied how the introduction of an additional ATP-consuming reaction affects the metabolic fluxes in Lactococcus lactis. Genes encoding the hydrolytic part of the F-1 domain of the membrane-bound (F1F0) H+-ATPase were expressed from a range of synthetic constitutive promoters. Expression...

  11. Improved crystallization of Escherichia coli ATP synthase catalytic complex (F1) by introducing a phosphomimetic mutation in subunit ε.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ankoor; Hutcheon, Marcus L; Duncan, Thomas M; Cingolani, Gino

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial ATP synthase (F(O)F(1)) of Escherichia coli has been the prominent model system for genetics, biochemical and more recently single-molecule studies on F-type ATP synthases. With 22 total polypeptide chains (total mass of ∼529 kDa), E. coli F(O)F(1) represents nature's smallest rotary motor, composed of a membrane-embedded proton transporter (F(O)) and a peripheral catalytic complex (F(1)). The ATPase activity of isolated F(1) is fully expressed by the α(3)β(3)γ 'core', whereas single δ and ε subunits are required for structural and functional coupling of E. coli F(1) to F(O). In contrast to mitochondrial F(1)-ATPases that have been determined to atomic resolution, the bacterial homologues have proven very difficult to crystallize. In this paper, we describe a biochemical strategy that led us to improve the crystallogenesis of the E. coli F(1)-ATPase catalytic core. Destabilizing the compact conformation of ε's C-terminal domain with a phosphomimetic mutation (εS65D) dramatically increased crystallization success and reproducibility, yielding crystals of E. coli F(1) that diffract to ∼3.15 Å resolution.

  12. The Role of a Novel Nucleolar Protein in Regulation of E2F1 in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    copresence of RRP1B and E2F1 on specific E2F1 targets (see below), We would now like to discuss progress in the research program. Task 1...A similar assay was performed identically except that cells were grown in media containing 2% fetal bovine serum. Real time and semiquantitative

  13. Positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation by E2F-1: influence of protein level and human papillomavirus oncoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melillo, R M; Helin, K; Lowy, D R;

    1994-01-01

    E2F-1 is a member of a family of transcription factors implicated in the activation of genes required for the progression through the S phase of the cell cycle. We have examined the biological activities of E2F-1 with short-term colony-forming assays and long-term immortalization assays. High lev...

  14. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  15. y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)互为反函数吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓先会; 鲁荣光

    2002-01-01

    @@ 从图象上看y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)的图象是分别将y=f(x)与y=f-1(x)的图象向左平移一个单位所得,因y=f(x)与y=f-1(x)图象关于y=x对称,将y=x向左平移一个单位得y=x+1,所以函数y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)的图象关于y=x+1对称,因而y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)不一定互为反函数.

  16. Lack of ability of trypsin-treated mitochondrial F1-ATPase to bind the oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, T; Norling, B; Ernster, L

    1983-10-03

    Soluble beef-heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase modified in its alpha-subunit by mild trypsin treatment (alpha'-F1) can no longer bind oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) but is still capable of binding to F1-depleted submitochondrial particles, giving rise to a maximally oligomycin-sensitive ATPase, provided the particles contain their native complement of OSCP. When OSCP is removed from the particles, alpha'-F1 can still bind to the particles, but added OSCP induces only a low degree of oligomycin sensitivity. The possible role of OSCP in the functional coupling of the catalytic (F1) and H+-translocating (Fo) moieties of mitochondrial ATPase is discussed. The results suggest a functional similarity between the OSCP component of mitochondrial ATPase and the delta-subunit of E. coli ATPase, which is in accordance with the structural homology recently found to exist between the two polypeptides.

  17. 紫贻贝和厚壳贻贝杂交及F1代杂交优势初探%A primary study on hybridization of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus coruscus, heterosis of F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常抗美; 刘慧慧; 李家乐; 沈玉帮

    2008-01-01

    2005-2007年对紫贻贝(Mytilus gallo provincialis)和厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)种间进行了杂交生产性试验,通过亲贝强化培育、确认雌雄亲贝、改革育苗水体交换方法、投喂混合单细胞藻类、流水培养附着稚贝等技术,获得F1代.结果表明,正交F1代幼虫的成活率明显高于反交F1代和厚壳贻贝,在幼虫培育前期与紫贻贝的成活率相当,但随着幼虫的发育有高于紫贻贝的趋势.正交F1代幼虫的壳长和壳高在培育阶段的前期生长与紫贻贝相当,低于厚壳贻贝,高于反交F1代;但后期的生长明显增快,并高于反交F1代和其他两种贻贝.各试验组贻贝海区养殖的成活率在90%以上,正交F1代最高,显著高于反交F1代.各试验组生长特性,正交F1代紫贻贝厚壳贻贝反交F1代.其中正交F1代获附着稚贝3.77×109 ind.正交F1除在孵化率上低于紫贻贝、厚壳贻贝外,在壳长、壳高、成活率等方面指标具有一定杂交优势,而反交F1代的杂交优势不明显.

  18. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  19. EVALUATION OF THE REACTION OF WATERMELON PARENT AND F1 PLANTS TO Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉIA SANTOS DAMACENO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of progenies from Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (cultivated watermelons when crossed with progenies from C. lanatus var. citroides (fodder watermelon with a historic of resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. The parents and their F1s were evaluated for resistance to this nematode. In the initial stages of eleven treatments, watermelon seedlings plantlets were transplanted to plastic bags of six kilograms once the first leaves developed. Ten inoculated plants with 5,200 eggs in the soil near the stem of the plant and four non-inoculated ones were used in each treatment, in a complete block design. Sixty-two days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: the length of the aerial part of the plant (LAP, in m, fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP, in g, root fresh mass (RFM, in g, egg number (EN and reproduction factor (RF. A comparison between the averages of inoculated and non-inoculated plants was performed using Scott-Knott test at 5% and the diallelic analysis was performed using the GENES program. The morphological characteristics did not allow for the identification of the parent plants or the F1s with respect to nematode resistance, but the variables EN and RF were useful for such identification. The analyses of the general and specific combining abilities indicate highly significant effects with respect to this resistance, showing additive gene effects as well as dominance and epistatic gene effects, allowing for identification of parents and F1s that can be used in watermelon breeding programs to improve resistance to the M. enterolobii.

  20. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Histidine-Tagged F1-ATPase Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jenifer K.; Richter, Mark L.; Berrie, Cindy L.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of the rotational activity of the enzymatic core (α3β3γ) of the F1-ATPase motor protein have relied on binding the enzyme to NTA-coated glass surfaces via polyhistidine tags engineered into the C-termini of each of the three α or β subunits. Those studies revealed the rotational motion of the central γ subunit by monitoring the motion of attached micron-long actin filaments or spherical nanoparticles. However, only a small percentage of the attached filaments or particles were observed to rotate, likely due, at least in part, to non-uniform surface attachment of the motor proteins. In this study, we have applied surface plasmon resonance to monitor the kinetics and affinity of binding of the His-tagged motor protein to NTA-coated gold sensor surfaces. The binding data, when fit to a heterogeneous binding model, exhibit two sets of adsorption-desorption rate constants with two dissociation constants of 4.0 × 10-9 M and 8.6 × 10-11 M for 6His-α3β3γ binding to the nickel ion-activated NTA surface. The data are consistent with mixed attachment of the protein via two (bimodal) and three (trimodal) NTA/Ni2+-His-tag interactions, respectively, with the less stable bimodal interaction dominating. The results provide a partial explanation for the low number of surface-attached F1 motors previously observed in rotation studies and suggest alternative approaches to uniform F1 motor surface attachment for future fabrication of motor-based nanobiodevices and materials.

  1. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The red nucleus (RN) is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular RN (pRN) located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular RN (mRN) in the mesencephalon. The RN integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract (RST). Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the RN. Surprisingly, RN neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the RN, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the RN. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined RST development and found that the RN neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of RN neurons but not for their specification and maintenance. PMID:25698939

  2. None of the Rotor Residues of F1-ATPase Are Essential for Torque Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor’s high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745

  3. Binding and hydrolysis of TNP-ATP by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J; Senior, A E

    1996-02-16

    It had previously been suggested that Vmax hydrolysis rate of 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP) by F1-ATPase required filling of only two catalytic sites on the enzyme (Grubmeyer, C., and Penefsky, H. S. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3718-3727), whereas recently it was shown that Vmax rate of ATP hydrolysis requires that all three catalytic sites are filled (Weber, J., Wilke-Mounts, S., Lee, R. S. F., Grell, E., and Senior, A. E. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 20126-20133). To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we measured equilibrium binding and hydrolysis of MgTNP-ATP under identical conditions, using betaY331W mutant Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, in which the genetically engineered tryptophan provides a direct fluorescent probe of catalytic site occupancy. We found that MgTNP-ATP hydrolysis at Vmax rate did require filling of all three catalytic sites, but in contrast to the situation with MgATP, "bisite hydrolysis" of MgTNP-ATP amounted to a substantial fraction (approximately 40%) of Vmax. Binding of MgTNP-ATP to the three catalytic sites showed strong binding cooperativity (Kd1 e. in presence of EDTA) bound to all three catalytic sites with lower affinity but was not hydrolyzed. These data emphasize that the presence of Mg2+ is critical for cooperativity of substrate binding, formation of the very high affinity first catalytic site, and hydrolytic activity in F1-ATPases and that these three properties are strongly correlated.

  4. Classifying genotype F of hepatitis B virus into F1 and F2 subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Kato; Takanobu Kato; Yuzo Miyakawa; Masashi Mizokami; Kei Fujiwara; Robert G. Gish; Hiroshi Sakugawa; Hiroshi Yoshizawa; Fuminaka Sugauchi; Etsuro Orito; Ryuzo Ueda; Yasuhito Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the propriety of providing hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotypes F and H with two distinct genotypes.METHODS: Eleven HBV isolates of genotype F (HBV/F)were recovered from patients living in San Francisco,Japan, Panama, and Venezuela, and their full-length sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out among them along with HBV isolates previously reported.RESULTS: Seven of them clustered with reported HBV/F isolates in the phylogenetic tree constructed on the entire genomic sequence. The remaining four flocked on another branch along with three HBV isolates formerly reported as genotype H. These seven HBV isolates, including the four in this study and the three reported, had a sequence divergence of 7.3-9.5% from the other HBV/F isolates,and differed by > 13.7% from HBV isolates of the other six genotypes (A-E and G). Based on a marked genomic divergence, falling just short of >8% separating the seven genotypes, these seven HBV/F isolates were classified into F2 subtype and the former seven into F1 subtype provisionally. In a pairwise comparison of the S-gene sequences among the 7 HBV/F2 isolates and against 47HBV/F1 isolates as well as 136 representing the other six genotypes (A-E and G), two clusters separated by distinct genetic distances emerged.CONCLUSION: Based on these analyses, classifying HBV/F isolates into two subtypes (F1 and F2) would be more appropriate than providing them with two distinct genotypes (F and H).

  5. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  6. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  7. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  8. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus E. eMartinez-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red nucleus is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular red nucleus located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular red nucleus in the mesencephalon. The red nucleus integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract. Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the red nucleus. Surprisingly, red nucleus neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the red nucleus, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the red nucleus. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined rubrospinal tract development and found that the red nucleus neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of red nucleus neurons but not for their specification and maintenance.

