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Sample records for f1 capsular protein

  1. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis.

  2. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two diffe...

  3. Recombinant bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase inhibitor protein: overproduction in Escherichia coli, purification, and structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heeke, G; Deforce, L; Schnizer, R A; Shaw, R; Couton, J M; Shaw, G; Song, P S; Schuster, S M

    1993-09-28

    A synthetic gene coding for the inhibitor protein of bovine heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine triphosphatase was designed and cloned in Escherichia coli. Recombinant F1-ATPase inhibitor protein was overproduced in E. coli and secreted to the periplasmic space. Biologically active recombinant F1-ATPase inhibitor protein was recovered from the bacterial cells by osmotic shock and was purified to near homogeneity in a single cation-exchange chromatography step. The recombinant inhibitor protein was shown to inhibit bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase in a pH-dependent manner, as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial F1-ATPase. Thorough analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed a potential coiled-coil structure for the C-terminal portion of the protein. Experimental evidence obtained by circular dichroism analyses supports this prediction and suggests F1I to be a highly stable, mainly alpha-helical protein which displays C-terminal alpha-helical coiled-coil intermolecular interaction.

  4. E. coli F1-ATPase interacts with a membrane protein component of a proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J E; Saraste, M; Gay, N J

    1982-08-26

    The ATP synthases of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, which use the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient to power the synthesis of ATP, consist of an integral membrane component F0--thought to contain a proton channel--and a catalytic component, F1. To help investigate the way F0 and F1 are coupled, we have sequenced the b-subunit of the Escherichia coli F0, which seems to be the counterpart of a thermophilic bacteria F0 subunit thought to be essential for F1 binding. We report here that its sequence is remarkable, being hydrophobic around the N-terminus and highly charged in the remainder. We propose that the N-terminal segment lies in the membrane and the rest outside. The extramembranous section contains two adjacent stretches of 31 amino acids where the sequence is very similar: in the second of these stretches there is further internal homology. These duplicated stretches of the polypeptide probably fold into two alpha-helices which have many common features able to make contact with F1 subunits. Thus protein b occupies a central position in the enzyme, where it may be involved in proton translocation. It is possibly also important in biosynthetic assembly.

  5. Crystal structure of the capsular polysaccharide synthesizing protein CapE of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tanner, Martin E; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2013-06-11

    Enzymes synthesizing the bacterial CP (capsular polysaccharide) are attractive antimicrobial targets. However, we lack critical information about the structure and mechanism of many of them. In an effort to reduce that gap, we have determined three different crystal structures of the enzyme CapE of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The structure reveals that CapE is a member of the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) super-family of proteins. CapE assembles in a hexameric complex stabilized by three major contact surfaces between protein subunits. Turnover of substrate and/or coenzyme induces major conformational changes at the contact interface between protein subunits, and a displacement of the substrate-binding domain with respect to the Rossmann domain. A novel dynamic element that we called the latch is essential for remodelling of the protein-protein interface. Structural and primary sequence alignment identifies a group of SDR proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis that share the two salient features of CapE: the mobile loop (latch) and a distinctive catalytic site (MxxxK). The relevance of these structural elements was evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis.

  6. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of protein conjugates of Neisseria meningitidis X capsular polysaccharide fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Morelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine to prevent infections from the emerging Neisseria meningitidis X (MenX is becoming an urgent issue. Recently MenX capsular polysaccharide (CPS fragments conjugated to CRM197 as carrier protein have been confirmed at preclinical stage as promising candidates for vaccine development. However, more insights about the minimal epitope required for the immunological activity of MenX CPS are needed. We report herein the chemical conjugation of fully synthetic MenX CPS oligomers (monomer, dimer, and trimer to CRM197. Moreover, improvements in some crucial steps leading to the synthesis of MenX CPS fragments are described. Following immunization with the obtained neoglycoconjugates, the conjugated trimer was demonstrated as the minimal fragment possessing immunogenic activity, even though significantly lower than a pentadecamer obtained from the native polymer and conjugated to the same protein. This finding suggests that oligomers longer than three repeating units are possibly needed to mimic the activity of the native polysaccharide.

  7. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hoersch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000. To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light.

  8. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light.

  9. Inhibition of E2F-1 transactivation by direct binding of the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Harlow, E; Fattaey, A

    1993-01-01

    to transcription factor E2F has provided a model for the mechanism of pRB-mediated growth regulation. Since adenovirus E1A proteins dissociate the pRB-E2F complexes and stimulate E2F-dependent transcription, it has been suggested that pRB inhibits E2F transactivation. Although some evidence for this hypothesis has...... been provided, it has not been possible to determine the mechanism of pRB-mediated inhibition of E2F transactivation. In this study, we constructed mutants of E2F-1 that do not bind to pRB yet retain the ability to transactivate the adenovirus E2 promoter through E2F DNA-binding sites. We demonstrated...

  10. Lack of ability of trypsin-treated mitochondrial F1-ATPase to bind the oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, T; Norling, B; Ernster, L

    1983-10-03

    Soluble beef-heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase modified in its alpha-subunit by mild trypsin treatment (alpha'-F1) can no longer bind oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) but is still capable of binding to F1-depleted submitochondrial particles, giving rise to a maximally oligomycin-sensitive ATPase, provided the particles contain their native complement of OSCP. When OSCP is removed from the particles, alpha'-F1 can still bind to the particles, but added OSCP induces only a low degree of oligomycin sensitivity. The possible role of OSCP in the functional coupling of the catalytic (F1) and H+-translocating (Fo) moieties of mitochondrial ATPase is discussed. The results suggest a functional similarity between the OSCP component of mitochondrial ATPase and the delta-subunit of E. coli ATPase, which is in accordance with the structural homology recently found to exist between the two polypeptides.

  11. A hybrid toxin from bacteriophage f1 attachment protein and colicin E3 has altered cell receptor specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes, K S; Davis, N G; Zinder, N D

    1988-01-01

    A hybrid protein was constructed in vitro which consists of the first 372 amino acids of the attachment (gene III) protein of filamentous bacteriophage f1 fused, in frame, to the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of colicin E3. The hybrid toxin killed cells that had the F-pilus receptor for phage f1 but not F- cells. The activity of the hybrid protein was not dependent upon the presence of the colicin E3 receptor, BtuB protein. The killing activity was colicin E3 specific, since F+ cells expr...

  12. Nitrogen metabolism enzymes, soluble protein and free proline content in soybean genotypes and their F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Sanja T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, as well as free proline and soluble protein content were measured in eight soybean parent genotypes and six F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to determine variability and the mode of inheritance for these parameters, and point out the genotypes of interest for future breeding programs. Analysed genotypes and their F1 hybrids expressed significant differences in activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase enzymes, as well as in soluble proteins and free proline contents. Since mode of inheritance for all investigated traits was in most cases dominance or heterosis, it can be concluded that these parameters are under control of dominant genes. The obtained results suggest that genotypes with favorable traits, such as variety Linda, line 1511, and F1 hybrids (Linda x LN92-7369 and (Balkan x BL-8, could be of interest as a good starting material for further breeding programs.

  13. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  14. Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria meningitidis share lipooligosaccharide epitopes but lack common capsular and class 1, 2, and 3 protein epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Mandrell, R E; Griffiss, J M

    1989-02-01

    Neisseria lactamica, a common human pharyngeal commensal, contributes to acquired immunity to Neisseria meningitidis. To define the surface antigens shared between these two species, we used monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to study 35 N. lactamica strains isolated in various parts of the world for cross-reactivity with meningococcal capsules, outer membrane proteins, and lipooligosaccharides (LOS). No N. lactamica strain reacted significantly with MAbs specific for capsular group A, B, C, Y, or W, and we were unable to extract capsular polysaccharide from them. Only 2 of 33 strains reacted weakly with MAbs against class 2 serotype proteins P2b and P2c. None reacted with MAbs specific for meningococcal class 1 protein P1.2 or P1.16 or class 2/3 serotype protein P2a or P15. Most N. lactamica strains (30 of 35) bound one or more of seven LOS-specific MAbs. Two LOS epitopes, defined by MAbs O6B4 and 3F11, that are commonly found on pathogenic Neisseria species were found on 25 of 35 N. lactamica. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that the LOS of N. lactamica are composed of multiple components that are physically and antigenically similar to the LOS of pathogenic Neisseria species. Among four other commensal neisserial species, only Neisseria cinerea shared LOS epitopes defined by MAbs O6B4 and 3F11. Previous studies have shown that pharyngeal colonization with N. lactamica induces bactericidal antibodies against the meningococcus. We postulate that shared N. lactamica and meningococcal LOS epitopes may play an important role in the development of natural immunity to the meningococcus.

  15. Ecto-F_1-ATPase: A moonlighting protein complex and an unexpected apoA-I receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre; Vantourout; Claudia; Radojkovic; Laeticia; Lichtenstein; Véronique; Pons; Eric; Champagne; Laurent; O; Martinez

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase has been recently detected at the surface of different cell types, where it is a high affinity receptor for apoA-I, the major protein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) expression is related to different biological effects, such as regulation of HDL uptake by hepatocytes, endothelial cell proliferation or antitumor activity of Vγ9/Vδ2 T lymphocytes. This paper reviews the recently discovered functions and regulations of ...

  16. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-02-26

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution.

  17. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish.

  18. Solution conformation and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Morris, Gordon A.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E.

    2016-10-01

    The structural integrity of meningococcal native, micro-fluidized and activated capsular polysaccharides and their glycoconjugates – in the form most relevant to their potential use as vaccines (dilute solution) - have been investigated with respect to their homogeneity, conformation and flexibility. Sedimentation velocity analysis showed that the polysaccharide size distributions were generally bimodal with some evidence for higher molar mass forms at higher concentration. Weight average molar masses Mw where lower for activated polysaccharides. Conjugation with tetanus toxoid protein however greatly increased the molar mass and polydispersity of the final conjugates. Glycoconjugates had an approximately unimodal log-normal but broad and large molar mass profiles, confirmed by sedimentation equilibrium “SEDFIT MSTAR” analysis. Conformation analysis using HYDFIT (which globally combines sedimentation and viscosity data), “Conformation Zoning” and Wales-van Holde approaches showed a high degree of flexibility – at least as great as the unconjugated polysaccharides, and very different from the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein used for the conjugation. As with the recently published finding for Hib-TT complexes, it is the carbohydrate component that dictates the solution behaviour of these glycoconjugates, although the lower intrinsic viscosities suggest some degree of compaction of the carbohydrate chains around the protein.

  19. Recombinant F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against virulent Yersinia pestis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Mencher, J.; Smith, S.R.; Friedlander, A.M.; Andrews, G.P.; Baeten, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are highly susceptible to sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and this disease has severely hampered efforts to restore ferrets to their historic range. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of vaccination of black-footed ferrets against plague using a recombinant protein vaccine, designated F1-V, developed by personnel at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Seven postreproductive black-footed ferrets were immunized with the vaccine, followed by two booster immunizations on days 23 and 154; three control black-footed ferrets received a placebo. After the second immunization, antibody titers to both F1 and V antigen were found to be significantly higher in vaccinates than controls. On challenge with 7,800 colony-forming units of virulent plague by s.c. injection, the three control animals died within 3 days, but six of seven vaccinates survived with no ill effects. The seventh vaccinate died on day 8. These results indicate that black-footed ferrets can be immunized against plague induced by the s.c. route, similar to fleabite injection.

  20. Establishment of ELISA techniques to detect Der f 1-specific IgE based on recombinant proteins%Der f1血清特异性IgE ELISA检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运刚; 周鹰; 马桂芳; 杨李; 崔玉宝

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect Der f 1-specific IgE based on recombinant proteins of group 1 allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 1) and to detect that IgE in sera from patients with asthma. Methods Indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA techniques were developed using rDer f 1 as a capture antigen, and the techniques were then used to detect Der f 1-specific IgE in sera from 39 patients with asthma to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques. Results With rDer f 1 as a coating antigen, the optimum concentration of coating antigen was 15 fig/ml and the proper dilution of serum was 1 : 2 for both indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA to detect Der f 1-specific IgE. The proper dilution of horseradish peroxidase labeling anti-human IgE antibody (anti-human IgE/HRP) in indirect ELISA was 1 : 1000, and the proper dilution of anti-human IgE/Biotin and Avidin/HRP in ABC-ELISA was 1 : 1000 and 1 : 2000 , respectively. Indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA had a sensitivity of 0. 68 U/ml and 0. 73 U/ml, respectively. Patients tested positive for Der f 1-specific IgE according to indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA at rates of 92. 3% and 97. 4% respectively, and the rates did not differ significantly (P>0. 05). Conclusions Both ELISA techniques were highly sensitive at detecting rDer f 1 and should be used in laboratory diagnosis of allergic diseases associated with mites.%目的 利用粉尘螨变应原第1组分重组蛋白rDer f 1建立特异性IgE ELISA检测方法,并对哮喘患者血清进行检测.方法 以rDer f 1为包被抗原,分别建立间接ELISA法和亲和素(一)生物素复合ELISA (ABC-ELISA)法,检测Der f 1特异性IgE阳性标准血清和39例哮喘患者血清中的Der f 1特异性IgE,并分析检测结果.结果 间接ELISA法和ABC-ELISA法检测Der f 1特异性IgE的最适抗原包被浓度和血清稀释倍数均为15 μg/ml和1:2,间接ELISA法辣根过氧化物酶(HRP)标记抗人IgE

  1. The Role of a Novel Nucleolar Protein in Regulation of E2F1 in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    copresence of RRP1B and E2F1 on specific E2F1 targets (see below), We would now like to discuss progress in the research program. Task 1...A similar assay was performed identically except that cells were grown in media containing 2% fetal bovine serum. Real time and semiquantitative

  2. Positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation by E2F-1: influence of protein level and human papillomavirus oncoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melillo, R M; Helin, K; Lowy, D R;

    1994-01-01

    E2F-1 is a member of a family of transcription factors implicated in the activation of genes required for the progression through the S phase of the cell cycle. We have examined the biological activities of E2F-1 with short-term colony-forming assays and long-term immortalization assays. High lev...

  3. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  4. Integration of F1 and the membrane sector of the proton-ATPase of Escherichia coli. Role of subunit "b" (uncF protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, D S; Cox, D N; Senior, A E

    1983-08-25

    Membranes derived from the Escherichia coli strain AN1460 which carries the multicopy plasmid pAN45 (unc+) (Downie, J. A., Langman, L., Cox, G. B., Yanofsky, C., and Gibson, (1980) J. Bacteriol. 143, 8-17) were enriched 5- to 10-fold in proton-ATPase activity. Incubation of F1-depleted AN1460 membranes with trypsin abolished F1-binding ability but did not inhibit proton transport through the membrane sector (F0). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis indicated that subunit "b" (uncF protein) of F0 was cleaved by trypsin and prebound F1 protected against the trypsin effect. Subunits "a" (uncB protein) and "c" (uncE protein) were unaffected by the trypsin treatment. A water-soluble fragment (Mr = 14,800) was liberated after trypsin treatment and appeared to arise from subunit b. Studies of enzyme hybridization and of F1 binding to membranes derived from strains containing mutations in uncB, F, and E genes supported the suggestion that subunit b is involved in F1 binding to the F0. Also, extraction of membranes with KSCN increased the relative proportion of subunit b in the membrane and this coincided with a parallel increase in trypsin-sensitive F1-binding ability. It is proposed that subunit b is involved in binding of F1 to the F0; this agrees with the presumed role of the protein as deduced from predictions of its secondary and tertiary structure (Walker, J. E., Saraste, M., and Gay, N. J. (1982) Nature (Lond.) 298, 867-869; Senior, A. E. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, in press).

  5. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1) can regulate E2F1 transcription factor-mediated control of cyclin transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Jessy; Berthelet, Jean; Marivin, Arthur; Gemble, Simon; Edmond, Valérie; Plenchette, Stéphanie; Lagrange, Brice; Hammann, Arlette; Dupoux, Alban; Delva, Laurent; Eymin, Béatrice; Solary, Eric; Dubrez, Laurence

    2011-07-29

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1) is a potent regulator of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cytoplasm. However, in some primary cells and tumor cell lines, cIAP1 is expressed in the nucleus, and its nuclear function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal part of cIAP1 directly interacts with the DNA binding domain of the E2F1 transcription factor. cIAP1 dramatically increases the transcriptional activity of E2F1 on synthetic and CCNE promoters. This function is not conserved for cIAP2 and XIAP, which are cytoplasmic proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that cIAP1 is recruited on E2F binding sites of the CCNE and CCNA promoters in a cell cycle- and differentiation-dependent manner. cIAP1 silencing inhibits E2F1 DNA binding and E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation of the CCNE gene. In cells that express a nuclear cIAP1 such as HeLa, THP1 cells and primary human mammary epithelial cells, down-regulation of cIAP1 inhibits cyclin E and A expression and cell proliferation. We conclude that one of the functions of cIAP1 when localized in the nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity.

  6. Vaccination with F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.; Marinari, Paul E.; Kreeger, J.; Enama, J.T.; Powell, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. Eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with F1-V protein by SC injection at approximately 60 days-of-age. A booster vaccination was administered 3 mo later via SC injection. Four additional ferret kits received placebos. The animals were challenged 6 wk after the boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days after exposure. To determine the duration of antibody postvaccination, 18 additional black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated and boosted with F1-V by SC injection at 60 and 120 days-of-age. High titers to both F1 and V (mean reciprocal titers of 18,552 and 99,862, respectively) were found in all vaccinates up to 2 yr postvaccination, whereas seven control animals remained antibody negative throughout the same time period. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  7. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of protein production during growth of Pseudomonas putida F1 on toluene, phenol, and their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kenneth F; Kim, Kee-Hong

    2002-07-01

    The protein profiles of Pseudomonas putida F1 during growth on toluene, phenol, and their mixture were examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Although this bacterium uses the same catabolic pathway for both substrates, P. putida F1 produced specific sets of proteins in response to toluene and phenol as single or mixed substrates. Proteins associated with growth on these substrates could be classified into three categories: ten Group T proteins were associated with the degradation of toluene, seventeen Group P proteins were associated with the degradation of phenol, and one Group M protein was observed to be associated only with toluene-phenol mixture degradation. During growth on the mixture, the protein profile of the cells shifted from Group T proteins to Group P proteins. This correlated well with the substrate consumption pattern, in which toluene was consumed first and growth on phenol did not begin until the medium was nearly depleted of toluene. Individual Group T and Group P protein intracellular concentrations had different transients as the cells grew on the mixture; seven protein levels increased, four decreased, and sixteen reached a maximum and then declined. The Group M protein reached a concentration maximum near the time when growth on phenol began. Variations in the maintenance of these proteins were also noted. These results demonstrate that cells growing on a mixture of substrates undergo significant physiological changes. Further investigation of these changes is expected to shed light on the unusual biodegradation kinetics previously observed with this mixed-substrate system.

  8. Bim, a proapoptotic protein, up-regulated via transcription factor E2F1-dependent mechanism, functions as a prosurvival molecule in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogada, Raghu; Yadav, Neelu; Liu, Junwei; Tang, Shaohua; Zhang, Dianmu; Schneider, Andrea; Seshadri, Athul; Sun, Leimin; Aldaz, C Marcelo; Tang, Dean G; Chandra, Dhyan

    2013-01-04

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bim plays an important role in Bax/Bak-mediated cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Here, we provide evidence for a novel prosurvival function of Bim in cancer cells. Bim was constitutively overexpressed in multiple prostate and breast cancer cells as well as in primary tumor cells. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed that Bim was transcriptionally up-regulated. We have identified eight endogenous E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter using in silico analysis. Luciferase assay demonstrated that Bim expression was E2F1-dependent as mutation of the E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter inhibited luciferase activities. In support, E2F1 silencing led to the loss of Bim expression in cancer cells. Bim primarily localized to mitochondrial and cytoskeleton-associated fractions. Bim silencing or microinjection of anti-Bim antibodies into the cell cytoplasm resulted in cell rounding, detachment, and subsequent apoptosis. We observed up-regulation of prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which sequester Bim in cancer cells. In addition, a phosphorylated form of Bim was also elevated in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the constitutively overexpressed Bim may function as a prosurvival molecule in epithelial cancer cells, and phosphorylation and association with Bcl-xL/Mcl-1 block its proapoptotic functions.

  9. E2F1蛋白在胶质瘤中的表达及其对胶质瘤细胞生长的影响%Expression of E2F1 protein in glioma and its effect on growth of human glioma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 尤永平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨E2 F1蛋白在胶质瘤中的表达及其对胶质瘤细胞生长的影响。方法用实时荧光定量PCR法检测E2F1mRNA在各级别胶质瘤组织中的表达水平。应用RNA干扰技术降低E2F1表达后,采用Western印迹法验证E2F1蛋白的变化。采用四甲基偶氮唑盐( MTT)微量酶反应比色法和糖检测分析试剂盒检测干扰E2 F1表达后胶质瘤细胞的增殖和糖代谢的变化。结果胶质瘤组织中E2 F1的表达高于正常脑组织,其表达随着级别的增高而升高;抑制E2F1的表达后,U87细胞生长受抑制,细胞的葡萄糖消耗量明显降低。结论 E2 F1在胶质瘤中的表达随着肿瘤恶性程度的增高而升高;抑制E2 F1表达可以明显抑制胶质瘤细胞增殖及代谢能力。%Objective To study the expression of E 2 F1 protein in human glioma tissues and its effect on tumor growth .Methods E2F1 expression in glioma tissues was determined by real-time quantification RT-PCR.Subsequently, MTT assay, western blotting and Glucose Assay were used to assay U87 cells with reduced E2F1 expression.Results This data of the study showed that the expression of E2F1 in glioma was increased and strongly correlated with its pathological grade . Abrogating expression of E2F1 could suppress glioma cells growth , decrease the glucose consumption.Conclusions The expression levels of E2F1 mRNA in human glioma is high. Abrogating expression of E 2F1 could inhibit the growth and metabolism in U 87 cells.

  10. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Protein (pRb)/E2 Promoter Binding Factor 1 (E2F1) Pathway as a Novel Mediator of TGFβ-induced Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korah, Juliana; Canaff, Lucie; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-29

    TGFβ is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates cell proliferation, cell immortalization, and cell death, acting as a key homeostatic mediator in various cell types and tissues. Autophagy is a programmed mechanism that plays a pivotal role in controlling cell fate and, consequently, many physiological and pathological processes, including carcinogenesis. Although autophagy is often considered a pro-survival mechanism that renders cells viable in stressful conditions and thus might promote tumor growth, emerging evidence suggests that autophagy is also a tumor suppressor pathway. The relationship between TGFβ signaling and autophagy is context-dependent and remains unclear. TGFβ-mediated activation of autophagy has recently been suggested to contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of TGFβ in hepatocarcinoma cells. In the present study, we define a novel process of TGFβ-mediated autophagy in cancer cell lines of various origins. We found that autophagosome initiation and maturation by TGFβ is dependent on the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein/E2 promoter binding factor (pRb/E2F1) pathway, which we have previously established as a critical signaling axis leading to various TGFβ tumor suppressive effects. We further determined that TGFβ induces pRb/E2F1-dependent transcriptional activation of several autophagy-related genes. Together, our findings reveal that TGFβ induces autophagy through the pRb/E2F1 pathway and transcriptional activation of autophagy-related genes and further highlight the central relevance of the pRb/E2F1 pathway downstream of TGFβ signaling in tumor suppression.

  11. ATP binding by the P-loop NTPase OsYchF1 (an unconventional G protein) contributes to biotic but not abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Xiaorong; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yung, Yuk-Lin; Yu, Mei-Hui; Wong, Kam-Bo; Chen, Zhongzhou; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2016-03-01

    G proteins are involved in almost all aspects of the cellular regulatory pathways through their ability to bind and hydrolyze GTP. The YchF subfamily, interestingly, possesses the unique ability to bind both ATP and GTP, and is possibly an ancestral form of G proteins based on phylogenetic studies and is present in all kingdoms of life. However, the biological significance of such a relaxed ligand specificity has long eluded researchers. Here, we have elucidated the different conformational changes caused by the binding of a YchF homolog in rice (OsYchF1) to ATP versus GTP by X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, by comparing the 3D relationships of the ligand position and the various amino acid residues at the binding sites in the crystal structures of the apo-bound and ligand-bound versions, a mechanism for the protein's ability to bind both ligands is revealed. Mutation of the noncanonical G4 motif of the OsYchF1 to the canonical sequence for GTP specificity precludes the binding/hydrolysis of ATP and prevents OsYchF1 from functioning as a negative regulator of plant-defense responses, while retaining its ability to bind/hydrolyze GTP and its function as a negative regulator of abiotic stress responses, demonstrating the specific role of ATP-binding/hydrolysis in disease resistance. This discovery will have a significant impact on our understanding of the structure-function relationships of the YchF subfamily of G proteins in all kingdoms of life.

  12. ATP-binding site of adenylate kinase: mechanistic implications of its homology with ras-encoded p21, F1-ATPase, and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1986-02-01

    The MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase, located by a combination of NMR and x-ray diffraction, is near three protein segments, five to seven amino acids in length, that are homologous in sequence to segments found in other nucleotide-binding phosphotransferases, such as myosin and F1-ATPase, ras p21 and transducin GTPases, and cAMP-dependent and src protein kinases, suggesting equivalent mechanistic roles of these segments in all of these proteins. Segment 1 is a glycine-rich flexible loop that, on adenylate kinase, may control access to the ATP-binding site by changing its conformation. Segment 2 is an alpha-helix containing two hydrophobic residues that interact with the adenine-ribose moiety of ATP, and a lysine that may bind to the beta- and gamma-phosphates of ATP. Segment 3 is a hydrophobic strand of parallel beta-pleated sheet, terminated by a carboxylate, that flanks the triphosphate binding site. The various reported mutations of ras p21 that convert it to a transforming agent all appear to involve segment 1, and such substitutions may alter the properties of p21 by hindering a conformational change at this segment. In F1-ATPase, the flexible loop may, by its position, control both the accessibility and the ATP/ADP equilibrium constant on the enzyme.

  13. Larval salivary glue protein heterosis and dosage compensation among the interspecific F1 hybrids of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Prithi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cross effects with respect to larval salivary secretory protein levels were studied in the interspecific fertile reciprocal hybrids by crossing Drosophila nasuta nasuta, and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. These proteins are produced copiously during the third larval instar stage and are believed to play a role in the attachment of pupa to the substratum prior to pupariation as well as in insect immunity. Quantitative variations were encountered among the reciprocal hybrids. Significant heterosis was observed between D. n. nasuta and the F1 hybrid female of a cross between D. n. albomicans female and D. n. nasuta male (21.39% while the F1 hybrids of a cross between D. n. nasuta female and D. n. albomicans male showed a marginal increase (4.24% from the mid parent level. The glue secretions were correlated to total cell number but independent of gland size. SDS PAGE revealed a considerable heterosis with respect to X-linked protein fractions. Here we report sex specific biochemical heterosis. However the X-linked fractions undergo dosage compensation in both parents and hybrids indicating strict regulatory control.

  14. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  15. Optimized green fluorescent protein fused to FoF1-ATP synthase for single-molecule FRET using a fast anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienerowitz, Maria; Ilchenko, Mykhailo; Su, Bertram; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele; Mayer, Günter; Henkel, Thomas; Heitkamp, Thomas; Börsch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Observation times of freely diffusing single molecules in solution are limited by the photophysics of the attached fluorescence markers and by a small observation volume in the femtolitre range that is required for a sufficient signal-to-background ratio. To extend diffusion-limited observation times through a confocal detection volume, A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built the ABELtrap -- a microfluidic device to actively counteract Brownian motion of single nanoparticles with an electrokinetic trap. Here we present a version of an ABELtrap with a laser focus pattern generated by electro-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA chip. This ABELtrap holds single fluorescent nanoparticles for more than 100 seconds, increasing the observation time of fluorescent nanoparticles compared to free diffusion by a factor of 10000. To monitor conformational changes of individual membrane proteins in real time, we record sequential distance changes between two specifically attached dyes using Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Fusing the a-subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase with mNeonGreen results in an improved signal-to-background ratio at lower laser excitation powers. This increases our measured trap duration of proteoliposomes beyond 2 s. Additionally, we observe different smFRET levels attributed to varying distances between the FRET donor (mNeonGreen) and acceptor (Alexa568) fluorophore attached at the a- and c-subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase respectively.

  16. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  17. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  18. Vi capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugates for prevention of typhoid fever. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, S C; Stone, A L; Robbins, J D; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1987-11-01

    The Vi has proven to be a protective antigen in two double masked, controlled clinical trials in areas with high rates of typhoid fever (approximately 1% per annum). In both studies the protective efficacy of the Vi was approximately 70%. Approximately 75% of subjects in these areas responded with a fourfold or greater rise of serum Vi antibodies. In contrast, the Vi elicited a fourfold or greater rise in 95-100% of young adults in France and the United States. Methods were devised, therefore, to synthesize Vi-protein conjugates in order to both enhance the antibody response and confer T-dependent properties to the Vi (and theoretically increase its protective action in populations at high risk for typhoid fever). We settled on a method that used the heterobifunctional crosslinking reagent, N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP), to bind thiol derivatives of the Vi to proteins. This synthetic scheme was reproducible, provided high yields of Vi-protein conjugates, and was applicable to several medically relevant proteins such as diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. The resultant conjugates were more immunogenic in mice and juvenile Rhesus monkeys than the Vi alone. In contrast to the T-independent properties of the Vi, conjugates of this polysaccharide with several medically relevant proteins induced booster responses in mice and in juvenile Rhesus monkeys. Clinical studies with Vi-protein conjugates are planned. This scheme is also applicable to synthesize protein conjugates with other polysaccharides that have carboxyl functions.

  19. Phylogenetic analyses of the homologous transmembrane channel-forming proteins of the F0F1-ATPases of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A; Ngo, L; Park, J; Paulsen, I T; Saier, M H

    1996-01-01

    Sequences of the three integral membrane subunits (subunits a, b and c) of the F0 sector of the proton-translocating F-type (F0F1-) ATPases of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria have been analysed. All homologous-sequenced proteins of these subunits, comprising three distinct families, have been identified by database searches, and the homologous protein sequences have been aligned and analysed for phylogenetic relatedness. The results serve to define the relationships of the members of each of these three families of proteins, to identify regions of relative conservation, and to define relative rates of evolutionary divergence. Of these three subunits, c-subunits exhibited the slowest rate of evolutionary divergence, b-subunits exhibited the most rapid rate of evolutionary divergence, and a-subunits exhibited an intermediate rate of evolutionary divergence. The results allow definition of the relative times of occurrence of specific events during evolutionary history, such as the intragenic duplication event that gave rise to large c-subunits in eukaryotic vacuolar-type ATPases after eukaryotes diverged from archaea, and the extragenic duplication of F-type ATPase b-subunits that occurred in blue-green bacteria before the advent of chloroplasts. The results generally show that the three F0 subunits evolved as a unit from a primordial set of genes without appreciable horizontal transmission of the encoding genetic information although a few possible exceptions were noted.

  20. Loss of GCN5 leads to increased neuronal apoptosis by upregulating E2F1- and Egr-1-dependent BH3-only protein Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanna; Ma, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Lu, Yangpeng; Xiao, Shiyin; Cao, Yali; Zhuang, Sidian; Tan, Xiangpeng; Fu, Qiang; Xie, Longchang; Li, Zhiming; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2017-01-26

    Cellular acetylation homeostasis is a kinetic balance precisely controlled by histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. The loss of the counterbalancing function of basal HAT activity alters the precious HAT:HDAC balance towards enhanced histone deacetylation, resulting in a loss of acetylation homeostasis, which is closely associated with neuronal apoptosis. However, the critical HAT member whose activity loss contributes to neuronal apoptosis remains to be identified. In this study, we found that inactivation of GCN5 by either pharmacological inhibitors, such as CPTH2 and MB-3, or by inactivation with siRNAs leads to a typical apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Mechanistically, the BH3-only protein Bim is transcriptionally upregulated by activated Egr-1 and E2F1 and mediates apoptosis following GCN5 inhibition. Furthermore, in the activity withdrawal- or glutamate-evoked neuronal apoptosis models, GCN5 loses its activity, in contrast to Bim induction. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GCN5 suppresses Bim induction and apoptosis. Interestingly, the loss of GCN5 activity and the induction of Egr-1, E2F1 and Bim are involved in the early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in rats. HDAC inhibition not only significantly rescues Bim expression and apoptosis induced by either potassium deprivation or GCN5 inactivation but also ameliorates these events and EBI in SAH rats. Taken together, our results highlight a new mechanism by which the loss of GCN5 activity promotes neuronal apoptosis through the transcriptional upregulation of Bim, which is probably a critical event in triggering neuronal death when cellular acetylation homeostasis is impaired.

  1. Acute capsular infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-three patients with lacunar-type of acute capsular infarction were treated in our service during the last 2 years. Their lesions were identified by computed tomography (CT) and classified into six types according to their locations: anterior, lateral, posterior, superior, inferior and multiple. The lesions were thought to be in the watershed areas of the regional arterial supplies, and the areas were considered to be prone to ischemia. The clinical course of each type showed characteristic features of ischemic strokes. In the majority of the patients with the lateral type, reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND) was seen as the predominant symptom, transient ischemic attack (TIA) was noted in the patients with the superior type, and major completed stroke was observed in those with posterior type.

  2. Site-directed Mutagenesis Shows the Significance of Interactions with Phospholipids and the G-protein OsYchF1 for the Physiological Functions of the Rice GTPase-activating Protein 1 (OsGAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk-Lin; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yu, Mei-Hui; Chye, Mee-Len; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-09-25

    The C2 domain is one of the most diverse phospholipid-binding domains mediating cellular signaling. One group of C2-domain proteins are plant-specific and are characterized by their small sizes and simple structures. We have previously reported that a member of this group, OsGAP1, is able to alleviate salt stress and stimulate defense responses, and bind to both phospholipids and an unconventional G-protein, OsYchF1. Here we solved the crystal structure of OsGAP1 to a resolution of 1.63 Å. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully differentiated between the clusters of surface residues that are required for binding to phospholipids versus OsYchF1, which, in turn, is critical for its role in stimulating defense responses. On the other hand, the ability to alleviate salt stress by OsGAP1 is dependent only on its ability to bind OsYchF1 and is independent of its phospholipid-binding activity.

  3. Activation of Ftz-F1-Responsive Genes through Ftz/Ftz-F1 Dependent Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Amanda; Xiang, Jie; Anderson, W. Ray; Graham, Patricia; Pick, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ftz-F1 is expressed in all somatic nuclei in Drosophila embryos, but mutations result in a pair-rule phenotype. This was explained by the interaction of Ftz-F1 with the homeodomain protein Ftz that is expressed in stripes in the primordia of segments missing in either ftz-f1 or ftz mutants. Ftz-F1 and Ftz were shown to physically interact and coordinately activate the expression of ftz itself and engrailed by synergistic binding to composite Ftz-F1/Ftz binding sites. However, attempts to identify additional target genes on the basis of Ftz-F1/ Ftz binding alone has met with only limited success. To discern rules for Ftz-F1 target site selection in vivo and to identify additional target genes, a microarray analysis was performed comparing wildtype and ftz-f1 mutant embryos. Ftz-F1-responsive genes most highly regulated included engrailed and nine additional genes expressed in patterns dependent on both ftz and ftz-f1. Candidate enhancers for these genes were identified by combining BDTNP Ftz ChIP-chip data with a computational search for Ftz-F1 binding sites. Of eight enhancer reporter genes tested in transgenic embryos, six generated expression patterns similar to the corresponding endogenous gene and expression was lost in ftz mutants. These studies identified a new set of Ftz-F1 targets, all of which are co-regulated by Ftz. Comparative analysis of enhancers containing Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites that were or were not bona fide targets in vivo suggested that GAF negatively regulates enhancers that contain Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites but are not actually utilized. These targets include other regulatory factors as well as genes involved directly in morphogenesis, providing insight into how pair-rule genes establish the body pattern. PMID:27723822

  4. Mutated and Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle Arrayed F1-V Immunogens from Yersinia pestis as Next Generation Plague Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Sha, Jian; Yeager, Linsey A.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is a highly virulent infectious disease with 100% mortality rate, and its causative organism Yersinia pestis poses a serious threat for deliberate use as a bioterror agent. Currently, there is no FDA approved vaccine against plague. The polymeric bacterial capsular protein F1, a key component of the currently tested bivalent subunit vaccine consisting, in addition, of low calcium response V antigen, has high propensity to aggregate, thus affecting its purification and vaccine efficacy. We used two basic approaches, structure-based immunogen design and phage T4 nanoparticle delivery, to construct new plague vaccines that provided complete protection against pneumonic plague. The NH2-terminal β-strand of F1 was transplanted to the COOH-terminus and the sequence flanking the β-strand was duplicated to eliminate polymerization but to retain the T cell epitopes. The mutated F1 was fused to the V antigen, a key virulence factor that forms the tip of the type three secretion system (T3SS). The F1mut-V protein showed a dramatic switch in solubility, producing a completely soluble monomer. The F1mut-V was then arrayed on phage T4 nanoparticle via the small outer capsid protein, Soc. The F1mut-V monomer was robustly immunogenic and the T4-decorated F1mut-V without any adjuvant induced balanced TH1 and TH2 responses in mice. Inclusion of an oligomerization-deficient YscF, another component of the T3SS, showed a slight enhancement in the potency of F1-V vaccine, while deletion of the putative immunomodulatory sequence of the V antigen did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Both the soluble (purified F1mut-V mixed with alhydrogel) and T4 decorated F1mut-V (no adjuvant) provided 100% protection to mice and rats against pneumonic plague evoked by high doses of Y. pestis CO92. These novel platforms might lead to efficacious and easily manufacturable next generation plague vaccines. PMID:23853602

  5. Capsular hook-assisted implantation of modified capsular tension ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Gupta, Shikha; Nayak, Bhagabat; Gogia, Varun

    2016-04-04

    A 16-year-old boy presented with decrease of vision over a period of 2 years. On examination, he was diagnosed to have microspherophakia with lenticular myopia with secondary glaucoma in both eyes. He was treated by lens aspiration and two-point capsular support using a modified capsular tension ring (M-CTR) and capsular tension segment (CTS) sutured to the sclera along with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens inside the bag. Lens aspiration was performed without artificial capsular hook support of the bag, as the lens was soft and vitreous was formed. However, M-CTR rotation into the bag was fraught with repeated adherence of the advancing end of the M-CTR into the loose bag causing simultaneous rotation of the bag with the rotation of the ring resulting in transient increase in bag subluxation. Capsular hooks provided appropriate countertraction to the unsupported bag, thus facilitating easy insertion and rotation of the ring into the bag. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Gene fusions with human carbonic anhydrase II for efficient expression and rapid single-step recovery of recombinant proteins: expression of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heeke, G; Shaw, R; Schnizer, R; Couton, J M; Schuster, S M; Wagner, F W

    1993-08-01

    A new expression vector was constructed which allows the overproduction in Escherichia coli of tripartite proteins consisting of human carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (hCAII), a peptide linker containing an enterokinase cleavage site, and a target protein of interest. Carbonic anhydrase is soluble and stable in E. coli and serves as a highly specific purification tag in the recovery of the fusion protein by a single affinity chromatography step. The enterokinase cleavage site was engineered into the construct to allow accurate and efficient release of the target protein. To demonstrate the practical value of this vector, the E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was expressed as a fusion with hCAII. After a single purification step, biologically active recombinant E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was recovered following proteolytic removal of the hCAII moiety.

  7. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  8. Amino acid sequence of the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) of beef-heart mitochondria and its homology with the delta-subunit of the F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Y A; Modyanov, N N; Grinkevich, V A; Aldanova, N A; Trubetskaya, O E; Nazimov, I V; Hundal, T; Ernster, L

    1984-01-23

    The complete amino acid sequence of the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) of beef-heart mitochondria is reported. The protein contains 190 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 20 967. Its structure is characterized by a concentration of charged amino acids in the two terminal segments (N 1-77 and C 128-190) of the protein, whereas its central region is more hydrophobic. The earlier reported homology of the protein with the delta-subunit of E. coli F1, based on the terminal amino acid sequences of OSCP, is further substantiated.

  9. Main: O2F1BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quences of be2S1 promoter; F1 is hybrid C/G box; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; F1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa); TCCACGTCGA ... ...O2F1BE2S1 S000162 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F1 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  10. Observing single FoF1-ATP synthase at work using an improved fluorescent protein mNeonGreen as FRET donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Thomas; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele; Börsch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the universal chemical energy currency for cellular activities provided mainly by the membrane enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase in bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Synthesis of ATP is accompanied by subunit rotation within the enzyme. Over the past 15 years we have developed a variety of single-molecule FRET (smFRET) experiments to monitor catalytic action of individual bacterial enzymes in vitro. By specifically labeling rotating and static subunits within a single enzyme we were able to observe three-stepped rotation in the F1 motor, ten-stepped rotation in the Fo motor and transient elastic deformation of the connected rotor subunits. However, the spatial and temporal resolution of motor activities measured by smFRET were limited by the photophysics of the FRET fluorophores. Here we evaluate the novel FRET donor mNeonGreen as a fusion to FoF1-ATP synthase and compare it to the previously used fluorophore EGFP. Topics of this manuscript are the biochemical purification procedures and the activity measurements of the fully functional mutant enzyme.

  11. Prevention of posterior capsular opacification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M; Gelens, Edith; Kuijer, Roelof; Hooymans, Johanna Mm; van Kooten, Theo G; Koopmans, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common complication of cataract surgery. The development of PCO is due to a combination of the processes of proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation of residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) on the lens capsule. In the past decades, various forms

  12. Reference: E2F1OSPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2F1OSPCNA Kosugi S, Ohashi Y E2F sites that can interact with E2F proteins cloned from rice are require...d for meristematic tissue-specific expression of rice and tobacco proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoters Plant J 29: 45-59 (2002) PubMed: 12060226; ...

  13. Analysis of p107-associated proteins: p107 associates with a form of E2F that differs from pRB-associated E2F-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyson, N; Dembski, M; Fattaey, A

    1993-01-01

    The binding of viral oncogenes to cellular proteins is thought to modulate the activities of these cellular targets. The p107 protein is targeted by many viral proteins, including adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 large T antigen, and human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein. A panel of monoclonal...

  14. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β upregulates microRNA, let-7f-1 in human endocervical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Kanchana; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2017-09-16

    In endocervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7), miRNA let-7f plays an important role in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanism for let-7f regulation in these cells remains largely unclear. let-7f was knocked down in End1/E6E7 cells using siRNA, and differential gene expression was analyzed by microarray. Differentially expressed genes were validated by qPCR and Western blot. Expression of let-7f was studied by qPCR after inhibition of C/EBPβ with betulinic acid (BA) and pCMVβ plasmid and after overexpression of C/EBPβ with pCMVβ+ plasmid. ChIP assay was performed to confirm binding of C/EBPβ to let-7f promoter. Levels of Lin28A/B were checked by qPCR after similar treatment. let-7f knockdown (KD) affects the expression of many transcription factors (eg, C/EBPβ) which are important regulators of immune responses. We observed let-7f-1 promoter to contain 6 C/EBPβ binding sites. KD of C/EBPβ led to decreased let-7f expression while overexpression of C/EBPβ increased its expression. Treatment of End1/E6E7 cells with TLR-3 ligand, poly(I:C) increased binding of C/EBPβ at binding sites 3, 5, and 6. Expression of Lin28A/B also changed upon inhibition and overexpression of C/EBPβ. Its expression is opposite to that of let-7f in End1/E6E7 cells. let-7f-1 is a direct target of transcription factor, C/EBPβ in End1/E6E7 cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 is required for binding to the adenovirus E4 (ORF6/7) protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Harlow, E

    1994-01-01

    Adenovirus infection leads to E1A-dependent activation of the transcription factor E2F. E2F has recently been identified in complexes with cellular proteins such as the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and the two pRB family members p107 and p130. E1A dissociates E2F from these cellular proteins......, and another viral protein, E4 (ORF6/7), can bind to E2F. The binding of E4 to E2F induces the formation of a stable DNA-binding complex containing the two proteins, and stimulation of the adenovirus E2 early promoter can occur. Recent studies have shown that E2F is the combined activity of several proteins...

  16. Localization of P42 and F(1)-ATPase α-subunit homolog of the gliding machinery in Mycoplasma mobile revealed by newly developed gene manipulation and fluorescent protein tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Isil; Yabe, Masaru; Uenoyama, Atsuko; Miyata, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Mycoplasma mobile has a unique mechanism that enables it to glide on solid surfaces faster than any other gliding mycoplasma. To elucidate the gliding mechanism, we developed a transformation system for M. mobile based on a transposon derived from Tn4001. Modification of the electroporation conditions, outgrowth time, and colony formation from the standard method for Mycoplasma species enabled successful transformation. A fluorescent-protein tagging technique was developed using the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and applied to two proteins that have been suggested to be involved in the gliding mechanism: P42 (MMOB1050), which is transcribed as continuous mRNA with other proteins essential for gliding, and a homolog of the F1-ATPase α-subunit (MMOB1660). Analysis of the amino acid sequence of P42 by PSI-BLAST suggested that P42 evolved from a common ancestor with FtsZ, the bacterial tubulin homologue. The roles of P42 and the F(1)-ATPase subunit homolog are discussed as part of our proposed gliding mechanism.

  17. Localization of P42 and F1-ATPase α-Subunit Homolog of the Gliding Machinery in Mycoplasma mobile Revealed by Newly Developed Gene Manipulation and Fluorescent Protein Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Isil; Yabe, Masaru; Uenoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma mobile has a unique mechanism that enables it to glide on solid surfaces faster than any other gliding mycoplasma. To elucidate the gliding mechanism, we developed a transformation system for M. mobile based on a transposon derived from Tn4001. Modification of the electroporation conditions, outgrowth time, and colony formation from the standard method for Mycoplasma species enabled successful transformation. A fluorescent-protein tagging technique was developed using the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and applied to two proteins that have been suggested to be involved in the gliding mechanism: P42 (MMOB1050), which is transcribed as continuous mRNA with other proteins essential for gliding, and a homolog of the F1-ATPase α-subunit (MMOB1660). Analysis of the amino acid sequence of P42 by PSI-BLAST suggested that P42 evolved from a common ancestor with FtsZ, the bacterial tubulin homologue. The roles of P42 and the F1-ATPase subunit homolog are discussed as part of our proposed gliding mechanism. PMID:24509320

  18. In Utero exposure of soy protein diet inhibits atherosclerosis in F1 offsprings by promoting Th2 anti-inflammatory T cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal hypercholesterolemia has been implicated with a higher incidence and earlier onset of atherosclerotic lesions in neonatal offspring. We have reported that feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) diet starting at postnatal day (PND) 21 prevented the progression of atherosclerosis in the hyperlipid...

  19. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  20. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C Truttmann

    Full Text Available The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  1. Energy and Protein Requirements for Maintenance of Doper Sheep and Hu Sheep Hybrid F1 Ewes during Pregnancy%杜湖杂交 F1代母羊妊娠期能量和蛋白质维持需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铁伟; 聂海涛; 张浩; 纪宇; 王震; 邓凯平; 王锋

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Dor-per and Hu hybrid F1 ewes during pregnancy and to provide data for formulating diet for the mutton sheep. The experiment consisted of feeding experiment, digestion metabolism experiment and respirometary experiment. Fifteen sheep with body weight of (43.34±1.37) kg at the age of nine months were used. After the treatments of synchronization of estrus and free mating, the sheep were assigned randomly into three groups with five e-wes in each group, which were ad libitum ( Ad) group, 70% Ad group and 50% Ad group. Feces and urine were collected using total feces collection method on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy;meanwhile, respiro-metary experiment was conducted, and metabolic parameters of nitrogen and energy at different periods of pregnancy were calculated;finally the requirements of net nitrogen, net energy and metabolic energy for main-tenance of the cross combination during pregnancy were calculated by establishing the allometric regressions re-spectively between nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention, the logarithm of heat production and metabolizable energy intake according to the results of digestion metabolism experiment and respirometary experiment. The re-sults showed as follows:1) the apparent digestibility of nitrogen on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 56.16% to 62.24%, 60.43% to 65.47% and 58.79% to 62.01%, respectively. 2) The apparent digestibility of gross energy on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 51. 18% to 64. 25%, 60. 86% to 66. 17%, and 63.20%~67.36%, respectively. 3) Requirements of net nitrogen, net energy and metabolic energy for mainte-nance of this breed on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 287.9, 301.3 and 430.7 mg/(kg W0.75·d), 194.01, 244.59 and 256.08 kJ/(kg W0.75·d), and 283.18, 412.26 and 468.56 kJ/(kg W0.75·d), respec-tively. The research defines the energy and protein requirement parameters for Dorper sheep

  2. Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Smith, H.E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Peperkamp, K.; Vecht, U.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis strains (n=411), isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries were serotyped using specific antisera against serotype 1 to 28, and were phenotyped on the basis of their muramidase-released-protein (MRP) and extracellular-factor protein (EF) production. Overall, S. suis

  3. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides augment the murine immune response to the Yersinia pestis F1-V vaccine in bubonic and pneumonic models of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kei; Meyers, Jennifer L; Rogers, Taralyn E; Fast, Randy L; Bassett, Anthony D; Worsham, Patricia L; Powell, Bradford S; Norris, Sarah L; Krieg, Arthur M; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2009-04-06

    The current U.S. Department of Defense candidate plague vaccine is a fusion between two Yersinia pestis proteins: the F1 capsular protein, and the low calcium response (Lcr) V-protein. We hypothesized that an immunomodulator, such as CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)s, could augment the immune response to the plague F1-V vaccine in a mouse model for plague. CpG ODNs significantly augmented the antibody response and efficacy of a single dose of the plague vaccine in murine bubonic and pneumonic models of plague. In the latter study, we also found an overall significant augmentation the immune response to the individual subunits of the plague vaccine by CpG ODN 2006. In a long-term, prime-boost study, CpG ODN induced a significant early augmentation of the IgG response to the vaccine. The presence of CpG ODN induced a significant increase in the IgG2a subclass response to the vaccine up to 5 months after the boost. Our studies showed that CpG ODNs significantly augmented the IgG antibody response to the plague vaccine, which increased the probability of survival in murine models of plague (P<0.0001).

  4. 鼻腔鼻窦鳞癌Skp2和E2F1的表达及临床意义%Expression of S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) and E2F1 and its clinicopathological significance with rhinosinus squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友忠; 卢永德; 杨新明; 曾益慈; 彭安全

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究鼻腔鼻窦鳞状细胞癌和慢性鼻窦炎组织中Skp2和E2F1表达及其临床病理意义.方法 49例鼻腔鼻窦鳞状细胞癌、28例慢性鼻窦炎组织常规制作石蜡包埋切片,Spk2和E2F1免疫组化染色.结果 鼻腔鼻窦鳞状细胞癌Skp2和E2F1表达阳性率及其评分明显高于慢性鼻窦炎组织(P3 cm、有淋巴结转移及已超出鼻腔鼻窦侵犯周围组织的病例(临床分型T3N1M0、T3N2M0),两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);鼻腔鼻窦鳞状细胞癌组织中Skp2和E2F1表达呈正相关(r=0.623,P<0.01).结论 Skp2和E2F1表达可能是反映鼻腔鼻窦鳞状细胞癌发生、进展、生物学行为和预后的重要生物学标记物.%Objective To study the clinicopathological significance of Skp2 and E2F1 in the rhinosinus squamous cell carcinoma and chronic sinusitis. Methods Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Skp2 and E2F1 in the routinely paraffin-embed-ded sections of specimens from patients with rhinosinus squamoas cell carcinoma (n=49), chronic sinusitis (n=28). Results The expres-sive positive rates and scores of Skp2 and E2F1 in rhinosinus sqnamous cell carcinoma were significantly higher than those in chronic sinusitis (P<0.01). The expression positive rates and scores were significantly decreased in middle-differentiated rhinosinus squamous cell carcino-ma. The maximal diameter of mass was less than 3cm, and no-metastasis of lymphnode or no-infiltration of regional rhinosinus can be found in T1N0M0. While in the low-differentiated rhinosinus squamous cell carcinoma, the maximal diameter of mass was larger than 3cm, and metasta-sis of lymphnode or infiltration of regional rhinosinus can be found(T3N1M0,T3N2M0) (P<0.01). The closely positive correlation was found between the expression of Skp2 and E2F1 in the rhinosinus squamoas cell carcinoma. Conclusions Skp2 and E2F1 might be important biologi-cal markers for carcinogenesis, progression, biological behaviors

  5. Study on the Differences of Bollworm-Resistance and Bt Protein Content between Transgenic Bt Cotton F1 Hybrids and Insect-Resistant Parent%抗虫杂交棉F1代与亲本Bt蛋白表达量及抗虫差异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 郭香墨; 夏敬源

    2000-01-01

    对转Bt基因抗虫杂交棉正、反交F1代与抗虫亲本的Bt蛋白表达量及抗棉铃虫差异性研究表明:抗虫亲本与其杂种F1代均高抗棉铃虫,但抗虫亲本的抗虫性略好于其杂种F1代,并且明显地高于非抗虫亲本;正、反交杂种P1代间的抗虫性几乎没有差异.生长前期的抗虫性好于后期,同一时期嫩叶或侧枝生长点的抗虫性好于幼蕾.抗虫亲本叶片和花瓣的Bt蛋白含量明显地高于其杂种Fl代,抗虫亲本功能叶的Bt蛋白含量明显地高于其上部非功能叶,而杂种F1代功能叶的Bt蛋白含量则明显地低于其上部非功能叶.盛花期后至吐絮期前,叶片和花瓣的Bt蛋白表达量明显增加,在抗虫亲本中表现最为明显.与叶片相比,在花瓣中检测到的Bt蛋白含量极低.正、反交F1代间的Bt蛋白表达量差异较小或无规律可循.

  6. Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannervik, M; Fan, S; Ström, A C

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression...... of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation...... of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression...

  7. F1的学前班

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 从CART比赛进入F1 美国一直缺少比F1更低级别的方程式比赛,美国(一些其它美洲国家也是这样)车手想要进入F1通常会去欧洲参加比赛或者在美国尝试与F1接近的CART赛车.

  8. Characterization of an F1 Deletion Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92, Pathogenic Role of F1 Antigen in Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague, and Evaluation of Sensitivity and Specificity of F1 Antigen Capture-Based Dipsticks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Endsley, Janice J.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Foltz, Sheri M.; Huante, Matthew B.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Yeager, Linsey A.; Zudina, Irina V.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Peterson, Johnny W.; DeBord, Kristin L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of CO92 (Δcaf) was generated by homologous recombination and used as a negative control. Based on genetic, antigenic/immunologic, and electron microscopic analyses, the Δcaf mutant was devoid of a capsule. The growth rate of the Δcaf mutant generally was similar to that of the wild-type (WT) bacterium at both 26 and 37°C, although the mutant's growth dropped slightly during the late phase at 37°C. The Δcaf mutant was as virulent as WT CO92 in the pneumonic plague mouse model; however, it was attenuated in developing bubonic plague. Both dipsticks had similar sensitivities, requiring a minimum of 0.5 μg/ml of purified F1 antigen or 1 × 105 to 5 × 105 CFU/ml of WT CO92 for positive results, while the blood samples were negative for up to 1 × 108 CFU/ml of the Δcaf mutant. Our studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of two plague dipsticks in detecting capsular-positive strains of Y. pestis in bubonic and pneumonic plague. PMID:21367990

  9. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule...... evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S. pneumoniae...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  10. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    biosynthesis (cps) loci in all strains tested. Truncated cps loci were detected in three strains of S. pseudopneumoniae, in 26% of S. mitis strains, and in a single S. oralis strain. The level of sequence identities of cps locus genes confirmed that the structural polymorphism of capsular polysaccharides in S....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of streptococci that form a significant part of our commensal microbiota. The demonstrated antigenic identity of many capsular polysaccharides expressed by commensal streptococci and S. pneumoniae raises important questions concerning the consequences for vaccination and host-parasite relationships both...

  11. Alleviation of capsular formations on silicone implants in rats using biomembrane-mimicking coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ung; Ham, Jiyeon; Kim, Sukwha; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Seonju; Min, Hye Jeong; Choi, Sunghyun; Choi, Ra Mi; Kim, Heejin; Oh, Sohee; Hur, Ji An; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Despite their popular use in breast augmentation and reconstruction surgeries, the limited biocompatibility of silicone implants can induce severe side effects, including capsular contracture - an excessive foreign body reaction that forms a tight and hard fibrous capsule around the implant. This study examines the effects of using biomembrane-mimicking surface coatings to prevent capsular formations on silicone implants. The covalently attached biomembrane-mimicking polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), prevented nonspecific protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion on the silicone surface. More importantly, in vivo capsule formations around PMPC-grafted silicone implants in rats were significantly thinner and exhibited lower collagen densities and more regular collagen alignments than bare silicone implants. The observed decrease in α-smooth muscle actin also supported the alleviation of capsular formations by the biomembrane-mimicking coating. Decreases in inflammation-related cells, myeloperoxidase and transforming growth factor-β resulted in reduced inflammation in the capsular tissue. The biomembrane-mimicking coatings used on these silicone implants demonstrate great potential for preventing capsular contracture and developing biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

  12. [Capsular retensioning in anterior unidirectional glenohumeral instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Pozos, Leonel; Martínez Molina, Oscar; Castañeda Landa, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    To present the experience of the Orthopedics Service PEMEX South Central Hospital in the management of anterior unidirectional shoulder instability with an arthroscopic technique consisting of capsular retensioning either combined with other anatomical repair procedures or alone. Thirty-one patients with anterior unidirectional shoulder instability operated-on between January 1999 and December 2005 were included. Fourteen patients underwent capsular retensioning and radiofrequency, and in 17 patients, capsular retensioning was combined with suture anchors. Patients with a history of relapsing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations, with anterior instability with or without associated Bankart lesions were selected; all of them were young. The results were assessed considering basically the occurrence of instability during the postoperative follow-up. No cases of recurring instability occurred. Two cases had neuroma and one experienced irritation of the suture site. Six patients had residual limitation of combined lateral rotation and abduction movements, of a mean of 10 degrees compared with the healthy contralateral side. The most frequent incident was the leak of solutions to the soft tissues. Capsular retensioning, whether combined or not with other anatomical repair techniques, has proven to result in a highly satisfactory rate of glenohumeral stabilization in cases of anterior unidirectional instabilities. The arthroscopic approach offers the well-known advantages of causing less damage to the soft tissues, and a shorter time to starting rehabilitation therapy and exercises.

  13. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  14. Main: E2F1OSPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2F1OSPCNA S000396 21-May-2002 (last modified) uchi re2f-1 found in the promoter of rice PCN...ividing cells and tissue; E2F; PCNA; meristematic tissue; cell cycle; rice (Oryza sativa); tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) GCGGGAAA ...

  15. E2F-1 binding affinity for pRb is not the only determinant of the E2F-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Fikret; Sladek, Todd L

    2010-07-04

    E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation. Interaction between pRB and E2F-1 is dependent on the phosphorylation status of pRB. Despite the fact that E2F-1 and pRB have antagonistic activities when they are overexpressed, the role of the E2F-1-pRB interaction in cell growth largely remains unknown. Ideally, it would be better to study the properties of a pRB mutant that fails to bind to E2F, but retains all other activities. To date, no pRB mutation has been characterized in sufficient detail to show that it specifically eliminates E2F binding but leaves other interactions intact. An alternative approach to this issue is to ask whether mutations that change E2F proteins binding affinity to pRB are sufficient to change cell growth in aspect of cell cycle and tumor formation. Therefore, we used the E2F-1 mutants including E2F-1/S332-7A, E2F-1/S375A, E2F-1/S403A, E2F-1/Y411A and E2F-1/L132Q that have different binding affinities for pRB to better understand the roles of the E2F-1 phosphorylation and E2F-1-pRB interaction in the cell cycle, as well as in transformation and gene expression. Data presented in this study suggests that in vivo phosphorylation at amino acids 332-337, 375 and 403 is important for the E2F-1 and pRB interaction in vivo. However, although E2F-1 mutants 332-7, 375 and 403 showed similar binding affinity to pRB, they showed different characteristics in transformation efficiency, G(0) accumulation, and target gene experiments.

  16. Composição corporal e exigências energéticas e protéicas de bovinos F1 Limousin x Nelore, não-castrados, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Body composition and energy and protein requirements of F1 Limousin x Nellore bulls fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2002-06-01

    Mcal/kg, podem ser obtidas pela equação: ELg = 0,038 x PCVZ0,75 x GDPCVZ0,9896. A ELm para estes animais foi de 76,36 kcal/PCVZ0,75. Foi obtida a seguinte equação para estimativa da proteína retida (PR, em g/dia, em função do ganho de PV em jejum (GPVJ, em kg/dia: PR = 174,14524 x GPVJ.Fifty F1 Limousin x Nellore bulls were allotted to ten treatments, with five concentrate levels (25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, and 75% and two diet protein balance methods (one isoprotein and the other changing protein as diet energy changed. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined. After the slaughter, all animal body parts were weighed, sampled and DM, total nitrogen and ether extract concentrations were determined. Protein, fat and energy contents retained in the body were estimated by regression equations of logarithm of protein, fat or energy body content, as a function of logarithm of empty body weight (EBW. By deriving the prediction equations of body content of protein, fat, or energy, as a function of the logarithm of EBW, the net requirements of protein and energy, for gain of 1 kg EBW, were determined. The deriving equation was Y = b. 10ª. Xb-1, where a and b were the intercept and regression coefficient, respectively, of the prediction equations of protein or energy body contents. Net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm was estimated as the intercept anti-log of the equation obtained by the linear regression of the logarithm of heat production and the metabolizable energy intake. The diet balance methods did not influence the nutrients intakes. The DM intake (DMI was not affected by the concentrate level (CL, with means of 7.39 kg/day. Dietary CL did not affect OM intake (7.08 kg/day. Increasing CL and NDF intake showed a linear decrease and TDN intake showed a linear increase. In diets with variable protein levels, CP intake increased linearly. Isoprotein diets

  17. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Weinberger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 91 known capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence of particular serotypes is relatively stable worldwide, but the host and bacterial factors that maintain these patterns are poorly understood. Given the possibility of serotype replacement following vaccination against seven clinically important serotypes, it is increasingly important to understand these factors. We hypothesized that the biochemical structure of the capsular polysaccharides could influence the degree of encapsulation of different serotypes, their susceptibility to killing by neutrophils, and ultimately their success during nasopharyngeal carriage. We sought to measure biological differences among capsular serotypes that may account for epidemiological patterns. Using an in vitro assay with both isogenic capsule-switch variants and clinical carriage isolates, we found an association between increased carriage prevalence and resistance to non-opsonic neutrophil-mediated killing, and serotypes that were resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing tended to be more heavily encapsulated, as determined by FITC-dextran exclusion. Next, we identified a link between polysaccharide structure and carriage prevalence. Significantly, non-vaccine serotypes that have become common in vaccinated populations tend to be those with fewer carbons per repeat unit and low energy expended per repeat unit, suggesting a novel biological principle to explain patterns of serotype replacement. More prevalent serotypes are more heavily encapsulated and more resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing, and these phenotypes are associated with the structure of the capsular polysaccharide, suggesting a direct relationship between polysaccharide biochemistry and the success of a serotype during nasopharyngeal carriage and potentially providing a method for predicting serotype replacement.

  18. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  19. Conditional E2F1 activation in transgenic mice causes testicular atrophy and dysplasia mimicking human CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Karl; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Holmberg, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    E2F1 is a crucial downstream effector of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway. To address the consequences of short-term increase in E2F1 activity in adult tissues, we generated transgenic mice expressing the human E2F1 protein fused to the oestrogen receptor (ER) ligand-binding domain...

  20. [Etiopathogenesis and treatment of breast capsular contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Leite, Luis; Correia Sá, Inês; Marques, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A contractura capsular é a complicação crónica mais frequente da mamoplastia de aumento com próteses mamárias e a principal causa de insatisfação da doente e do cirurgião plástico. A cápsula mamária consiste num tecido fibroso que circunda a prótese e que pode contrair, alterando a forma e a consistência da mama. No estádio mais avançado é acompanhada de deformidade acentuada, rigidez e dor, tendo indicação para tratamento cirúrgico.Material e Métodos: Foram revistos todos os artigos indexados na PubMed através da pesquisa ‘capsular contracture’ (2000 - Janeiro 2012), dos quais foram inseridos os artigos de maior interesse em termos de etiologia, profilaxia e tratamento. Artigos referenciados em publicações relevantes foram também analisados.Resultados: Tudo indica que a sua etiologia é multifactorial; a etiopatogenia da contractura capsular mamária continua a ser alvo de múltipla investigação pré-clínica. Vários são os estudos realizados de forma a prevenir a ocorrência de contractura capsular e, embora os resultados sejam promissores, pouco está definido em termos da sua aplicação na prática clínica. Relativamente ao tratamento a capsulectomia/capsulotomia continua a ser o gold-standard, no entanto o futuro poderá passar por técnicas não invasivas, pelo menos em estádios mais leves da doença.Conclusão: Apesar das técnicas cirúrgicas e a qualidade das próteses mamárias terem vindo a melhorar drasticamente nos últimos anos, a contractura capsular mamária mantém-se uma complicação real, com incidência elevada e que continua a afectar milhares de mulheres no mundo.

  1. Characterization of an F1 deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92, pathogenic role of F1 antigen in bubonic and pneumonic plague, and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of F1 antigen capture-based dipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Endsley, Janice J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Foltz, Sheri M; Huante, Matthew B; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Popov, Vsevolod L; Yeager, Linsey A; Zudina, Irina V; Motin, Vladimir L; Peterson, Johnny W; DeBord, Kristin L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of CO92 (Δcaf) was generated by homologous recombination and used as a negative control. Based on genetic, antigenic/immunologic, and electron microscopic analyses, the Δcaf mutant was devoid of a capsule. The growth rate of the Δcaf mutant generally was similar to that of the wild-type (WT) bacterium at both 26 and 37 °C, although the mutant's growth dropped slightly during the late phase at 37 °C. The Δcaf mutant was as virulent as WT CO92 in the pneumonic plague mouse model; however, it was attenuated in developing bubonic plague. Both dipsticks had similar sensitivities, requiring a minimum of 0.5 μg/ml of purified F1 antigen or 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml of WT CO92 for positive results, while the blood samples were negative for up to 1 × 10(8) CFU/ml of the Δcaf mutant. Our studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of two plague dipsticks in detecting capsular-positive strains of Y. pestis in bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  2. Capsular Weakness around Breast Implant: A Non-Recognized Complication

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Capsular contraction is a frequent complication following breast augmentation. On the other hand, capsular weakness, a not widely recognized complication, may occur around the implant. A weak capsule allows the migration of the prosthesis to the lateral region of the thoracic region or inferiorly, towards the abdomen, due to gravitational forces. The cause of capsular weakness remains unresolved. Implant malposition, with lateral or downward displacement, breast asymmetry, improper contour, w...