  9. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  10. Studies of carcinogenicity of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Yokose, Y; Uchida, K; Nakae, D; Shiraiwa, K; Yamamoto, K; Konishi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The carcinogenic activities of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice were examined. Sodium chlorite was given at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.025% (low dose), or 0.05% (high dose) in the drinking water of 150 female and 150 male mice for 80 weeks, after which time the animals were returned to distilled water without sodium chlorite. All mice were sacrificed 85 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The incidence of tumor-bearing animals was 32% (control), 34% (low dose), and 26% (high dose)...

  11. Pig, F1 (wild boar x pig) and wild boar meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni, M.; S. Tarricone; Pinto, F.; Dimatteo, S; G. Marsico; Rasulo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen carcasses of wild boars, pigs, hybrids F1 (wild boar x pig) and reared wild boar have been examined to study the meat quality and the fatty acid composition. Four carcasses came from hunted wild boars and twelve from animals reared in outdoor pens till nine months of age. The meat produced by the hunted wild animals, although not marketable, offers the best quality and nutritional characteristics. The use of hybrids reared in outdoor pens can approximate or equalize the hunted wild bo...

  12. F1车队建立长期伙伴关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    最近,英国渥金。爱国者(aigo)和迈凯轮F1车队(Vodafone McLarenMercedes)宣布了长期伙伴关系,合作将从2007年1月1日开始。爱国者是与这支久负盛名的车队建立全球品牌合作的第一个中国品牌。

  13. Metabolic Trade-offs in Yeast are Caused by F1F0-ATP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Avlant; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    of intermediary metabolism and consequently metabolic trade-offs may take place. One such trade-off, aerobic fermentation, occurs in both yeast (the Crabtree effect) and cancer cells (the Warburg effect) and has been a scientific challenge for decades. Here we show, using flux balance analysis combined...... of enzymes. The catalytic efficiency is also higher for cells grown on glucose compared to galactose and ethanol, which may explain the observed differences in their growth rates. The enzyme F1F0-ATP synthase (Complex V) was found to have flux control over respiration in the model, and since...

  14. Mineral requirements for growth and maintenance of F1 Boer × Saanen male kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, I A M A; Härter, C J; Pereira Filho, J M; Sobrinho, A G da Silva; Resende, K T

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net requirements of minerals for the growth and maintenance of intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial phase of growth. The following 2 experiments were performed: Exp. 1 was performed to determine the net growth requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K by F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids from 5 to 25 kg of BW and Exp. 2 was performed to determine the maintenance requirements of F1 Boer × Saanen goats from 15 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 32 intact male goat kids were distributed in a completely randomized design and mineral body composition was fit to an allometric equation in the form of a nonlinear model. To determine the mineral requirements for maintenance in Exp. 2, 21 intact male goat kids were distributed in a randomized block design, where the goat kids were subjected to 3 levels of feed restriction (0, 30, and 60% feed restriction). At the onset of Exp. 2, 7 goat kids were harvested and used to estimate the initial body composition (15 kg BW). Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. The maintenance requirements were estimated by regressions obtained from the retention of minerals in the empty body and the intake of the mineral. The concentration of Ca, P, Na, and K in the empty BW decreased by 11, 13, 26, and 23% with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K for weight gain decreased by 27.5, 27.8, 4.25, 43.2, and 39.7%, respectively, with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements (g/kg of ADG) decreased from 9.7 to 7.0 for Ca, 6.5 to 4.7 for P, 0.38 to 0.36 for Mg, 0.88 to 0.50 for Na, and 1.9 to 1.2 for K when BW increased from 5 to 25 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 38 mg of Ca, 42 mg of P, 1.6 mg of Mg, 5.0 mg of Na, and 19 mg of K. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to formulate more balanced diets for F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial growth

  15. Clostridium pasteurianum F1Fo ATP Synthase: Operon, Composition, and Some Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The atp operon encoding F1Fo ATP synthase in the fermentative obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum was sequenced. It consisted of nine genes arranged in the order atpI(i), atpB(a), atpE(c), atpF(b), atpH(δ), atpA(α), atpG(γ), atpD(β), and atpC(ɛ), which was identical to that found in many bacteria. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the presence of the transcripts of all nine genes. The amount of ATPase activity in the membranes of C. pasteurianum was low compared to what ha...

  16. Variation of Anthocyanin Composition in Fruit Skins of F_1 Hybrid Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the heritability of B-ring modification of anthocyanins in grape skin, anthocyanin composition in F_1 genaration of grape cultivars were investigated ‘Muscat of Alexandria' which has green fruit color, had latent ability of methylation for B-ring of anthocyanin.‘Ioalia' was seemed to suit as parent for breeding of red grape cultivars, be cause of its low heritability of hydroxylation ability. The heritability of methylation ability in ‘Mills' showed lower than in ‘Rizamat' or...

  17. Enhanced inhibitory effects of TBT chloride on the development of F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, H; Tsunoda, M; Kaido, T; Hosokawa, M; Sugaya, C; Inoue, Y; Kudo, Y; Satoh, T; Katagiri, H; Akita, H; Saji, M; Wakasa, M; Negishi, T; Tashiro, T; Aizawa, Y

    2010-05-01

    Neurotoxicity is one of the major effects of tributyltin (TBT). The effects on the next generation of F(1) rats exposed to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk may be stronger than those on adults. Pregnant Wister rats were exposed to TBT at 0 and 125 ppm in their food. Half of the female F(1) rats in both groups were exposed to TBT at 125 ppm in their food from 9 to 15 weeks of age. Female F(1) rats were divided into the following groups: the control-control (CC) group, with no exposure; the TBT-control (TC) group, exposed to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk; the control-TBT (CT) group, exposed to TBT via their food from 9 to 15 weeks of age; and the TBT-TBT (TT) group, exposed to TBT via the placenta, their dams' milk, and their food (n = 10/group). After administration, an open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) test were performed at 15 weeks of age. The mean body weights of the TC and TT groups were significantly lower than that of the CC group from 9 to 15 weeks of age. The mean relative thymus weight of the TC and TT groups was significantly lower than that of the CC group. In the open-field test, a marked decrease in the total locomotion distance was observed in the TT group. The mean values in the TT and TC groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. For the locomotion distance between 15 and 20 min, the mean values in the CT, TC, and TT groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. The mean locomotor distance between 25 and 30 min in the TT group was significantly lower than that in the CC and TC groups. The mean values of instances of wall rearing in the TC, CT, and TT groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. The mean value of face washing or body washing in the TT group was significantly lower than that in the CT group. There were no significant differences in indexes of the PPI test. Exposure to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk inhibited the development of F(1) rats, which

  18. 奔驰F1引擎公司换帅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    12月10日,迈凯轮F1车队引擎供应商梅赛德斯一伊尔莫(Mercedes-llmor)公司宣布,他们将迎来新的常务董事奥拉-卡耶伦斯(Ola Kaellenius)。此人以前负责迈凯轮的道路跑车项目,大名鼎鼎的迈凯轮SLR便出自他之手。

  19. Metabolism of methapyrilene by Fischer-344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D W; Holder, C L; Korfmacher, W A; Getek, T A; Lay, J O; Casciano, D A; Shaddock, J G; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W

    1992-12-01

    1. Suspension cultures of freshly isolated F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were compared for their ability to transform various concentrations of methapyrilene (MP). 2. MP metabolites were isolated and purified by h.p.l.c., and were identified by comparing their chromatographic and mass spectral properties with those of authentic standards. 3. Both rat and mouse hepatocytes transformed MP to tentatively identified 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (I), and definitively identified mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene glucuronide (II), methapyrilene glucuronide (III), methapyrilene N-oxide (V), and mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene (VII).

  20. Modeling of TCE and Toluene Toxicity to Pseudomonas putida F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Prediction of viable bacterial distribution with respect to contaminants is important for efficient bioremediation of contaminated ground-water aquifers, particularly those contaminated with residual NAPLs. While bacterial motility and chemotaxis may help situate bacteria close to high concentrations of contaminant thereby enhancing bioremediation, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of contaminates is toxic to contaminant-degrading bacteria. The purpose of this work is to model the toxicity of trichloroethylene and toluene to Pseudomonas putida F1. The Live/Dead® bacterial viability assay was used to determine the toxic effect of chemical contaminants on the viability of P. putida F1 in a sealed zero head-space experimental environment. Samples of bacterial suspensions were exposed to common ground-water pollutants, TCE and toluene, for different durations. Changes in live and dead cell populations were monitored over the course of experiments using fluorescence microscopy. Data obtained from these toxicity experiments were fit to simple linear and exponential bacterial decay models using non-linear regression to describe loss of bacterial viability. TCE toxicity to P. putida F1 was best described with an exponential decay model (Figure 1a), with a decay constant kTCE = 0.025 h-4.95 (r2 = 0.956). Toluene toxicity showed a marginally better fit to the linear decay model (Figure 1b) (r2 = 0.971), with a decay constant ktoluene = 0.204 h-1. Best-fit model parameters obtained for both TCE and toluene were used to predict bacterial viability in toxicity experiments with higher contaminant concentrations and matched well with experimental data. Results from this study can be used to predict bacterial accumulation and viability near NAPL sources, and thus may be helpful in improving bioremediation performance assessment of contaminated sites. Figure 1: Survival ratios (S = N/No) of P. putida F1 in TCE- (a) and toluene- (b) stressed samples (observed (

  1. Fluoroaluminum and fluoroberyllium nucleoside diphosphate complexes as probes of the enzymatic mechanism of the mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, J P; Dupuis, A; Lunardi, J; Vignais, P V

    1991-05-14

    The mechanism by which fluoride and aluminum or beryllium in combination with ADP inhibit beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase was investigated. The kinetics of inhibition depended on the nature of the anion present in the F1-ATPase assay medium. Inhibition required the presence of Mg2+ and developed more rapidly with sulfite and sulfate than with chloride, i.e., with anions which activate F1-ATPase activity. The ADP-fluorometal complexes were bound quasi-irreversibly to F1, and each mole of the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complex was tightly associated with 1 mol of Mg2+. One mole of nucleotide-fluorometal complex was able to inhibit the activity of 1 mol of catalytic site in F1. Direct measurements of bound fluoride, aluminum, beryllium, and ADP indicated that the F1-bound ADP-fluorometal complexes are of the following types: ADP1A11F4, ADP1Be1F1, ADP1Be1F2, or ADP1Be1F3. Fluoroaluminates or fluoroberyllates are isomorphous to Pi, and the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complexes mimicked transient intermediates of nucleotides that appeared in the course of ATP hydrolysis. On the other hand, each mole of fully inhibited F1, retained 2 mol of inhibitory complexes. The same stoichiometry was observed when ADP was replaced by GDP, a nucleotide which, unlike ADP, binds only to the catalytic sites of F1. These results are discussed in terms of a stochastic model in which the three cooperative catalytic sites of F1 function in interactive pairs.