  3. Revising the $f_1(1420)$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Debastiani, V R; Liang, Wei-Hong; Oset, E

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the production and decay of the $f_1(1285)$ into $\\pi a_0(980)$ and $K^* \\bar K$ as a function of the mass of the resonance and find a shoulder around 1400 MeV, tied to a triangle singularity, for the $\\pi a_0(980)$ mode, and a peak around 1420 MeV with about 60 MeV width for the $K^* \\bar K$ mode. Both these features agree with the experimental information on which the $f_1(1420)$ resonance is based. In addition, we find that if the $f_1(1420)$ is a genuine resonance, coupling mostly to $K^* \\bar K$ as seen experimentally, one finds unavoidably about a 20\\% fraction for $\\pi a_0(980)$ decay of this resonance, in drastic contradiction with all experiments. Altogether, we conclude that the $f_1(1420)$ is not a genuine resonance, but the manifestation of the $\\pi a_0(980)$ and $K^* \\bar K$ decay modes of the $f_1(1285)$ at higher energies than the nominal one.

  4. Capsular Contracture after Breast Augmentation: An Update for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headon, Hannah; Kasem, Adbul

    2015-01-01

    Capsular contracture is the most common complication following implant based breast surgery and is one of the most common reasons for reoperation. Therefore, it is important to try and understand why this happens, and what can be done to reduce its incidence. A literature search using the MEDLINE database was conducted including search terms 'capsular contracture breast augmentation', 'capsular contracture pathogenesis', 'capsular contracture incidence', and 'capsular contracture management', which yielded 82 results which met inclusion criteria. Capsular contracture is caused by an excessive fibrotic reaction to a foreign body (the implant) and has an overall incidence of 10.6%. Risk factors that were identified included the use of smooth (vs. textured) implants, a subglandular (vs. submuscular) placement, use of a silicone (vs. saline) filled implant and previous radiotherapy to the breast. The standard management of capsular contracture is surgical via a capsulectomy or capsulotomy. Medical treatment using the off-label leukotriene receptor antagonist Zafirlukast has been reported to reduce severity and help prevent capsular contracture from forming, as has the use of acellular dermal matrices, botox and neopocket formation. However, nearly all therapeutic approaches are associated with a significant rate of recurrence. Capsular contracture is a multifactorial fibrotic process the precise cause of which is still unknown. The incidence of contracture developing is lower with the use of textured implants, submuscular placement and the use of polyurethane coated implants. Symptomatic capsular contracture is usually managed surgically, however recent research has focussed on preventing capsular contracture from occurring, or treating it with autologous fat transfer. PMID:26430623

  5. Robustness of the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-11

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.

  6. Separation of Pneumcoccal Capsular Polysaccharide BY Gel Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Huang Xinghua; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo

    2004-01-01

    Separation of pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide by gel was investigated in this paper. The gels used here were poly(acrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate)gels and prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The experimental results indicated that gel extraction is a potential method to separate pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide from its dilute solution.

  7. Secondary capsular laxity of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Caroline M; Field, Michael H; Singh, Parminder J; Tayar, Rene; Field, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a hip condition with a recognisable pattern of clinical signs and radiological findings thought to result from chronic capsular injury. Between June 2006 and October 2009, ten patients (11 hips), four men and six women, were identified with an abnormality of external rotation at the hip joint. A detailed history and clinical examination was undertaken for each patient. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic and control hips were evaluated for bony and soft tissue appearances. The relative positions of the femoral head and the acetabulum were assessed through a range of hip rotation. In affected hips, a loss of normal log roll recoil was observed. Three distortions of the iliofemoral ligament were identified on axial MR images; thinning at the lateral insertion of the ligament, attenuation of the iliofemoral ligament most noticeably on maximum external rotation (60º) and the appearance of laxity despite full external rotation. Stability of the hip is dependent on the interaction of bony and soft tissue structures. Hip instability is recognised in dysplasia and is known to lead to premature degeneration of the joint. Chronic capsular injury may destabilise previously asymptomatic hips with subsequent development of pain in young, active patients.

  8. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-01-20

    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process.

  9. The nonlinear chemo-mechanic coupled dynamics of the F 1 -ATPase molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Liu, Fang

    2012-03-01

    The ATP synthase consists of two opposing rotary motors, F0 and F1, coupled to each other. When the F1 motor is not coupled to the F0 motor, it can work in the direction hydrolyzing ATP, as a nanomotor called F1-ATPase. It has been reported that the stiffness of the protein varies nonlinearly with increasing load. The nonlinearity has an important effect on the rotating rate of the F1-ATPase. Here, considering the nonlinearity of the γ shaft stiffness for the F1-ATPase, a nonlinear chemo-mechanical coupled dynamic model of F1 motor is proposed. Nonlinear vibration frequencies of the γ shaft and their changes along with the system parameters are investigated. The nonlinear stochastic response of the elastic γ shaft to thermal excitation is analyzed. The results show that the stiffness nonlinearity of the γ shaft causes an increase of the vibration frequency for the F1 motor, which increases the motor's rotation rate. When the concentration of ATP is relatively high and the load torque is small, the effects of the stiffness nonlinearity on the rotating rates of the F1 motor are obvious and should be considered. These results are useful for improving calculation of the rotating rate for the F1 motor and provide insight about the stochastic wave mechanics of F1-ATPase.

  10. In vivo affinity label of a protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Coenzyme A occupied the AT(D)P binding site of the mutant F1-ATPase beta subunit (Y307C) through a disulfide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, M; Kiribuchi, K; Allison, W S; Yoshida, M

    1993-12-27

    When Tyr-307 of the beta subunit of F1-ATPase from a thermophilic Bacillus strain PS3 is replaced by cysteine and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, about a half population of the mutant beta subunit are labeled by Coenzyme A at Cys-307 through a disulfide bond which is cleavable by reducing treatment. The mutant beta subunit can be reconstituted into the alpha 3 beta 3 complex of which ATPase activity is stimulated two-fold by reducing treatment either prior or after reconstitution. Since Tyr-307 has been supposed to be located at one of subdomains which form the ATP binding site of the beta subunit, Coenzyme A binds to the mutant beta subunit as an AT(D)P analogue in E. coli cells and then covalently attaches to Cys-307.

  11. Capsular types of Klebsiella pneumoniae revisited by wzc sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jiun Pan

    Full Text Available Capsule is an important virulence factor in bacteria. A total of 78 capsular types have been identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, there are limitations in current typing methods. We report here the development of a new genotyping method based on amplification of the variable regions of the wzc gene. Fragments corresponding to the variable region of wzc were amplified and sequenced from 76 documented capsular types of reference or clinical strains. The remaining two capsular types (reference strains K15 and K50 lacked amplifiable wzc genes and were proven to be acapsular. Strains with the same capsular type exhibited ≧94% DNA sequence identity across the variable region (CD1-VR2-CD2 of wzc. Strains with distinct K types exhibited <80% DNA sequence identity across this region, with the exception of three pairs of strains: K22/K37, K9/K45, and K52/K79. Strains K22 and K37 shared identical capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps genes except for one gene with a difference at a single base which resulted in frameshift mutation. The wzc sequences of K9 and K45 exhibited high DNA sequence similarity but possessed different genes in their cps clusters. K52 and K79 exhibited 89% wzc DNA sequence identity but were readily distinguished from each other at the DNA level; in contrast, strains with the same capsular type as K52 exhibited 100% wzc sequence identity. A total of 29 strains from patients with bacteremia were typed by the wzc system. wzc DNA sequences confirmed the documented capsular type for twenty-eight of these clinical isolates; the remaining strain likely represents a new capsular type. Thus, the wzc genotyping system is a simple and useful method for capsular typing of K. pneumoniae.

  12. E2F-1 binding affinity for pRb is not the only determinant of the E2F-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Sahin, Todd L. Sladek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation. Interaction between pRB and E2F-1 is dependent on the phosphorylation status of pRB. Despite the fact that E2F-1 and pRB have antagonistic activities when they are overexpressed, the role of the E2F-1-pRB interaction in cell growth largely remains unknown. Ideally, it would be better to study the properties of a pRB mutant that fails to bind to E2F, but retains all other activities. To date, no pRB mutation has been characterized in sufficient detail to show that it specifically eliminates E2F binding but leaves other interactions intact. An alternative approach to this issue is to ask whether mutations that change E2F proteins binding affinity to pRB are sufficient to change cell growth in aspect of cell cycle and tumor formation. Therefore, we used the E2F-1 mutants including E2F-1/S332-7A, E2F-1/S375A, E2F-1/S403A, E2F-1/Y411A and E2F-1/L132Q that have different binding affinities for pRB to better understand the roles of the E2F-1 phosphorylation and E2F-1-pRB interaction in the cell cycle, as well as in transformation and gene expression. Data presented in this study suggests that in vivo phosphorylation at amino acids 332-337, 375 and 403 is important for the E2F-1 and pRB interaction in vivo. However, although E2F-1 mutants 332-7, 375 and 403 showed similar binding affinity to pRB, they showed different characteristics in transformation efficiency, G0 accumulation, and target gene experiments.

  13. Arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder with two to nine years of follow-up, comparing the pre- and postoperative range of motion. This was an observational study (case series) of 18 patients who underwent arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness. The mean age was of 53.6 years (range: 39 to 68), with female predominance (77.77%) and nine cases left shoulders. There were 6 primary (33.33%) and 12 secondary cases (66.67%). Arthroscopic capsular release was performed in all patients after a mean of 9.33 months of physical therapy (range: 6 to 20 months) with a minimum follow-up of two years (range: 26 to 110 months). The mean active and passive forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation increased from 94.4°/103.3°, 11.9°/21.9°, and S1/L5 vertebral level, respectively, to 151.1°/153.8°, 57.2°/64.4°, and T12/T10 vertebral level, respectively. There was a significant difference between the pre- and postoperative range of motion (p < 0.001). According to the Constant-Murley functional score (ROM), the value increased from 14 (preoperative mean) to 30 points (postoperative mean). Postoperatively, all patients showed diminished shoulder pain (none or mild/15 or 10 points in the Constant-Murley score). Arthroscopic treatment is an effective treatment for refractory shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. PspA family distribution, unlike capsular serotype, remains unaltered following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, Christina M; Coats, Mamie T; Nahm, Moon H; Briles, David E; Crain, Marilyn J

    2012-06-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are recommended for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children. Since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, IPD caused by serotypes in the vaccine has almost been eliminated, and previously uncommon capsular serotypes now cause most cases of pediatric IPD in the United States. One way to protect against these strains would be to add cross-reactive protein antigens to new vaccines. One such protein is pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Prior to 2000, PspA families 1 and 2 were expressed by 94% of isolates. Because PCV7 vaccine pressure has resulted in IPD caused by capsular serotypes that were previously uncommon and unstudied for PspA expression, it was possible that many of the new strains expressed different PspA antigens or even lacked PspA. Of 157 pediatric invasive pneumococcal isolates collected at a large pediatric hospital in Alabama between 2002 and 2010, only 60.5% had capsular serotypes included in PCV13, which came into general use in Alabama after our strains were collected. These isolates included 17 serotypes that were not covered by PCV13. Nonetheless, pneumococcal capsular serotype replacement was not associated with changes in PspA expression; 96% of strains in this collection expressed PspA family 1 or 2. Continued surveillance will be critical to vaccine strategies to further reduce IPD.

  15. E. coli F1-ATPase: site-directed mutagenesis of the beta-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, D; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E

    1988-05-09

    Residues beta Glu-181 and beta Glu-192 of E. coli F1-ATPase (the DCCD-reactive residues) were mutated to Gln. Purified beta Gln-181 F1 showed 7-fold impairment of 'unisite' Pi formation from ATP and a large decrease in affinity for ATP. Thus the beta-181 carboxyl group in normal F1 significantly contributes to catalytic site properties. Also, positive catalytic site cooperativity was attenuated from 5 X 10(4)- to 548-fold in beta Gln-181 F1. In contrast, purified beta Gln-192 F1 showed only 6-fold reduction in 'multisite' ATPase activity. Residues beta Gly-149 and beta Gly-154 were mutated to Ile singly and in combination. These mutations, affecting residues which are strongly conserved in nucleotide-binding proteins, were chosen to hinder conformational motion in a putative 'flexible loop' in beta-subunit. Impairment of purified F1-ATPase ranged from 5 to 61%, with the double mutant F1 less impaired than either single mutant. F1 preparations containing beta Ile-154 showed 2-fold activation after release from membranes, suggesting association with F0 restrained turnover on F1 in these mutants.

  16. The polar domain of the b subunit of Escherichia coli F1F0-ATPase forms an elongated dimer that interacts with the F1 sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S D

    1992-04-15

    A soluble form of the b subunit of the F0 sector of the F1F0-ATPase of Escherichia coli has been produced, purified, and characterized. In this form of the protein, designated bsol, residues 25-146 (the carboxyl terminus) of b have been fused to an amino-terminal octapeptide extension derived from the vector pUC8. The inferred subunit molecular weight of bsol is 15,459. bsol protein was expressed in E. coli as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and was readily purified to homogeneity by conventional methods. The molecular weight of bsol, determined by sedimentation equilibrium, was 31,200, indicating that the protein is dimeric. Chemical cross-linking studies supported this conclusion. However, bsol sedimented with a coefficient of just 1.8 S and behaved on size exclusion chromatography with an apparent molecular weight of 80,000-85,000. These results indicate that the protein exists in solution as a highly elongated dimer. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that bsol is highly alpha-helical. Binding of bsol to F1-ATPase was directly demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography. bsol also inhibited the binding of F1-ATPase to F1-depleted membrane vesicles, as measured by reconstitution of energy-dependent quinacrine fluorescence quenching. This result implies that bsol and F0 compete for binding to the same site on F1. The apparently normal interaction of bsol with F1-ATPase strongly suggests that the recombinant protein assumes the correct structure. No substantial effects of bsol on the ATPase activity of purified F1 were observed.

  17. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J; Yates, Laura E; Terra, Vanessa S; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology.

  18. Cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan reduces ischaemia-related neutrophil influx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, PM; Schoemaker, RG; van Veghel, R; Hoepelman, AIM; Coenjaerts, FEJ

    2004-01-01

    Background The capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Cryptococcus neoformans interferes with the chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Intravenous administration of purified GXM has been shown to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in an animal model of bacteri

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyang Oh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient’s capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

  20. Isolation of a bacteriophage specific for a new capsular type of Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterization of its polysaccharide depolymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ru Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant infections. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS is an important virulence factor of K. pneumoniae. With 78 capsular types discovered thus far, an association between capsular type and the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae has been observed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate an initially non-typeable K. pneumoniae UTI isolate NTUH-K1790N, the cps gene region was sequenced. By NTUH-K1790N cps-PCR genotyping, serotyping and determination using a newly isolated capsular type-specific bacteriophage, we found that NTUH-K1790N and three other isolates Ca0507, Ca0421 and C1975 possessed a new capsular type, which we named KN2. Analysis of a KN2 CPS(- mutant confirmed the role of capsule as the target recognized by the antiserum and the phage. A newly described lytic phage specific for KN2 K. pneumoniae, named 0507-KN2-1, was isolated and characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequencing of 0507-KN2-1 revealed a 159 991 bp double-stranded DNA genome with a G+C content of 46.7% and at least 154 open reading frames. Based on its morphological and genomic characteristics, 0507-KN2-1 was classified as a member of the Myoviridae phage family. Further analysis of this phage revealed a 3738-bp gene encoding a putative polysaccharide depolymerase. A recombinant form of this protein was produced and assayed to confirm its enzymatic activity and specificity to KN2 capsular polysaccharides. KN2 K. pneumoniae strains exhibited greater sensitivity to this depolymerase than these did to the cognate phage, as determined by spot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report that a group of clinical strains possess a novel Klebsiella capsular type. We identified a KN2-specific phage and its polysaccharide depolymerase, which could be used for efficient capsular typing. The lytic phage and depolymerase also have potential as

  1. Analysis list: Pou3f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou3f1 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou3f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f1.Plu

  2. CDK4, pRB and E2F1: connected to insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Emilie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic β-cells are metabolic sensors involved in the control of glucose homeostasis. This particular cell type controls insulin secretion through a fine-tuned process, which dregulation have important pathological consequences, such as observed during type 2 diabetes. We recently implicated E2F1 in the control of glucose homeostasis. First we showed that E2f1-/- mice have decreased pancreatic size, as the result of impaired postnatal pancreatic growth. We observed in this study that E2F1 was highly expressed in non-proliferating pancreatic β-cells, suggesting that E2F1, besides the control of β-cell number could have a role in pancreatic β-cell function. We demonstrate in our recent study, both in vitro and in vivo that E2F1 directly regulates the expression of Kir6.2, a key component of the KATP channel involved in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Expression of Kir6.2 is lost in pancreas of E2f1-/- mice, resulting in insulin secretion defects in these mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated by in tissue chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that regulation of Kir6.2 expression by E2F1 follows the same regulatory pathway that the classical E2F1 target genes, implicating the participation of CDK4 and retinoblastoma protein. Moreover, in this context, E2F1 transcriptional activity is regulated by glucose and insulin through the CDK4-dependent inactivation of the pRB protein. In summary we provide evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis. In our recent study we decipher a new function for these factors in the control of insulin secretion and open up new avenues for the treatment of metabolic diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes.

  3. Male reproductive toxicity of CrVI: In-utero exposure to CrVI at the critical window of testis differentiation represses the expression of Sertoli cell tight junction proteins and hormone receptors in adult F1 progeny rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kathiresh M; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael; Banu, Sheerin L; Sadasivam, Balaji; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Ganesh, Karthik M; Navaneethabalakrishnan, Shobana; Navin, Ajith Kumar; Michael, Felicia Mary; Venkatachalam, Sankar; Stanley, Jone A; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Banu, Sakhila K; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-02-10

    The effect of gestational exposure to CrVI (occupational/environmental pollutant and target to Sertoli cells(SC)) was tested in a rat model during the testicular differentiation from the bipotential gonad may interrupt spermatogenesis by disrupting SC tight junctions(TJ) and it's proteins and hormone receptors. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 50/100/200ppm CrVI through drinking water during embryonic days 9-14. On Postnatal day 120, testes were subjected to ion exchange chromatographic analysis and revealed increased level of CrIII in SCs and germ cells, serum and testicular interstitial fluid(TIF). Microscopic analyses showed seminiferous tubules atrophy and disruption of SC TJ, which also recorded decreased testosterone in TIF. mRNA and Protein expression analyses attested decreased level of Fshr, Ar, occludin and claudin-11 in SCs. Immunofluorescent detection revealed weak signal of TJ proteins. Taken together, we concluded that gestational exposure to CrVI interferes with the expression of SC TJ proteins due to attenuated expression of hormone receptors.

  4. Analysis list: Pou5f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou5f1 Embryonic fibroblast,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.5.tsv h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou5f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou5f1....Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou5f1

  5. Charmless hadronic $B \\to (f_1(1285),f_1(1420)) P$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Li, Jing-Wu; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2014-01-01

    We study twenty charmless hadronic $B \\to f_1 P$ decays, with $f_1$ representing axial-vector mesons $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$ that resulting from a mixing of quark-flavor $f_{1q}$ and $f_{1s}$ states with the angle $\\phi_{f_1}$, in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) formalism. The estimations of branching ratios and CP asymmetries of the considered $B \\to f_1 P$ decays are presented in the pQCD approach with $\\phi_{f_1} \\sim 24^\\circ$ from recently measured $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays. It is found that (a) the tree dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 \\pi^+$ and the penguin dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 K^+$ decays with large branching ratios[${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$] and large direct CP violations(around $14\\% \\sim 28\\%$ in magnitude) simultaneously are believed to be clearly measurable at the LHCb and Super-B factory experiments; (b) the nearly pure penguin-dominated $B_d \\to f_1 K_S^0$ and $B_s \\to f_1 (\\eta, \\eta')$ modes with safely negligible tree pollution also have large decay rates in the order of $10^{-6} \\sim 10^{-5}$, w...

  6. F0F1-ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli: Untersuchung verschiedener Proteinsysteme mit ESR-Spektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    Das Enzym F0F1-ATP-Synthase katalysiert die Phosphorylierung von ADP zu ATP unter Ausnutzung des durch die Atmungskette entstehenden Protonengradienten an Membranen. Hierbei pumpt der membranintegrale F0-Teil des Proteins Protonen durch die Membran und induziert die ATP-Synthese, welche auf dem peripheren, wasserlöslichen F1-Teil des Proteins (F1-ATPase) stattfindet. F0 besteht aus drei Proteinuntereinheiten der Stöchiometrie a b_2 c_9-12, während F1 aus fünf Untereinheiten der Stöchiometrie ...

  7. Bacterial biofilms and capsular contracture in patients with breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, U M; Mesina, J; Kalbermatten, D F; Haug, M; Frey, H P; Pico, R; Frei, R; Pierer, G; Lüscher, N J; Trampuz, A

    2013-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that bacterial biofilms on breast implants may cause chronic inflammation leading to capsular contracture. The association between bacterial biofilms of removed implants and capsular contracture was investigated. Breast implants explanted between 2006 and 2010 at five participating centres for plastic and reconstructive surgery were investigated by sonication. Bacterial cultures derived from sonication were correlated with patient, surgical and implant characteristics, and the degree of capsular contracture. The study included 121 breast implants from 84 patients, of which 119 originated from women and two from men undergoing gender reassignment. Some 50 breast prostheses were implanted for reconstruction, 48 for aesthetic reasons and 23 implants were used as temporary expander devices. The median indwelling time was 4·0 (range 0·1-32) years for permanent implants and 3 (range 1-6) months for temporary devices. Excluding nine implants with clinical signs of infection, sonication cultures were positive in 40 (45 per cent) of 89 permanent implants and in 12 (52 per cent) of 23 temporary devices. Analysis of permanent implants showed that a positive bacterial culture after sonication correlated with the degree of capsular contracture: Baker I, two of 11 implants; Baker II, two of ten; Baker III, nine of 23; and Baker IV, 27 of 45 (P contracture, indicating the potential causative role of bacterial biofilms in the pathogenesis of capsular contracture. NCT01138891 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregating plans. 1.415(f)-1 Section 1.415(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(f)-1 Aggregating plans. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section (regarding multiemployer plans), and taking...

  9. Surgical intervention and capsular contracture after breast augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Fryzek, Jon P; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2005-01-01

    -requiring complications and capsular contracture grades III to IV among 2277 women who underwent cosmetic breast implantation from June 1999 through April 2003. During an average follow-up period of 1.6 years after implantation, 4.3% of these women (3% of implants) required secondary surgery as a result of short......-term complications. The most frequent clinical indications for surgery were displacement of the implant (38%), capsular contracture grades III to IV (16%), ptosis (13%), and hematoma (11%). Overall, the authors found that inframammary incision and subglandular placement were associated with decreased risks...... of developing complications requiring surgical intervention, whereas implants larger than 350 mL increased the risk of such complications (relative risk [RR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0). Thirty-nine Baker III to IV capsular contractures were identified, of which 22 were treated surgically...

  10. Analysis list: E4f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E4f1 Embryonic fibroblast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E4f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E4f1.Embryonic_fibr

  11. Analysis list: Gtf2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2f1 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2f1....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2f1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  12. Analysis list: Pou2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou2f1 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2f1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Pou2...f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou2f1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  13. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K;

    2001-01-01

    -sensitive retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a shift to a permissive temperature induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. In U2OS cells stably expressing an E2F1-estrogen receptor chimeric protein that could be activated by tamoxifen, PAI-1 gene transcription was markedly reduced by tamoxifen even in the presence of cycloheximide...

  14. Late-Onset Capsular Block Syndrome: Unusually Delayed Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Rana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsular block syndrome (CBS has been known to occur as a rare complication of cataract surgery with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and a posterior-chamber lens implant. Typically, it presents with reduced vision in the early postoperative period and is characterised by a forward displacement of the posterior-chamber intra-ocular lens and an accumulation of intra-capsular opaque material. Management of CBS is usually by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. In this report, we describe a unique case of very-delayed-onset CBS with good visual acuity, occurring 8 years after surgery. It was treated successfully with surgical removal of the opaque material.

  15. Single molecule energetics of F1-ATPase motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneyuki, Eiro; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masasuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Motor proteins are essential in life processes because they convert the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. However, the fundamental question on how they work when different amounts of free energy are released after ATP hydrolysis remains unanswered. To answer this question, it is essential to clarify how the stepping motion of a motor protein reflects the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and P(i) in its individual actions at a single molecule level. The F(1) portion of ATP synthase, also called F(1)-ATPase, is a rotary molecular motor in which the central gamma-subunit rotates against the alpha(3)beta(3) cylinder. The motor exhibits clear step motion at low ATP concentrations. The rotary action of this motor is processive and generates a high torque. These features are ideal for exploring the relationship between free energy input and mechanical work output, but there is a serious problem in that this motor is severely inhibited by ADP. In this study, we overcame this problem of ADP inhibition by introducing several mutations while retaining high enzymatic activity. Using a probe of attached beads, stepping rotation against viscous load was examined at a wide range of free energy values by changing the ADP concentration. The results showed that the apparent work of each individual step motion was not affected by the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, but the frequency of each individual step motion depended on the free energy. This is the first study that examined the stepping motion of a molecular motor at a single molecule level with simultaneous systematic control of DeltaG(ATP). The results imply that microscopically defined work at a single molecule level cannot be directly compared with macroscopically defined free energy input.

  16. Virulence of six capsular serotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, ML; van Winkelhoff, AJ

    1998-01-01

    Capsular structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis have been correlated to the pathogenicity in animal models. Six polysaccharide capsular serotypes have recently been described in P. gingivalis. In the present study, virulence of the P. gingivalis strains of the six capsular serotypes was compared wit

  17. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zejun [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Gong, Chaoju [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Liu, Hong [Zhejiang Normal University – Jinhua People' s Hospital Joint Center for Biomedical Research, Jinhua, Zhejiang, 321004 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Song, Mintao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, 100005 (China); Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Chen, Xiang, E-mail: sychenxiang@126.com [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China)

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  18. Repression of androgen receptor transcription through the E2F1/DNMT1 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad David Valdez

    Full Text Available Although androgen receptor (AR function has been extensively studied, regulation of the AR gene itself has been much less characterized. In this study, we observed a dramatic reduction in the expression of androgen receptor mRNA and protein in hyperproliferative prostate epithelium of keratin 5 promoter driven E2F1 transgenic mice. To confirm an inhibitory function for E2F1 on AR transcription, we showed that E2F1 inhibited the transcription of endogenous AR mRNA, subsequent AR protein, and AR promoter activity in both human and mouse epithelial cells. E2F1 also inhibited androgen-stimulated activation of two AR target gene promoters. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of E2F-mediated inhibition of AR, we evaluated the effects of two functional E2F1 mutants on AR promoter activity and found that the transactivation domain appears to mediate E2F1 repression of the AR promoter. Because DNMT1 is a functional intermediate of E2F1 we examined DNMT1 function in AR repression. Repression of endogenous AR in normal human prostate epithelial cells was relieved by DNMT1 shRNA knock down. DNMT1 was shown to be physically associated within the AR minimal promoter located 22 bps from the transcription start site; however, methylation remained unchanged at the promoter regardless of DNMT1 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that DNMT1 operates either as a functional intermediary or in cooperation with E2F1 inhibiting AR gene expression in a methylation independent manner.

  19. A novel capsular polysaccharide from Rhizobium rubi strain DSM 30149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Cristina; Fregolino, Eleonora; Gargiulo, Valentina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2008-07-07

    Rhizobium rubi, strain DSM 30149, is a Gram negative phytopathogenic bacterium which produces a linear polysaccharide with the following repeating unit: This new structure was determined by spectroscopical and chemical methods. It presents similar lipophilic features reported for another strain of R. rubi. These contrast with features already known for capsular polysaccharide species from symbiontic members of the Rhizobiaceae family, namely highly anionic polymers.

  20. Capsular Myrtaceae 10. The Metrosideros Complex: M. angustifolia (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    As is the case with Tepualia stipularis for South America, Metrosideros angustifolia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 270, is the sole representative of the capsular Myrtaceae in Africa. It occurs as a shrub or small tree at lower elevations, often along river banks, in the south-west corner of South

  1. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid with capsular invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez, Concepción Lara; González-Cámpora, Ricardo; Loscertales, Miguel Congregado; Escudero, Antonio García; Mezquita, Jesús Congregado

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathologic findings of a peculiar case of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland that showed capsular invasion. After four and a half years of follow-up, neither local recurrence nor metastasis has developed.

  2. Purification, crystallization, and properties of F1-ATPase complexes from the thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Achim; Keis, Stefanie; Cook, Gregory M; Dimroth, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported the cloning of the atp operon encoding for the F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase from the extremely thermoalkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1. In this study, the genes encoding the F(1) moiety of the enzyme complex were cloned from the atp operon into the vector pTrc99A and expressed in Escherichia coli in two variant complexes, F(1)-wt consisting of subunits alpha(3)beta(3)gammadeltaepsilon and F(1)Deltadelta lacking the entire delta-subunit as a prerequisite for overproduction and crystallization trials. Both F(1)-wt and F(1)Deltadelta were successfully overproduced in E. coli and purified in high yield and purity. F(1)Deltadelta was crystallized by micro-batch screening yielding three-dimensional crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.1A using a synchrotron radiation source. After establishing cryo and dehydrating conditions, a complete set of diffraction data was collected from a single crystal. No crystals were obtained with F(1)-wt. Data processing of diffraction patterns showed that F(1)Deltadelta crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell parameters of a=121.70, b=174.80, and c=223.50A, alpha, beta, gamma=90.000. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule of bacterial F(1)Deltadelta with a corresponding volume per protein weight (V(M)) of 3.25A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 62.1%. Silver staining of single crystals of F(1)Deltadelta analyzed by SDS-PAGE revealed four bands alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon with identical M(r)-values as those found in the native F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase isolated from strain TA2.A1 membranes. ATPase assays of F(1)Deltadelta crystals exhibited latent ATP hydrolytic activity that was highly stimulated by lauryldimethylamine oxide, a hallmark of the native enzyme.

  3. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs, which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae. The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1 and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides.

  4. Analysis list: E2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2f1 Blood,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  5. Effects of zafirlukast on capsular contracture: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchi, M; Dessy, L A; Alfano, C; Scuderi, N

    2012-01-01

    Capsular contracture is a distressing complication after breast augmentation for both the patient and surgeon. Although capsular contracture is a multifactorial process, one common denominator in the successful treatment of this complication is believed to be the abatement of inflammation. Leukotriene antagonists have recently emerged as effective prophylactic agents in reactive airway diseases. A prospective study was carried out on 60 female patients (120 prostheses implanted) with mild/severe capsular contracture in at least one breast. The hardness of capsular contracture was assessed by means of the mammary compliance method. Patients received zafirlukast (Accolate®) for a 6-month period. Mammary compliance was assessed at the start of the study and thereafter monthly, during drug intake and for one year after drug withdrawal. The results show a significant decrease in breast compliance values in the first 6 months, followed by a significant increase one year after the end of drug intake. Indeed, zafirlukast-treated patients displayed a 6.93 percent reduction in mammary compliance after 1 month, 14.42 percent after 3 months, 22.05 percent after 6 months and 22.52 percent after 7 months (1 month after the withdrawal of the drug). Thereafter, mammary compliance values gradually increased. A 5.47 percent reduction in mammary compliance was observed 1 year after drug withdrawal. The present study suggests that zafirlukast may be effective in reducing breast capsule distortion in patients with long-standing contracture, though reduced capsular contracture values are strictly related to the duration of drug intake.

  6. Analysis of F1F0-ATPase from Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The adaptive mechanisms that permit Helicobacter species to survive within the gastric mucosa are not well understood. The proton-translocating F1F0-ATPase is an important enzyme for regulating intracellular pH or synthesizing ATP in many other enteric bacteria; therefore, we used degenerate primers derived from conserved bacterial F1F0-ATPase sequences to PCR amplify and clone the gene (atpD) encoding the H. pylori F1F0-ATPase beta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the F1F0-ATPase...

  7. Analysis list: POU5F1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available POU5F1 Epidermis,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/POU5F1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/POU5F1.Epidermis...U5F1.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Epidermis.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  8. Cooperative activation of tissue-specific genes by pRB and E2F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephen; Xu, Fuhua; Moran, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB is conventionally regarded as an inhibitor of the E2F family of transcription factors. Conversely, pRB is also recognized as an activator of tissue-specific gene expression along various lineages including osteoblastogenesis. During osteoblast differentiation, pRB directly targets Alpl and Bglap, which encode the major markers of osteogenesis alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Surprisingly, p130 and repressor E2Fs were recently found to cooccupy and repress Alpl and Bglap in proliferating osteoblast precursors before differentiation. This raises the further question of whether these genes convert to E2F activation targets when differentiation begins, which would constitute a remarkable situation wherein pRB and E2F would be cotargeting genes for activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in an osteoblast differentiation model shows that Alpl and Bglap are indeed targeted by an activator E2F, i.e., is E2F1. Promoter occupation of Alpl and Bglap by E2F1 occurs specifically during activation, and depletion of E2F1 severely impairs their induction. Mechanistically, promoter occupation by E2F1 and pRB is mutually dependent, and without this cooperative effect, activation steps previously shown to be dependent on pRB, including recruitment of RNA polymerase II, are impaired. Myocyte- and adipocyte-specific genes are also cotargeted by E2F1 and pRB during differentiation along their respective lineages. The finding that pRB and E2F1 cooperate to activate expression of tissue-specific genes is a paradigm distinct from the classical concept of pRB as an inhibitor of E2F1, but is consistent with the observed roles of these proteins in physiological models.

  9. Induction of DNA synthesis and apoptosis are separable functions of E2F-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, A C; Bates, S; Ryan, K M;

    1997-01-01

    The family of E2F transcription factors have an essential role in mediating cell cycle progression, and recently, one of the E2F protein family, E2F-1, has been shown to participate in the induction of apoptosis. Cooperation between E2F and the p53 tumor suppressor protein in this apoptotic...... response had led to the suggestion that cell cycle progression induced by E2F-1 expression provides an apoptotic signal when placed in conflict with an arrest to cell cycle progression, such as provided by p53. We show here that although apoptosis is clearly enhanced by p53, E2F-1 can induce significant...... apoptosis in the absence of p53. Furthermore, this apoptotic function of E2F-1 is separable from the ability to accelerate entry into DNA synthesis. Analysis of E2F-1 mutants indicates that although DNA-binding is required, transcriptional transactivation is not necessary for the induction of apoptosis by E...

  10. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I—capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II—capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III—capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed. The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I—120 eyes (38.1%); Type II—157 eyes (49.8%); Type III—38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.572, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation with intraoperative posterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.16, P = 0.122) was observed. The ACOA significantly decreased from Type I to Type II to Type III, the PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type

  11. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. However, Cps15C showed no homology to any proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, indicating that cps15C may be specific to serotype 15. This study will provide the basic molecular knowledge necessary for the development of diagnostics and a vaccine for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 15.

  12. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  13. Degradation studies on Escherichia coli capsular polysaccharides by bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmich, W

    1997-08-01

    The serologically and structurally related Eschrichia coli capsular polysaccharides (K antigens) K13, K20, and K23 were found to be depolymerized by the bacteriophages phi K13 and phi K20 to almost similar oligomer profiles as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The phage-polysaccharide interactions were followed by an increase of reducing 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid due to a phage-associated glycanase that catalyzed the hydrolytic cleavage of common beta-ketopyranosidic 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid linkages. The related E. coli K antigens K18, K22, and K100 as well as the Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide were degraded by bacteriophage phi K100 with different efficacy. It is suggested that phi K100 enzymatically cleaves ribitol-5-phosphate bonds as the only structural feature present in all the polysaccharides investigated.

  14. Development of Capsular Adhesive Systems and Evaluation of Their Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-26

    AD-A159 913 DEVELOPMENT OF CAPSULAR ADHESIVE SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION ii OF THEIR STABILIT..(I) INSTITUTO NACIONAL OE TECNICA AEROESPACIRL MADRID...by polymerization of some low molecular monomeric consti- tuents, partially solubilized in the aqueous phase. The hazy liquid was discarded by...incomplete solubility of Loctite 270, it is assumed that the insoluble portion of this adhesive 5 concerns the high molecular polymeric constituent, inclu

  15. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of a capsular polysaccharide from Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer C; Hitchen, Paul G; Frank, Martin; Peak, Ian R; Collins, Patrick M; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Grice, I Darren

    2005-03-21

    The bacterium Moraxella bovis is the causative agent of an economically important disease of cattle: Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), otherwise known as pinkeye. Little is known regarding the structure of the carbohydrates produced by M. bovis. The structure of a capsular polysaccharide from M. bovis (strain Mb25) has been determined using NMR and MS analysis. From these data it is concluded that the polysaccharide is composed of the unmodified chondroitin disaccharide repeat unit.

  17. Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

  18. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  19. Progress of the NTSC-F1 primary frequency standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN; Jun; WANG; Xinliang; LIU; Dandan; GUAN; Yong; ZHANG; Hui; CHEN; Jiang; LIN; Rui; YU; Fengxiang; SHI; Junru; ZHANG; Shougang

    2015-01-01

    The SI "second"is realized by caesium primary frequency standards( PFSs) using laser cooled atoms in a fountain configuration. Four sub systems and operation procedure of the NTSC-F1 primary frequency standard are introduced in the paper.The frequency stability of NTSC-F1 is 3.0×10-13/ τ-1 / 2compared to hydrogen maser. Four terms of frequency shift and uncertainty including second order Zeeman frequency shift,cold collision shift,gravity shift and blackbody shift are evaluated. The improvement of NTSC-F1 is introduced.

  20. General formulae for f1 -> f2 γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoura, L.

    2003-07-01

    At one-loop level the decay f_1 to f_2 γ, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin - interacting with the fermions through the Dirac matrices 1 and γ_5 - or spin 1 - with V+ A and V- A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f_1 to f_2 γ in all these cases.

  1. General formulae for f1 --> f2 gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoura, L

    2003-01-01

    At one-loop level the decay f1 --> f2 gamma, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin 0 - interacting with the fermions through Dirac matrices 1 and gamma5 - or spin 1 - with V+A and V-A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f1 --> f2 gamma in all these cases.

  2. Functions of some capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH K-2044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    Full Text Available The growing number of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, commonly acquired in hospitals, has drawn great concern. It has been shown that the K1 and K2 capsular serotypes are the most detrimental strains, particularly to those with diabetes. The K1 cps (capsular polysaccharide locus in the NTUH-2044 strain of the pyogenic liver abscess (PLA K. pneumoniae has been identified recently, but little is known about the functions of the genes therein. Here we report characterization of a group of cps genes and their roles in the pathogenesis of K1 K. pneumoniae. By sequential gene deletion, the cps gene cluster was first re-delimited between genes galF and ugd, which serve as up- and down-stream ends, respectively. Eight gene products were characterized in vitro and in vivo to be involved in the syntheses of UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronic acid and GDP-fucose building units. Twelve genes were identified as virulence factors based on the observation that their deletion mutants became avirulent or lost K1 antigenicity. Furthermore, deletion of kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 (ΔwcaI, ΔwcaG or Δatf, respectively, which are all involved in fucose biosynthesis, led to a broad range of transcriptional suppression for 52 upstream genes. The genes suppressed include those coding for unknown regulatory membrane proteins and six multidrug efflux system proteins, as well as proteins required for the K1 CPS biosynthesis. In support of the suppression of multidrug efflux genes, we showed that these three mutants became more sensitive to antibiotics. Taken together, the results suggest that kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 genes are strongly related to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae K1.

  3. Api5 contributes to E2F1 control of the G1/S cell cycle phase transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Garcia-Jove Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The E2f transcription factor family has a pivotal role in controlling the cell fate in general, and in particular cancer development, by regulating the expression of several genes required for S phase entry and progression through the cell cycle. It has become clear that the transcriptional activation of at least one member of the family, E2F1, can also induce apoptosis. An appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators appears to be necessary to modulate E2F1 transcriptional activity, and thus cell fate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that Api5, already known as a regulator of E2F1 induced-apoptosis, is required for the E2F1 transcriptional activation of G1/S transition genes, and consequently, for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Api5 appears to be a cell cycle regulated protein. Removal of Api5 reduces cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin D1 and Cdk2 levels, causing G1 cell cycle arrest and cell cycle delay. Luciferase assays established that Api5 directly regulates the expression of several G1/S genes under E2F1 control. Using protein/protein and protein/DNA immunoprecipitation studies, we demonstrate that Api5, even if not physically interacting with E2F1, contributes positively to E2F1 transcriptional activity by increasing E2F1 binding to its target promoters, through an indirect mechanism. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results described here support the pivotal role of cell cycle related proteins, that like E2F1, may act as tumor suppressors or as proto-oncogenes during cancer development, depending on the behavior of their positive and negative regulators. According to our findings, Api5 contributes to E2F1 transcriptional activation of cell cycle-associated genes by facilitating E2F1 recruitment onto its target promoters and thus E2F1 target gene transcription.

  4. Integrating Bioengineered F1 Motors into Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    Cindy Berrie, Fei Gao. Insertion of a Rigid Structural Element into the Regulatory Domain of the Chloroplast F1-ATPase Gamma Subunit for Rotational...Studies., 15th International Photosynthesis Congress. 2010/08/22 01:00:00, . : , 12/27/2011 3.00 . The Mutation E242K in the chloroplast ATP synthase... chloroplast F1-ATPase gamma subunit for rotational studies. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Photosynthesis, 2011, pp.123-126. 2. Colvert

  5. IZK OLIMP F1 - NEW BULGARIAN TOMATO VARIETY FOR PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is developed by a team at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv as a result of hybridization between female line М-441 and male line R-469. The F1 hybrid was tested in the Executive Agency for Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control in 2009-2010. It was recognised as a new tomato F1 hybrid variety by the Expert commission in 2009 and has a certificate №10987/ 31.08.2012 issued by the Patent Office of Republic of Bulgaria. Hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is a determinate, high-yielding tomato variety for mid-early field production. The total yield and earliness of this F1 hybrid are close to those of the hybrid var. Vodolei F1 and exceeds the direct var. Bela and var. Zhaklin. The fruits are oval-elongated, with an average weight of 55-68 g, uniform red coloured, thick, firm, crack resistant, with small and low pedicle hole. Being with good chemical and technological properties this hybrid is suitable for processing.

  6. Evaluation of protective potential of Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein antigens as possible candidates for a new-generation recombinant plague vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erova, Tatiana E; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Telepnev, Maxim V; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2013-02-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1(-) strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1(-) mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1(-) CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains.

  7. Evaluation of Protective Potential of Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Antigens as Possible Candidates for a New-Generation Recombinant Plague Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Telepnev, Maxim V.; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1− strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1− mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1− CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains. PMID:23239803

  8. Influenceof lysozyme-like protein on virulence and capsular polysaccharide synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae%一种溶菌酶样蛋白对肺炎链球菌毒力及荚膜多糖合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 姜学美; 黄美容; 杨晓亮; 刘明伟; 王虹; 孟江萍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To study the biological character and pathogenic effect of a lysozyme-like protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae.[Methods]The gene knockout mutant was constructed by the long flanking homology polymerase chain reaction.The mutant containing rescue plasmid to complement the lysozyme-like gene was also constructed.The differences in biology and pathogenicity in D39 wild strain, gene knockout mutant and gene knockout mutant containing rescue plasmid were observed to identify the functions of the lysozyme-like gene.[Results]Compared with the wild strain, the gene knockout mutant had the characteristics of slower growth, declining virulence, and obviously reduced capsule polysaccharide synthesis.Complement experiment showed when the rescue plasmid was transformed into the mutant strain, the mRNA level of hypothetical lysozyme-like gene in the gene knockout mutant containing rescue plasmid was higher than that of the wild strain.Although the levels of virulence and capsule polysaccharide synthesis could be partly complemented compared with those of the gene knockout mutant, but not reached the levels in the wild strain.[Conclusions]The lysozyme-like protein, a new Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factor, may regulate the proliferation and the capsular polysaccharides synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae to affect expression of virulence.%[目的]为了研究肺炎链球菌(Streptococcus pneumoniae,S.pn)的一种假想的溶菌酶样蛋白在细菌生物学性状及其致病中的作用.[方法]利用长臂同源PCR对该基因进行敲出,并同时构建带有拯救质粒的缺失菌株,观察D39野生菌、缺失菌与带有拯救质粒的缺失菌株在相关生物学性状及其致病力改变,从而鉴定这种假想溶菌酶样蛋白的功能.[结果]缺失菌与野生菌相比,细菌生长减缓,毒力下降,荚膜多糖合成明显减少.而将拯救质粒转入缺失菌株后,该溶菌酶样蛋白的mRNA表达水平较野生菌高,其毒力及荚膜

  9. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  10. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  11. Effects of hip joint position and intra-capsular volume on hip joint intra-capsular pressure: a human cadaveric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse Paul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra-capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra-capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied. An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra-capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra-capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra-capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2.1-fold increase (p = 0.028 of the intra-capsular hip joint pressure; full external rotation and full internal rotation increased the pressure by at least 4-fold (p Conclusion Intra-capsular pressure increases with its volume, but with a wide variation with different positions. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in 45-degree flexion.

  12. The F(0F(1-ATP synthase complex contains novel subunits and is essential for procyclic Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Zíková

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial F(0F(1 ATP synthase is an essential multi-subunit protein complex in the vast majority of eukaryotes but little is known about its composition and role in Trypanosoma brucei, an early diverged eukaryotic pathogen. We purified the F(0F(1 ATP synthase by a combination of affinity purification, immunoprecipitation and blue-native gel electrophoresis and characterized its composition and function. We identified 22 proteins of which five are related to F(1 subunits, three to F(0 subunits, and 14 which have no obvious homology to proteins outside the kinetoplastids. RNAi silencing of expression of the F(1 alpha subunit or either of the two novel proteins showed that they are each essential for the viability of procyclic (insect stage cells and are important for the structural integrity of the F(0F(1-ATP synthase complex. We also observed a dramatic decrease in ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation after silencing expression of each of these proteins while substrate phosphorylation was not severely affected. Our procyclic T. brucei cells were sensitive to the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin even in the presence of glucose contrary to earlier reports. Hence, the two novel proteins appear essential for the structural organization of the functional complex and regulation of mitochondrial energy generation in these organisms is more complicated than previously thought.

  13. Clinical Outcome of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Combined With Simultaneous Capsular Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shigeto; Iuchi, Ryo; Mae, Tatsuo; Mizuno, Naoko; Take, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    A capsular tear and humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion are not uncommon findings in association with a Bankart lesion. However, there have been few reports regarding the prevalence of such capsular lesions and the postoperative recurrence after capsular repair. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study investigated the prevalence of capsular lesions and clarified their influence on the postoperative recurrence of instability. In addition, factors were identified that were associated with the occurrence of capsular lesions and the postoperative recurrence of instability. We hypothesized that clinical outcomes would be improved by combining arthroscopic Bankart repair with simultaneous capsular repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Capsular lesions were retrospectively examined through operative records, still pictures, and videos in 172 shoulders with traumatic anterior instability. First, the prevalence of capsular lesions and their severity were investigated. Then, postoperative recurrence was determined in shoulders observed for a minimum of 2 years. Finally, factors were assessed that were associated with the occurrence of capsular lesions and the postoperative recurrence of instability. A capsular lesion was recognized in 37 shoulders (21.5%), being severe and mild in 20 and 17, respectively. All were repaired simultaneously with the arthroscopic Bankart procedure. After follow-up for at least 2 years, recurrence of instability was detected in 10 of 34 shoulders (29.4%), including 6 (31.6%) with severe capsular lesions and 4 (26.7%) with mild lesions. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in shoulders with a capsular lesion than in shoulders without a capsular lesion (18 of 120, 15%; P = .013), but there was no significant difference between severe and mild lesions. Regardless of the sport played, capsular lesions were significantly more frequent in patients ≥30 years old, patients with complete dislocation, and patients with a coexisting

  14. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of FTZ-F1 in the GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of FTZ-F1 in the GIFT tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinling CAO; Jianjie CHEN; Zhongliang JIANG; Yongju LUO; Xi GAN

    2012-01-01

    The FTZ-F1 genes encode orphan receptors of the nuclear receptor superfamily and in mammals have been found to play important roles in the proper development of the adrenal-gonadal axis and sex-determination.We isolated the homologue of FTZ-F1 in genetically improved farmed tilapia (gfFTZ-F1).The full-length cDNA was isolated from the ovary,which included an open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 486 amino acids.Sequence,tissue distribution and phylogenic analysis of the FTZ-F1 showed that the gfFTZ-F1 belonged to SF-1/Ad4BP group and that gfFTZ-F1 transcripts were only expressed in the gonads and kidney but not in other tissues.Likewise our data suggests that the gfFTZ-F1 gene may share similar functions with other fish and mammalian counterparts,though further study is needed to make any definitive conclusions.

  15. Capsular tension ring implantation in cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the influence of capsular tensionring (CTR on prevention of intraoperative complicationsdue to zonular weakness and increased capsular fragilityduring phacoemulsification of cataracts with pseudoexfoliation.Materials and methods: 148 eyes of 148 patients whohad cataract with pseudoexfoliation underwent phacoemulsificationsurgery included. 74 eyes of the firstgroup (study group were implanted with CTR after hydrodissection,while CTR was not performed in 74 eyesof control group (Group 2. In both groups, intraoperativecomplications such as zonular dialysis, conversion to extracapsularcataract extraction (ECCE or intracapsularcataract extraction (ICCE, posterior capsular rupture,vitreus loss, and early postoperative complications wererecorded and compared between two groups.Results: In group 1, no complication occurred in 64 eyes(86.5% and intraocular lens (IOL implanted in the bag.In 10 eyes (13.5% posterior capsule rupture occurred,in 4 of them converted to ECCE, IOL implanted in foureyes. In other 6 eyes, phacoemulsification completed underlayviscoelastic. In group 2, no complication occuredin 42 eyes and IOL implanted in the bag. In 10 patients(13.5% zonular dialysis occurred, in 4 of them IOL implantedin the bag and in 6 of them converted to ICCE andIOL implanted in anterior chamber. Posterior capsule ruptureoccurred in 20 eyes (27.0%, all of them converted toECCE and IOL was implanted. In 2 eyes capsullorrhexisoccurred and converted to ECCE, IOL was implanted insulcus.Conclusion: In patients with pseudoexfoliation, CTR implantationin phacoemulsification simplified the surgery,increased the rate of IOL implanted in the bag and preventedcomplications like IOL desantralization after surgery.

  16. New techniques for evaluating the gastrointestinal tract: capsular endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Karateyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a procedure for capsular endoscopy (CE, a new high-technology method of evaluating the small bowel, and reports on its use in rheumatological care. Small bowel involvement is noted to be frequently encountered in rheumatic diseases, such as Behcet's disease, diffuse scleroderma, and seronegative spondylitis. According to the data of clinical trials, CE is effective in timely detecting this visceral abnormality. At the same time, CE is actually the only accurate method of diagnosing drug-induced enteropathy, a potentially menacing disease that frequently occurs with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  18. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Wu, C L; Fattaey, A R;

    1993-01-01

    the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). The other protein, murine DP-1, was purified from an E2F DNA-affinity column, and it was subsequently shown to bind the consensus E2F DNA-binding site. To study a possible interaction between E2F-1 and DP-1, we have now isolated a cDNA for the human...... is required for stable interaction with pRB in vivo and that trans-activation by E2F-1/DP-1 heterodimers is inhibited by pRB. We suggest that "E2F" is the activity that is formed when an E2F-1-related protein and a DP-1-related protein dimerize....

  19. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER.

  20. The cat lipocalin Fel d 7 and its cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolovic, D; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Waden, K; Curin, M; Grundström, J; Gafvelin, G; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Grönlund, H; Thomas, W R; Valenta, R; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to the cat lipocalin Fel d 7 among 140 cat-sensitized Swedish patients and elucidated its allergenic activity and cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1. Sixty-five of 140 patients had IgE to rFel d 7 whereof 60 also had IgE to rCan f 1. A moderate correlation between IgE levels to rFel d 7 and rCan f 1 was found. rFel d 7 activated basophils in vitro and inhibited IgE binding to rCan f 1 in 4 of 13 patients, whereas rCan f 1 inhibited IgE binding to rFel d 7 in 7 of 13 patients. Fel d 7 and Can f 1 showed high similarities in protein structure and epitopes in common were found using cross-reactive antisera. Fel d 7 is a common allergen in a Swedish cat-sensitized population that cross-reacts with Can f 1, and may contribute to symptoms in cat- but also in dog-allergic patients.

  1. Structural determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae repeat units in serotype 41A and 41F capsular polysaccharides to probe gene functions in the corresponding capsular biosynthetic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent O.; Skovsted, Ian C.; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-01

    We report the repeating unit structures ofthe native capsular polysaccharidesof S. pneumoniaeserotypes 41A and 41F. Structuraldeterminationsyieldedsix carbohydrate units in the doubly branched repeating unit to givethe following structure for serotype 41A:The structure determinations were motivat...

  2. DETECTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR ANTIGEN IN THE PRESENCE OF PENICILLIN IN-VITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLLOWAY, Y; BOERSMA, WG; KUTTSCHRUTTER, H; SNIJDER, JAM

    1993-01-01

    Eight strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were tested in vitro for their ability to produce capsular antigen in the presence of penicillin. It was found that, provided 10(6) to 10(7) pneumococci/ml were present, capsular antigen could be detected during the 72 h in which the experiment was conducted

  3. Localization of Magic-F1 Transgene, Involved in Muscular Hypertrophy, during Early Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Bongio, Matilde; Conte, Silvio; Vercesi, Luigi; Cassano, Marco; Tribioli, Carla; Galli, Daniela; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that Magic-F1 (Met-activating genetically improved chimeric factor 1), a human recombinant protein derived from hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) induces muscle cell hypertrophy but not progenitor cell proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we examined the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Magic-F1 in comparison with Pax3 (paired box gene 3) transcription factor during embryogenesis. Ranging from 9.5 to 17.5 dpc (days post coitum) mouse embryos were analyzed by in situ hybridization using whole mounts during early stages of development (9.5–10.5–11.5 dpc) and cryostat sections for later stages (11.5–13.5–15.5–17.5 dpc). We found that Magic-F1 is expressed in developing organs and tissues of mesenchymal origin, where Pax3 signal appears to be downregulated respect to the wt embryos. These data suggest that Magic-F1 could be responsible of muscular hypertrophy, cooperating with Pax3 signal pathway in skeletal muscle precursor cells. PMID:22187527

  4. E2F1 is crucial for E2F-dependent apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Helin, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Loss of the retinoblastoma protein, pRB, leads to apoptosis, and several results have suggested that this is dependent on the E2F transcription factors. However, so far, the ability of the different E2F family members to contribute to apoptosis is controversial. Here, we show that ectopic...... expression of E2F3 results in apoptosis in both primary mouse fibroblasts and transgenic mice. Apoptosis induced by E2F3 is associated with the accumulation of E2F1 and, strikingly, we found that E2F3-induced apoptosis is dependent on E2F1. On the basis of these results, we propose that the accumulation...... of crucial levels of E2F1 activity, and not total E2F activity, is essential for the induction of apoptosis in response to a deregulated pRB pathway. These results are consistent with previous findings that E2F1, but not other E2Fs, can have tumour-suppressing activities....

  5. Observation of artificial lens implantation suture fixation into capsular bag when cataract suspensory ligament rupture without capsular tension ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Ming Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the cataract suspensory ligament rupture and artificial lens implantation suture fixation into capsular bag without capsular tension ring(CTR.METHODS: We reviewed 20 cases of 20 cataract suspensory ligament rupture without CTR intraocular lens(IOLimplantation fixation in our department from Jan.2012 to Dec.2016. The needle crossed into ocular ciliary sulcus, in the equator of the eye ball which suspensory ligament rupture from, then the needle crossed out 1.5mm away from the angle of sclera. Sutures fixed on the IOL, then the artificial lens implantation in the pouch, carried out in accordance with the “Z” type suture, or to the beforehand prepared triangle scleral flap. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the anterior chamber and the IOL position were measured after operations. RESULTS: All of the postoperative visual acuity improved different level. The postoperative best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas ≥0.8 in 4 eyes(20%, 0.5-0.6 in 7 eyes(35%, 0.3-0.4 in 8 eyes(40%, 0.1 in 1 eye(5%because of the glaucoma optic atrophy. There were 12 cases with mild corneal endothelium edema, 4 cases exudation membrane in the pupil area, 2 cases hyphema, all of which recovered after treatment. There were 2 eyes with vitreous prolapse in the pupil, 1 case appeared mild IOL center deviation and no special treatment for the vision did not be involved. Followed up for 6mo, displaced stitches or artificial lens shift did not occur. CONCLUSION: Without CTR, the IOL implantation and suture fixation in capsular bag during cataract surgery is a surgical method for basic-level hospitals.

  6. f(1)、f(0)、f(-1)表示f(x)=ax2+bx+c解竞赛题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严启国; 陈纯亮

    2003-01-01

    @@ 设函数f(x)=ax2+bx+c(-1≤x≤1),则f(1)=a+b+c,f(0)=c,f(-1)=a-b+c,解得a=1/2f(1)+1/2f(-1)-f(0),b=1/2f(1)-1/2f(-1),c=f(0),从而有f(x)=[1/2f(1)+1/2f(-1)-f(0)]x2+[1/2f(1)-1/2f(-1)]x+f(0),利用这一表示形式可以解下列竞赛题.

  7. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  8. Supercongruences satisfied by coefficients of 2F1 hypergeometric series

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Heng Huat; Krattenthaler, Christian; Osburn, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Chan, Cooper and Sica conjectured two congruences for coefficients of classical 2F1 hypergeometric series which also arise from power series expansions of modular forms in terms of modular functions. We prove these two congruences using combinatorial properties of the coefficients.

  9. Exacerbating effects of human parvovirus B19 NS1 on liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Ching Hsu

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology that impacts various organs including liver. Recently, human parvovirus B19 (B19 is recognized to exacerbate SLE. However, the effects of B19 on liver in SLE are still unclear. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of B19 on liver in NZB/W F1 mice by injecting subcutaneously with PBS, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that B19 NS1 protein significantly enhanced the TGF-β/Smad fibrotic signaling by increasing the expressions of TGF-β, Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad2/3, Smad4 and Sp1. The consequent fibrosis-related proteins, PAI-1 and α-SMA, were also significantly induced in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. Accordingly, markedly increased collagen deposition was also observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. However, no significant difference was observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 as compared to the controls. These findings indicate that B19 NS1 plays a crucial role in exacerbating liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice through enhancing the TGF-â/Smad fibrotic signaling.

  10. Trapped translocation intermediates establish the route for export of capsular polysaccharides across Escherichia coli outer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nicholas N.; Mainprize, Iain L.; Hampton, Lauren; Jones, Michelle L.; Naismith, James H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is designed to exclude potentially harmful molecules. This property presents a challenge for bacteria that must secrete proteins and large glycoconjugates to grow, divide, and persist. Proteins involved in trafficking such molecules have been identified, but their precise roles are often unresolved due to the difficulty in capturing “snapshots” during the export pathway. Wza is the prototype for the large family of OM polysaccharide export proteins. In Escherichia coli, Wza is essential for the assembly of a capsule, a protective surface coat composed of long-chain polysaccharides. Wza creates an octameric α-helical channel spanning the OM, but the bulk of the protein exists as a large periplasmic structure enclosing an extensive lumen. Residues within the lumen of Wza were targeted for site-specific incorporation of the UV photo–cross-linkable unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine. Using this in vivo photo–cross-linking strategy, we were able to trap polysaccharide translocation intermediates within the lumen of Wza, providing the first unequivocal evidence to our knowledge that nascent capsular polysaccharide chains exit the cell through the Wza portal. PMID:24843147

  11. F1FO ATPase vesicle preparation and technique for performing patch clamp recordings of submitochondrial vesicle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Silvio; Alavian, Kambiz N; Lazrove, Emma; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-04

    Mitochondria are involved in many important cellular functions including metabolism, survival(1), development and, calcium signaling(2). Two of the most important mitochondrial functions are related to the efficient production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell, by oxidative phosphorylation, and the mediation of signals for programmed cell death(3). The enzyme primarily responsible for the production of ATP is the F1FO-ATP synthase, also called ATP synthase(4-5). In recent years, the role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has received considerable attention. In apoptotic cell death, BCL-2 family proteins such as Bax enter the mitochondrial outer membrane, oligomerize and permeabilize the outer membrane, releasing pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol(6). In classic necrotic cell death, such as that produced by ischemia or excitotoxicity in neurons, a large, poorly regulated increase in matrix calcium contributes to the opening of an inner membrane pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or mPTP. This depolarizes the inner membrane and causes osmotic shifts, contributing to outer membrane rupture, release of pro-apoptotic factors, and metabolic dysfunction. Many proteins including Bcl-xL(7) interact with F1FO ATP synthase, modulating its function. Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of F1FO ATP synthase, and this interaction decreases a leak conductance within the F1FOATPasecomplex, increasing the net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity(8) and thereby increasing mitochondrial efficiency. To study the activity and modulation of the ATP synthase, we isolated from rodent brain submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) containing F1FO ATPase. The SMVs retain the structural and functional integrity of the F1FO ATPase as shown in Alavian et al. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of SMVs from rat brain and we delineate the patch clamp technique to analyze channel activity (ion

  12. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Espada

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell

  13. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  14. Thickening of the inferior glenohumeral capsule: an ultrasound sign for shoulder capsular contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Paul; Delarue, Yohann; Duparc, Fabrice; Dacher, Jean Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to measure the inferior glenohumeral capsule thickness of shoulders clinically affected by capsular contracture by comparison to the contralateral asymptomatic side. Bilateral shoulder ultrasound (US) examinations of 20 patients with clinically or MRI proven unilateral capsular contracture were retrospectively assessed. Inferior capsule evaluation was performed with a transducer placed within the axilla in maximally abducted shoulders. Measurements were symmetrically performed orthogonally to the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) in the axial plane; the coronal plane was used to ensure the tension of the IGHL. The significance of any difference in thickening was assessed with the Mann-Whitney test. The average thickness was 4.0 mm in shoulders with capsular contracture vs. 1.3 mm in asymptomatic contralateral shoulders (P contracture and inferior capsule thickness increase showed US features of other painful diseases of the rotator cuff. The thickness of the inferior capsule is measurable through ultrasound examination and appears to be increased in shoulders with capsular contracture. Exploration of the inferior aspect of the shoulder joint could be added to shoulder US examination protocols for capsular contracture assessment even if other rotator cuff abnormalities are diagnosed by US. • Ultrasound is increasingly used to diagnose shoulder problems. • The thickness of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is measurable in the axilla. • The inferior glenohumeral ligament appears thickened in shoulders with capsular contracture. • Capsular contracture ultrasound features can be associated with other rotator cuff problems.

  15. Effective Use of a Silicone-induced Capsular Flap in Secondary Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yong Jeong, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Performing secondary rhinoplasty in patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty using a silicone implant is difficult due to thinning of nasal skin and formation of a capsule. Excess capsule formation can cause capsular contracture, resulting in short nose deformity or implant deviation, migration, or implant demarcation. Revision rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, dorsal silicone implant, and tip plasty was performed in 95 Korean patients (91 women and 4 men; mean age, 27 years who previously underwent primary augmentation rhinoplasty using silicone implants. The capsular flap was composed by creating a dual plane above the anterior capsule and below the posterior capsule. The existing silicone implant was removed, and a new silicone implant was placed under the posterior capsule. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 4 years (mean, 31.7 months. Of the 95 patients who underwent secondary augmentation rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, 88 patients (92.6% showed satisfactory results. There was no hematoma or nasal skin vascular compromise. There was no visible or palpable capsule resorption or recurrent capsular contracture. Early implant malpositioning (within 30 days postoperatively was observed in 4 patients, and tip shape dissatisfaction (within 60 days postoperatively was reported by 3 patients. Four patients underwent revision surgery and had successful outcomes. Nasal augmentation using a silicone implant and capsular flap in secondary rhinoplasty avoids complications caused by removal of the capsule. Recurrent capsule formation or clinically noticeable resorption of the capsular flap was not observed in this study.

  16. The Appell function F1 and Regge string scattering amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that each 26D open bosonic Regge string scattering amplitude (RSSA can be expressed in terms of one single Appell function F1 in the Regge limit. This result enables us to derive infinite number of recurrence relations among RSSA at arbitrary mass levels, which are conjectured to be related to the known SL(5,C dynamical symmetry of F1. In addition, we show that these recurrence relations in the Regge limit can be systematically solved so that all RSSA can be expressed in terms of one amplitude. All these results are dual to high energy symmetries of fixed angle string scattering amplitudes discovered previously [4–8].

  17. Campylobacter jejuni capsular genotypes are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikema, A P; Islam, Z; Horst-Kreft, D; Huizinga, R; Jacobs, B C; Wagenaar, J A; Poly, F; Guerry, P; van Belkum, A; Parker, C T; Endtz, H P

    2015-09-01

    In about one in a thousand cases, a Campylobacter jejuni infection results in the severe polyneuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is established that sialylated lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sialylated LOS in stools derived from patients with uncomplicated enteritis implies that additional bacterial factors should be involved. To assess whether the polysaccharide capsule is a marker for GBS, the capsular genotypes of two geographically distinct GBS-associated C. jejuni strain collections and an uncomplicated enteritis control collection were determined. Capsular genotyping of C. jejuni strains from the Netherlands revealed that three capsular genotypes, HS1/44c, HS2 and HS4c, were dominant in GBS-associated strains and capsular types HS1/44c and HS4c were significantly associated with GBS (p 0.05 and p 0.01, respectively) when compared with uncomplicated enteritis. In a GBS-associated strain collection from Bangladesh, capsular types HS23/36c, HS19 and HS41 were most prevalent and the capsular types HS19 and HS41 were associated with GBS (p 0.008 and p 0.02, respectively). Next, specific combinations of the LOS class and capsular genotypes were identified that were related to the occurrence of GBS. Multilocus sequence typing revealed restricted genetic diversity for strain populations with the capsular types HS2, HS19 and HS41. We conclude that capsular types HS1/44c, HS2, HS4c, HS19, HS23/36c and HS41 are markers for GBS. Besides a crucial role for sialylated LOS of C. jejuni in GBS pathogenesis, the identified capsules may contribute to GBS susceptibility.