  2. Activation and inhibition of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase by monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S D; Tozer, R G

    1987-02-15

    The properties of two monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase were studied in detail. The epsilon subunit is a tightly bound but dissociable inhibitor of the ATPase activity of soluble F1-ATPase. Antibody epsilon-1 binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 2.4 nM but cannot bind epsilon when it is associated with F1-ATPase. Likewise epsilon cannot associate with F1-ATPase in the presence of high concentrations of epsilon-1. Thus epsilon-1 activates F1-ATPase which contains the epsilon subunit, and prevents added epsilon from inhibiting the enzyme. Epsilon-1 cannot bind to membrane-bound F1-ATPase. The epsilon-4 antibody binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 26 nM. Epsilon-4 can bind to the F1-ATPase complex, but, like epsilon-1, it reverses the inhibition of F1-ATPase by the epsilon subunit. The epsilon subunit remains crosslinkable to both the beta and gamma subunits in the presence of epsilon-4, indicating that it is not grossly displaced from its normal position by the antibody. Presumably the activation arises from more subtle conformational effects. Antibodies epsilon-4 and delta-2, which recognizes the delta subunit, both bind to F1F0 in E. coli membrane vesicles, indicating that these subunits are substantially exposed in the membrane-bound complex. Epsilon-4 inhibits the ATPase activity of the membrane-bound enzyme by about 50%, and Fab prepared from epsilon-4 inhibits by about 40%. This inhibition is not associated with any substantial change in the major apparent Km for ATP. These results suggest that inhibition of membrane-bound F1-ATPase arises from steric effects of the antibody.

  3. pRB-E2F1 complexes are resistant to adenovirus E1A-mediated disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, L A; Talluri, S; Cecchini, M; Julian, L M; Mymryk, J S; Dick, F A

    2008-05-01

    Disruption of pRB-E2F interactions by E1A is a key event in the adenoviral life cycle that drives expression of early viral transcription and induces cell cycle progression. This function of E1A is complicated by E2F1, an E2F family member that controls multiple processes besides proliferation, including apoptosis and DNA repair. Recently, a second interaction site in pRB that only contacts E2F1 has been discovered, allowing pRB to control proliferation separately from other E2F1-dependent activities. Based on this new insight into pRB-E2F1 regulation, we investigated how E1A affects control of E2F1 by pRB. Our data reveal that pRB-E2F1 interactions are resistant to E1A-mediated disruption. Using mutant forms of pRB that selectively force E2F1 to bind through only one of the two binding sites on pRB, we determined that E1A is unable to disrupt E2F1's unique interaction with pRB. Furthermore, analysis of pRB-E2F complexes during adenoviral infection reveals the selective maintenance of pRB-E2F1 interactions despite the presence of E1A. Our experiments also demonstrate that E2F1 functions to maintain cell viability in response to E1A expression. This suggests that adenovirus E1A's seemingly complex mechanism of disrupting pRB-E2F interactions provides selectivity in promoting viral transcription and cell cycle advancement, while maintaining cell viability.

  4. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  5. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of FTZ-F1 in the GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of FTZ-F1 in the GIFT tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinling CAO; Jianjie CHEN; Zhongliang JIANG; Yongju LUO; Xi GAN

    2012-01-01

    The FTZ-F1 genes encode orphan receptors of the nuclear receptor superfamily and in mammals have been found to play important roles in the proper development of the adrenal-gonadal axis and sex-determination.We isolated the homologue of FTZ-F1 in genetically improved farmed tilapia (gfFTZ-F1).The full-length cDNA was isolated from the ovary,which included an open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 486 amino acids.Sequence,tissue distribution and phylogenic analysis of the FTZ-F1 showed that the gfFTZ-F1 belonged to SF-1/Ad4BP group and that gfFTZ-F1 transcripts were only expressed in the gonads and kidney but not in other tissues.Likewise our data suggests that the gfFTZ-F1 gene may share similar functions with other fish and mammalian counterparts,though further study is needed to make any definitive conclusions.

  7. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  8. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...... in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods....... The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit.  Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive...

  9. Replication of a chronic hepatitis B virus genotype F1b construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio; Jiménez, Gustavo; Alarcón, Valentina; Prieto, Cristian; Muñoz, Francisca; Riquelme, Constanza; Venegas, Mauricio; Brahm, Javier; Loyola, Alejandra; Villanueva, Rodrigo A

    2016-03-01

    Genotype F is one of the less-studied genotypes of human hepatitis B virus, although it is widely distributed in regions of Central and South American. Our previous studies have shown that HBV genotype F is prevalent in Chile, and phylogenetic analysis of its full-length sequence amplified from the sera of chronically infected patients identified it as HBV subgenotype F1b. We have previously reported the full-length sequence of a HBV molecular clone obtained from a patient chronically infected with genotype F1b. In this report, we established a system to study HBV replication based on hepatoma cell lines transfected with full-length monomers of the HBV genome. Culture supernatants were analyzed after transfection and found to contain both HBsAg and HBeAg viral antigens. Consistently, fractionated cell extracts revealed the presence of viral replication, with both cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA intermediates. Analysis of HBV-transfected cells by indirect immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy revealed the expression of viral antigens and cytoplasmic viral particles, respectively. To test the functionality of the ongoing viral replication further at the level of chromatinized cccDNA, transfected cells were treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and this resulted in increased viral replication. This correlated with changes posttranslational modifications of histones at viral promoters. Thus, the development of this viral replication system for HBV genotype F will facilitate studies on the regulation of viral replication and the identification of new antiviral drugs.

  10. Little qualitative RNA misexpression in sterile male F1 hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohamed AF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the genetics of hybrid sterility has been the subject of evolutionary studies for over sixty years, no one has shown the reason(s why alleles that operate normally within species fail to function in another genetic background. Several lines of evidence suggest that failures in normal gene transcription contribute to hybrid dysfunctions, but genome-wide studies of gene expression in pure-species and hybrids have not been undertaken. Here, we study genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura, D. persimilis, and their sterile F1 hybrid males using differential display. Results Over five thousand amplifications were analyzed, and 3312 were present in amplifications from both of the pure species. Of these, 28 (0.5% were not present in amplifications from adult F1 hybrid males. Using product-specific primers, we were able to confirm one of nine of the transcripts putatively misexpressed in hybrids. This transcript was shown to be male-specific, but without detectable homology to D. melanogaster sequence. Conclusion We tentatively conclude that hybrid sterility can evolve without widespread, qualitative misexpression of transcripts in species hybrids. We suggest that, if more misexpression exists in sterile hybrids, it is likely to be quantitative, tissue-specific, and/ or limited to earlier developmental stages. Although several caveats apply, this study was a first attempt to determine the mechanistic basis of hybrid sterility, and one potential candidate gene has been identified for further study.

  11. Simple mechanism whereby the F1-ATPase motor rotates with near-perfect chemomechanical energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Ei-ichiro; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2015-08-04

    F1-ATPase is a motor enzyme in which a central shaft γ subunit rotates 120° per ATP in the cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. During rotation, the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP) is converted almost entirely into mechanical work by an elusive mechanism. We measured the force for rotation (torque) under various ΔGATP conditions as a function of rotation angles of the γ subunit with quasi-static, single-molecule manipulation and estimated mechanical work (torque × traveled angle) from the area of the function. The torque functions show three sawtooth-like repeats of a steep jump and linear descent in one catalytic turnover, indicating a simple physical model in which the motor is driven by three springs aligned along a 120° rotation angle. Although the second spring is unaffected by ΔGATP, activation of the first spring (timing of the torque jump) delays at low [ATP] (or high [ADP]) and activation of the third spring delays at high [Pi]. These shifts decrease the size and area of the sawtooth (magnitude of the work). Thus, F1-ATPase responds to the change of ΔGATP by shifting the torque jump timing and uses ΔGATP for the mechanical work with near-perfect efficiency.

  12. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  13. Molecular marker heterozygosities and genetic distances as correlates of production traits in F1 bovine crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Tambasco-Talhari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the relationship between heterozygosity, genetic distance and production traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the degree of heterozygosity and genetic distance on growth, carcass and reproductive related features in F1 bovine crosses. We tested 10 polymorphic markers in 330 purebred cattle (Nelore, Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and Simental and 256 crossbred cattle belonging to four crossbred groups. Individual heterozygosities (Hi and multilocus genetic similarity (Dm were estimated and used in correlation analysis against individual phenotypic measurements. Significant (p < 0.05 Hi effects occurred for birth weight, 15 to 18 month weight, hot carcass weight and longissimus rib eye area. The extent to which increased heterozygosity (deltaH in F1 crosses can be predicted from the genetic distance of parental breeds was also investigated using Nei's standard genetic distance (Ds and standard heterozygosity (Hs. High correlations were found between deltaHi, deltaHs and the Ds of the parental breeds. Our results suggest that heterozygosity of the ten molecular markers used in this study may affect live weight during at least one growth phase. Parental genetic distance was a suitable predictor of the degree of progeny heterozygosity.

  14. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F1 hybrid sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzur-Gejdosova, Maria; Simecek, Petr; Gregorova, Sona; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Forejt, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Hybrid sterility as a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism has been studied for over 80 years, yet the first identifications of hybrid sterility genes in Drosophila and mouse are quite recent. To study the genetic architecture of F(1) hybrid sterility between young subspecies of house mouse Mus m. domesticus and M. m. musculus, we conducted QTL analysis of a backcross between inbred strains representing these two subspecies and probed the role of individual chromosomes in hybrid sterility using the intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains. We provide direct evidence that the asymmetry in male infertility between reciprocal crosses is conferred by the middle region of M. m. musculus Chr X, thus excluding other potential candidates such as Y, imprinted genes, and mitochondrial DNA. QTL analysis identified strong hybrid sterility loci on Chr 17 and Chr X and predicted a set of interchangeable autosomal loci, a subset of which is sufficient to activate the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility of the strong loci. Overall, our results indicate the oligogenic nature of F(1) hybrid sterility, which should be amenable to reconstruction by proper combination of chromosome substitution strains. Such a prefabricated model system should help to uncover the gene networks and molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility.

  15. Interspecific introgression in cetaceans: DNA markers reveal post-F1 status of a pilot whale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miralles

    Full Text Available Visual species identification of cetacean strandings is difficult, especially when dead specimens are degraded and/or species are morphologically similar. The two recognised pilot whale species (Globicephala melas and Globicephala macrorhynchus are sympatric in the North Atlantic Ocean. These species are very similar in external appearance and their morphometric characteristics partially overlap; thus visual identification is not always reliable. Genetic species identification ensures correct identification of specimens. Here we have employed one mitochondrial (D-Loop region and eight nuclear loci (microsatellites as genetic markers to identify six stranded pilot whales found in Galicia (Northwest Spain, one of them of ambiguous phenotype. DNA analyses yielded positive amplification of all loci and enabled species identification. Nuclear microsatellite DNA genotypes revealed mixed ancestry for one individual, identified as a post-F1 interspecific hybrid employing two different Bayesian methods. From the mitochondrial sequence the maternal species was Globicephala melas. This is the first hybrid documented between Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus, and the first post-F1 hybrid genetically identified between cetaceans, revealing interspecific genetic introgression in marine mammals. We propose to add nuclear loci to genetic databases for cetacean species identification in order to detect hybrid individuals.

  16. Cloning and Identification of Porcine SMPX Differentially Expressed in F1 Crossbreds and Their Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-Qing REN; Yuan-Zhu XIONG; Chang-Yan DENG; Ming-Gang LEI

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate porcine heterosis on the molecular basis, Large White (L), a European purebred, and Meishan (M), a Chinese indigenous purebred, were hybridized directly and reciprocally to produce F1 hybrids, Large White×Meishan (LM) and Meishan×Large White (ML) pigs. Using mRNA differential display, we found an expression sequence tag (EST) differentially expressed in F1 hybrids and their parents, designated as EST55, which was homologous to human and murine skeletal muscle protein (SMPX), and the full-length cDNA of porcine SMPX was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Translation of the mRNA transcript revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 86 amino acid residues encoding a nuclear location signal peptide, two overlapping casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and one N-glycosylation site with theoretical molecular weight of 9.3 kDa. Alignment analysis revealed that the deduced protein sequence shared 94%, 83% and 78% homology with that of its human, mouse and rat counterparts, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that it was expressed predominantly in skeletal and heart muscles, whereas at a moderate level in backfat,spleen, stomach and uterus tissues. Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), located in 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR), respectively, were identified by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic tree and the secondary structure prediction were also performed. The possible relationship between porcine SMPX and heterosis was discussed.

  17. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hoersch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000. To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light.

  18. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light.

  19. Rapid solid-phase immunoassay for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha on microplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, W.; Smith, R.H.; Jackson, T.M.; Craig, P.A.; Grates, H.E.; Minton, L.L. (BioQuant of Ann Arbor, Inc., MI (USA))

    1990-03-01

    We describe, for the measurement of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha in biological media, a solid-phase immunoassay with immobilized antibodies that requires a total processing time of less than 2 h with hands-on time less than 30 min for 40 samples. The method combines the convenience of the microplate format with the sensitivity of radiolabeled prostaglandin derivatives as tracers in a competitive immunoassay. The intra- and interassay variations at 50% displacement of the radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative as tracer were 9.0% and 11.8%, respectively. At 50% displacement of the radiolabeled tracer, the sensitivity is about 20 pg per well. Optimal incubation time is between 60 and 90 min. Nonspecific binding was less than 1% if about 8 pg of tracer (approximately 25,000 counts/min per well) was used. Inhibition curves of samples in different dilutions were parallel to standard curves. The variation of bound radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative within the wells of one microplate (n = 96) was less than 3%. Human plasma samples and medium from tissue culture assayed for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha correlated well with results obtained with a solid-phase assay based on use of magnetic particles (r = 0.99, n = 24) for culture-medium samples; r = 0.99; n = 26 for plasma samples.

  20. Obstacle avoidance and concealed target detection using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) forward imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam; Wong, David; Ressler, Marc; Koenig, Francois; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory; Sichina, Jeffrey; Kappra, Karl

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for forward imaging to support the Army's vision of an autonomous navigation system for robotic ground vehicles. These unmanned vehicles, equipped with an array of imaging sensors, will be tasked to help detect man-made obstacles such as concealed targets, enemy minefields, and booby traps, as well as other natural obstacles such as ditches, and bodies of water. The ability of UWB radar technology to help detect concealed objects has been documented in the past and could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for autonomous navigation systems, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U. S. forces on the battlefield. One of the primary features of the radar is the ability to collect and process data at combat pace in an affordable, compact, and lightweight package. To achieve this, the radar is based on the synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) technique where several relatively slow and inexpensive analog-to-digital (A/D) converters are used to sample the wide bandwidth of the radar signals. We conducted an experiment this winter at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) to support the phenomenological studies of the backscatter from positive and negative obstacles for autonomous robotic vehicle navigation, as well as the detection of concealed targets of interest to the Army. In this paper, we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the forward imaging techniques used in the experiment. Finally, we will present imagery of man-made obstacles such as barriers, concertina wires, and mines.

  1. The cat lipocalin Fel d 7 and its cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolovic, D; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Waden, K; Curin, M; Grundström, J; Gafvelin, G; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Grönlund, H; Thomas, W R; Valenta, R; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to the cat lipocalin Fel d 7 among 140 cat-sensitized Swedish patients and elucidated its allergenic activity and cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1. Sixty-five of 140 patients had IgE to rFel d 7 whereof 60 also had IgE to rCan f 1. A moderate correlation between IgE levels to rFel d 7 and rCan f 1 was found. rFel d 7 activated basophils in vitro and inhibited IgE binding to rCan f 1 in 4 of 13 patients, whereas rCan f 1 inhibited IgE binding to rFel d 7 in 7 of 13 patients. Fel d 7 and Can f 1 showed high similarities in protein structure and epitopes in common were found using cross-reactive antisera. Fel d 7 is a common allergen in a Swedish cat-sensitized population that cross-reacts with Can f 1, and may contribute to symptoms in cat- but also in dog-allergic patients.

  2. Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language, cognitive and ... The parents of first group were instructed to eliminate cow milk (CM) from the diet of their ... Autistic patients underwent a Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) test.

  3. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  4. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  5. F1-dependent translation of mitochondrially encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of yeast ATP synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Malgorzata; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The ATP synthase of yeast mitochondria is composed of 17 different subunit polypeptides. We have screened a panel of ATP synthase mutants for impaired expression of Atp6p, Atp8p, and Atp9p, the only mitochondrially encoded subunits of ATP synthase. Our results show that translation of Atp6p and Atp8p is activated by F1 ATPase (or assembly intermediates thereof). Mutants lacking the α or β subunits of F1, or the Atp11p and Atp12p chaperones that promote F1 assembly, have normal levels of the b...

  6. Correlation Between Parents and F1 and Combining Ability of Parents on Seed Dormancy in indica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bao-Qin; Zuo-mei LU

    2009-01-01

    Dormancy indices of hulled and dehulled seeds were investigated by using 19 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, 9 restorer lines and their 109 F1 hybrids of indica hybrid rice. The seeds of each F1 and the parents were harvested on 35 days after flowering. Combining ability was analyzed in 25 combinations made by 5 CMS lines and 5 restorer lines (North Carolina II mating design). The seed dormancy index of F1 was positively and highly significantly correlated with those of their parents and...

  7. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Espada

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell

  8. Api5 contributes to E2F1 control of the G1/S cell cycle phase transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Garcia-Jove Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The E2f transcription factor family has a pivotal role in controlling the cell fate in general, and in particular cancer development, by regulating the expression of several genes required for S phase entry and progression through the cell cycle. It has become clear that the transcriptional activation of at least one member of the family, E2F1, can also induce apoptosis. An appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators appears to be necessary to modulate E2F1 transcriptional activity, and thus cell fate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that Api5, already known as a regulator of E2F1 induced-apoptosis, is required for the E2F1 transcriptional activation of G1/S transition genes, and consequently, for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Api5 appears to be a cell cycle regulated protein. Removal of Api5 reduces cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin D1 and Cdk2 levels, causing G1 cell cycle arrest and cell cycle delay. Luciferase assays established that Api5 directly regulates the expression of several G1/S genes under E2F1 control. Using protein/protein and protein/DNA immunoprecipitation studies, we demonstrate that Api5, even if not physically interacting with E2F1, contributes positively to E2F1 transcriptional activity by increasing E2F1 binding to its target promoters, through an indirect mechanism. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results described here support the pivotal role of cell cycle related proteins, that like E2F1, may act as tumor suppressors or as proto-oncogenes during cancer development, depending on the behavior of their positive and negative regulators. According to our findings, Api5 contributes to E2F1 transcriptional activation of cell cycle-associated genes by facilitating E2F1 recruitment onto its target promoters and thus E2F1 target gene transcription.

  9. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, Rudi

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, wh...

  10. 平面停止域族{FTzz R2+} 满足条件F1-- F4%Families of Stopping--fields {FTZZ} R2+ on Plane .1inSatisfy F1--F4 Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新全

    2000-01-01

    This paper first presents families ofstopping --fields on plane and proves that families of stopping--fields FTZZ R2+ satisfy F1--F4 conditions.%本文首次提出平面停止域族FTZ Z R2+,证明了停止域族F2T2 R+2满足F1--F4条件.

  11. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  12. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  13. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  14. Short communication: Genetic correlation and heritability of milk coagulation traits within and across lactations in Holstein cows using multiple-lactation random regression animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, D; Vallas, M; Pärna, E; Tänavots, A; Kiiman, H; Kaart, T

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters of milk rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a30) among the first 3 lactations in Holstein cows were estimated. The data set included 39,960 test-day records from 5,216 Estonian Holstein cows (the progeny of 306 sires), which were recorded from April 2005 to May 2010 in 98 herds across the country. A multiple-lactation random regression animal model was used. Individual milk samples from each cow were collected during routine milk recording. These samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation traits with intervals of 2 to 3 mo in each lactation (7 to 305 DIM) and from first to third lactation. Mean heritabilities were 0.36, 0.32, and 0.28 for log-transformed RCT [ln(RCT)] and 0.47, 0.40, and 0.62 for a30 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean repeatabilities for ln(RCT) were 0.53, 0.55, and 0.56, but 0.59, 0.61, and 0.68 for a30 for parities 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Mean genetic correlations between ln(RCT) and a30 were -0.19, -0.14, and 0.02 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean genetic correlations were 0.91, 0.79, and 0.99 for ln(RCT), and 0.95, 0.94, and 0.94 for a30 between parities 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3, respectively. Due to these high genetic correlations, we concluded that for a proper genetic evaluation of milk coagulation properties it is sufficient to record RCT and a30 only in the first lactation. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus,TYLCTHV-[2] from Solanum habrochaites accession ‘L06112’ in F1 and BC1F1 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julapark Chunwongse4

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV-[2] inwild tomato, Solanum habrochaites ‘L06112’ was investigated. The ‘L06112’ accession expressing the resistant phenotypewas crossed to the TYLCV-susceptible female parent, Seedathip3, to produce F1 hybrids. Parental polymorphism and hybrididentity were tested using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers for each chromosome. All markers were polymorphic betweenthe parents, but only markers SSR46, SSR115, SSR117 and SSR128 gave results suitable to assess hybrid relationships.Polymorphic bands were sharp, concise and distinguishable between hybrids and selfed plants. The stem cuttings of donorand recurrent parents, their F1 and BC1F1 were inoculated with TYLCTHV-[2] using viruliferous whiteflies. Diseaseresponse of the plants was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA at 45 days post inoculation. Thedonor parental line showed complete resistance to TYLCTHV-[2] while the F1 and BC1F1 expressed various ELISA readingsfor TYLCTHV-[2] concentration. BC1F1; 04T105-7, 04T105-1, 04T105-10, 04T109-4 and 04T104-1 developed from thisstudy showed the high level of resistance to TYLCV, Thailand isolate.

  16. 制干辣椒F1代中色素含量的变异和遗传%Variation and Inheritance of Pigment Content in F1 Hybrids of Red Pepper for Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Todorova V.; Todorov Y.; 徐乃林; 上官金虎; 庄灿然

    2006-01-01

    研究了2个制干红辣椒F1代中色素含量的变异和遗传.以Gorogled 6为试验母本,Negral和Kalocsai 801分别为试验父本进行杂交.颜色的变异性在2个F1代表现出加性遗传,但也有一种例外.Gorogled 6×Negral的F1代极显著地表明色素含量由加性值决定.第2个F1代即Gorogled 6×Kalocsai801仅在1997年表明了与上面第1个F1代相似的结果.在本试验中,F1代色素含量的遗传用d/a比值(1.75~7.96)来表示,并显示出这种性状的超显性遗传.假设和实际的杂种优势作用极显著.