  18. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  19. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, L; Debois, H; Fletcher, M; Dumas, R

    1999-09-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important health threat in many parts of the world, with an estimated 16 million cases and 600,000 deaths occurring each year. The emergence of Salmonella typhi strains multiply resistant to antibiotics has complicated the treatment of this disease. Field experience of 8 years shows that a vaccine composed of purified Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given as a single intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection, has consistent immunogenicity and efficacy. Side effects, based on reports since 1989, are infrequent and mild. Furthermore, the Vi vaccine may be administered simultaneously with other common "travel" vaccines, at two different sites of injection, without affecting immunogenicity and tolerability. This review presents an update of the development and clinical experience with the Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, France).

  20. Rotation and structure of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is one of the most ubiquitous enzymes; it is found widely in the biological world, including the plasma membrane of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. However, this enzyme has a unique mechanism of action: it is composed of two mechanical rotary motors, each driven by ATP hydrolysis or proton flux down the membrane potential of protons. The two molecular motors interconvert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis and proton electrochemical potential via the mechanical rotation of the rotary shaft. This unique energy transmission mechanism is not found in other biological systems. Although there are other similar man-made systems like hydroelectric generators, F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase operates on the nanometre scale and works with extremely high efficiency. Therefore, this enzyme has attracted significant attention in a wide variety of fields from bioenergetics and biophysics to chemistry, physics and nanoscience. This review summarizes the latest findings about the two motors of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase as well as a brief historical background.

  1. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Geisinger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance due to its propensity for intractable multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals. All clinical isolates examined contain a conserved gene cluster, the K locus, which determines the production of complex polysaccharides, including an exopolysaccharide capsule known to protect against killing by host serum and to increase virulence in animal models of infection. Whether the polysaccharides determined by the K locus contribute to intrinsic defenses against antibiotics is unknown. We demonstrate here that mutants deficient in the exopolysaccharide capsule have lowered intrinsic resistance to peptide antibiotics, while a mutation affecting sugar precursors involved in both capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis sensitizes the bacterium to multiple antibiotic classes. We observed that, when grown in the presence of certain antibiotics below their MIC, including the translation inhibitors chloramphenicol and erythromycin, A. baumannii increases production of the K locus exopolysaccharide. Hyperproduction of capsular exopolysaccharide is reversible and non-mutational, and occurs concomitantly with increased resistance to the inducing antibiotic that is independent of the presence of the K locus. Strikingly, antibiotic-enhanced capsular exopolysaccharide production confers increased resistance to killing by host complement and increases virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. Finally, we show that augmented capsule production upon antibiotic exposure is facilitated by transcriptional increases in K locus gene expression that are dependent on a two-component regulatory system, bfmRS. These studies reveal that the synthesis of capsule, a major pathogenicity determinant, is regulated in response to antibiotic stress. Our data are consistent with a model in which gene expression changes triggered by ineffectual antibiotic treatment cause A. baumannii to transition

  2. Immunization coverage against capsular bacteria in splenectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Ernest; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Stolarczyk, Celina; Kurpas, Donata; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Szenborn, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Splenectomy significantly increases the risk of severe invasive infections caused by capsular bacteria, such as sepsis and meningitis. Immunizations before and after splenectomy reduce the risk and are routinely recommended. Little is known about compliance with actual immunization guidelines in Poland. The aim of this study was to analyze the vaccination rate and the knowledge of splenectomized patients concerning immunizations in Poland. We applied a questionnaire to survey 85 adult patients (F/M 49/36) splenectomized in 2009-2010 and analyzed the patients' medical files and immunization certificates. Patients were also questioned over the phone. We found that the patients were most commonly immunized against Streptococcus pneumoniae (17/85, 20 %), less often against Haemophilus influenzae b (8/85, 9.4 %), and rarely against Niesseria meningitidis C (3/85, 3.5 %). In contrast, hepatitis B immunization coverage rate was as high as 67 % (57/85). The majority of respondents (59/85, 69.4 %) regarded information about the recommended immunizations as insufficient and rated their doctor's reasoning as inconsistent, a smaller number (20/85, 23.5 %) confirmed they received sound information before splenectomy. Both surgeons and primary care physicians did not offer immunizations to the majority of patients (59/85, 69.4 %); as a result, only 30.6 % of patients (26/85) were immunized against any capsular bacteria before splenectomy. In conclusion, the majority of splenectomized patients are not immunized despite current guidelines and do show an inadequate level of knowledge concerning the consequences of splenectomy. It is important that both surgeons and primary care doctors give patients clear instructions about immunizations and antibiotics recommended before and after their splenectomy.

  3. Structural and biochemical characterisation of VaF1, a P-IIIa fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Sajevic, Tamara; Latinović, Zorica; Pungerčar, Jože; Balija, Maja Lang; Bakija, Alenka Trampuš; Vidmar, Robert; Halassy, Beata; Križaj, Igor

    2015-02-01

    A high molecular mass metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic activity, termed VaF1, was purified from nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom. Subcutaneous injection of 9 μg of VaF1 did not induce bleeding in rats. Nevertheless, in vitro it degraded collagen IV, nidogen and fibronectin, components of the extracellular matrix, although with low efficacy and narrow specificity. VaF1 would be expected to exert anti-coagulant action, due to its hydrolysis of fibrinogen, factor X, prothrombin and plasminogen, plasma proteins involved in blood coagulation. The enzyme is a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 49.7 kDa, as determined by mass spectrometry, and multiple isoelectric points centred at pH 5.8. The complete amino acid sequence of the precursor of VaF1 was deduced by cloning and sequencing its cDNA. Composed of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, VaF1 is a typical P-IIIa subclass snake venom metalloproteinase. Although it possesses a collagen-binding sequence in its disintegrin-like domain, VaF1 displayed no effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Two consensus N-glycosylation sites are present in the sequence of VaF1, however, the extent of its glycosylation is low, only 5.2% of the total molecular mass. Interestingly, in standard experimental conditions VaF1 is not recognised by antiserum against the whole venom, so it can contribute to post-serotherapy complications, such as ineffective blood coagulation, in the envenomed patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship of Bacterial Biofilms and Capsular Contracture in Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdic, Dragana; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Gerth, David; Panthaki, Zubin J.; Thaller, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Capsular contracture is a common sequelae of implant-based breast augmentation. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of capsular contracture remains controversial. Numerous studies have identified microbial biofilms on various implantable materials, including breast implants. Furthermore, biofilms have been implicated in subclinical infections associated with other surgical implants. In this review, we discuss microbial biofilms as a potential etiology of capsular contracture. The review also outlines the key diagnostic modalities available to identify the possible infectious agents found in biofilm, as well as available preventative and treatment measures. PMID:26843099

  5. Capsular warning syndrome and crescendo lacunar strokes after atherosclerotic stenosis of the recurrent artery of Heubner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Gomori, John M; Leker, Ronen R

    2012-12-01

    The stereotype of repetitive transient cerebral ischemia causing unilateral motor, sensory, or sensorimotor deficits that simultaneously affect the face, arm, and leg, clinically localized to the internal capsule, fits with the description of capsular warning syndrome (CWS). A high proportion of individuals with these symptoms develop subsequent capsular stroke, despite various proposed preventative measures. It has been postulated that the mechanism for such strokes is that of small-vessel single-penetrator disease. We present a patient with repetitive CWS intermingled with crescendo capsular strokes secondary to recurrent artery of Heubner disease. This report causally links CWS-crescendo lacunar strokes and Heubner artery atherosclerotic disease (intracranial branch atheromatous disease).

  6. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Histidine-Tagged F1-ATPase Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jenifer K.; Richter, Mark L.; Berrie, Cindy L.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of the rotational activity of the enzymatic core (α3β3γ) of the F1-ATPase motor protein have relied on binding the enzyme to NTA-coated glass surfaces via polyhistidine tags engineered into the C-termini of each of the three α or β subunits. Those studies revealed the rotational motion of the central γ subunit by monitoring the motion of attached micron-long actin filaments or spherical nanoparticles. However, only a small percentage of the attached filaments or particles were observed to rotate, likely due, at least in part, to non-uniform surface attachment of the motor proteins. In this study, we have applied surface plasmon resonance to monitor the kinetics and affinity of binding of the His-tagged motor protein to NTA-coated gold sensor surfaces. The binding data, when fit to a heterogeneous binding model, exhibit two sets of adsorption-desorption rate constants with two dissociation constants of 4.0 × 10-9 M and 8.6 × 10-11 M for 6His-α3β3γ binding to the nickel ion-activated NTA surface. The data are consistent with mixed attachment of the protein via two (bimodal) and three (trimodal) NTA/Ni2+-His-tag interactions, respectively, with the less stable bimodal interaction dominating. The results provide a partial explanation for the low number of surface-attached F1 motors previously observed in rotation studies and suggest alternative approaches to uniform F1 motor surface attachment for future fabrication of motor-based nanobiodevices and materials.

  7. f~(-1)[f(x)]=x和f[f~(-1)(x)]=x(高一、高二、高三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾家骏

    2002-01-01

    请看下面两个题目: 1.已知函数f(x)=(3x-2)/(2x+7),则f[f-1(x)]=_______; 2.若g(x)=2x3+4,则g1[g(x)]=_______. 这是一本高中数学辅导书上的两个练习题,原解答是先分别求出反函数f-1(x)和g-1(x)后,再代入复合计算得出结果,答案都是x.其实,这些计算都是多余的,无论f(x)和

  8. Vaccination of mice with a Yop translocon complex elicits antibodies that are protective against infection with F1- Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maya I; Noel, Betty L; Rampersaud, Ryan; Mena, Patricio; Benach, Jorge L; Bliska, James B

    2008-11-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, secretes several proteins important for pathogenesis or host protection. The F1 protein forms a capsule on the bacterial cell surface and is a well-characterized protective antigen but is not essential for virulence. A type III secretion system that is essential for virulence exports Yop proteins, which function as antiphagocytic or anti-inflammatory factors. Yop effectors (e.g., YopE) are delivered across the host cell plasma membrane by a translocon, composed of YopB and YopD. Complexes of YopB, YopD, and YopE (BDE) secreted by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were purified by affinity chromatography and used as immunogens to determine if antibodies to the translocon could provide protection against Y. pestis in mice. Mice vaccinated with BDE generated high-titer immunoglobulin G antibodies specific for BDE, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, and were protected against lethal intravenous challenge with F1(-) but not F1(+) Y. pestis. Mice passively immunized with anti-BDE serum were protected from lethal challenge with F1(-) Y. pestis. The YopB protein or a complex of YopB and YopD (BD) was purified and determined by vaccination to be immunogenic in mice. Mice actively vaccinated with BD or passively vaccinated with anti-BD serum were protected against lethal challenge with F1(-) Y. pestis. These results indicate that anti-translocon antibodies can be used as immunotherapy to treat infections by F1(-) Y. pestis.

  9. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  10. Piceatannol, a stilbene phytochemical, inhibits mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity by targeting the F1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Ramirez, V D

    1999-08-02

    Piceatannol is a stilbene phytochemical from the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae, previously identified as an antileukemic principle. Piceatannol is considered an inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases. We recently reported that resveratrol, another stilbene phytoalexin from grape seeds, was an inhibitor of ATP synthase. Here, we demonstrated that piceatannol potently inhibited the rat brain mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity in both solubilized and submitochondrial preparations (IC50 of 8-9 microM), while having relatively small effect on the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of porcine cerebral cortex (no effect up to 7 microM). Piceatannol inhibited the ATPase activity of the purified rat liver F1 with IC50 of about 4 microM, while resveratrol was slightly less active (IC50 of about 14 microM). Our results indicate that piceatannol and resveratrol inhibit the F-type ATPase by targeting the F1 sector, which is located to the inner membrane of mitochondria and plasma membrane of normal endothelial cells and several cancer cell lines. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the multiple effects of these chemopreventive phytochemicals. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Predicting malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Role of p16 and E2F1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetikkurt, Umit Seza; Ozaydin, Ipek Yildiz; Ceylan, Sule; Gurbuz, Yesim; Erdogan, Nusret; Oz, Feriha

    2010-07-01

    Altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in GISTs (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) may be the mechanism for their diversity in clinical behavior. The use of these tumorigenetic and cell proliferative proteins may provide an alternative route for follow-up and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic relevance of the E2F1 and p16 expression in GISTs. Tissues from 21 cases with GIST were collected retrospectively. Tumor grade was designated according to the consensus system. Immunohistochemistry was done with antibodies against Ki-67, p16, E2F1. For statistical analysis, Ki-67 proliferation index was evaluated in 2 categories: 10%, whereas p16 expression was scored as negative or positive. E2F1 expression cutoff values were tested for risk group variables as >5% and >10%. Correlation between the presence of necrosis, Ki-67 proliferation index, p16, E2F1 expression and the risk grade was determined by Spearman correlation test. Sensitivity and specificity were determined by Fisher exact test with P p16 expression. Our results suggest that in addition to high Ki-67 proliferation index, high E2F1 expression may also be a useful predictive marker for malignant potential of GISTs.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW PROCESS FOR PURIFICATION OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE FROM Streptococcus pneumoniae SEROTYPE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Zanardo

    Full Text Available Abstract The main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the capsular polysaccharide (PS, which is the antigen of all current vaccines that are prepared with PS purified from serotypes prevalent in the population. In this work, three purification strategies were evaluated and a new process was developed for purification of serotype 14 PS (PS14, responsible for 39.8% of diseases in children of 0-6 years old in Brazil. The developed method consists of cell separation by tangential microfiltration, concentration of the microfiltrate by tangential ultrafiltration (50 kDa, diafiltration in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate using a 30 kDa ultrafiltration membrane, precipitation with 5% trichloroacetic acid, precipitation with 20% and 60% ethanol, and anion exchange chromatography. The required purity regarding nucleic acids (≤ 2% and proteins (≤ 3% was achieved, resulting in a relative purity of 439 mg PS14/mg nucleic acids and 146 mg PS14/mg proteins. The final polysaccharide recovery was 65%, which is higher than the recovery of the majority of processes described in the literature.

  13. Non-leptonic decays of $B \\to ( f_1(1285),f_1(1420) ) V$ in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the branching ratios, the polarization fractions, the direct CP-violating asymmetries, and the relative phases in 20 non-leptonic decay modes of $B \\to f_1 V$ within the framework of perturbative QCD approach at leading order with $f_1$ including two $^3\\!P_1$-axial-vector states $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$. Here, $B$ denotes $B^+$, $B^0$, and $B_s^0$ mesons and $V$ stands for the lightest vector mesons $\\rho$, $K^*$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$ , respectively. The $B_s^0 \\to f_1 V$ decays are studied theoretically for the first time in the literature. Together with the angle $\\phi_{f_1} \\approx (24^{+3.2}_{-2.7})^\\circ$ extracted from the measurement through $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ modes for the $f_1(1285)-f_1(1420)$ mixing system, it is of great interest to find phenomenologically that some modes such as the tree-dominated $B^+ \\to f_1 \\rho^+$ and the penguin-dominated $B^{+,0} \\to f_1 K^{*+,0}, B_s^0 \\to f_1 \\phi$ with large branching ratios around ${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$ or even ${\\cal O}(10^{-...

  14. 人E2F1蛋白的表达及与Sedlin蛋白共定位研究%The expression of human E2F1 and the co-localization with Sedlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪燕燕; 潘林鑫; 王梦媛; 刘晓颖; 范礼斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究人E2F1 蛋白在真核细胞内的表达及其与 Sedlin 蛋白的共定位. 方法 构建 pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG真核表达质粒,然后瞬时转染至 HEK 293T 细胞内, Western blot法检测E2F1蛋白的表达;瞬时单转E2F1-FLAG和共转E2F1-FLAG+Sedlin-绿色荧光蛋白( GFP)至非洲绿猴肾细胞( COS7 )内,免疫荧光制片,荧光显微镜下观察E2F1-FLAG在细胞内的定位及其和Sedlin的共定位. 结果真核表达质粒 pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG 构建成功,且在HEK 293T细胞中能够成功表达,在COS7 细胞中主要定位在细胞核,且与Sedlin共定位于细胞核. 结论 人E2F1 在HEK 293T、COS7细胞中都能够正常表达,且与 Sedlin蛋白存在共定位现象,为进一步了解人E2F1的功能及其蛋白质相互作用提供了一定的细胞学基础.%Objective To investigate the expression and localization of E2F1 in eukaryotic cells and the co-locali-zation with Sedlin. Methods To construct eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG. The plsamid was transfected into HEK 293T cells and the expression was checked by Western blot. Its expression in COS7 cells was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results The eukaryotic expression plasmid of pcDNA3. 1-E2F1-FLAG was constructed successfully, which could be effectively expressed in HEK 293T and COS7 cells. E2F1 was pre-dominantly distributed in the nucleus, and it co-localized in the nucleus with Sedlin. Conclusion E2F1 can over-express efficiently in HEK 293T and COS7 cells, and it can colocalize with Seldin, which provides important bases for further study on E2F1 including its functions and associated proteins.

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  16. On fundamental groups related to the Hirzebruch surface F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; FRIEDMAN; Mina; TEICHER

    2008-01-01

    Given a projective surface and a generic projection to the plane,the braid monodromy factorization(and thus,the braid monodromy type)of the complement of its branch curve is one of the most important topological invariants,stable on deformations.From this factorization,one can compute the fundamental group of the complement of the branch curve,either in C2 or in CP2.In this article,we show that these groups,for the Hirzebruch surface F1,(a,b),are almost-solvable.That is, they are an extension of a solvable group,which strengthen the conjecture on degeneratable surfaces.

  17. On fundamental groups related to the Hirzebruch surface F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael FRIEDMAN; Mina TEICHER

    2008-01-01

    Given a.projective surface and a generic projection to the plane,the braid monodromy factorization (and thus,the braid monodromy type) of the complement of its branch curve is one of the most important topological invariants,stable on deformations.From this factorization,one can compute the fundamental group of the complement of the branch curve,either in C2 or in CP2.In this article,we show that these groups,for the Hirzebruch surface F1,(a,b),are almost-solvable.That is,they are an extension of a solvable group,which strengthen the conjecture on degeneratable surfaces.

  18. E2F-1 as an anticancer drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Bertino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that the E2F transcription factors play an essential role in all aspects of cellular functions. Many human malignancies have been shown to overexpress one or more of the ‘‘activating’’ E2Fs. In some circumstances, down regulation as well as overexpression of E2F-1, leads to inhibition of cell growth. The emphasis in this review is placed on new data implicating microRNAs in the regulation of E2F activity and the efforts thus far to target this activity in order to cause tumor regression.

  19. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of the Latarjet Procedure with and without Capsular Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Matthew T.; Payne, William B.; McGarry, Michelle H.; Tibone, James E.; Lee, Thay Q.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if capsular repair used in conjunction with the Latarjet procedure results in significant alterations in glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation. Methods Glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation were measured in eight cadaveric shoulders in 90° of abduction in both the scapular and coronal planes under the following four conditions: intact glenoid, 20% bony Bankart lesion, modified Latarjet without capsular r...

  1. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR’Vt Frederic Poly...two PCRs with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 90 tn 100% using 244 strains of knnwn Penner type. Campylobacter jejwzi is one of the...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni

  2. Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Gunenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o′clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.

  3. Biomechanical Comparison of the Latarjet Procedure with and without Capsular Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Matthew T.; Payne, William B.; McGarry, Michelle H.; Tibone, James E.; Lee, Thay Q.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if capsular repair used in conjunction with the Latarjet procedure results in significant alterations in glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation. Methods Glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation were measured in eight cadaveric shoulders in 90° of abduction in both the scapular and coronal planes under the following four conditions: intact glenoid, 20% bony Bankart lesion, modified Latarjet without capsular r...

  4. An OMV Vaccine Derived from a Capsular Group B Meningococcus with Constitutive FetA Expression: Preclinical Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnstein Norheim

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of effective protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against capsular group C meningococcal disease in Europe, meningococci of capsular group B remain a major cause of death and can result in debilitating sequelae. The outer membrane proteins PorA and FetA have previously been shown to induce bactericidal antibodies in humans. Despite considerable antigenic variation among PorA and FetA OMPs in meningococci, systematic molecular epidemiological studies revealed this variation is highly structured so that a limited repertoire of antigenic types is congruent with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused most of the meningococcal disease in Europe in recent decades. Here we describe the development of a prototype vaccine against capsular group B meningococcal infection based on a N. meningitidis isolate genetically engineered to have constitutive expression of the outer membrane protein FetA. Deoxycholate outer membrane vesicles (dOMVs extracted from cells cultivated in modified Frantz medium contained 21.8% PorA protein, 7.7% FetA protein and 0.03 μg LPS per μg protein (3%. The antibody response to the vaccine was tested in three mouse strains and the toxicological profile of the vaccine was tested in New Zealand white rabbits. Administration of the vaccine, MenPF-1, when given by intramuscular injection on 4 occasions over a 9 week period, was well tolerated in rabbits up to 50 μg/dose, with no evidence of systemic toxicity. These data indicated that the MenPF-1 vaccine had a toxicological profile suitable for testing in a phase I clinical trial.

  5. An OMV Vaccine Derived from a Capsular Group B Meningococcus with Constitutive FetA Expression: Preclinical Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sanders, Holly; Mellesdal, Jardar W; Sundfør, Idunn; Chan, Hannah; Brehony, Carina; Vipond, Caroline; Dold, Chris; Care, Rory; Saleem, Muhammad; Maiden, Martin C J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Feavers, Ian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Following the introduction of effective protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against capsular group C meningococcal disease in Europe, meningococci of capsular group B remain a major cause of death and can result in debilitating sequelae. The outer membrane proteins PorA and FetA have previously been shown to induce bactericidal antibodies in humans. Despite considerable antigenic variation among PorA and FetA OMPs in meningococci, systematic molecular epidemiological studies revealed this variation is highly structured so that a limited repertoire of antigenic types is congruent with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused most of the meningococcal disease in Europe in recent decades. Here we describe the development of a prototype vaccine against capsular group B meningococcal infection based on a N. meningitidis isolate genetically engineered to have constitutive expression of the outer membrane protein FetA. Deoxycholate outer membrane vesicles (dOMVs) extracted from cells cultivated in modified Frantz medium contained 21.8% PorA protein, 7.7% FetA protein and 0.03 μg LPS per μg protein (3%). The antibody response to the vaccine was tested in three mouse strains and the toxicological profile of the vaccine was tested in New Zealand white rabbits. Administration of the vaccine, MenPF-1, when given by intramuscular injection on 4 occasions over a 9 week period, was well tolerated in rabbits up to 50 μg/dose, with no evidence of systemic toxicity. These data indicated that the MenPF-1 vaccine had a toxicological profile suitable for testing in a phase I clinical trial.

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1COBB-1F1GD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1COBB-1F1GD 1COB 1F1G B D ATKAVCVLKGDGPVQGTIHFEAKG--DTVVVTGSITGLTE-GDHGFHVHQFGD...NTQGCTSAGPHFNPLSKKHGGPKDEERHVGDLGNVTADKNGVAIVDIVDPLISLSGEYSIIGRTMVVHEKPDDLGRGGNEESTKTGNAGSRLAC...GVIGIAK -VQAVAVLKGDAGVSGVVKFEQASESEPTTVSYEIAGNSPNAERGFHIHEFGDATNGCVSAGPHFNPFKKTHGAPTDEVRHVGDMGN...VKTDENGVAKGSFKDSLIKLIGPTSVVGRSVVIHAGQDDLGKGDTEESLKTGNAGPRPACGVIGLTN ...pdbID>1F1G D 1F1GD FEQASESEPTTV

  7. Capsular contracture - What are the risk factors? A 14 year series of 1400 consecutive augmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, Anne; Nassimizadeh, Abdul; Levick, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The modern era of breast augmentation and reconstruction began in 1963, with the introduction of silicone implants by Cronin and Gerow. To date, the demand for cosmetic augmentation continues to increase exponentially. However, whilst the surgical techniques and quality of mammary prosthesis have improved dramatically in recent years, patients are still confronted with significant potential complications. We performed a retrospective study of 1400 consecutive primary breast augmentations performed between March 1995 and March 2009 by a single surgeon. We specifically examined the incidence of capsular contracture and the possible causative factors. Follow up ranged from 1 to 16 years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 32.8 years and fill volume was between 195 ml and 800 ml. Our capsular contracture rate was in the order of 26.9%. BMI >30, fill volumes >350 ml, smoking and alcohol consumption did not significantly increase capsular contracture rate. Implant type, pregnancy, infection and delayed haematoma significantly increased the risk of capsular contracture. Our series has given us a unique insight into the frequency of capsular contracture and identified several risk factors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pregnancy having a significant effect on capsular contracture. We now counsel patients thoroughly into the detrimental effects of pregnancy on the implant. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot Study of Association of Bacteria on Breast Implants with Capsular Contracture▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Jose L.; Tran, Nho V.; Petty, Paul M.; Johnson, Craig H.; Walsh, Molly F.; Bite, Uldis; Clay, Ricky P.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Steckelberg, James M.; Patel, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Capsular contracture is the most common and frustrating complication in women who have undergone breast implantation. Its cause and, accordingly, treatment and prevention remain to be elucidated fully. The aim of this prospective observational pilot study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of bacteria on breast implants is associated with capsular contracture. We prospectively studied consecutive patients who underwent breast implant removal for reasons other than overt infection at the Mayo Clinic from February through September 2008. Removed breast implants were processed using a vortexing/sonication procedure and then subjected to semiquantitative culture. Twenty-seven of the 45 implants collected were removed due to significant capsular contracture, among which 9 (33%) had ≥20 CFU bacteria/10 ml sonicate fluid; 18 were removed for reasons other than significant capsular contracture, among which 1 (5%) had ≥20 CFU/10 ml sonicate fluid (P = 0.034). Propionibacterium species, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Corynebacterium species were the microorganisms isolated. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a significant association between capsular contracture and the presence of bacteria on the implant. The role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of capsular contracture deserves further study. PMID:19261794

  9. Fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures: Effect of trans-osseous capsular decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Ibraheem Elsayed Massoud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracapsular femoral neck fractures have been found as associated with hemarthrosis. The fluid in the intact capsule elevates the intracapsular pressure to a level could tamponades the vascular supply of the femoralhead. Therefore, capsular decompression seems necessaryto salvage the femoral head circulation. Negative impact of the capsular incision also has been reported. Therefore, we hypothesize that creation of a trans-osseousportal can decompress the capsule as well as not threaten the capsular related blood vessels.Materials and methods: In present study, 27 patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures were included. Coinciding with closed reduction and internal fixation we made a trans-osseous portal for capsular decompression. Patients were followed-up prospectively for a mean periodof 43.1 months.Results: All fractures united. However, one patient 17 years-old who was nursed preoperatively in skin traction developed osteonecrosis of the femoral head.Conclusion: Our results supported that the trans-osseous capsular decompression has evacuated the intracapsular haematoma and has not threatened the capsular integrity. Preoperative traction of the injured limb particularly in the young patient may play a role in development of osteonecrosisof the femoral head.

  10. Photoproduction of the $f_1(1285)$ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, R

    2016-01-01

    The $f_1(1285)$ meson with mass $1281.0 \\pm 0.8$ MeV/$c^2$ and width $18.4 \\pm 1.4$ MeV (FWHM) was measured for the first time in photoproduction from a proton target using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. Differential cross sections were obtained via the $\\eta\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, $K^+\\bar{K}^0\\pi^-$, and $K^-K^0\\pi^+$ decay channels from threshold up to a center-of-mass energy of 2.8 GeV. The mass, width, and an amplitude analysis of the $\\eta\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ final-state Dalitz distribution are consistent with the axial-vector $J^P=1^+$ $f_1(1285)$ identity, rather than the pseudoscalar $0^-$ $\\eta(1295)$. The production mechanism is more consistent with $s$-channel decay of a high-mass $N^*$ state, and not with $t$-channel meson exchange. Decays to $\\eta\\pi\\pi$ go dominantly via the intermediate $a_0^\\pm(980)\\pi^\\mp$ states, with the branching ratio $\\Gamma(a_0\\pi \\text{ (no} \\bar{K} K\\text{)}) / \\Gamma(\\eta\\pi\\pi \\text{(all)}) = 0.74\\pm0.09$. The branching ratios $\\Gamma(K \\bar{K} \\pi)/\\Gamma(\\eta\\pi\\pi) = 0.216\\pm0.033$...

  11. Maternal diet supplemented with methyl-donors protects against atherosclerosis in F1 ApoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Delaney

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition of the arterial wall mediated by cells of both innate and adaptive immunity. T lymphocytes play an important role in orchestrating the pathogenic immune response involved in the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Previously, we have shown that a prenatal methyl-donor supplementation diet (MS, when fed to dams during pregnancy and lactation, decreased the T cell-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response in F1 mice. In the current study, we report feeding Apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/- deficient dams with the MS diet during pregnancy reduces atherosclerotic plaques in F1 mice that were fed high fat diet (HFD after weaning. F1 mice from dams on the MS diet exhibited increased global T cell DNA methylation. T-cell chemokines and their receptors (in particular CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3 play important roles in the inflammatory cell recruitment to vascular lesions. MS diet significantly reduced Ccr2 mRNA and protein expression in CD3+ T cells but not in CD11b+ monocytes in MS F1 mice relative to controls. F1 litter size, HFD consumption, body weight, and body fat were similar between control and MS diet groups. Moreover, serum thiol metabolite levels were similar between the two groups. However, MS diet is associated with significantly higher serum HDL and lower LDL+VLDL levels in comparison to F1 mice from dams on the control diet. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, IL-6 were also lower in MS F1 mice serum and conditioned media from T-cell culture. Altogether, these data suggest that the MS diet ameliorates development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the T-cell Ccr2 expression, reducing inflammatory cytokines production and increasing serum HDL:LDL ratio.

  12. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior. Copyright

  13. cDNA library Table: F1mg [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F1mg NA F1mg F1 (J150 x J203) midgut fourth instar larval stage D2 mixed pBluescrip...t SK- EcoR1 for 5' Xho1for 3' sequenced from T3 primer (5' -> 3') BY917461-BY918785,BY925786-BY927071 E_ET_F1mg_[number]_F_0,E_ET_F1mg_[number]_R_0 ...

  14. Regulation of Trib2 by an E2F1-C/EBPα feedback loop in AML cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rishi, Loveena

    2014-04-10

    The loss of regulation of cell proliferation is a key event in leukemic transformation, and the oncogene tribbles (Trib)2 is emerging as a pivotal target of transcription factors in acute leukemias. Deregulation of the transcription factor E2F1, normally repressed by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C\\/EBPα)-p42, occurs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), resulting in the perturbation of cell cycle and apoptosis, emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of AML. Here we show that E2F family members directly regulate Trib2 in leukemic cells and identify a feedback regulatory loop for E2F1, C\\/EBPα, and Trib2 in AML cell proliferation and survival. Further analyses revealed that E2F1-mediated Trib2 expression was repressed by C\\/EBPα-p42, and in normal granulocyte\\/macrophage progenitor cells, we detect C\\/EBPα bound to the Trib2 promoter. Pharmacological inhibition of the cell cycle or Trib2 knockdown resulted in a block in AML cell proliferation. Our work proposes a novel paradigm whereby E2F1 plays a key role in the regulation of Trib2 expression important for AML cell proliferation control. Importantly, we identify the contribution of dysregulated C\\/EBPα and E2F1 to elevated Trib2 expression and leukemic cell survival, which likely contributes to the initiation and maintenance of AML and may have significant implications for normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

  15. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroya

    2015-05-01

    The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.

  16. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Heiss, Christian; Roberts, Rosemary A; Schweizer, Herbert P; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide (OPS) deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  17. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific antibody secreting cells and protective antibody and Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer induced specific antibody after Vi immunization. Furthermore, antibody derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi antigen. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early antibody responses to non-Vi antigens. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce antibody-mediated protection, was reduced after infection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi antigen and targeting non-Vi antigens as sub-unit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies. PMID:23162127

  18. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella typhi is a B1b antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A; López-Macías, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F

    2012-12-15

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that, in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi Ag, and targeting non-Vi Ags as subunit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies.

  19. E2F1/TS Immunophenotype and Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer Treated with 5FU-Based Adjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Domagala, Pawel; Bielicki, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rogowski, Wojciech; Domagala, Wenancjusz

    2016-07-01

    The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression alone for 5FU-based treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been clinically confirmed. Little is known on the association of expression of E2F1, which controls the transcription of genes encoding proteins engaged in DNA synthesis including TS, and survival of patients with CRC. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between expression of both E2F1 and TS in CRCs and survival of patients administered adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, in order to find a better predictor of treatment outcome than expression of TS or E2F1 alone. Nuclear TS and E2F1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 190 CRCs (Astler-Coller stage B2 or C). Multivariate analysis identified significant association of the combined E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype with worse OS (HR = 3,78, P = 0,009) and DFS (HR = 2,30, P = 0,03) of patients with colon cancer. There were significant differences between E2F1+TS+ and E2F1-TS- Kaplan-Meier survival curves in relation to DFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.01). About 37 and 31 % difference in 3-year DFS and OS respectively were seen between patients with E2F1+TS+ vs. E2F1-TS- colon cancer immunophenotype. The E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype may be a marker of poor prognosis (the worst DFS and OS) of patients with colon cancer treated with 5FU-based adjuvant therapy. A subgroup of patients with this immunophenotype may require different and perhaps more aggressive treatment than 5FU-based chemotherapy. Thus, the combined E2F1/TS immunophenotype could be a potential indicator of colon cancer sensitivity to 5FU.