  17. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  18. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven diagnosi

  19. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  20. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions,

  1. Measurement of the Microwave Lensing shift in NIST-F1 and NIST-F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Barlow, S. E.; Ashby, N.

    2016-06-01

    With several Primary Frequency Standards (PFS) across the world demonstrating systematic fractional frequency uncertainties on order of 1 x 10-16, it is crucial to accurately measure or model even small frequency shifts that could affect the ultimate PFS uncertainty, and thus ultimately impact the rate of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which relies on precision PFS measurements. Recently there has been controversy about the physical causes and size of PFS frequency shifts due to microwave lensing effects. We present here the first measurements of microwave lensing frequency shifts in the PFS NIST-F1 and NIST-F2. The measured frequency shifts agree well with the recent theory of Ashby et al [1].

  2. Association of secondary traits with yield in maize F 1 's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Nardino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective was to identify phenotypic and genotypic associations, and cause-and-effect relations of secondary components on primary components to establish criteria in the indirect selection process for maize. Partial diallel crosses were conducted in Clevelândia. F1's were evaluated in five environments. For the purpose of increasing the yield of corn grain, breeders should seek to reduce the characters distance from the last node to the first branch of the tassel, tassel length and number of branches. The indirect selection for distance from the last node to the first branch of the tassel would be effective to increase the grain yield. The selection for smaller leaf angle, larger stem diameter and thousand grain weight are favorable for increasing grain yield in maize.

  3. Simulation of proton movement in FoF1-ATP synthase by quantum-mechanical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivontsin, L. A.; Mashkovtseva, E. V.; Nartsissov, Ya R.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical approach is applied to the description of proton transport through FoF1-ATP synthase which is the crucial process in ATP synthesis. Proton was described as a particle located in potential wells formed by charged centers along the half-channels. Energy spectra of bounded states were calculated using Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, and the initial population of each quantum level was determined by Boltzman distribution. Water molecules were stochastically distributed in an inlet half-channel taking into account atomic radii. Characteristic time of proton transition between the charged centers (amino acid or water molecule) was estimated and it revealed the critical areas needed to be full with water. All possible pathways were analyzed in Monte-Carlo simulation which allows calculating of a mean time of proton transfer trough the inlet half-channel (23 ms).

  4. Reduced sexual compatibility between cultivated and wild chicory and their F1 hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Toneatto, F.

    2012-01-01

    Crops were domesticated from wild plants not too long ago and have subsequently diverged from the wild ones, especially in traits used by humans. Whether divergence between the cultigen and wild forms has also lead to reduced reproductive compatibility is unknown for many species. Chicory...... (Cichorium intybus L.) has been bred as a crop at least since Roman times. To test if this has led to a loss in reproductive compatibility with wild chicory, we planted cultivar, wild, and F1 hybrid plants into two field plots, and let them pollinate freely. On 2 days, in the beginning and middle...... of the flowering season, we counted the numbers of flowering capitula and open flowers per capitulum, which in combination with counts of viable pollen per flower were used to estimate the expected proportion of seeds fathered by cultivar, wild, and hybrid plants. Open capitula on wild and hybrid plants were...

  5. Mode of inheritance for fruit firmness in tomato hybrids of F1 generation (Lycoperscum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Zoran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day program for tomato selection are aimed at creating the genotypes with firm fruit. The fruits with this quality surfer from minor injuries while being harvested and transported, which directly affects their better consumption purpose. By crossing seven divergent tomato genotypes that differed among themselves in fruit firmness, and by applying the method of full diallel without reciprocal crossings, we obtained 21 hybrids of F1 generation. Upon analyzing the components of the genetic variance we found out that dominant genes prevailed in inheriting this feature. Considering all the crossing combinations together, it could be concluded that super dominance was the mode of inheritance recorded in Fl generation. The hybrid combination obtained by crossing the two hybrids with the best general combining ability (V-100 x No-10 was characterized by the best specific combining ability. .

  6. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  7. Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Morishita, Y; Mori, Y; Kojima, T; Okumura, A

    1991-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of cochineal, a red colouring used in food and other products, was studied in a 2-yr bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50-55 mice of each sex were given 0, 3 or 6% cochineal in the diet for 2 yr. Mice of all groups developed tumours including hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, pulmonary adenomas or adenocarcinomas and lymphomas or lymphatic leukaemias, and the incidences of these tumours were not significantly different in treated and control groups. The results indicate that cochineal lacks carcinogenicity in mice and are consistent with those of in vitro short-term assays of cochineal and of carminic acid, an active principle of cochineal.

  8. Inhibition of E2F-1 transactivation by direct binding of the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Harlow, E; Fattaey, A

    1993-01-01

    to transcription factor E2F has provided a model for the mechanism of pRB-mediated growth regulation. Since adenovirus E1A proteins dissociate the pRB-E2F complexes and stimulate E2F-dependent transcription, it has been suggested that pRB inhibits E2F transactivation. Although some evidence for this hypothesis has...... been provided, it has not been possible to determine the mechanism of pRB-mediated inhibition of E2F transactivation. In this study, we constructed mutants of E2F-1 that do not bind to pRB yet retain the ability to transactivate the adenovirus E2 promoter through E2F DNA-binding sites. We demonstrated...

  9. Performance of Nellore and F1 (Red Angus x Nellore raised on pasture in southern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Arias Wenceslau

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Nelore and twenty F1 cattle (½ Red Angus, ½ Nelore, average age 12 months were compared in pastured raised at southern Bahia, in relation to production characteristics: initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and total weight gain (WG, infection by endoparasites and heat tolerance (HT. To analyze the effect of genetic group, it was stabilished effects that could influence these characteristics and performed variance analysis using the program SAS. The results showed that IW, FW, ADG and WG of crossbred were statistically different in comparison to zebu cattle. Related to infection by endoparasites and heat tolerance there were no statistical differences between genetic groups.

  10. Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, M; Helin, K; Valentine, M B;

    1995-01-01

    and overexpressed in HEL erythroleukemia cells and translocated to other chromosomes in several established human leukemia cell lines. This study provides the first evidence of gene amplification involving a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. We propose that E2F1 overexpression in erythroid......The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies...... progenitors may stimulate abnormal cell proliferation by overriding negative regulatory signals mediated by tumor suppressor proteins such as pRb....

  11. 人E2F1蛋白的表达及与Sedlin蛋白共定位研究%The expression of human E2F1 and the co-localization with Sedlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪燕燕; 潘林鑫; 王梦媛; 刘晓颖; 范礼斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究人E2F1 蛋白在真核细胞内的表达及其与 Sedlin 蛋白的共定位. 方法 构建 pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG真核表达质粒,然后瞬时转染至 HEK 293T 细胞内, Western blot法检测E2F1蛋白的表达;瞬时单转E2F1-FLAG和共转E2F1-FLAG+Sedlin-绿色荧光蛋白( GFP)至非洲绿猴肾细胞( COS7 )内,免疫荧光制片,荧光显微镜下观察E2F1-FLAG在细胞内的定位及其和Sedlin的共定位. 结果真核表达质粒 pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG 构建成功,且在HEK 293T细胞中能够成功表达,在COS7 细胞中主要定位在细胞核,且与Sedlin共定位于细胞核. 结论 人E2F1 在HEK 293T、COS7细胞中都能够正常表达,且与 Sedlin蛋白存在共定位现象,为进一步了解人E2F1的功能及其蛋白质相互作用提供了一定的细胞学基础.%Objective To investigate the expression and localization of E2F1 in eukaryotic cells and the co-locali-zation with Sedlin. Methods To construct eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG. The plsamid was transfected into HEK 293T cells and the expression was checked by Western blot. Its expression in COS7 cells was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results The eukaryotic expression plasmid of pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG was constructed successfully, which could be effectively expressed in HEK 293T and COS7 cells. E2F1 was pre-dominantly distributed in the nucleus, and it co-localized in the nucleus with Sedlin. Conclusion E2F1 can over-express efficiently in HEK 293T and COS7 cells, and it can colocalize with Seldin, which provides important bases for further study on E2F1 including its functions and associated proteins.

  12. Glycidol modulation of the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Butterworth, L; Munson, A E; Germolec, D R; White, K L

    2000-08-01

    The immunotoxic potential of glycidol was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice using a battery of functional assays and three host resistance models. Glycidol was administered to the animals by oral gavage as a solution in sterile distilled water daily for 14 days at doses of 25, 125 and 250 mg/kg. In tier I, we observed that glycidol exposure produced a dose-related decrease in splenocyte IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (sRBC); the spleen natural killer (NK) cell activity was also decreased. A decrease in B cell proliferative responses to anti-IgM F(ab')2 and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) was observed while the splenocyte proliferative responses to T cell mitogen ConA and B cell mitogen LPS were not affected. The splenocyte proliferative response to allogeneic cells as evaluated in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) to DBA/2 spleen cells was not affected. In tier II, we found that exposure to glycidol decreased the number and percentage of B cells and the absolute number of CD4+ T cells in the spleen while the number of total T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+CD8+ T cells was not affected. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to mitomycin C-treated P815 mastocytoma was not affected; the cytotoxic activity of peritoneal macrophages was not suppressed. Moreover, the host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes was not affected although a slight increase in host resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed. However, exposure to glycidol decreased host resistance to the B16F10 melanoma tumor model with the maximal tumor formation in lung observed in the high dose group. Overall, these dada support the finding that glycidol is an immunosuppressive agent in female B6C3F1 mice.

  13. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R

    2002-07-01

    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6C3F1 mice for 2 years.

  14. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Lima-Brito; A. Carvalho; A. Martin; J. S. Heslop-Harrison; H. Guedes-Pinto

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrids ($2n = 6x = 42$; AABBDHch) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of Hch and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the Hch genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F1 hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  15. Age-associated changes in hearts of male Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ernest M; Nillas, Michael S; Mangiarua, Elsa I; Cansino, Sylvestre; Morrison, Ryan G; Perdue, Romaine R; Triest, William E; Wright, Gary L; Studeny, Mark; Wehner, Paulette; Rice, Kevin M; Blough, Eric R

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis of the heart. The Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 (F344/BNF1) rat is recommended for age-related studies by the National Institutes on Aging because this hybrid rat lives longer and has a lower rate of pathological conditions than inbred rats. However, little is known about age-associated changes in cardiac and aortic function and structure in this model. This study evaluated age-related cardiac changes in male F344/BNF1 rats using ECHO, gross, and microscopic examinations. Rats aged 6-, 30-, and 36-mo were anesthetized and two-dimensional ECHO measurements, two-dimensional guided M-mode, Doppler M-mode, and other recordings from parasternal long- and short-axis views were obtained using a Phillips 5500 ECHO system with a 12 megahertz transducer. Hearts and aortas from sacrificed rats were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The ECHO studies revealed persistent cardiac arrhythmias (chiefly PVCs) in 72% (13/18) of 36-mo rats, 10% (1/10) of 30-mo rats, and none in 6-mo rats (0/16). Gross and microscopic studies showed left ventricular (LV) dilatation, borderline to mild hypertrophy, and areas of fibrosis that were common in 36-mo rats, less evident in 30-mo rats, and absent in 6-mo rats. Aging was associated with mild to moderate decreases of LV diastolic and systolic function. Thus, male F344/BN F1 rats demonstrated progressive age-related (a) decline in cardiac function (diastolic and systolic indices), (b) LV structural changes (chamber dimensions, volumes, and wall thicknesses), and (c) persistent arrhythmias. These changes are consistent with those in humans. The noninvasive ECHO technique offers a means to monitor serial age-related cardiac failure and therapeutic responses in the same rats over designated time intervals.

  16. Carcinogenicity of bisphenol-A in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J

    2001-11-01

    Bisphenol-A (BP-A; 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is a monomer of plastics commonly used in various consumer products, and is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polyester-styrene resins. A National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis bioassay of BP-A (>98% pure) was conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm BP-A to groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer (F)344 rats; 0, 1000, or 5000 ppm to groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice; and 0, 5000, or 10,000 ppm to groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 103 weeks. The mean body weights of the low- and high-dose rats and of female mice and high-dose male mice were lower than those of the controls throughout much of the study. Lower body weight gains in rats were likely caused by reduced food consumption. Survivals were comparable among groups. Regarding neoplasia, leukemias occurred at increased incidences in BP-A-dosed rats of both sexes: male, 13/50 controls vs 12/50 low-dose and 23/50 high-dose (P Toxicology Program concluded that there was no convincing evidence that BP-A was carcinogenic for rats or mice. However, the marginal increases in leukemias in male and female rats, along with increases in the combined incidence of lymphomas and leukemias in male mice, suggest that BP-A may be associated with increased cancers of the hematopoietic system. Increases in interstitial-cell tumors of the testes in rats were also evidence of carcinogenesis, as was the unusual occurrence of mammary gland fibroadenomas in male rats.

  17. Efficient method for establishing F1 progeny from wild populations of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomichene, Thiery N; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Boyer, Sébastien; Bourgouin, Catherine

    2017-01-09

    The changing malaria situation in Madagascar requires additional knowledge on the physiology and behaviour of local mosquito vectors. However, the absence of established colonies for several anopheline species present in Madagascar constitutes a limiting factor. To avoid labour intensive work and uncertainty for success of establishing Anopheles colonies from Malagasy species, field collections of blood-fed females and in-tube forced oviposition were combined to reliably produce large numbers of F1 progeny. Blood-fed females were captured in zebu stables or open zebu parks. Oviposition was induced by enclosing gravid females in eppendorf tubes as initially described for Anopheles funestus. The effect of cold anaesthesia on inducing in-tube forced oviposition and on egg yield was assessed for five Anopheles species, namely Anopheles coustani, An. funestus, Anopheles mascarensis, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles squamosus. The production of eggs from in-tube forced oviposition and standard egg laying in cages was compared. For the five anopheline species studied, the in-tube forced oviposition method had different efficacy ranging from 35.6 to 71.1% females willing to lay eggs in tubes. Interestingly, prior anaesthesia increased significantly the proportion of ovipositing females for An. mascarensis. Prior anaesthesia has a marginal effect on the number of eggs produced. However, the overall yield in eggs collected using the in-tube forced oviposition method largely exceeds the number of eggs that can be produced by females free to oviposit in cages. The efficiency of the method allowed the production of F1 progeny in numbers sufficiently large for developing detailed analyses of the five species tested, including behavioural studies, insecticide resistance assessment and molecular characterization, as well as vector competence studies. It should be applicable to other anopheline species difficult to colonize.

  18. Proteomics reveals a core molecular response of Pseudomonas putida F1 to acute chromate challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Andrea T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida is a model organism for bioremediation because of its remarkable metabolic versatility, extensive biodegradative functions, and ubiquity in contaminated soil environments. To further the understanding of molecular pathways responding to the heavy metal chromium(VI [Cr(VI], the proteome of aerobically grown, Cr(VI-stressed P. putida strain F1 was characterized within the context of two disparate nutritional environments: rich (LB media and minimal (M9L media containing lactate as the sole carbon source. Results Growth studies demonstrated that F1 sensitivity to Cr(VI was impacted substantially by nutrient conditions, with a carbon-source-dependent hierarchy (lactate > glucose >> acetate observed in minimal media. Two-dimensional HPLC-MS/MS was employed to identify differential proteome profiles generated in response to 1 mM chromate under LB and M9L growth conditions. The immediate response to Cr(VI in LB-grown cells was up-regulation of proteins involved in inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis and catabolism, and amino acid metabolism. By contrast, the chromate-responsive proteome derived under defined minimal growth conditions was characterized predominantly by up-regulated proteins related to cell envelope biogenesis, inorganic ion transport, and motility. TonB-dependent siderophore receptors involved in ferric iron acquisition and amino acid adenylation domains characterized up-regulated systems under LB-Cr(VI conditions, while DNA repair proteins and systems scavenging sulfur from alternative sources (e.g., aliphatic sulfonates tended to predominate the up-regulated proteome profile obtained under M9L-Cr(VI conditions. Conclusions Comparative analysis indicated that the core molecular response to chromate, irrespective of the nutritional conditions tested, comprised seven up-regulated proteins belonging to six different functional categories including transcription, inorganic ion

  19. Degree of inheritance and heritability of yield in parental genotypes and F1 hybrids of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksoski Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode and level of inheritance of green and dry mass yield per stalk were investigated in four parental genotypes (Burley - B 2/93, Suchum - S1, Suchum - S2 and Prilep - P-84 and in their six diallel F1 hybrids. The trial was set up in 2007, 2008 and 2009 in the field of Tobacco Institute-Prilep in a randomized block design with four replications. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the heritability as an indicator of the inheritance of the yield as one of the most important quantitative characters of tobacco, in order to give suggestions for the selection of parental genotypes and directions for the creation of new varieties. The mode of inheritance was estimated according to the test - significance of the mean value of F1 progeny compared to the parental average. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated after Allard (1960, while broad-sense heritability and genetic components were estimated after Mather and Jinks (1974. The mode of inheritance in the hybrids was different. Positive heterosis for green and dry mass yields per stalk was recorded in S1 x S2. Negative heterosis for green mass yields per stalk was recorded in S1 x P-84 and S2 x P-84, while for dry mass yield it was recorded in S1 x P-84. Inheritance of the characters during the three years of investigation was identical. The higher heritability index of both types was recorded for dry mass yield. As regards inheritance of the yield, the values of broad-sense heritability were higher than those of narrow-sense heritability.

  20. Gene expression and epigenetic aberrations in F1-placentas fathered by obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Dittrich, Ralf; McPherson, Nicole O; Lane, Michelle; Pliushch, Galyna; Potabattula, Ramya; Haaf, Thomas; El Hajj, Nady

    2017-02-10

    Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing. Our aim was to determine if paternal obesity deregulated placental gene expression and DNA methylation when compared to normal-weight males. Gene methylation of sperm DNA was analyzed and compared to placentas to address epigenetic transmission. Of the 10 paternally expressed genes (Pegs), 11 genes important for development and transport of nutrients, and the long-terminal repeat Intracisternal A particle (IAP) elements, derived from a member of the class II endogenous retroviral gene family, we observed a significant effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on deregulated expression of Peg3, Peg9, Peg10, and the nutrient transporter gene Slc38a2, and aberrant DNA methylation of the Peg9 promoter in F1 placental tissue. Epigenetic changes in Peg9 were also found in sperm from obese fathers. We therefore propose that paternal obesity renders changes in gene expression and/or methylation throughout the placental genome, which could contribute to the reproductive problems related to fertility and to the metabolic, long-term health impact on offspring.

  1. The Application of Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning Method for Surveillance of Non-Mendelian Inheritance in F1 Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Takamiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed inheritance of DNA methylation in reciprocal F1 hybrids (subsp. japonica cv. Nipponbare × subsp. indica cv. Kasalath of rice (Oryza sativa L. using restriction landmark genome scanning (RLGS, and detected differing RLGS spots between the parents and reciprocal F1 hybrids. MspI/HpaII restriction sites in the DNA from these different spots were suspected to be heterozygously methylated in the Nipponbare parent. These spots segregated in F1 plants, but did not segregate in selfed progeny of Nipponbare, showing non-Mendelian inheritance of the methylation status. As a result of RT-PCR and sequencing, a specific allele of the gene nearest to the methylated sites was expressed in reciprocal F1 plants, showing evidence of biased allelic expression. These results show the applicability of RLGS for scanning of non-Mendelian inheritance of DNA methylation and biased allelic expression.

  2. Abundance of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate via single-molecule microscopy with gold nanorod probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Justin; Spetzler, David; Hornung, Tassilo; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Martin, James; Frasch, Wayne D

    2007-12-01

    The abundance of E. coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate using gold nanorods attached to the gamma-subunit was quantitated. Individual F1 molecules were determined to be rotating based upon time dependent fluctuations of red and green light scattered from the nanorods when viewed through a polarizing filter. The average number of F1 molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP, ATP, and without nucleotide was approximately 50, approximately 25, and approximately 4% respectively. In some experiments, the fraction of molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP was as high as 65%. These data indicate that rotational measurements made using gold nanorods provide information of the F1-ATPase mechanism that is representative of the characteristics of the enzyme population as a whole.

  3. Analysis of Introgressed Segments in Near-isogenic Lines for F1 Pollen Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-tao; ZENG Rui-zhen; ZHANG Ze-min; Akshay TALUKDAR; ZHANG Gui-quan

    2003-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-eight microsatellite markers showing polymorphism among parents were used to survey the introgressed segments in the 50 near-isogenic lines of F1 pollen sterility. Two hundred and sixty introgressed segments were detected in 50 near-isogenic lines, each carrying 5.2 introgressed segments on an average. Among the 260 segments, one hundred carrying F1 pollen sterility loci concentrated on the region of F1 pollen sterility genes, and the remaining one hundred and sixty without F1 pollen sterility loci distributed randomly over 12 chromosomes. Both the average number and length of the introgressed segments decreased along with the increase of backcross generations. The number of introgressed segments was less than four and the length was less than 20 cM in the near-isogenic lines after backcrossing for four or more times.

  4. [Study of the effects of gamma-irradiation of common wheat F1 seeds using gliadins as genetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, N O; Sozinov, I O; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, O O

    2013-01-01

    Effects of irradiation of dry F1 seeds with gamma rays in the dose of 200 Gy were studied. Hybrids between near-isogenic lines on the basis of the variety Bezostaya 1 served as the material of investigation. Irradiation markedly reduced productivity traits of F1 plants and did not affect the survival of F1 plants under the given growth conditions. A significant relative increase in the frequency of pollen grains with the 1BL/1RS translocation that formed F2 seeds in comparison with the control was one of the effects of irradiation of F1 seeds. Irradiation with gamma-rays induced mutations at gliadin loci with the frequency of 7,4 % (at 0,5 % in the control).