  20. Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by latex agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Barbara D; Ortika, Belinda D; Satzke, Catherine

    2014-09-25

    Latex agglutination reagents are widely used in microbial diagnosis, identification and serotyping. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Current vaccines target the pneumococcal capsule, and there are over 90 capsular serotypes. Serotyping pneumococcal isolates is therefore important for assessing the impact of vaccination programs and for epidemiological purposes. The World Health Organization has recommended latex agglutination as an alternative method to the 'gold standard' Quellung test for serotyping pneumococci. Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings as well as laboratories with high-volume workloads. Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to latex particles. This manuscript describes a method of production and quality control of latex agglutination reagents, and details a sequential testing approach which is time- and cost-effective. This method of production and quality control may also be suitable for other testing purposes.

  1. Characterization of exopolysaccharide and ropy capsular polysaccharide formation by Weissella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Saskia Katharina; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Schwab, Clarissa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    With their broad functional properties, lactic acid bacteria derived high molar mass exopolysaccharides (EPS) and oligosaccharides are of great interest for food, medical and pharmaceutical industry. EPS formation by 123 strains of Weissella cibaria and Weissella confusa, was evaluated. Dextran formation from sucrose was observed for all tested strains while 18 strains produced fructan in addition to dextran. Six isolates synthesized a highly ropy polymer from glucose associated with the formation of a cell-bound, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) composed of glucose, O-acetyl groups and two unidentified monomer components. The soluble EPSs of nine strains were identified as low α-1,3-branched dextran, levan and inulin type polymers using NMR. In addition to glucan and fructan, W. confusa produced gluco- and fructooligosaccharides. Partial dextransucrase and fructansucrase sequences were characterized in the selected Weissella strains. Our study reports the first structural characterization of fructan type EPS from Weissella as well as the first Weissella strain producing inulin. Production of more than one EPS-type by single strains may have high potential for development of applications combining EPS technological and nutritional benefits.

  2. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, K P; Gilbertson, I T; Koornhof, H J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Schulz, D; Cadoz, M; Armand, J

    1987-11-21

    The protective efficacy against typhoid fever of a single intramuscular injection of 25 micrograms of the Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was assessed in a randomised double-blind controlled trial. Vaccination of 11,384 children was followed by 21 months' surveillance. 47 blood-culture-proven cases of typhoid occurred in children who received meningococcal A + C CPS vaccine and 19 cases in those vaccinated with Vi CPS. Protective efficacy was 60% calculated from the day of vaccination and 64% from 6 weeks after vaccination. Surveillance also included 11,691 unvaccinated children; 173 cases occurred in this group. Protective efficacy in relation to the unvaccinated group was 77.4% and 81.0% after 21 months, calculated immediately and 6 weeks after vaccination, respectively. Vaccination was associated with minimum local side-effects, and an increase in anti-Vi antibodies occurred, as measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels remained significantly raised at 6 and 12 months post vaccination. Vi CPS is thus a safe and effective means of typhoid vaccination.

  3. Measurement of Inclusive $f_1$(1285) and $f_1$(1420) Production in Z Decays with the DELPHI Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2003-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of two (K Kbar pi)^0 states in the mass region 1.2-1.6 GeV/c^2 in hadronic Z decays at LEP I. The measured masses (widths) are 1274 +/- 6 MeV/c^2 (29 +/- 12 MeV/c^2) and 1426 +/- 6 MeV/c^2 (51 +/- 14 MeV/c^2) respectively. A partial-wave analysis of the (K Kbar pi)^0 system shows that the first peak is consistent with the I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(1^{++})/(0^{-+}) a_0(980)pi and the second with the I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(1^{++}) K^*(892)Kbar + c.c. assignments. The total hadronic production rates per hadronic Z decay are (0.165 +/- 0.051) and (0.056 +/- 0.012) respectively. These measurements are consistent with the two states being the f_1(1285) and f_1(1420) mesons.

  4. 小麦杂交F1和双亲幼苗动态蛋白质组分析%Dynamic Changes of Leaves Proteome Between Wheat F1-hybrid and Its Parental Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘富; 段爽; 彭永康

    2012-01-01

    In this study,proteome approaches were applied to a comparative analysis of hybridization in wheat F,-hybrid and its parent lines by using 2,3,5 d leaves. The results indicated that protein expression differences were observed between F, -hybrid and parents. In the 5 d leaves ,27 protein spots were changed in the protein abundances and only 15 protein spots were changed in the protein abundances at 2 d,3 d leaves in F, hybrid. In these changed proteins, most protein spots were showed "two parental lines" characteration ( 41% ) and "low parents" charactera-tion(44% ) in protein abundances, we also observed the some protein sports were lost and some new protein spots were induced in the F, -hybrid. These results indicated that hybridization between two parental lines could cause expression differences between wheat hybrid and its parents at protein abundances.%分别以2,3,5d叶龄的栽培小麦京411、偏硬001和杂交F1幼苗为材料,利用动态蛋白质组技术,对F1及双亲的蛋白质变化做了比较分析,结果表明,在双亲及F1中蛋白质差异表达现象被观察到,其中在5d的叶子中最为明显.如在发育2d和3d的F1叶子中,各有15个蛋白质斑点的含量产生变化,而在5d叶龄的叶子中,这种有变化的蛋白质斑点达27个,在这些变化的蛋白质中,偏双亲和低于双亲的为多数,如5d的叶子中分别占41%和44%,同时,在F1叶片中观察到有蛋白质消失和新的蛋白质诱导现象产生.这些结果表明,杂种中存在蛋白质的差异表达现象,展开这方面的研究有助于对杂种优势形成机理的理解.

  5. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  6. Proteomics reveals a core molecular response of Pseudomonas putida F1 to acute chromate challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Andrea T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida is a model organism for bioremediation because of its remarkable metabolic versatility, extensive biodegradative functions, and ubiquity in contaminated soil environments. To further the understanding of molecular pathways responding to the heavy metal chromium(VI [Cr(VI], the proteome of aerobically grown, Cr(VI-stressed P. putida strain F1 was characterized within the context of two disparate nutritional environments: rich (LB media and minimal (M9L media containing lactate as the sole carbon source. Results Growth studies demonstrated that F1 sensitivity to Cr(VI was impacted substantially by nutrient conditions, with a carbon-source-dependent hierarchy (lactate > glucose >> acetate observed in minimal media. Two-dimensional HPLC-MS/MS was employed to identify differential proteome profiles generated in response to 1 mM chromate under LB and M9L growth conditions. The immediate response to Cr(VI in LB-grown cells was up-regulation of proteins involved in inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis and catabolism, and amino acid metabolism. By contrast, the chromate-responsive proteome derived under defined minimal growth conditions was characterized predominantly by up-regulated proteins related to cell envelope biogenesis, inorganic ion transport, and motility. TonB-dependent siderophore receptors involved in ferric iron acquisition and amino acid adenylation domains characterized up-regulated systems under LB-Cr(VI conditions, while DNA repair proteins and systems scavenging sulfur from alternative sources (e.g., aliphatic sulfonates tended to predominate the up-regulated proteome profile obtained under M9L-Cr(VI conditions. Conclusions Comparative analysis indicated that the core molecular response to chromate, irrespective of the nutritional conditions tested, comprised seven up-regulated proteins belonging to six different functional categories including transcription, inorganic ion

  7. Cloning and Identification of Porcine SMPX Differentially Expressed in F1 Crossbreds and Their Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-Qing REN; Yuan-Zhu XIONG; Chang-Yan DENG; Ming-Gang LEI

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate porcine heterosis on the molecular basis, Large White (L), a European purebred, and Meishan (M), a Chinese indigenous purebred, were hybridized directly and reciprocally to produce F1 hybrids, Large White×Meishan (LM) and Meishan×Large White (ML) pigs. Using mRNA differential display, we found an expression sequence tag (EST) differentially expressed in F1 hybrids and their parents, designated as EST55, which was homologous to human and murine skeletal muscle protein (SMPX), and the full-length cDNA of porcine SMPX was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Translation of the mRNA transcript revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 86 amino acid residues encoding a nuclear location signal peptide, two overlapping casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and one N-glycosylation site with theoretical molecular weight of 9.3 kDa. Alignment analysis revealed that the deduced protein sequence shared 94%, 83% and 78% homology with that of its human, mouse and rat counterparts, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that it was expressed predominantly in skeletal and heart muscles, whereas at a moderate level in backfat,spleen, stomach and uterus tissues. Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), located in 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR), respectively, were identified by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic tree and the secondary structure prediction were also performed. The possible relationship between porcine SMPX and heterosis was discussed.

  8. Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Zamora-Espinosa, José Luis; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. This is the first report of capsular type A in P. multocida isolates from rabbits and duck origin in Mexico.

  9. Surgical capsular release reduces flexion contracture in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jonathan D; Hartzler, Robert U; Abdel, Matthew P; Morrey, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Steinmann, Scott P; Morrey, Bernard F; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2013-10-01

    Animal models of joint contracture may be used to elucidate the mechanisms of arthrofibrosis. Patients with joint contracture commonly undergo surgical capsular release. Previous animal models of joint contracture do not simulate this aspect of arthrofibrosis. We hypothesize that a surgical capsular release will decrease the severity of arthrofibrosis in this rabbit model. A capsular contracture was surgically created in 20 skeletally mature rabbits. Eight weeks later, ten rabbits underwent capsular release, which consisted of elevation of the posterior capsule through a lateral incision and manipulation under anesthesia. Ten rabbits had a sham incision, without release (control group). Immediately after release or sham surgery, extension loss (calculated by subtracting the knee extension angle (degrees) of the operative limb from the nonoperative, contralateral limb) was measured using fluoroscopy. All animals were sacrificed following 16 weeks of postoperative free cage activity. At sacrifice, joint contracture was measured using a custom, calibrated device. The histology of the posterior joint capsule was assessed at sacrifice. All animals survived both operations without complications. Immediately after surgical release or sham surgery, the average extension loss was 129.2 ± 10.7° in the control group versus 29.6 ± 8.2° in the capsular release group (p = 0.0002). Following 16 weeks of remobilization, the average extension loss of the control and capsular release animals were 49.0 ± 12.7° and 36.5 ± 14.2°, respectively (p = 0.035). There were no histological differences between the two groups. In this animal model, a surgical capsular release decreased the extension loss (flexion contracture) immediately after surgery, as well as following sixteen weeks of remobilization. There were no histological changes detected in the posterior joint capsule. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Peptide F1 against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jianyin; Chen, Feilong; Duan, Shan; Gao, Xiangyang; Liu, Guo; Chen, Yunjiao; Dixon, William; Xiao, Hang; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-19

    Antimicrobial peptides have received increasing attention in the agricultural and food industries due to their potential to control pathogens. However, to facilitate the development of novel peptide-based antimicrobial agents, details regarding the molecular mechanisms of these peptides need to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism of peptide F1, a bacteriocin found in Tibetan kefir, against Escherichia coli at protein levels using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. In response to treatment with peptide F1, 31 of the 280 identified proteins in E. coli showed alterations in their expression, including 10 down-regulated proteins and 21 up-regulated proteins. These 31 proteins all possess different molecular functions and are involved in different molecular pathways, as is evident in referencing the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Specifically, pathways that were significantly altered in E. coli in response to peptide F1 treatment include the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and the cell cycle-caulobacter pathways, which was also associated with inhibition of the cell growth, induction of morphological changes, and cell death. The results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides.

  11. Phosphorylation of a specific cdk site in E2F-1 affects its electrophoretic mobility and promotes pRB-binding in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeper, D S; Keblusek, P; Helin, K;

    1995-01-01

    of the retinoblastoma gene (pRB). We find that E2F-1 proteins are heterogeneously phosphorylated in insect cells, as a result of which they migrate as a doublet on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. This electrophoretic shift is shown to be dependent upon specific phosphorylation of E2F-1 on serine-375 (S375), near the p...... affinity of pRB in vitro. These results suggest a novel way of regulating E2F-1 activity, namely by cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation of this transcription factor....

  12. F1t3 RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ON THE SURFACE OF MALIGNANT HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS AND RESPONSES TO F1t3 LIGAND STIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the F1t3 receptor expression on the surface of malignant hematopoietic cells, the effect of TNFa and dexamethasone (DXM) on its expression and the responses of those cells to recombinant human F1t3 ligand (rhFL). Methods: Eighteen malignant hematopoietic cell lines were determined for the F1t3 receptor expression by flow cytometric analysis. The effect of rhFL on the proliferation of malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro was measured using MTT assay. Results: The expressions of F1t3 receptor on the surface of Raji, Daudi, HL-60, 8266 and XG-6 cells were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Following incubation with 20 ng/ml TNFa for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in Raji and 8266, increased in HL-60 and XG-6, and no difference in Daudi cells. After incubation with 10-6 mol/L DXM for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in all the 5 F1t3 receptor positive cell lines. rhFL stimulated the proliferation of HL-60 and Raji cells. Conclusion: For most of the malignant hematopoietic cells, there was neither the expression of F1t3 receptor nor the response to rhFL. DXM may be useful to reduce the effect of FL on the proliferation of some F1t3 receptor positive malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo.

  13. None of the Rotor Residues of F1-ATPase Are Essential for Torque Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor’s high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745

  14. Biomechanical Comparison of the Latarjet Procedure with and without Capsular Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Matthew T; Payne, William B; McGarry, Michelle H; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if capsular repair used in conjunction with the Latarjet procedure results in significant alterations in glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation. Glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation were measured in eight cadaveric shoulders in 90° of abduction in both the scapular and coronal planes under the following four conditions: intact glenoid, 20% bony Bankart lesion, modified Latarjet without capsular repair, and modified Latarjet with capsular repair. Creation of a 20% bony Bankart lesion led to significant increases in anterior and inferior glenohumeral translation and rotational range of motion (p Latarjet procedure restored anterior and inferior stability compared to the bony Bankart condition. It also led to significant increases in glenohumeral internal and external rotational range of motion relative to both the intact and bony Bankart conditions (p Latarjet condition; however it did cause a significant decrease in external rotation in both the scapular and coronal planes (p Latarjet procedure is effective in restoring anteroinferior glenohumeral stability. The addition of a capsular repair does not result in significant added stability; however, it does appear to have the effect of restricting glenohumeral external rotational range of motion relative to the Latarjet procedure performed without capsular repair.

  15. Evolution of the capsular operon of Streptococcus iniae in response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Candice M; Baiano, Justice C F; Chan, Candy; Yuen, Benedict; Aviles, Fabian; Landos, Matt; Chong, Roger S M; Benedict, Suresh; Barnes, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes severe septicemia and meningitis in farmed fish and is also occasionally zoonotic. Vaccination against S. iniae is problematic, with frequent breakdown of protection in vaccinated fish. The major protective antigens in S. iniae are the polysaccharides of the capsule, which are essential for virulence. Capsular biosynthesis is driven and regulated by a 21-kb operon comprising up to 20 genes. In a long-term study, we have sequenced the capsular operon of strains that have been used in autogenous vaccines across Australia and compared it with the capsular operon sequences of strains subsequently isolated from infected vaccinated fish. Intriguingly, strains isolated from vaccinated fish that subsequently become infected have coding mutations that are confined to a limited number of genes in the cps operon, with the remainder of the genes in the operon remaining stable. Mutations in strains in diseased vaccinated fish occur in key genes in the capsular operon that are associated with polysaccharide configuration (cpsG) and with regulation of biosynthesis (cpsD and cpsE). This, along with high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations within the cps genes, suggests that immune response directed predominantly against capsular polysaccharide may be driving evolution in a very specific set of genes in the operon. From these data, it may be possible to design a simple polyvalent vaccine with a greater operational life span than the current monovalent killed bacterins.

  16. Collagen immunostains can distinguish capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis and may help stage liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rock, Jonathan B; Yearsley, Martha M; Hanje, A James; Frankel, Wendy L

    2014-01-01

    Core-needle biopsy remains essential for diagnosis of cirrhosis; however, evaluation of fibrosis in such biopsies is often challenging due to the fragmented nature of cirrhotic liver specimens. It is also common to see portions of liver capsules present in the biopsy which adds to the diagnostic challenge. The distinction between capsular/subcapsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis is critical to avoid potential overstaging of liver fibrosis. We compared the differential immunostaining in liver capsular and septal areas for collagens III, IV, V, VI, vitronectin, laminin, Orcein, and Trichrome in 15 whole sections of explanted cirrhotic livers and 5 simulated liver biopsies. Collagens III, IV, V, VI, Trichrome, and Orcein show distinct staining patterns in capsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis. Collagen IV shows strong diffuse septal staining and consistently weak to negative capsular staining. Collagens III and VI stain similar to IV for septal fibrosis, whereas collagen V, Trichrome, and Orcein show strong staining in both areas. Collagen IV, possibly with III or VI in addition to the routine Trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain, is useful in differentiating capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis on challenging and fragmented liver biopsies.

  17. Characterization of the POU5F1 Homologue in Nile Tilapia: From Expression Pattern to Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohuan, Huang; Yang, Zhao; Linyan, Liu; Zhenhua, Fan; Linyan, Zhou; Zhijian, Wang; Ling, Wei; Deshou, Wang; Jing, Wei

    2016-09-15

    POU5F1 (OCT4) is a crucial transcription factor for induction and maintenance of cellular pluripotency, as well as survival of germ cells in mammals. However, the homologues of POU5F1 in teleost fish, including zebrafish and medaka, now named Pou5f3, exhibit considerable differences in expression pattern and pluripotency-maintaining activity. To what extent the POU5F1 homologues are conserved in vertebrates has been unclear. In this study, we report that the POU5F1 homologue from the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), OnPou5f3, displays an expression pattern and biological activity somewhat different from those in zebrafish or medaka. The expression of Onpou5f3 at both mRNA and protein levels was abundant in early development embryos until blastula stages, barely detectable as proceeding, and then displayed a transiently strong expression domain in the brain region during neurula stages similar to zebrafish but not medaka. Afterward, OnPou5f3 appeared as germline-restricted (including primordial germ cells and female and male gonad germ cells) expression just like medaka. Notably, OnPou5f3 depletion through morpholino oligos caused blastula blockage or lethality and failure of survival and proliferation of blastula cell-derived cells. These findings indicate that equivalent POU5F1-like expression and activity of Pou5f3 might be conserved accompanying with species-specific expression pattern during evolution. Our study provides insight into the evolutionary conservation of the POU5F1 homologues across vertebrates.

  18. Multiple extracorporeal shock wave therapy degrades capsular fibrosis after insertion of silicone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Mueller, Wolf; Schulte, Matthias; Kiefer, Jurij; Hirche, Christoph; Heimer, Sina; Köllensperger, Eva; Germann, Günter; Reichenberger, Matthias A

    2015-03-01

    Capsular fibrosis is the most frequent long-term complication after insertion of silicone devices. Today, mainly direct immunostimulation and subclinical infection are held responsible for inducing and maintaining inflammatory reactions, which lead to overwhelming extracellular matrix formation. Extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) are capable of inhibiting inflammatory processes and revealing antibacterial capacity. In our previous study, we observed decelerated capsule development after application of a single shock wave immediately after surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple ESWT after insertion of silicone implants in the same rodent model. Therefore, silicone prostheses were inserted into a submuscular pocket in 12 additional male Lewis rats, and shock waves were administered over a 14-d interval. At 35 d (n = 6) and 100 d (n = 6) after insertion, silicone implants and surrounding capsule tissue were removed and prepared for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis, as well as polymerase chain reaction (Ccl2, CD68, transforming growth factor β1, matrix metalloproteinase 2). Compared with the control group, multiple ESWT had no effect on day 35, but resulted in a significantly thinner capsule on day 100 (825.8 ± 313.2 vs. 813.3 ± 47.9, p = 0.759, and 1062.3 ± 151.9 vs. 495.4 ± 220.4, p shock wave application, which had been found to result in thinner capsules at every time point in our previous study. This active degradation of the fibrous envelope caused by multiple ESWs was accompanied by synergistic alterations in pro- and anti-fibrotic proteins (transforming growth factor β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 2, respectively). In conclusion, after insertion of silicone devices, single ESWT is capable of decelerating capsule formation in contrast to multiple ESWT, which degrades fibrotic tissue. These findings seem to be associated with inhibition of inflammation and beneficial effects on pro- and anti-fibrotic proteins.

  19. Mg2+ coordination in catalytic sites of F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J; Hammond, S T; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E

    1998-01-13

    Coordination of the Mg2+ ion in Mg-nucleotide substrates by amino acid residue side chains in the catalytic site of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase was investigated. From the X-ray structure of the mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G. W., Lutter, R., and Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628], it may be inferred that the hydroxyl of betaThr-156 is a direct ligand of Mg2+, whereas the carboxyls of betaGlu-181, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 might contribute via intervening water molecules. Elimination of each respective functional group by site-directed mutagenesis, followed by determination of Mg-nucleotide and uncomplexed nucleotide binding affinities using a tryptophan probe, showed that betaThr-156, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 are all involved in Mg2+ coordination, whereas betaGlu-181 is not. A derived structural model for the octahedral coordination around the Mg2+ ion is presented. The results indicate that the ADP-containing site in the X-ray structure is the catalytic site of highest affinity. Correct Mg2+ coordination is required for catalytic activity at physiological rates. Elimination of any one of the Mg2+-coordinating residues led to complete loss of Mg2+-dependent nucleotide binding cooperativity of the catalytic sites.

  20. The biomechanical properties of F1C pili

    CERN Document Server

    Castelain, Mickaël; Klinth, Jeanna; Lindberg, Stina; Andersson, Magnus; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express various kinds of organelles, so-called pili or fimbriae, that mediate adhesion to host tissue in the urinary tract through specific receptor-adhesin interactions. The biomechanical properties of these pili have been considered important for the ability of bacteria to withstand shear forces from rinsing urine flows. Force measuring optical tweezers have been used to characterize individual organelles of F1C type expressed by UPEC bacteria with respect to such properties. Qualitatively, the force-vs.-elongation response was found to be similar to that of other types of helix-like pili expressed by UPEC, i.e. type 1, P, and S, with force-induced elongation in three regions of which one represents the important uncoiling mechanism of the helix-like quaternary structure. Quantitatively, the steady-state uncoiling force was assessed to 26.4(1.4) pN, which is similar to those of other pili (which range from 21 pN for SI to 30 pN for type 1). The corner velocity for dynam...

  1. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Otsuki, Koko; da Silva, Rosa Ferreira FC; Francisco, Moises; da Silva, Filomena Gomes; Serrano, Ducelina; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971). Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s. PMID:19386115

  2. Mechanistic Basis for Differential Inhibition of the F1Fo-ATPase by Aurovertin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase performs the terminal step of oxidative phosphorylation. Small molecules that modulate this enzyme have been invaluable in helping decipher F1Fo-ATPase structure, function, and mechanism. Aurovertin is an antibiotic that binds to the β subunits in the F1 domain and inhibits F1Fo-ATPase-catalyzed ATP synthesis in preference to ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive study and the existence of crystallographic data, the molecular basis of the differential inhibition and ...

  3. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Ducelina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971. Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s.

  4. Perinephric Capsular Haematoma Associated with Complicated Pyelonephritis in a Patient with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong K. Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A 53 year-old-male patient presented with 24 hours of left flank pain. He was an undiagnosed HIV positive individual with no history of trauma. He was anaemic and in acute renal failure with a serum creatinine of 4.14 mg/dL. A CT scan demonstrated a left perinephric capsular haematoma with retroperitoneal stranding. Due to haemodynamic instability, the patient was taken to the operating room and a nephrectomy was performed. Post-operatively, the patient required temporary haemodialysis. Pathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated active infection with a haematoma surrounding a fistulous tract communicating with the capsular surface. Infection is a rare cause of non-traumatic capsular hematomas of the kidney.

  5. E2F1 activation is responsible for pituitary adenomas induced by HMGA2 gene overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Alfredo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The High Mobility Group protein HMGA2 is a nuclear architectural factor that plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes including regulation of gene expression, embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation. Several studies are trying to identify the mechanisms by which HMGA2 protein is involved in each of these activities, and only recently some new significant insights are emerging from the study of transgenic and knock-out mice. Overexpression of HMGA2 gene leads to the onset of prolactin and GH-hormone induced pituitary adenomas in mice, suggesting a critical role of this protein in pituitary tumorigenesis. This was also confirmed in the human pathology by the finding that HMGA2 amplification and/or overexpression is present in human prolactinomas. This review focuses on recent data that explain the mechanism by which HMGA2 induces the development of pituitary adenomas in mice. This mechanism entails the activation of the E2F1 protein by the HMGA2-mediated displacement of HDAC1 from pRB protein.

  6. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate...

  7. Validity of Cyriax's concept capsular pattern for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lemmens, A.M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Voorn, TH.B.

    1998-01-01

    To analyse the validity of Cyriax's concept of the 'capsular pattern' in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee, data on 200 patients were analysed. The capsular pattern with limitations of medial rotation, flexion, and abduction, was not present in a distinct pattern in patients with

  8. The role of capsular distention in the arthroscopic management of arthrofibrosis of the knee: A technical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, P J; Steadman, J R

    2001-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of arthrofibrosis of the knee is a technically challenging procedure. Capsular distention with fluid before arthroscopy results in easier and safer insertion of arthroscopic instruments with improved arthroscopic visualization. In addition, it stretches the entire capsule, including the difficult to access posterior capsule. This report describes a simple technique for capsular distention before arthroscopic treatment of arthrofibrosis of the knee.

  9. Open Capsulotomy: An Effective but Overlooked Treatment for Capsular Contracture after Breast Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevailing theory for capsular contracture after breast augmentation is a subclinical capsular infection. A capsulectomy, site change, and implant replacement are recommended. An open capsulotomy leaves the capsule in the patient. Theoretically, such a procedure would be ineffective because it does not remove the infected tissue. Recurrences occurred frequently in women treated in the 1970s when leaky silicone gel implants were in use. Open capsulotomy has not been studied in women implanted with third-generation devices. Methods: Seventy-five consecutive women with Baker III/IV capsular contractures after breast augmentation treated with open capsulotomies between 1996 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. The original implants were usually saline-filled (72.2%). Replacements were all smooth and round, and 92.6% were also saline-filled. Results: Seventeen women (22.7%) developed a recurrent capsular contracture. Two patients (2.7%) experienced a second recurrence. Patients with ruptured silicone gel implants (n = 13) had a significantly greater risk of recurrence (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in recurrence rates comparing patients whose intact implants were reinserted (12.5%) with women whose intact implants were replaced (18.2%). Povidone–iodine irrigation did not affect the recurrence rate. Capsular contracture was corrected with 1 procedure in 77.3% of patients and 2 procedures in 97.3% of patients. Conclusions: Open capsulotomy is a safe and effective treatment that avoids the additional morbidity and cost of a capsulectomy. The findings challenge the infected biofilm theory of capsular contracture. Open capsulotomy deserves reconsideration by plastic surgeons. PMID:27826488

  10. Phospholipids trigger Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement during interactions with amoebae and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara J Chrisman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable aspect of the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian hosts is a consistent increase in capsule volume. Given that many aspects of the interaction of C. neoformans with macrophages are also observed with amoebae, we hypothesized that the capsule enlargement phenomenon also had a protozoan parallel. Incubation of C. neoformans with Acanthamoeba castellanii resulted in C. neoformans capsular enlargement. The phenomenon required contact between fungal and protozoan cells but did not require amoeba viability. Analysis of amoebae extracts showed that the likely stimuli for capsule enlargement were protozoan polar lipids. Extracts from macrophages and mammalian serum also triggered cryptococcal capsular enlargement. C. neoformans capsule enlargement required expression of fungal phospholipase B, but not phospholipase C. Purified phospholipids, in particular, phosphatidylcholine, and derived molecules triggered capsular enlargement with the subsequent formation of giant cells. These results implicate phospholipids as a trigger for both C. neoformans capsule enlargement in vivo and exopolysaccharide production. The observation that the incubation of C. neoformans with phospholipids led to the formation of giant cells provides the means to generate these enigmatic cells in vitro. Protozoan- or mammalian-derived polar lipids could represent a danger signal for C. neoformans that triggers capsular enlargement as a non-specific defense mechanism against potential predatory cells. Hence, phospholipids are the first host-derived molecules identified to trigger capsular enlargement. The parallels apparent in the capsular response of C. neoformans to both amoebae and macrophages provide additional support for the notion that certain aspects of cryptococcal virulence emerged as a consequence of environmental interactions with other microorganisms such as protists.

  11. Modulation of the E2F1-driven cancer cell fate by the DNA damage response machinery and potential novel E2F1 targets in osteosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liontos, Michalis; Niforou, Katerina; Velimezi, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer. Mutations of the RB gene represent the most frequent molecular defect in this malignancy. A major consequence of this alteration is that the activity of the key cell cycle regulator E2F1 is unleashed from the inhibitory effects of pRb. Studies...... in animal models and in human cancers have shown that deregulated E2F1 overexpression possesses either "oncogenic" or "oncosuppressor" properties, depending on the cellular context. To address this issue in osteosarcomas, we examined the status of E2F1 relative to cell proliferation and apoptosis...... in a clinical setting of human primary osteosarcomas and in E2F1-inducible osteosarcoma cell line models that are wild-type and deficient for p53. Collectively, our data demonstrated that high E2F1 levels exerted a growth-suppressing effect that relied on the integrity of the DNA damage response network...

  12. The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonim Ali Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 1000 nm long and 16 nm in width. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII, ORF2 (pV, ORF6 (pIII, and ORF8 (pVI. XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease.

  13. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  14. Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, M; Helin, K; Valentine, M B;

    1995-01-01

    and overexpressed in HEL erythroleukemia cells and translocated to other chromosomes in several established human leukemia cell lines. This study provides the first evidence of gene amplification involving a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. We propose that E2F1 overexpression in erythroid......The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies...... progenitors may stimulate abnormal cell proliferation by overriding negative regulatory signals mediated by tumor suppressor proteins such as pRb....

  15. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  16. Structural determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae repeat units in serotype 41A and 41F capsular polysaccharides to probe gene functions in the corresponding capsular biosynthetic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bent O; Skovsted, Ian C; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Redondo, Antonio R; Meier, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    We report the repeating unit structures of the native capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 41A and 41F. Structural determinations yielded six carbohydrate units in the doubly branched repeating unit to give the following structure for serotype 41A: The structure determinations were motivated (1) by an ambition to help close the remaining gaps in S. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide structures, and (2) by the attempt to derive functional annotations of carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides from the determined structures. An activity present in 41F but not 41A is identified as an acetyltransferase acting on the rhamnopyranosyl sidechain E. The genes encoding the formation of the six glycosidic bonds in serogroup 41 were determined from the capsular polysaccharide structures of serotype 41A, 41F, and genetically related serotypes, in conjunction with corresponding genomic information and computational homology searches. In combination with complementary information, NMR spectroscopy considerably simplifies the functional annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides.

  17. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Soofi, S.B.; Ochiai, R.L.; Habib, M.A.; Sahito, S.M.; Nizami, S.Q.; Acosta, C.J.; Clemens, J.D.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Group, D.T.K.V.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid

  18. A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants. Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. haemolytica genomes was used to identify unique genes associa...

  19. Prevention of capsular opacification after accommodative lens refilling surgery in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; van Kooten, Theo G.

    2011-01-01

    Silicone gel-like polymers have been proposed to replace the cataractous lens and therewith restore both vision and accommodation. Lens replacement is associated with opacification of the capsular bag due to the lens epithelial cell response. In this study, the in vivo effectiveness of a 5 min treat

  20. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Soofi, S.B.; Ochiai, R.L.; Habib, M.A.; Sahito, S.M.; Nizami, S.Q.; Acosta, C.J.; Clemens, J.D.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Group, D.T.K.V.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid

  1. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  2. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  3. Experimental vaccination of pigs with an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Jacobsen, M.J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toroid conjugate (Ap5bCP-TT) against homologous challenge of pigs was investigated. Four pigs were non-vaccinated controls (group A), 4 pigs were injected with adjuvant without antigen (group B...

  4. The Impact of Arthroscopic Capsular Release in Patients with Primary Frozen Shoulder on Shoulder Muscular Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Waszczykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of arthroscopic capsular release in patients with primary frozen shoulder on muscular strength of nonaffected and treated shoulder after at least two-year follow-up after the surgery. The assessment included twenty-seven patients, who underwent arthroscopic capsular release due to persistent limitation of range of passive and active motion, shoulder pain, and limited function of upper limb despite 6-month conservative treatment. All the patients underwent arthroscopic superior, anteroinferior, and posterior capsular release. After at least two-year follow-up, measurement of muscular strength of abductors, flexors, and external and internal rotators of the operated and nonaffected shoulder, as well as determination of range of motion (ROM and function (ASES in the operated and nonaffected shoulder, was performed. Measurement of muscular strength in the patient group did not reveal statistically significant differences between operated and nonaffected shoulder. The arthroscopic capsular release does not have significant impact on the decrease in the muscular strength of the operated shoulder.