  5. Produtividade à Desmama de Novilhas Nelore e F1 Bos taurus x Nelore e Bos indicus x Nelore

    OpenAIRE

    Perotto Daniel; Abrahão José Jorge dos Santos; Kroetz Inácio Afonso

    2001-01-01

    A eficiência produtiva das vacas de corte está relacionada com o tamanho do animal, a fertilidade e a produção de leite. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência à desmama de 289 novilhas sendo 100 Nelore (N), 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN), 67 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN), 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN) e 38 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN) da Est. Exp. Paranavaí/IAPAR. Foram analisadas a idade ao primeiro parto (IPP), a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade d...

  6. $D \\rightarrow a_1, f_1$ transition form factors and semileptonic decays via 3-point QCD sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Yabing; He, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Hao, Yannan

    2016-01-01

    By using the 3-point QCD sum rules, we calculate the transition form factors of $D$ decays into the spin triplet axial vector mesons $a_1(1260)$, $f_1(1285) $, $f_1(1420)$. In the calculations, we consider the quark contents of each meson in detail. In view of the fact that the isospin of $a_1(1260)$ is one, we calculate the $D^+ \\rightarrow a_1^0 (1260)$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow a_1^- (1260)$ transition form factors separately. In the case of $ f_1(1285), f_1(1420)$, the mixing between light flavor $SU(3)$ singlet and octet is taken into account. Based on the form factors obtained here, we give predictions for the branching ratios of relevant semileptonic decays, which can be tested in the future experiments.

  7. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  8. Efeito da interação reprodutor x rebanho sobre os valores genéticos de reprodutores para produção de leite e gordura na raça Pardo-Suíça Effect of sire x herd interaction on genetic values for milk and fat yields of Brown Swiss breed sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Santos Bueno

    2005-08-01

    study the effects of sire x herd and sire x herd-year interactions on genetic values of Brown Swiss breed sires. The (covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method, by using three models with multitrait. In these models, the genetic group, season of calving and herd-year class were considered as fixed effects, while the animal effects, the permanent environment, the interaction of either sire x herd or sire x herd-year were considered as random ones, when the interaction was considered in the model, and the error as well. The likelihood ratio test was used to verify the effectiveness in including the interaction effects into models. The estimates of components of the genetic addictive and residual (covariances did not change when the models were adjusted for the interaction effects. Therefore, the heritability coefficients approximated to each others. The heritability estimate were of 0.40 for both characteristics, and the genetic correlation among the characteristics of 0.94, except when the model considered the effect of the interaction sire x herd. The heritability of fat yield was of 0.39, and the genetic correlation among the characteristics of 0.95. The proportion of the total variance explained by the sire x herd and the sire x herd -year interactions was low, but almost null for milk yield, and about 1% for fat yield. The natural logarithm of likelihood function increased, when the interaction effects were included in the models. Pearson and Spearman correlations among the genetic values obtained by these models were superior than 0.99 for both milk and fat yields, and above 0.897 among the studied characteristics.

  9. Promoter analysis of the rabbit POU5F1 gene and its expression in preimplantation stage embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bock Istvan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The POU5F1 gene encodes the octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4. It is crucial in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development and widely used as molecular marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. The objective of this study was to identify and to analyse the promoter region of rabbit POU5F1 gene; furthermore to examine its expression pattern in preimplantation stage rabbit embryos. Results The upstream region of rabbit POU5F1 was subcloned sequenced and four highly conserved promoter regions (CR1-4 were identified. The highest degree of similarity on sequence level was found among the conserved domains between rabbit and human. Among the enhancers the proximal enhancer region (PE-1A exhibited the highest degree of homology (96.4%. Furthermore, the CR4 regulator domain containing the distal enhancer (DE-2A was responsible for stem cell-specific expression. Also, BAC library screen revealed the existence of a processed pseudogene of rabbit POU5F1. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that POU5F1 mRNA was abundantly present in oocytes and zygotes, but it was gradually reduced until the activation of the embryonic genome, thereafter a continuous increase in POU5F1 mRNA level was observed until blastocyst stage. By using the XYClone laser system the inner cell mass (ICM and trophoblast portions of embryos were microdissected and examined separately and POU5F1 mRNA was detected in both cell types. Conclusion In this study we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the regulatory region of rabbit POU5F1 gene. Our data suggest that the POU5F1 gene is strictly regulated during early mammalian development. We proposed that the well conserved CR4 region containing the DE-2A enhancer is responsible for the highly conserved ESC specific gene expression. Notably, we are the first to report that the rabbit POU5F1 is not restricted to ICM cells only, but it is expressed in trophoblast cells as

  10. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  11. DAPK2 is a novel E2F1/KLF6 target gene involved in their proapoptotic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britschgi, A; Trinh, E; Rizzi, M

    2008-01-01

    that is markedly decreased upon DAPK2 knockdown. Moreover, E2F1 and KLF6 show cooperation in activating the DAPK2 promoter. In summary, our findings establish DAPK2 as a novel Sp1-dependent target gene for E2F1 and KLF6 in cell death response.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 June 2008; doi:10.1038/onc.2008.179....

  12. Directed mutagenesis of the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-reactive carboxyl residues in beta-subunit of F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, D; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E

    1988-02-15

    Previous studies in which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was used to inactivate F1-ATPase enzymes have suggested that two glutamate residues in the beta-subunit are essential for catalysis. In the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, these are residues beta-Glu-181 and beta-Glu-192. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change these residues to beta-Gln-181 and beta-Gln-192. The beta-Gln-181 mutation produced strong impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and also of ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in membranes assayed in vitro. A low level of each activity was detected and an F1-ATPase appeared to be assembled normally on the membranes. Therefore, it is suggested that the carboxyl side chain at residue beta-181 is important, although not absolutely required, for catalysis in both directions on E. coli F1-ATPase. The beta-Gln-192 mutation produced partial inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and membrane ATPase activity was reduced by 78%. These results contrast with the complete or near-complete inactivation seen when E. coli F1-ATPase is reacted with DCCD and imply that DCCD-inactivation is attributable more to the attachment of the bulky DCCD molecule than to the derivatization of the carboxyl side chain of residue beta-Glu-192. M. Ohtsubo and colleagues (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) 146, 705-710) described mutagenesis of the F1-beta-subunit of thermophilic bacterium PS3. Mutations (Glu----Gln) of the residues homologous to Glu-181 and Glu-192 of E. coli F1-beta-subunit both caused total inhibition of ATPase activity. Therefore, there was a marked difference in results obtained when the same residues were modified in the PS3 and E. coli F1-beta-subunits.

  13. F1FO ATPase vesicle preparation and technique for performing patch clamp recordings of submitochondrial vesicle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Silvio; Alavian, Kambiz N; Lazrove, Emma; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-04

    Mitochondria are involved in many important cellular functions including metabolism, survival(1), development and, calcium signaling(2). Two of the most important mitochondrial functions are related to the efficient production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell, by oxidative phosphorylation, and the mediation of signals for programmed cell death(3). The enzyme primarily responsible for the production of ATP is the F1FO-ATP synthase, also called ATP synthase(4-5). In recent years, the role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has received considerable attention. In apoptotic cell death, BCL-2 family proteins such as Bax enter the mitochondrial outer membrane, oligomerize and permeabilize the outer membrane, releasing pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol(6). In classic necrotic cell death, such as that produced by ischemia or excitotoxicity in neurons, a large, poorly regulated increase in matrix calcium contributes to the opening of an inner membrane pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or mPTP. This depolarizes the inner membrane and causes osmotic shifts, contributing to outer membrane rupture, release of pro-apoptotic factors, and metabolic dysfunction. Many proteins including Bcl-xL(7) interact with F1FO ATP synthase, modulating its function. Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of F1FO ATP synthase, and this interaction decreases a leak conductance within the F1FOATPasecomplex, increasing the net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity(8) and thereby increasing mitochondrial efficiency. To study the activity and modulation of the ATP synthase, we isolated from rodent brain submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) containing F1FO ATPase. The SMVs retain the structural and functional integrity of the F1FO ATPase as shown in Alavian et al. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of SMVs from rat brain and we delineate the patch clamp technique to analyze channel activity (ion

  14. Isolation and Expression Analysis of FTZ-F1 Encoding Gene of Black Rock Fish (Sebastes schlegelii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shafi; WANG Yanan; ZHOU Xiaosu; MA Liman; Faiz Muhammad; QI Jie; ZHANG Quanqi

    2013-01-01

    Sex related FTZ-F1 is a transcriptional factor regulating the expression of fushi tarazu (a member of the orphan nuclear receptors) gene.In this study,FTZ-F1 gene (FTZ-F1) was isolated from the testis of black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) by homology cloning.The full-length cDNA of S.schlegeli FTZ-F1 (ssFTZ-F1) contained a 232bp 5'UTR,a 1449bp ORF encoding FTZ-F1 (482 amino acid residules in length) with an estimated molecular weight of 5.4kD and a 105bp 3'UTR.Sequence,tissue distribution and phylogenic analysis showed that ssFTZ-F 1 belonged to FTZ group,holding highly conserved regions including Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ FTZ-F1 boxes and an AF-2 hexamer.Relatively high expression was observed at different larva stages.In juveniles (105 days old),the transcript ofssFTZ-Fl can be detected in all tissues and the abuncance of the gene transcript in testis,ovary,spleen and brain was higher than that in other tissues.In mature fish,the abundance of gene transcript was higher in testis,ovary,spleen and brain than that in liver (trace amount),and the gene was not transcribed in other tissues.The highest abundance of gene transcript was always observed in gonads of both juvenile and mature fish.In addition,the abundance of gene transcript in male tissues were higher than that in female tissue counterparts (P<0.05).

  15. Structural and biochemical characterisation of VaF1, a P-IIIa fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Sajevic, Tamara; Latinović, Zorica; Pungerčar, Jože; Balija, Maja Lang; Bakija, Alenka Trampuš; Vidmar, Robert; Halassy, Beata; Križaj, Igor

    2015-02-01

    A high molecular mass metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic activity, termed VaF1, was purified from nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom. Subcutaneous injection of 9 μg of VaF1 did not induce bleeding in rats. Nevertheless, in vitro it degraded collagen IV, nidogen and fibronectin, components of the extracellular matrix, although with low efficacy and narrow specificity. VaF1 would be expected to exert anti-coagulant action, due to its hydrolysis of fibrinogen, factor X, prothrombin and plasminogen, plasma proteins involved in blood coagulation. The enzyme is a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 49.7 kDa, as determined by mass spectrometry, and multiple isoelectric points centred at pH 5.8. The complete amino acid sequence of the precursor of VaF1 was deduced by cloning and sequencing its cDNA. Composed of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, VaF1 is a typical P-IIIa subclass snake venom metalloproteinase. Although it possesses a collagen-binding sequence in its disintegrin-like domain, VaF1 displayed no effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Two consensus N-glycosylation sites are present in the sequence of VaF1, however, the extent of its glycosylation is low, only 5.2% of the total molecular mass. Interestingly, in standard experimental conditions VaF1 is not recognised by antiserum against the whole venom, so it can contribute to post-serotherapy complications, such as ineffective blood coagulation, in the envenomed patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  17. 滩湖F1代6月龄产肉性能研究%A Study of Meat Producing Performance of F1 Generation Tanhu Sheep of 6 Months Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊丽; 马吉锋; 王建东; 梁小军; 黄建军

    2015-01-01

    为研究滩湖F1代产肉性能,选择滩湖F1代6月龄公羔、滩羊公羔进行屠宰测定。结果表明:滩湖F1代6月龄公羔产肉性能高于同期滩羊公羔,其中滩湖F1代屠宰率、净肉率、背膘厚、GR值、眼肌面积分别比滩羊提高了1.26%、7.15%,21.66%、17.75%、8.52%;滩湖F1骨肉比、尾脂和内脂占胴体比例比滩羊降低了20.11%、27.01%,二者差异不显著(P>0.05)。%In order to study the meat producing performance of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep, the 6 months old male lamb of F1 generation Tanhu sheep and the male lamb of Tan sheep were selected to make slaughter and measurement. The results showed that the meat producing performance of the 6 months old male lamb of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep was higher than that of the male lamb of Tan sheep, and the slaughter rate, net meat percentage, backfat thickness, GR value and loin eye area of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep were higher than those of the Tan sheep by 1.26%, 7.15%,21.66%, 17.75% and 8.52% respectively; the flesh ratio and the ratio of the tail and inner fat accounting for the carcass of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep were 20.11% and 27.01% lower compared with those of the Tan sheep and the difference was not significant(P>0.05).