  5. Improvement of Uveal and Capsular Biocompatibility of Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lens by Surface Grafting with 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine-Methacrylic Acid Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Zhan, Jiezhao; Zhu, Yi; Cao, Ji; Wang, Lin; Liu, Sa; Wang, Yingjun; Liu, Zhenzhen; Qin, Yingyan; Wu, Mingxing; Liu, Yizhi; Ren, Li

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatibility of intraocular lens (IOL) is critical to vision reconstruction after cataract surgery. Foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL is vulnerable to the adhesion of extracellular matrix proteins and cells, leading to increased incidence of postoperative inflammation and capsule opacification. To increase IOL biocompatibility, we synthesized a hydrophilic copolymer P(MPC-MAA) and grafted the copolymer onto the surface of IOL through air plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and static water contact angle were used to characterize chemical changes, topography and hydrophilicity of the IOL surface, respectively. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) showed that P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs were resistant to protein adsorption. Moreover, P(MPC-MAA) modification inhibited adhesion and proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. To analyze uveal and capsular biocompatibility in vivo, we implanted the P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs into rabbits after phacoemulsification. P(MPC-MAA) modification significantly reduced postoperative inflammation and anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and did not affect posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Collectively, our study suggests that surface modification by P(MPC-MAA) can significantly improve uveal and capsular biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic IOL, which could potentially benefit patients with blood-aqueous barrier damage. PMID:28084469

  6. Reconstruction, Prokaryotic Expression, Purification of Recombinant F1-V Mutant from Yersinia pestis%鼠疫耶尔森菌F1-V融合蛋白改构体的构建、原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房婷; 尹可欣; 任军; 张晓鹏; 于蕊; 宋小红; 杨秀旭; 于长明

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clone, express and purify F1mut-V fusion protein from Yersinia pestis by structure-based immunogen design. Methods: In order to transplant the NH2-terminal first fourteen amino acid residues of F1 to the COOH-terminus, the F1mut gene was amplified by three-step PCR and fused to the NH2-terminal of V antigen. Then the F1mut-V gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a and transformed into E.co⁃li BL21(DE3). The soluble rF1mut-V was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatogra⁃phy, hydrophobic chromatography and gel filter chromatography and characterrized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot⁃ting. Results: The recombinant F1mut-V expressed in soluble form in E.coli and the target protein expressed ac⁃counts for 25% of the total protein of the bacteria. After sequential four purification steps, the purity of rF1mut-V fusion protein achieved 95% and could specifically react with the antibody against F1 and V by Western blotting. Conclusion: The rF1mut-V would be the alternative active pharmaceutical ingredient of the next plague vaccine.%目的:通过基于结构的基因突变获得鼠疫耶尔森菌F1抗原突变体(F1mut),克隆、表达并纯化F1mut-V融合蛋白。方法:通过3轮PCR,将编码F1抗原分子N端1~14位氨基酸的基因序列移到3'端,测序无误后将F1mut基因与V基因的5'端连接,构建改构的融合基因F1mut-V,将其克隆到原核表达载体pET-32a后转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),经IPTG诱导后,目的蛋白为可溶性表达,通过硫酸铵分级沉淀、阴离子交换层析、疏水相互作用层析和凝胶过滤层析纯化,用SDS-PAGE和Western印迹分析纯化产物。结果:重组F1mut-V在大肠杆菌中为可溶性表达,表达量占全菌蛋白的25%以上,纯化后目的蛋白的纯度达95%,经Western印迹检测,与抗V、F1抗体均有特异性结合。结论:重组F1mut-V有望成为新一代亚单位疫苗的有效成分。

  7. Prevention of capsular bag opacification with a modified hydrophilic acrylic disk-shaped intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Lisa; Werner, Liliana; Bodnar, Zachary; Ollerton, Andrew; Michelson, Jennifer; Schmutz, Mason; Mamalis, Nick

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the stability and capsular bag opacification with a modified disk-shaped 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) suspended between 2 complete haptic rings connected by a pillar of the haptic material and with a commercially available 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Study and control IOLs were implanted into the left eyes and right eyes of 5 New Zealand rabbits. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 through 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the globes were enucleated and evaluated under a very-high-frequency ultrasound. Photographs were taken and capsular bag opacification scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view), and the eyes were processed for complete histopathology. At 4 weeks, the posterior capsule opacification score was 0.0 in the study group and 1.75 ± 0.5 (SD) in the control group (P=.005, paired t test). Ultrasound examination showed that 2 of the study IOLs had no contact between the posterior optic surface and the posterior capsule. Minimal proliferative cortical material was confined to the peripheral space between anterior and posterior rings of the study IOL haptics in localized areas at the equatorial region of the capsular bag. Anterior capsule opacification was absent in all eyes. The study IOL is a modification of a previous design, incorporating haptic perforations between the peripheral rings. By maintaining an open capsular bag and enhancing endocapsular inflow of aqueous, this modified design appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes of histology and capsular collagen in a rat shoulder immobilization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-lei; AO Ying-fang; CUI Guo-qing; ZHU Jing-xian

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder immobilization can induce adhesion of the joint,capsular contracture or lead to the condition of frozen shoulder.However,little is known about the histological effects of immobilization on the shoulder joint.This study aimed to explore the effect of immobility on the subscapular bursa (SSB) and the joint capsular content,including the distribution of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen,within an immobilized rat shoulder.Methods Forty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control group (n=6) and four immobilization groups (n=10 in each group),in which the left shoulders were immobilized with plaster for 1,2,3 and 4 weeks.At the end of each time point,2 rats from each group were euthanized and shoulders prepared for serial histological observations of the glenohumeral joints,as well as picrosirius red and immunohistochemical observation of type Ⅲ collagen.Histological sections of the remaining rat shoulders were used for the immunohistochemical detection of the capsular content of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen.Results The hyperplastic synovium of the anterior capsule obstructed the communication between the SSB and the glenohumeral joint cavity at 2 and 3 weeks.The adhesion of the SSB appeared at 3 and 4 weeks.The quantitative and qualitative results showed that the capsular contents of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen progressively increased at 2,3 and 4 weeks,and that type Ⅲ collagen was distributed extensively within the joint capsule at 2 and 3 weeks.Conclusion Immobilization of the rat shoulder induced synovial hyperplasia of the joint capsule,adhesion of the SSB and an increase of the capsular content of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen.

  9. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  10. A REVIEW ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS GENES OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE%无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)荚膜多糖合成基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开毓; 黄锦炉; 肖丹; 王均; 黄凌远

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important zoonotic pathogen in human, animal and fish. The capsular poly-saccharides on the cell surface have been recognized as virulence factors, of which the forming processes are regulated by the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) genes. The capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes exist in capsular polysaccharide operon of S. agalactiae genome, which were predicted to participate in the origination of capsular polysaccharide synthesis, polymerization of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, transport and anchor the product to the cell surface. Therefore, the cps genes achieve new applications of diagnostic techniques and the construction of attenuated mutant strains. In this paper, the basic properties of cps genes, as well as their transcription regulation, coding proteins and biological functions, regulation mechanism of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and serotyping, and application of construction of mutant strains are analyzed and discussed. We looked forward to providing a theoretical reference on the new functions research and innovative applications of S. agalactiae cps genes.%无乳链球菌是一种人畜鱼共患的重要病原菌,菌体表面的荚膜多糖是公认的毒力因子,其合成过程受荚膜多糖合成基因的调控.荚膜多糖合成基因存在于荚膜多糖操纵子中,参与无乳链球菌荚膜多糖的合成启动、寡糖和多糖的聚合以及外输并锚定于菌体表面,在新型诊断技术和减毒突变株的构建方面取得良好的应用.本文首次就cps基因的基本属性、转录调节、编码蛋白及其生物功能、对荚膜多糖合成的调控机理、在血清分型和突变株构建的应用这六个方面进行深入分析和讨论,以期为GBS cps基因的新功能研究和创新应用提供理论参考.

  11. The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenal, Mathias; Trinh, Emmanuelle; Britschgi, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that cooperates with p53 to suppress cancer development. We and others recently showed that HIC1 is a transcriptional target of p53. To identify additional transcriptional regulators of HIC1, we screened...... to the HIC1 promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human TIG3 fibroblasts expressing tamoxifen-activated E2F1. In agreement, activation of E2F1 in TIG3-E2F1 cells markedly increased HIC1 expression. Interestingly, expression of E2F1 in the p53(-/-) hepatocellular carcinoma cell line...

  12. Clustering of conformational IgE epitopes on the major dog allergen Can f 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, Mirela; Weber, Milena; Hofer, Gerhard; Apostolovic, Danijela; Keller, Walter; Reininger, Renate; Swoboda, Ines; Spitzauer, Susanne; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-09-22

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy affects more than 25% of the population. Can f 1 is the major dog allergen associated with respiratory symptoms but the epitopes recognized by allergic patients IgE on Can f 1 are unknown. To characterize IgE epitopes of Can f 1 recognized by dog allergic patients, six overlapping peptides spanning the Can f 1 sequence were synthesized. In direct IgE epitope mapping experiments peptides were analyzed for IgE reactivity by dot blot and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with sera from dog allergic patients. For indirect epitope-mapping, rabbits were immunized with the peptides to generate specific IgG antibodies which were used to inhibit allergic patients' IgE binding to Can f 1. IgE binding sites were visualized on a model of the Can f 1 three-dimensional structure. We found that Can f 1 does not contain any relevant sequential IgE epitopes. However, IgE inhibition experiments with anti-peptide specific IgGs showed that Can f 1 N- and C-terminal portion assembled a major conformational binding site. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify the major IgE epitope-containing area of the dog allergen Can f 1. This finding is important for the development of allergen-specific treatment strategies.

  13. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  14. Cloning and Overexpression of CYP6F1, a Cytochrome P450 Gene,from Deltamethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Qing GONG; Chang-Liang ZHU; Yan GU; Xiao-Bang HU; Yan SUN; Lei MA; Xiu-Lan LI; Li-Xin SUN; Jing SUN; Jin QIAN

    2005-01-01

    CYP6F1 (GenBank/EMBL accession No. AY662654), a novel gene with a complete encoding sequence in the cytochrome P450 family 6, was cloned and sequenced from deltamethrin-resistant 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. The cDNA sequence of CYP6F1 has an open reading frame of 1527bp, which encodes a putative protein of 508 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of CYP6F1 indicated that the encoded P450 has conserved domains of a putative membrane-anchoring signal,putative reductase-binding sites, a typical heme-binding site, an ETLR motif and substrate recognition sites.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the CYP6F1 gene was expressed to a greater extent in the deltamethrin-resistant strain than in the susceptible strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. The expression levels of the CYP6F1 gene in the deltamethrin-resistant 1 st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th instar larvae and adult female mosquitoes differed, with highest expression levels in the 4th instar larvae. In addition, the CYP6F1 gene was stably expressed in mosquito C6/36 cells, and the expected 61.2 kDa band was identified by Western blotting. The cells transfected with CYP6F1 had an increased resistance to deltamethrin as compared with control cells.These results indicate that CYP6F1 is expressed at higher levels in the deltamethrin-resistant strain, and may confer some insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.

  15. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation: Qualitative Classification and Quantitative Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement.This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China.Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I-capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II-capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III-capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed.The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I-120 eyes (38.1%); Type II-157 eyes (49.8%); Type III-38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.572, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation with intraoperative posterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.16, P = 0.122) was observed. The ACOA significantly decreased from Type I to Type II to Type III, the PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased

  16. Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Apicella

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3-beta-D-QuiNAc-(1->2-beta-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 microg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis

  17. Treponema pallidum (syphilis) antigen TpF1 induces angiogenesis through the activation of the IL-8 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Tommaso; Facchinello, Nicola; Bossi, Fleur; Capitani, Nagaja; Benagiano, Marisa; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Zennaro, Cristina; West, Nicole; Codolo, Gaia; Bernardini, Marialina; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Pellegrini, Luca; Argenton, Francesco; de Bernard, Marina

    2016-01-05

    Over 10 million people every year become infected by Treponema pallidum and develop syphilis, a disease with broad symptomatology that, due to the difficulty to eradicate the pathogen from the highly vascularized secondary sites of infection, is still treated with injections of penicillin. Unlike most other bacterial pathogens, T. pallidum infection produces indeed a strong angiogenic response whose mechanism of activation, however, remains unknown. Here, we report that one of the major antigen of T. pallidum, the TpF1 protein, has growth factor-like activity on primary cultures of human endothelial cells and activates specific T cells able to promote tissue factor production. The growth factor-like activity is mediated by the secretion of IL-8 but not of VEGF, two known angiogenic factors. The pathogen's factor signals IL-8 secretion through the activation of the CREB/NF-κB signalling pathway. These findings are recapitulated in an animal model, zebrafish, where we observed that TpF1 injection stimulates angiogenesis and IL-8, but not VEGF, secretion. This study suggests that the angiogenic response observed during secondary syphilis is triggered by TpF1 and that pharmacological therapies directed to inhibit IL-8 response in patients should be explored to treat this disease.

  18. 26 CFR 5c.44F-1 - Leases and qualified research expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases and qualified research expenses. 5c.44F-1 Section 5c.44F-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c...

  19. Catalytic properties of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase depleted of endogenous nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, A E; Lee, R S; al-Shawi, M K; Weber, J

    1992-09-01

    Nucleotide-depleted Escherichia coli F1 was prepared by the procedure of Wise et al. (1983, Biochem. J. 215, 343-350). This enzyme had high rates of steady-state ATPase and GTPase activity. When "unisite" ATP hydrolysis was measured using an F1/ATP concentration ratio of 10, all of the substoichiometric ATP became bound to the high-affinity catalytic site and none became bound to noncatalytic sites. The association rate constant for ATP binding was 7 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and the KdATP was 7.9 x 10(-10) M, as compared to values of 3.8 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and 1.9 x 10(-10) M, respectively, in native (i.e., nucleotide-replete) F1. Rate constants for bound ATP hydrolysis, ATP resynthesis, and P(i) release, and the reaction equilibrium constant, were similar in nucleotide-depleted and native F1. Therefore, we conclude that occupancy of the noncatalytic sites is not required for formation of the high-affinity catalytic site of F1 and has no significant effect on unisite catalysis. In further experiments we looked for the occurrence of inhibitory, catalytic-site-bound MgADP in E. coli F1. Such an entity has been reported for chloroplast and mitochondrial F1. However, our experiments gave no indication for inhibitory MgADP in E. coli F1.

  20. E2F-1-Induced p53-independent apoptosis in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Helin, K.; Sehested, M.;

    1998-01-01

    involving increased apoptosis in the germinal epithelium. This effect was potentiated by simultaneous overexpression of DP-1. Testicular atrophy as a result of overexpression of E2F-1 and DP-1 is independent of functional p53, since p53-nullizygous transgenic mice overexpressing E2F-1 and DP-1 also suffered...

  1. 26 CFR 1.665(f)-1A - Undistributed capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed capital gain. 1.665(f)-1A Section... Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(f)-1A Undistributed capital gain. (a) Domestic trusts. (1) The term undistributed capital gain means (in the case of a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.514(f)-1 - Definition of business lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of business lease. 1.514(f)-1 Section... § 1.514(f)-1 Definition of business lease. (a) In general. The term business lease means any lease...) if at the close of the organization's taxable year there is a business lease indebtedness as...

  3. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  4. 77 FR 20038 - Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... minimum course load requirement, unless the student's course of study is in a language study program. See... maintains his or her TPS, then the student maintains F-1 status and TPS concurrently. Under the second... SECURITY RIN 1653-ZA04 Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the...

  6. Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Wu, Chin-Han; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2017-04-18

    Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A were detected by reverse transcriptional-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Centrosome of cells was observed by immunofluorescent staining. The transcription factor of Aurora-A was investigated by promoter activity, chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and small interfering RNA (shRNA) assays. Mouse model was utilized to confirm the relationship between arsenic and Aurora-A. We reveal that low dosage of arsenic treatment increased cell proliferation is associated with accumulated cell population at S phase. We also detected increased Aurora-A expression at mRNA and protein levels in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells exposed to low doses of arsenic. Arsenic-treated cells displayed increased multiple centrosome which is resulted from overexpressed Aurora-A. Furthermore, the transcription factor, E2F1, is responsible for Aurora-A overexpression after arsenic treatment. We further disclosed that Aurora-A expression and cell proliferation were increased in bladder and uterus tissues of the BALB/c mice after long-term arsenic (1 mg/L) exposure for 2 months. We

  7. Phacoemulsification using iris-hooks for capsular support in high myopic patient with subluxated lens and secondary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of angle closure glaucoma in a 78-year-old highly myopic female patient. The patient did not show any preoperative signs of subluxation of lens. However, the capsular bag was noted to be unstable during surgery. The patient was managed with phacoemulsification of lens using a novel method of iris hooks for stabilization of capsular bag during surgery.

  8. Observation of $\\bar{B}^0_{(s)}\\rightarrow J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays and measurement of the $f_1(1285)$ mixing angle

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    Decays of $\\bar{B}^0_(s)$ and $\\bar{B}^0$ mesons into $J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states, produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. $\\bar{B}^0_{(s)}\\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the $f_1(1285)$ mixing angle between strange and non-strange components of its wave function in the $q\\overline{q}$ structure model is determined to be $\\pm(24.0^{\\,+3.1\\,+0.6}_{\\,-2.6\\,-0.8})^{\\circ}$. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the $f_1(1285)$ are discussed.

  9. Observation of B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/ψ π+π-π+π- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

  10. Suppression of F1 Male-Specific Lethality in Caenorhabditis Hybrids by cbr-him-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi Ragavapuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary to Haldane’s Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids are frequently less fit than their homogametic siblings, and that asymmetric results are often obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality in this combination of species. This result implicates epigenetic meiotic silencing in the suppression of F1 male-specific lethality. It is also shown that F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome are fertile. When crossed to C. briggsae hermaphrodites or F1 females derived from C. briggsae hermaphrodites, viable F2 and backcross (B2 progeny were obtained. Sibling males that possessed a C. nigoni X chromosome were sterile. Therefore, the sterility of F1 males bearing a C. nigoni X chromosome must result from dysgenic interactions between the X chromosome of C. nigoni and the autosomes of C. briggsae. The fertility of F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome provides an opportunity to identify C. nigoni loci that prevent spermatogenesis, and hence hermaphroditic reproduction, in diplo-X hybrids.

  11. Multicentric evaluation of a new assay for prothrombin fragment F1+2 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, H D; Conard, J; Mannucci, M; Monteagudo, J; Pelzer, H; Reverter, J C; Samama, M; Tripodi, A; Wagner, C

    1992-10-01

    A multicenter study of a recently developed ELISA for the determination of prothrombin fragment F1+2 was performed in order to evaluate analytical and clinical aspects. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were found to be 11.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The measuring range covered by the calibration curve reaches from 0.04 to 10.0 nM/l F1+2. Testing 133 healthy subjects a reference range of 0.37 to 1.11 nM/l F1+2 (2.5-97.5 percentile) with a median of 0.66 nM/l F1+2 was calculated. Minor difficulties with blood sampling (venous occlusion for 2 min) did not affect F1+2 plasma concentrations. Significantly increased F1+2 levels were measured in patients with leukemia (p < 0.0001), severe liver disease (p < 0.005) and after myocardial infarction (p < 0.01). Elevated F1+2 concentration before the beginning of heparin therapy (1.25 nM/l) decreased to 0.77 nM/l (p < 0.0001) after 1 day of therapy. For patients in the stable phase of oral anticoagulant therapy decreasing F1+2 concentrations were measured with increasing INR. F1+2 levels were already significantly reduced in patients with INR < 2.0 (0.56 nM/l; p = 0.0005). Thus F1+2 determination may be helpful in identifying activation processes as well as in monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  12. Latex agglutination: diagnose the early cryptococcus neoformans test of capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanrong; Yuan, Xueqian; Zhang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the early diagnosis value of latex agglutination test in Cryptococcal meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 112 patients with definite Cryptococcal meningitis and 26 patients with tubercular meningitis and virus meningitis were collected, latex agglutination test is adopted to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen. Then it was compared with fungal culture and direct microscopy method for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis. The sensitivity of three methods including latex agglutination test, fungal culture and direct microscopy was 91.1%,69.6% and 73.2% respectively. The specificity of latex agglutination test was 96.0%, 100% and 100% respectively. That latex agglutination test to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen could be taken as the early diagnostic method of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.

  13. Experimental vaccination of pigs with an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Jacobsen, M.J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toroid conjugate (Ap5bCP-TT) against homologous challenge of pigs was investigated. Four pigs were non-vaccinated controls (group A), 4 pigs were injected with adjuvant without antigen (group B......) and 8 pigs were vaccinated with Ap5bCP-TT and adjuvant (group 0). Pigs vaccinated with Ap5bCP-TT developed antibody responses to the capsular polysaccharide from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b (Ap5bCP). After challenge, all pigs in groups A and B had severe clinical signs of disease and were euthanized...... and pulmonary lesions caused by experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b....

  14. A study of the "capsular" shadow in disorders of the hip in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I

    1975-05-01

    Displacement and blurring of the soft-tissue shadows about the hip has been described in several conditions, particularly in transient synovitis. A study was made between such displacements and the posture commonly adopted by an "irritable hip". Examination of radiographs of normal hips, and of those in cases of transient synovitis and Perthes' disease showed that the appearance of "capsular swelling" is related to the position of lateral rotation and abduction. This was confirmed by anatomical dissections of the lateral plane, which appears to be an intermuscular plane lying anterior to the hip, and an explantation is given for the blurring which may accompany its lateral displacement. "Capsular swelling" appears to be a radiological artefact.

  15. The Impact of Breast Implant Location on the Risk of Capsular Contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although many theories exist, the etiology of capsular contraction (CC) development is still not known. Anatomic location has been suggested as a possible risk factor, but rates of CC development vary between studies, often with conflicting results. This study examines the risk...... developing CC with subglandular compared to submuscular placement of the breast implant. METHODS: A total of 1,283 studies were identified from December 2003 to December 2013 by PUBMED and MEDLINE searches and a manual search strategy. Two levels of screening resulted in 10 studies suitable for meta....... CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrated a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of capsular contraction with subglandular compared to submuscular breast implant location.Clinical Question: Risk....

  16. New capsular tension segment with 2-point fixation for zonular weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Malkit K; Ambati, Balamurali K; Crandall, Alan S

    2017-05-01

    We describe clinical applications and surgical techniques for a new type of capsular tension segment (CTS) for use during cataract surgery. The Ambati CTS is distinguished from other CTS devices by having 2 eyelets close to each other, which allows it to distribute tension to 2 points, avoiding too much stress at a single point on the anterior capsulotomy, which prevents peaking of the capsulorhexis, and potentially reducing the risk for anterior capsule tear. Two of these CTS devices could possibly be used to provide 4-point fixation of a capsular bag in eyes with near-complete zonular instability. We describe 4 cases and 2 surgical techniques for implanting the new CTS, 1 technique in an adult patient with zonular weakness secondary to trauma and the other in 3 children with subluxated lenses due to Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation of a murine monoclonal antibody to capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Reyes-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hybridoma technology has enabled the development of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against many antigens. Mabs have several applications in the field of basic research, diagnosis, immunotherapy and vaccine manufacturing processes. Mabs-producing hybridomas against the capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi were obtained, after intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsular polysaccharide Vi conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, and subsequent fusion of lymphocytes isolated of the spleen and myeloma cells SP2/O. A Mab was selected, partially characterized, and named as 4G3E11. The isotype of this Mab was IgG1. It was proved by means of a sandwich ELISA that the 4G3E11 Mab reacts with different concentrations of polysaccharide in samples of the vax-TyVi® vaccine. The Mab obtained in this research could be useful as reagent for the detection and quantitation of polysaccharide Vi in typhoid vaccines.

  18. Two Tightly Linked Genes at the hsa1 Locus Cause Both F1 and F2 Hybrid Sterility in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Takashi, Tomonori; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2016-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of hybrid breakdown associated with sterility (F2 sterility) are poorly understood as compared with those of F1 hybrid sterility. Previously, we characterized three unlinked epistatic loci, hybrid sterility-a1 (hsa1), hsa2, and hsa3, responsible for the F2 sterility in a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. In this study, we identified that the hsa1 locus contains two interacting genes, HSA1a and HSA1b, within a 30-kb region. HSA1a-j (japonica allele) encodes a highly conserved plant-specific domain of unknown function protein (DUF1618), whereas the indica allele (HSA1a-i(s)) has two deletion mutations that cause disruption of domain structure. The second gene, HSA1b-i(s), encodes an uncharacterized protein with some similarity to a nucleotide-binding protein. Homozygous introgression of indica HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) alleles into japonica showed female gamete abortion at an early mitotic stage. The fact that the recombinant haplotype HSA1a-j-HSA1b-i(s) caused semi-sterility in the heterozygous state with the HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) haplotype suggests that variation in the hsa1 locus is a possible cause of the wide-spectrum sterility barriers seen in F1 hybrids and successive generations in rice. We propose a simple genetic model to explain how a single causal mechanism can drive both F1 and F2 hybrid sterility.

  19. Memory without context: amnesia with confabulations after infarction of the right capsular genu.

    OpenAIRE

    Schnider, A.; Gutbrod, K; Hess, C. W.; Schroth,G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore the mechanism of an amnesia marked by confabulations and lack of insight in a patient with an infarct of the right inferior capsular genu. The confabulations could mostly be traced back to earlier events, indicating that the memory disorder ensued from an inability to store the temporal and spatial context of information acquisition rather than a failure to store new information. METHODS--To test the patient's ability to store the context of information acquisition, two ...

  20. The envelope of passive motion allowed by the capsular ligaments of the hip

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory data indicate the hip capsular ligaments prevent excessive range of motion, may protect the joint against adverse edge loading and contribute to synovial fluid replenishment at the cartilage surfaces of the joint. However, their repair after joint preserving or arthroplasty surgery is not routine. In order to restore their biomechanical function after hip surgery, the positions of the hip at which the ligaments engage together with their tensions when they engage is required. Nine ...

  1. Association between acromioclavicular joint pain and capsular bulging in adolescent baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka; Nagamoto, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Koike, Yoichi; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain and superior capsular bulging assessed by ultrasound in adolescent baseball players. One hundred and fifty players (1st-8th graders) were examined. All subjects underwent physical examinations, including assessment of tenderness on the AC joint and provocative tests (the Buchberger's test and the cross-body adduction stress test). Bilateral AC joints with the arm in both the resting and the cross-body positions were examined by ultrasound. Twelve of 150 players (8 %) had AC symptoms with both positive tenderness and positive provocative tests. Interestingly, their prevalence increased with age-one of the 70 (1.4 %) 1st-3rd graders, six of 46 (13 %) 4th-6th graders and five of 34 (15 %) 7th-8th graders. Ultrasonography of AC joints in the cross-body position showed that the difference in superior capsular bulging between the throwing and non-throwing sides was significantly greater in symptomatic players (1.6 ± 1.2 mm) than in asymptomatic players (0.2 ± 0.8 mm) (p = 0.002). The prevalence of superior capsular bulging was significantly higher in adolescent baseball players with AC joint pain than in those without it. In adolescent baseball players with shoulder pain, AC joint symptoms should be considered amongst potential causes. Careful observation of these patients is suggested in cases of superior capsular bulging of the AC joint as determined by ultrasonography. III.

  2. Effects of Medical Chitosan on Capsular Formation Following Silicone Implant Insertion in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Ren, Liwen; Xu, Haiqian; Jia, Di; Luo, Sai; Hao, Lijun; Yang, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Capsular contracture is a serious complication that occurs after breast implant surgery. This study was performed to confirm that medical chitosan (MC) affects capsule formation and elucidates a possible mechanism. In this study, we used 18 female adult New Zealand White rabbits. In each rabbit, two silicone implants were placed under the pectoralis muscle layer on both sides (one side was included in the experimental group and the other side was included in the control group). MC was applied around the silicone implant of the experiment group, while the control group received no treatment. The capsular thickness was calculated by Masson's trichrome stain. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Compared to the control group, the capsular thickness of the MC group was significantly reduced at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation (4 week: 229.3 ± 72.2 vs 76.1 ± 12.6 µm, p  0.05). MC reduced the risk of developing capsular contracture around silicone implants, possibly by blocking the signaling pathway of TIMPs. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  3. Data on melanin production in B16F1 melanoma cells in the presence of emu oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Ito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present data on the effects of emu oil, obtained from emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae fat deposits, on melanogenesis in B16F1 murine melanoma cells. The cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of emu oil, and the melanin content of these cells was measured using a microplate reader. Next, melanin content was measured for cells cultured with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. This article reports the different melanin contents as μg melanin/mg cellular protein, by using bar graphs with error bars. The present data imply that emu oil reduces the cellular melanin production.

  4. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  5. Capsular switching as a strategy to increase pneumococcal virulence in experimental otitis media model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Vishakha; Stevenson, Abbie; Figueira, Marisol; Orthopoulos, George; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Pelton, Stephen I

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that capsular switch event, in which pneumococcus acquires a new capsule operon by horizontal gene transfer, may result in emergence of strains with increased virulence in acute otitis media. Using serotype 6A strain from a patient with invasive pneumococcal disease and clonally distant serotype 6C strain isolated from asymptomatic carrier we created 6A:6C (6A background with 6C capsule) capsular transformants and applied whole genome macro-restriction analysis to assess conservation of the 6A chassis. Next, we assessed complement (C3) and antibodies deposition on surface of pneumococcal cells and tested capsule recipient, capsule donor and two 6A:6C transformants for virulence in chinchilla experimental otitis media model. Both 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants bound less C3 compared to 6C capsule-donor strain but more compared to serotype 6A capsule-recipient strain. Pneumococci were present in significantly higher proportion of ears among animals challenged with either of two 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants compared to chinchillas infected with 6C capsule-donor strain [p < 0.001] whereas a significantly decreased proportion of ears were infected with 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants as compared to 6A capsule-recipient strain. Our observations though limited to two serotypes demonstrate that capsular switch events can result in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of enhanced virulence for respiratory tract infection.

  6. Role of capsular modified heptose in the virulence of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anthony; Lange, Dirk; Houle, Sebastien; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Valvano, Miguel A; Knirel, Yuriy A; Dozois, Charles M; Creuzenet, Carole

    2015-06-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide is important for virulence and often contains a modified heptose. In strain ATCC 700819 (a.k.a. NCTC 11168), the modified heptose branches off from the capsular backbone and is directly exposed to the environment. We reported previously that the enzymes encoded by wcaG, mlghB and mlghC are involved in heptose modification. Here, we show that inactivation of any of these genes leads to production of capsule lacking modified heptose and alters the transcription of other capsule modification genes differentially. Inactivation of mlghB or mlghC, but not of wcaG, decreased susceptibility to bile salts and abrogated invasion of intestinal cells. All mutants showed increased sensitivity to serum killing, especially wcaG::cat, and had defects in colonization and persistence in chicken intestine, but did not show significant differences in adhesion, phagocytosis and intracellular survival in murine macrophages. Together, our findings suggest that the capsular heptose modification pathway contributes to bacterial resistance against gastrointestinal host defenses and supports bacterial persistence via its role in serum resistance and invasion of intestinal cells. Our data further suggest a dynamic regulation of expression of this pathway in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Bentley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated. Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines. Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes. We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system. Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1.8 Mbp, almost equivalent to the entire S. pneumoniae chromosomal complement.

  8. Investigation of vesicle-capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, N. P.; Maximova, Irina S.; Romanov, Sergey V.; Shubochkin, L. P.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.

    1991-05-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases. The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations. In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations. This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. The capsular antigen Fl was obtained from EV plague microbe grown at 37° C on Huttinger agar. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA-22 followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage.

  9. Potential of MALDI-TOF MS as an alternative approach for capsular typing Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Tatiana C. A.; Costa, Natalia S.; Castro, Luciana F. S.; Ribeiro, Rachel L.; Botelho, Ana Caroline N.; Neves, Felipe P. G.; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Teixeira, Lucia M.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can be classified in more than 90 capsular types, as traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR-based techniques. Such methods, however, can be expensive, laborious or unable to accurately discriminate among certain serotypes. Therefore, determination of capsular types, although extremely important for epidemiological purposes and for estimating the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, is mainly restricted to research laboratories, being rarely performed in the clinical setting. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as an alternative tool to characterize 416 pneumococcal isolates belonging to serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, 9N, 9V or 14. For MALDI-TOF MS analysis, each isolate was submitted to an extraction protocol using formic acid and acetonitrile. Measurements were performed with a Bruker Microflex LT mass spectrometer using default parameters and generating spectra in the range of 2,000–20,000 m/z. Spectra were analyzed with the BioNumerics software v7.6. Isolates were mainly distributed according to the capsular type in a Neighbor Joining tree and serotypes investigated were successfully discriminated by the presence/absence of 14 selected biomarkers. The results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative for typing pneumococcal strains, highlighting its usefulness for rapid and cost-effective routine application in clinical laboratories. PMID:28349999

  10. Implantation of foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens in aphakic vitrectomized eyes without capsular support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Erdogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of three different surgical techniques for foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation in vitrectomized eyes without capsular support. Methods: A total of 60 patients with aphakic and vitrectomized eyes without capsular support were enrolled. All patients underwent three-piece foldable PCIOL implantation into the posterior chamber through a small corneal incision. Transscleral fixation (TSF, iris fixation (IF, and intrascleral tunnel fixation (ISF surgical techniques were performed. Results: Postoperative PCIOL subluxation or dislocation occurred in one case in the TSF group and two cases in the ISF group. Intraoperative PCIOL dislocation occurred in two patients in the IF group. The incidence of temporary postoperative complications, such as mild intraocular hemorrhage and cystoid macular edema, was higher in the ISF group. No statistically significant difference in PCIOL-related astigmatism was observed between groups. Visual acuity improved in all groups. Conclusions: Postoperative outcomes were comparable between TSF, IF, and ISF for PCIOL in vitrectomized eyes without capsular support.