  18. E2F-1蛋白在大鼠泌乳素瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海梅; 徐春

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过检测腺病毒F2启动子结合因子1(E2F-1)在大鼠泌乳素(PRL)瘤中的表达来探讨E2F-1在PRL瘤发生发展过程中的作用.方法 用皮下植入17β-雌二醇的方法诱发大鼠PRL瘤;免疫组化SP方法检测两组大鼠E2F-1蛋白的表达.结果 雌二醇作用10周后,据垂体重量、垂体组织学变化和血清PRL水平证实PRL瘤诱导成功.PRL瘤组中,E2F-1蛋白明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 E2F-1在大鼠PRL瘤中呈现高表达,提示E2F-1的高表达促进了大鼠PRL瘤的发生发展.

  19. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  20. 高加索三叶草、白三叶及其杂种F1代的ISSR分析%ISSR Analysis of Trifolium ambiguum Bieb., T.repens L.and Their Hybrid F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帆; 王明玖; 何丽君; 陈丽丽; 魏春秋

    2012-01-01

    Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. (Caucasian clover, paternal) is an important species for the traits such as resistance to drought and cold; T. repens L. (white clover, maternal) is a species introduced from Greater Khingan for the traits of strong nitrogen fixation ability and growing ability. Hybridization was made between Caucasian clover and white clover and the embryos were successfully raised using the tissue culture technique, then the regeneration system of F1 was established. In order to define the genetic difference degree between hybrids F1 and their parents, ISSR molecular makers were used to analyze the genetic relationship. The results showed that 170 bands of ISSR markers were amplified with 16 primers, and the length of DNA fragment were ranged from 100 to 2000bp; 138 bands were polymorphic, and the percentage of polymorphism bands reached 81. 18%. The genetic distance (GD) of 4 tested plant materials ranged from 0. 0756 to 0. 6798, with an average of 0. 5313. The genetic distance between Caucasian clover and white clover was larger; the hybrid F1 was closer to Caucasian clover than to white clover, and there was a slight variation between F1 hybrids and regeneration of F1. Authenticities of hybrid F1 were identified and genetic differences between hybrids and parents were analyzed from the level of molecular.%利用耐寒、耐旱的六倍体高加索三叶草与强固氮能力、生长能力的大兴安岭四倍体白三叶进行远缘杂交,通过胚拯救技术得到杂种F1,同时通过组培快繁技术建立了F1的再生体系.为了明确杂种F1与亲本在DNA水平上的差异,建立适用于F1的分子标记反应体系,利用ISSR技术对其进行了鉴定分析.结果表明,16个ISSR引物共扩增出170条条带,长度介于100~2000bp之间,多态性条带138条,多态性条带百分率为81.18%;4个供试材料间的遗传距离变幅为0.0756~0.6798,平均为0.5313;父本白三叶与母本高加索三叶草之间的遗传距离较大,F

  1. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  2. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  3. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  4. Mutated and Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle Arrayed F1-V Immunogens from Yersinia pestis as Next Generation Plague Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Sha, Jian; Yeager, Linsey A.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is a highly virulent infectious disease with 100% mortality rate, and its causative organism Yersinia pestis poses a serious threat for deliberate use as a bioterror agent. Currently, there is no FDA approved vaccine against plague. The polymeric bacterial capsular protein F1, a key component of the currently tested bivalent subunit vaccine consisting, in addition, of low calcium response V antigen, has high propensity to aggregate, thus affecting its purification and vaccine efficacy. We used two basic approaches, structure-based immunogen design and phage T4 nanoparticle delivery, to construct new plague vaccines that provided complete protection against pneumonic plague. The NH2-terminal β-strand of F1 was transplanted to the COOH-terminus and the sequence flanking the β-strand was duplicated to eliminate polymerization but to retain the T cell epitopes. The mutated F1 was fused to the V antigen, a key virulence factor that forms the tip of the type three secretion system (T3SS). The F1mut-V protein showed a dramatic switch in solubility, producing a completely soluble monomer. The F1mut-V was then arrayed on phage T4 nanoparticle via the small outer capsid protein, Soc. The F1mut-V monomer was robustly immunogenic and the T4-decorated F1mut-V without any adjuvant induced balanced TH1 and TH2 responses in mice. Inclusion of an oligomerization-deficient YscF, another component of the T3SS, showed a slight enhancement in the potency of F1-V vaccine, while deletion of the putative immunomodulatory sequence of the V antigen did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Both the soluble (purified F1mut-V mixed with alhydrogel) and T4 decorated F1mut-V (no adjuvant) provided 100% protection to mice and rats against pneumonic plague evoked by high doses of Y. pestis CO92. These novel platforms might lead to efficacious and easily manufacturable next generation plague vaccines. PMID:23853602

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Clinical Healthy Cows and Mastitic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-xin; ZHAO Xing-xu; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    The current research presents the protein changes in plasma from healthy dairy cows and clinical mastitic cows using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining with silver nitrate and Coomassie Blue, differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 7.4 software, and then subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor HPLC System, differential spots of protein were identified. Three protein spots that originated from preparation gels were identified to be two proteins. Overall, haptoglobin precursor was up-regulated in cows infected with clinical mastitis and could be a mastitis-associated diagnostic marker, whereas SCGB 2A1 (secretoglobin, family 2A, member 1) was down-regulated protein. Plasma protein expression patterns were changed when cows were infected with mammary gland inflammation; it suggests that analysis of differential expression protein might be useful to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology, and find new diagnostic markers of mastitis and potential protein targets for treatment.

  6. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, John A; Fagg, Rajni; Sones, William R; Williams, Thomas C; Andrews, C Michael

    2006-04-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is haemotoxic in man, inducing two types of toxicity. First, a dose-related, reversible anaemia with reticulocytopenia, sometimes seen in conjunction with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; this form of toxicity develops during drug treatment. The second haemotoxicity is aplastic anaemia (AA) which is evident in the blood as severe pancytopenia. AA development is not dose-related and occurs weeks or months after treatment. We wish, in the longer term, to investigate CAP-induced AA in the busulphan-pretreated mouse. However, as a prelude to that study, we wanted to characterize in detail the reversible haemotoxicity of CAP succinate (CAPS), administered at high dose levels in the mouse, and follow the recovery of the bone marrow in the post-dosing period. Female B6C3F1 mice were gavaged with CAPS at 0, 2500 and 3500 mg/kg, daily, for 5 days and sampled (n = 5) at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days post-dosing. Blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were analysed and clonogenic assays carried out. At day 1 post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, decreases were seen in erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursors; marrow erythroid cells were reduced. Reductions were also evident in splenic nucleated cell counts, blood high fluorescence ratio (HFR) reticulocyte counts and total reticulocyte counts; burst-forming units-erythroid and colony-forming units-erythroid showed decreases. At day 7 post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), there was regeneration of erythrocyte production, with marked splenic erythropoietic activity, and raised blood HFR reticulocytes. At day 7, at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters remained depressed. At 14 days post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), many erythrocyte parameters had returned to normal; at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, there was erythroid regeneration. By 21 days post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, most erythrocytic parameters were equivalent to control values. For leucocyte parameters, there was some depression at day 1 post-dosing (at

  7. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  8. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  9. Complete kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the unisite catalytic pathway of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Comparison with mitochondrial F1-ATPase and application to the study of mutant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawi, M K; Senior, A E

    1988-12-25

    A complete analysis is presented of the component rate constants of the "unisite" reaction pathway in normal Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Gibbs free energy profiles of the unisite reaction pathway were constructed for both normal E. coli F1 and bovine-heart mitochondrial F1, and comparison indicated that E. coli F1 is an ancestral form of the mitochondrial enzyme. Similar kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the unisite reaction pathway were done for mutant beta-Asn-242 and beta-Val-242 E. coli F1-ATPases. Both mutations affected unisite binding and hydrolysis of MgATP but had little effect on release of products or binding of MgADP. It was apparent that a primary effect of the mutations was on the interaction between the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain and the substrate MgATP. The catalytic transition state [F1-ATP]++ was the most destabilized step in the reaction sequence. Measurements of delta delta G[F1.ATP]++ and linear free energy plots for the catalytic step were consistent with the view that, in normal enzyme, residue beta-Asp-242 accepts an H-bond from the transition-state substrate in order to facilitate catalysis. Both mutations impaired positive catalytic cooperativity. This was caused by energetic destabilization of the catalytic transition state and was an indirect effect, not a direct effect on signal transmission per se between catalytic nucleotide-binding domains on beta-subunits. Therefore, impairment of unisite catalysis and of positive catalytic cooperativity appeared to be linked. This may provide a unifying explanation as to why a series of other, widely separated mis-sense mutations within the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain on F1-beta-subunit, which have been reported to affect unisite catalysis, also impair positive catalytic cooperativity. Linear free energy plots for the ATP-binding step of unisite catalysis demonstrated that beta-Asn-242 and beta-Val-242 mutant enzymes did not suffer any gross disruptive change in structure of

  10. Expression of E2F -1 and cyclinD1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and its significance%大肠癌E2F -1、CyclinD1的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 何妍; 李希芳; 刘岩; 时志民; 刘惠民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of E2K - 1 and ryclinDl in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and its significance. Methods Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase - mediated nick end labeling TUNEL method and immunohistochemical SP method were used to detect 78 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma, 20 cases of normal eoloreclal mucosa, 30 cases of colorectal polyps, and 30 cases of coloreotal adenoma cells in situ withered death ( Al) , and E2F - 1 and cyclinDl expression. Results The positive expression rate of E2F - 1 and cyclinDl in esophageal carcinoma was much higher than that in colorectal mucosa, colorectal polyps, and colorectal adenoma (P < 0. 05 ). The expression of E2F - 1 was closely correlated with the differentiation, TNM and lymph node metastasis (P <0. 05). Conclusions E2F - 1 and cyclinDl are closely related to the occurrence of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Both of them are important biological markers in colorectal adenocarcinoma occurrence and development.%目的 探讨E2F -