  11. Implementation of a capsular bag model to enable sufficient lens stabilization within a mechanical eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Cataract still remains the leading cause of blindness affecting 20 million people worldwide. To restore the patients vision the natural lens is removed and replaced by an intraocular lens (IOL). In modern cataract surgery the posterior capsular bag is maintained to prevent inflammation and to enable stabilization of the implant. Refractive changes following cataract surgery are attributable to lens misalignments occurring due to postoperative shifts and tilts of the artificial lens. Mechanical eye models allow a preoperative investigation of the impact of such misalignments and are crucial to improve the quality of the patients' sense of sight. Furthermore, the success of sophisticated IOLs that correct high order aberrations is depending on a critical evaluation of the lens position. A new type of an IOL holder is designed and implemented into a preexisting mechanical eye model. A physiological representation of the capsular bag is realized with an integrated film element to guarantee lens stabilization and centering. The positioning sensitivity of the IOL is evaluated by performing shifts and tilts in reference to the optical axis. The modulation transfer function is used to measure the optical quality at each position. Lens stability tests within the holder itself are performed by determining the modulation transfer function before and after measurement sequence. Mechanical stability and reproducible measurement results are guaranteed with the novel capsular bag model that allows a precise interpretation of postoperative lens misalignments. The integrated film element offers additional stabilization during measurement routine without damaging the haptics or deteriorating the optical performance.

  12. Protection against lethal subcutaneous challenge of virulent Y. pestis strain 141 using an F1-V subunit vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we designed and engineered a two-component recombinant fusion protein antigen as a vaccine candidate against the possible biological threat of Yersinia pestis. The recombinant F1-V protein was formulated with Alhydrogel. A four-time injection with a dosage of 10, 20 and 50 μg/mouse in about two months was adopted for vaccination. Serum antibodies and subclass of T helper cells were measured and analyzed. After the final vaccination, the mice were challenged by 141 strain with 25―600 LD50. In conclusion, the recombinant vaccine was capable of inducing protective immunity against subcutaneous challenge. The level of serum IgG was supposed to be a main factor that affected the final protection of challenge. 20 μg recombinant protein could induce an endpoint titre of serum IgG as high as 51200, which was enough to afford 100% protection against 400 LD50 virulent 141 challenge. The antibody isotype analysis showed that the vaccine induced predominantly an IgG1 rather than IgG2a response. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Alhydrogel significantly helped induce a stronger humoral immunity instead of CTL cellular response. These findings suggested that the plague F1-V subunit vaccine is promising for the next plague vaccine.

  13. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of S. suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbei Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available S. suis (Streptococcus suis caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin nontreated cells and treated cells, we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ABC superfamily ATP binding cassette transporter (G7SD52, CpsR (K0FG35, Cps1/2H (G8DTL7, CPS16F (E9NQ13, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0, NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6, Amino acid permease (B0M0G6 and NsuB (G5L351 were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide (CP content of S. suis was significantly higher.

  14. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Chen, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Bai, Jing-Wen; Ding, Wen-Ya; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xue-Ying; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin non-treated cells and treated cells), we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ATP-binding cassette superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter (G7SD52), CpsR (K0FG35), Cps1/2H (G8DTL7), CPS16F (E9NQ13), putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259), putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6), amino acid permease (B0M0G6), and NsuB (G5L351)) were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide content of S. suis was significantly higher. PMID:27812354

  15. Nitration of specific tyrosines in FoF1 ATP synthase and activity loss in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Virginia; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Elfering, Sarah; Fujisawa, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that C-nitration of proteins occurs under nitrative/oxidative stress; however, its role in pathophysiological situations is not fully understood. In this study, we determined that nitration of Tyr345 and Tyr368 in the β-subunit of the mitochondrial FoF1-ATPase is a major target for nitrative stress in rat liver under in vivo conditions. The chemical characteristics of these Tyr make them suitable for a facilitated nitration (solvent accessibility, consensus sequence, and pKa). Moreover, β-subunit nitration increased significantly with the age of the rats (from 4 to 80 weeks old) and correlated with decreased ATP hydrolysis and synthesis rates. Although its affinity for ATP binding was unchanged, maximal ATPase activity decreased between young and old rats by a factor of two. These changes directly impacted the available ATP concentration in vivo, and it was expected that they would affect multiple cellular ATP-dependent processes. For instance, at least 50% of available [ATP] in the liver of older rats would have to be committed to sustain maximal Na+-K+-ATPase activity, whereas only 30% would be required for young rats. If this requirement was not fulfilled, the osmoregulation and Na+-nutrient cotransport in liver of older rats would be compromised. On the basis of our studies, we propose that targeted nitration of the β-subunit is an early marker for nitrative stress and aging. PMID:20159857

  16. The Polymorphism of Pituitary Factor 1 (POU1F1 in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Crina Carsai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of mammary gland is mainly controlled by growth hormone and prolactin, twoprotein hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Their synthesis is under regulatory influence of pituitaryfactor 1 (PIT1 or POU1F1, a protein factor produced in hypothalamic nuclei. In cattle, it was shown that a HinfIpolymorphism located in exon 6 of PIT1 gene may have significant influence on milk quantity. In particular A allelewas associated with a higher milk yield and could be a valuable genetic marker for improving milk quantity in cattle.In an effort to better understand the possible influence of this polymorphism on mammary gland development andfunction in cattle, we have studied the frequency this polymorphism in Romanian Black and White breed, a highmilk production cattle breed versus Romanian Grey Steppe breed, a primitive breed with very low milk production.In both breeds the frequency of B allele is much higher as compared with the frequency of A allele. The study ofPIT1 polymorphism in Romanian cattle breeds is a part of a more complex study targeting several key genesinvolved in mammary gland function.

  17. Use of hybridization (F1 in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants with bisexual flowers, the development of hybrids and F1 seed production is only possible by using cytoplasmatic male sterility. The discovery of such sterility and the maintainers has made it possible to utilize the phenomenon of heterosis to improve yields and yield components in forage sorghum. It has been shown that the best way to develop forage sorghum hybrids is to cross grain sorghum as the female parent and Sudan grass as the male. The objective of this study was to develop a forage sorghum hybrid for the production of green matter to be used either fresh or for silage. The sorghum hybrid developed in these efforts (Siloking is intended for multiple cutting, as the basal nodes produce buds and regrowth takes place. The performance of the new hybrid with respect to yield and quality was compared to that of the forage sorghum cultivar NS Džin. In a two-year study conducted under different growing conditions in four locations, Siloking produced an average green matter yield of 86.29 t ha-1 (two cuts, a dry matter yield of 25.34 t ha-1, and a crude protein content of 11.85 %. Siloking outperformed NS Džin in terms of yield and quality. .

  18. Rotation of subunits during catalysis by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, T M; Bulygin, V V; Zhou, Y; Hutcheon, M L; Cross, R L

    1995-11-21

    During oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, F0F1-ATP synthases couple the movement of protons down an electrochemical gradient to the synthesis of ATP. One proposed mechanistic feature that has remained speculative is that this coupling process requires the rotation of subunits within F0F1. Guided by a recent, high-resolution structure for bovine F1 [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. & Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 621-628], we have developed a critical test for rotation of the central gamma subunit relative to the three catalytic beta subunits in soluble F1 from Escherichia coli. In the bovine F1 structure, a specific point of contact between the gamma subunit and one of the three catalytic beta subunits includes positioning of the homolog of E. coli gamma-subunit C87 (gamma C87) close to the beta-subunit 380DELSEED386 sequence. A beta D380C mutation allowed us to induce formation of a specific disulfide bond between beta and gamma C87 in soluble E. coli F1. Formation of the crosslink inactivated beta D380C-F1, and reduction restored full activity. Using a dissociation/reassembly approach with crosslinked beta D380C-F1, we incorporated radiolabeled beta subunits into the two noncrosslinked beta-subunit positions of F1. After reduction of the initial nonradioactive beta-gamma crosslink, only exposure to conditions for catalytic turnover results in similar reactivities of unlabeled and radiolabeled beta subunits with gamma C87 upon reoxidation. The results demonstrate that gamma subunit rotates relative to the beta subunits during catalysis.

  19. Absence of pRb facilitates E2F1-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baohua; Wingate, Hannah; Swisher, Stephen G; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Hunt, Kelly K

    2010-03-15

    The transcription factor E2F1 is known for its interaction with pRb, controlling cell proliferation; however, E2F1 also has a pivotal role in regulating apoptosis.  The relationship between pRb and E2F1 balances cell proliferation and apoptosis giving pRb tumor suppressive properties. The intricacies of the pRb/E2F1 relationship and thus the regulation of cell fate is cell context dependent. To explore the role of pRb in the E2F1-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells, we examined cell growth and apoptosis induction in isogenic cell systems of immortalized breast epithelial cells lacking either pRb (76NE7) or p53 (76NE6). We found that E2F1 caused accumulation of cells in G2 and S phases of the cell cycle along with apoptosis in 76NE7 but not 76NE6 cells.  Variants of 76NE6 cells with functional p53 did not rescue the apoptotic response in these cells, whereas knocking down pRb resulted in significant E2F1-induced apoptosis. We also determined that the effect of E2F1 overexpression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468, which lack pRb and functional p53, was accumulation of cells in G2/S phase and apoptosis. However, E2F did not cause apotosis  in MCF-7 cells which harbor a functional pRb. Therefore, we conclude that in the absence of Rb, E2F1 overexpression results in apoptosis, not proliferation, and that this effect is independent of p53.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Expression of Bt Toxin in Transgenic Restorer Line and Its F1 Hybrids%转基因水稻恢复系及其F1代Bt蛋白的时空表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪秀峰; 叶芬; 李莉; 陆徐忠; 倪大虎; 王德正; 麦霄黎; 王淑云; 杨剑波

    2014-01-01

    本研究以抗虫水稻恢复系9311(Bt)及其杂交种F1(Bt)为研究材料,以非转基因的9311为阴性对照,利用ELISA方法研究9311(Bt)及F1(Bt)各生育时期可溶性总蛋白和Bt蛋白的时空变化规律,为转Bt基因抗虫水稻的安全监管提供科学依据。结果表明:外源基因的导入没有引起水稻组织中可溶性总蛋白含量的明显变化;9311(Bt)的Bt蛋白表达量在整个生长周期的各个部位均高于相应的F1(Bt)植株;同一植株不同组织器官中Bt蛋白表达量为:叶片跃胚乳跃颖壳及茎秆跃根;同一植株不同发育期叶片Bt蛋白的测定结果整体表现为:营养生长阶段跃生殖生长阶段跃成熟衰老阶段。研究结果为转Bt基因抗虫水稻适宜检测时期的选择提供了一定的参考。%In this study, the research materials were insect-resistant rice restorer line 9311(Bt) and its F1 Hybrids, and the negative control was non-GMO 9311. By using ELISA method, we studied the expression of soluble protein and Bt toxic protein in plants. The experimental results provided a scientific basis for the safety supervision of transgenic Bt rice. In general, with the transfer of the exogenous Bt gene, the content of soluble protein of rice did not change significantly. In different periods of growth stages and different tissues, the content of Bt toxic protein of insect-resistant restorer line 9311(Bt) was much higher than that of F1(Bt) hybrids. In different tissues of transgenic rice, the concentration of Bt protein expression was as follows:leaves跃endosperms跃glumes and stems跃roots. In different growth stages, Bt protein contents of leaves were as follows:the vegetative growth stage跃the reproductive growth stage跃the mature stage. The result of the research provided a certain reference for appropriate detection period of Bt-transgenic insect-resistant rice.

  1. E. coli Group 1 Capsular Polysaccharide Exportation Nanomachinary as a Plausible Antivirulence Target in the Perspective of Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Palur, Raghuvamsi V.; Sudhakar, Karpagam U.; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids them to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K-antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface assembly pathway. Gram-negative Escherichia coli uses Wzy-polymerase dependent (Groups 1 and 4) and ATP dependent (Groups 1 and 3) pathways for CPS production. Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. PMID:28217109

  2. 17 CFR 270.18f-1 - Exemption from certain requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end investment companies which have the right... which have the right to redeem in kind. (a) A registered open-end investment company which has the right... to pay in cash all requests for redemption by any shareholder of record, limited in amount...

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of

  6. Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of

  7. Rotation of subunits during catalysis by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    During oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, F0F1-ATP synthases couple the movement of protons down an electrochemical gradient to the synthesis of ATP. One proposed mechanistic feature that has remained speculative is that this coupling process requires the rotation of subunits within F0F1. Guided by a recent, high-resolution structure for bovine F1 [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. & Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 621-628], we have developed a critical test for rotation ...

  8. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F=1 atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sooshin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of $^{23}$Na atoms in the $F=1$ hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations under a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the $F=1$ absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of $^{23}$Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in quantitative analysis of $F=1$ spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali atoms with $I=3/2$ nuclear spin such as $^{87}$Rb.

  9. ESR-spektroskopische Untersuchungen der F0F1-ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Motz, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Die FoF1-ATP-Synthase katalysiert die Synthese von ATP aus ADP und Pi bei der oxidativen bzw. Photophosphorylierung. Der ATP-Synthase-Komplex läßt sich in zwei funktionelle Einheiten unterteilen: Fo ist ein integraler Membranproteinkomplex, der den Protonenkanal bildet. F1 hingegen ist ein wasserlöslicher Proteinkomplex, der die Nukleotidbindungsstellen trägt. Die ATP-Synthase aus Escherichia coli hat die Zusammensetzung alpha3beta3gamma delta epsilon für die F1 und ab2c9-12 für den Fo-Teil. ...

  10. Effects of an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate, on F1-ATPase rotary catalysis, torque generation, and inhibited intermediated formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-13

    F1-ATPase (F1), an important rotary motor protein, converts the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy using rotary motion with extremely high efficiency. The energy-conversion mechanism for this molecular motor has been extensively clarified by previous studies, which indicate that the interactions between the catalytic residues and the β- and γ-phosphates of ATP are indispensable for efficient catalysis and torque generation. However, the role of α-phosphate is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the rotation of F1 fuelled with an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate (ATPαS), in which the oxygen has been substituted with a sulfur ion to perturb the α-phosphate/F1 interactions. In doing so, we have revealed that ATPαS does not appear to have any impact on the kinetic properties of the motor or on torque generation compared to ATP. On the other hand, F1 was observed to lapse into the ADP-inhibited intermediate states when in the presence of ATPαS more severely than in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the α-phosphate group of ATP contributes to the avoidance of ADP-inhibited intermediate formation.

  11. Polymorphisms of POU1F1 and STAT5A genes and their associate on with milk production traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zakizadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific trait candidate genes are sequenced genes with known biological activity. The effects of POU1F1 and STAT5A on milk production traits have been studied in several studies. POU1F1 affects on transcription of prolactin and growth hormone gene, as well as, STAT5A is known as a main mediator of growth hormone action on target genes and intracellular mediator of prolactin signaling. Since these genes are essential for development of mammary system, the aim of this study was to determine association of their polymorphism with milk production breeding values in Brown Swiss cattle. Blood of ninety milking cow were randomly obtained. DNA was extracted from whole blood using modified salting out method, then the desired fragments were PCR amplified and digested by specific restriction endonuclease enzymes. Gene and genotype frequencies, heterozygosity indexes, the real and effective allele number were calculated by PopGene software; and the breeding values of production traits were estimated by DFREML. SAS software was used to analyze association between genotypes and breeding values. The frequency of 'A' and 'C' alleles of POU1F1 and STAT5A were 0.455 and 0.489, respectively. This population was in hardy-weinburg equilibrium for both loci. There was no significant association between genotypes and breeding values, although POU1F1*B tended to produce higher milk and POU1F1*A showed higher fat and protein percent.

  12. $\\beta$-Caseinophosphopeptide (f1-25) confers on $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate an antioxidant activity during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Protein ingredients such as hydrolysates of milk proteins may improve the nutritive value of functional foods. For instance, $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate could simultaneously increase iron absorption and prevent lipid oxidation in foods containing high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate and of its $\\beta$-caseinophosphopeptide (f1-25) on Fe(III)/asco...

  13. Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Robert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate phytochemical present predominantly in cruciferous vegetables such as brussels sprout and broccoli, is considered a promising chemo-preventive agent against cancer. In-vitro exposure to SFN appears to result in the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in a variety of tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the inhibition of cell cycle progression by SFN are poorly understood in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (EOC. The aim of this study is to understand the signaling mechanisms through which SFN influences the cell growth and proliferation in EOC. Results SFN at concentrations of 5 - 20 μM induced a dose-dependent suppression of growth in cell lines MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3 with an IC50 of ~8 μM after a 3 day exposure. Combination treatment with chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel, resulted in additive growth suppression. SFN at ~8 μM decreased growth by 40% and 20% on day 1 in MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3, respectively. Cells treated with cytotoxic concentrations of SFN have reduced cell migration and increased apoptotic cell death via an increase in Bak/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of procaspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP. Gene expression profile analysis of cell cycle regulated proteins demonstrated increased levels of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB and decreased levels of E2F-1 transcription factor. SFN treatment resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest through down modulation of RB phosphorylation and by protecting the RB-E2F-1 complex. Conclusions SFN induces growth arrest and apoptosis in EOC cells. Inhibition of retinoblastoma (RB phosphorylation and reduction in levels of free E2F-1 appear to play an important role in EOC growth arrest.

  14. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for the major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to clone, express and characterize adult Dermatophagoides farinae group 1 (Der f 1 allergens to further produce recombinant allergens for future clinical applications in order to eliminate side reactions from crude extracts of mites. Based on GenBank data, we designed primers and amplified the cDNA fragment coding for Der f 1 by nested-PCR. After purification and recovery, the cDNA fragment was cloned into the pMD19-T vector. The fragment was then sequenced, subcloned into the plasmid pET28a(+, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and identified by Western blotting. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Sequence analysis showed the presence of an open reading frame containing 966 bp that encodes a protein of 321 amino acids. Interestingly, homology analysis showed that the Der p 1 shared more than 87% identity in amino acid sequence with Eur m 1 but only 80% with Der f 1. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses suggested that D. pteronyssinus was evolutionarily closer to Euroglyphus maynei than to D. farinae, even though D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae belong to the same Dermatophagoides genus. A total of three cysteine peptidase active sites were found in the predicted amino acid sequence, including 127-138 (QGGCGSCWAFSG, 267-277 (NYHAVNIVGYG and 284-303 (YWIVRNSWDTTWGDSGYGYF. Moreover, secondary structure analysis revealed that Der f 1 contained an a helix (33.96%, an extended strand (17.13%, a ß turn (5.61%, and a random coil (43.30%. A simple three-dimensional model of this protein was constructed using a Swiss-model server. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggests that D. pteronyssinus is evolutionarily more similar to E. maynei than to D. farinae.

  15. Suppression of fabB Mutation by fabF1 Is Mediated by Transcription Read-through in Shewanella oneidensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Meng, Qiu; Fu, Huihui; Luo, Qixia; Gao, Haichun

    2016-11-15

    As type II fatty acid synthesis is essential for the growth of Escherichia coli, its many components are regarded as potential targets for novel antibacterial drugs. Among them, β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase (KAS) FabB is the exclusive factor for elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP (cis-3-C10-ACP). In our previous study, we presented evidence to suggest that this may not be the case in Shewanella oneidensis, an emerging model gammaproteobacterium renowned for its respiratory versatility. Here, we identified FabF1, another KAS, as a functional replacement for FabB in S. oneidensis In fabB(+) or desA(+) (encoding a desaturase) cells, which are capable of making unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), FabF1 is barely produced. However, UFA auxotroph mutants devoid of both fabB and desA genes can be spontaneously converted to suppressor strains, which no longer require exogenous UFAs for growth. Suppression is caused by a TGTTTT deletion in the region upstream of the fabF1 gene, resulting in enhanced FabF1 production. We further demonstrated that the deletion leads to transcription read-through of the terminator for acpP, an acyl carrier protein gene immediately upstream of fabF1 There are multiple tandem repeats in the region covering the terminator, and the TGTTTT deletion, as well as others, compromises the terminator efficacy. In addition, FabF2 also shows an ability to complement the FabB loss, albeit substantially less effectively than FabF1.

  16. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from ... Key words: Solanum, genome, phenotype, taxonomy, evolution, interspecific hybridization, pollen viability, ..... This development affirms the views of .... The origins of.

  17. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Congfei; Karim, Sazzad; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6) functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression), GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active) and RabF1S47N (dominant negative) lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1−29, N-terminus) complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS) than wild-type and rabF1. PMID:28157156

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.669(f)-1A - Character of capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of capital gain. 1.669(f)-1A Section 1... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(f)-1A Character of capital gain. Amounts distributed as a capital gain... the gain had with respect to the trust. Thus, a capital gain that was taxed to the trust as a...

  20. 新西兰Hulme F1公路超级跑车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    新西兰Kiwi公司开发的 F1公路超级跑车将于今年登场。该车以1967年F1大奖赛冠军得主新西兰人Denny Hulme名字命名为Hulme。它用了两年时间进行设计和打造。

  1. The interplay between NF-kappaB and E2F1 coordinately regulates inflammation and metabolism in human cardiac cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Palomer

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4 inhibition by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is related to a shift towards increased glycolysis during cardiac pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The transcription factors estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulate PDK4 expression through the potent transcriptional coactivator PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α. NF-κB activation in AC16 cardiac cells inhibit ERRα and PPARβ/δ transcriptional activity, resulting in reduced PGC-1α and PDK4 expression, and an enhanced glucose oxidation rate. However, addition of the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide to these cells prevents the downregulation of PDK4 expression but not ERRα and PPARβ/δ DNA binding activity, thus suggesting that additional transcription factors are regulating PDK4. Interestingly, a recent study has demonstrated that the transcription factor E2F1, which is crucial for cell cycle control, may regulate PDK4 expression. Given that NF-κB may antagonize the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in cardiac myocytes, we sought to study whether inflammatory processes driven by NF-κB can downregulate PDK4 expression in human cardiac AC16 cells through E2F1 inhibition. Protein coimmunoprecipitation indicated that PDK4 downregulation entailed enhanced physical interaction between the p65 subunit of NF-κB and E2F1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that p65 translocation into the nucleus prevented the recruitment of E2F1 to the PDK4 promoter and its subsequent E2F1-dependent gene transcription. Interestingly, the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide prevented the inhibition of E2F1, while E2F1 overexpression reduced interleukin expression in stimulated cardiac cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NF-κB acts as a molecular switch that regulates E2F1-dependent PDK4 gene transcription.

  2. NR2F1 controls tumor cell dormancy via SOX9 and RARβ driven quiescence programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Maria Soledad; Parikh, Falguni; Maia, Alexandre Gaspar; Estrada, Yeriel; Bosch, Almudena; Bragado, Paloma; Ekpin, Esther; George, Ajish; Zheng, Yang; Lam, Hung-Ming; Morrissey, Colm; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Farias, Eduardo F.; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases can originate from disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), which may be dormant for years before reactivation. Here we find that the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 is epigenetically upregulated in experimental HNSCC dormancy models and in DTCs from prostate cancer patients carrying dormant disease for 7–18 years. NR2F1-dependent dormancy is recapitulated by a co-treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-C and retinoic acid across various cancer types. NR2F1-induced quiescence is dependent on SOX9, RARβ and CDK inhibitors. Intriguingly, NR2F1 induces global chromatin repression and the pluripotency gene NANOG, which contributes to dormancy of DTCs in the bone marrow. When NR2F1 is blocked in vivo, growth arrest or survival of dormant DTCs is interrupted in different organs. We conclude that NR2F1 is a critical node in dormancy induction and maintenance by integrating epigenetic programs of quiescence and survival in DTCs. PMID:25636082

  3. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Bio F1B hamster: a unique animal model with reduced lipoprotein lipase activity to investigate nutrient mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish Marion L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio F1B hamster is an inbred hybrid strain that is highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We previously reported that feeding a high fat fish oil diet to Bio F1B hamster caused severe hyperlipidaemia. In this study we compared the effects of various diets in the Bio F1B hamster and the Golden Syrian hamster, which is an outbred hamster strain to investigate whether genetic background plays an important role in dietary fat mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. We further investigated the mechanisms behind diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in F1B hamster. Methods The Bio F1B and Golden Syrian hamsters, 8 weeks old, were fed high fat diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids, an n-6: n-3 ratio of 5 or a fish oil diet for 4 weeks. Animals were fasted overnight and blood and tissue samples were collected. Plasma was fractionated into various lipoprotein fractions and assayed for triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations. Plasma lipoprotein lipase activity was measured using radioisotope method. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity was measured in the liver and intestine. Plasma apolipoproteinB48, -B100 and apolipoprotein E was measured using Western blots. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of diet type and animal strain. Results The fish oil fed F1B hamsters showed milky plasma after a 14-hour fast. Fish oil feeding caused accumulation of apolipoproteinB48 containing lipoprotein particles suggesting hindrance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance. There was no significant effect of diet or strain on hepatic or intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity indicating that hyperlipidaemia is not due to an increase in the assembly or secretion of lipoprotein particles. F1B hamsters showed significantly reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase activity, which was inhibited by fish oil feeding. Conclusion Evidence is presented for the first time that alterations in

  5. Daphnetin inhibits inflammation in the NZB/W F1 systemic lupus erythematosus murine model via inhibition of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Shi, Xiaowei; Chen, Fangru; Hao, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Daphnetin is a compound extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs, which exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of daphnetin on inflammation in the NZB/W F1 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) murine model. Female NZB/WF1 mice (age, 16–18 weeks) were intraperitoneally injected with daphnetin once a day for 12 weeks. It was revealed that daphnetin treatment significantly increased animal survival rates, reduced renal damage and blood urea nitrogen levels, and suppressed serum autoantibody production in the SLE-prone NZB/W F1 mice. In addition, daphnetin treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, suppressed the protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and promoted A20 protein expression in SLE-prone NZB/W F1 mice. In conclusion, daphnetin inhibited inflammation in the NZB/W F1 murine SLE model via inhibition of NF-κB mediated by upregulation of A20.

  6. PCR characterization and typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae using capsular type-specific, variable number tandem repeat and virulence gene targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Perry, Claire; Elgohari, Suzanne; Hampton, Catherine V

    2010-05-01

    A multiplex PCR is described which detects capsular types K1, K2, K5, K54 and K57, which are those most associated with invasive disease or pathogenicity, a further capsular type (K20), two putative virulence factors (rmpA and wcaG) and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer unit of Klebsiella pneumoniae, facilitating identification of this organism. wcaG encodes capsular fucose production and was associated with capsular types K1 and K54, but was also found in strains of other capsular types; 18 of the 543 isolates screened were PCR-positive for this gene. An eight-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) scheme was designed, which provided discrimination at a level similar to that afforded by PFGE among a panel of 36 isolates representing 29 PFGE types. All isolates tested of the virulent K1 clone of CC23, associated with pyogenic liver abscesses, shared the same VNTR profile, which may be helpful in identifying this clone; such isolates were also PCR-positive for allS. These methods provide a rapid means of characterizing and typing isolates of this important agent of community-acquired and nosocomial infection.

  7. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype F1 in Angola, Brazil and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Gonzalo; Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype F1 is exceptionally prevalent in Angola, Brazil and Romania. The epidemiological context in which the spread of HIV occurred was highly variable from one country to another, mainly due to the existence of a long-term civil war in Angola and the contamination of a large number of children in Romania. Here we apply phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to reconstruct the phylodynamic patterns of HIV-1 subtype F1 in such different epidemiological settings. The phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtype F1 pol sequences sampled worldwide confirmed that most sequences from Angola, Brazil and Romania segregated in country-specific monophyletic groups, while most subtype F1 sequences from Romanian children branched as a monophyletic sub-cluster (Romania-CH) nested within sequences from adults. The inferred time of the most recent common ancestor of the different subtype F1 clades were as follow: Angola=1983 (1978-1989), Brazil=1977 (1972-1981), Romania adults=1980 (1973-1987), and Romania-CH=1985 (1978-1989). All subtype F1 clades showed a demographic history best explained by a model of logistic population growth. Although the expansion phase of subtype F1 epidemic in Angola (mid 1980s to early 2000s) overlaps with the civil war period (1975-2002), the mean estimated growth rate of the Angolan F1 clade (0.49 year(-1)) was not exceptionally high, but quite similar to that estimated for the Brazilian (0.69 year(-1)) and Romanian adult (0.36 year(-1)) subtype F1 clades. The Romania-CH subtype F1 lineage, by contrast, displayed a short and explosive dissemination phase, with a median growth rate (2.47 year(-1)) much higher than that estimated for adult populations. This result supports the idea that the AIDS epidemic that affected the Romanian children was mainly caused by the spread of the HIV through highly efficient parenteral transmission networks, unlike adult populations where HIV is predominantly transmitted through sexual route.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Development of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres vaccine against plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang SS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shih-shiung Huang,1 I-Hsun Li,2,3 Po-da Hong,1 Ming-kung Yeh1,2,41Biomedical Engineering Program, Graduate Institute of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide/polyethylene glycol (PEG (PLGA/PEG microspheres were produced using a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion/solvent extraction technique and assayed for their percent yield, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro release properties, and in vivo animal protect efficacy. The Y. pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres (mean particle size 3.8 µm exhibited a high loading capacity (4.5% w/w, yield (85.2%, and entrapment efficiency (38.1%, and presented a controlled in vitro release profile with a low initial burst (18.5%, then continued to release Y. pestis F1 antigen over 70 days. The distribution (% of Y. pestis F1 on the microspheres surface, outer layer, and core was 3.1%, 28.9%, and 60.7%, respectively. A steady release rate was noticed to be 0.55 µg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres/day of Y. pestis F1 antigen release maintained for 42 days. The cumulative release amount at the 1st, 28th, and 42nd days was 8.2, 26.7, and 31.0 µg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres, respectively. The 100 times median lethal dose 50% (LD50 of Y. pestis Yokohama-R strain by intraperitoneal injection challenge in mice test, in which mice received one dose of 40 µg F1 antigen content of PLGA/PEG microspheres, F1 antigen in Al(OH3, and in comparison with F1 antigen in Al(OH3 vaccine in two doses, was evaluated after given by subcutaneous

  11. Cloning and Characterization of an mRNA Encoding F1-ATPase Beta-Subunit Abundant in Epithelial Cells of Mantle and Gill of Pearl Oyster, Pinctadafucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In oyster biomineralization, large amounts of calcium are absorbed from external media, transported to the mineralization site, and finally deposited via a matrix-mediated process. All these activities are very energy intensive; therefore, investigations of the energy metabolism pathways of different oyster tissues will facilitate understanding of oyster biomineralization physiology. A full-length cDNA encoding the F1-ATPase beta-subunit (the F1-β-subunit, a major calalytic subunit of F-ATPase) from the pearl oyster (Pinctads fucata) was cloned using the homology strategy with a pair of degenerated primers based on the conserved regions of other animals' F1-β-subunit genes. Sequencing and structural analyses showed that the obtained sequence shared high identity with other animals' F1-β-subunits, and had a unique phosphorylation site of PKC and CK Ⅱ on the external surface of the putative protein. Results from semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization demonstrated this oyster F1-β-subunit mRNA is abundant in the gill and mantle, and distributed widely in the periostracal groove, the outer folder,and the dorsal region of the mantle and in the gill epithelial cells. These tissues were the main regions that participate in biomineralization processes such as calcium uptake, transport, and matrix secretion. The results indicate that tissues involved in biomineralization have stronger energy metabolic processes and that F1-ATPase might play an important role in oyster biomineralization by providing energy transport.

  12. Capsular serotyping of Pasteurella multocida from various animal hosts - a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, N D; Ajam, N; Blackall, P J; Asiah, N M; Ramlan, M; Maria, J; Yuslan, S; Thong, K L

    2011-04-01

    One hundred and fourteen strains of Pasteurella multocida were isolated from different domestic animals species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, dog, cat), avian species (chicken, duck, turkey) and wild animals (deer, tiger, orang utan, marmoset). The serogroups of P. multocida were determined by both conventional capsular serotyping and a multiplex PCR assay targeting specific capsular genes. Based on the conventional serotyping method, the 114 strains of P. multocida were subtyped into 55 species-specific (untypeable strains) P. multocida, 15 serogroup A, 23 serogroup B and 21 serogroup D. Based on the multiplex PCR assay on the specific capsular genes associated with each serogroup, the 114 strains were further divided to 22 species-specific P. multocida (KMT1 - 460 bp), 53 serogroup A (A - 1,044 bp), 33 serogroup B (B - 760 bp) and 6 serogroup D (D - 657 bp). No serogroup E (511 bp) or F (851 bp) was detected among the Malaysian P. multocida. PCR-based typing was more discriminative and could further subtype the previously untypeable strains. Overall, there was a significant and positive correlation between both methods in serogrouping P. multocida (r = 0.7935; pmultocida were present among the livestock with 75% of the strains belonging to serogroups A or B. PCR serotyping was therefore a highly species-specific, sensitive and robust method for detection and differentiation of P. multocida serogroups compared to conventional serotyping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from Malaysia of the application of a PCR to rapidly define the species-specific P. multocida and its serogroups as an important zoonotic pathogen in Malaysia.

  13. The envelope of passive motion allowed by the capsular ligaments of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, Richard J; Amis, Andrew A; Jeffers, Jonathan R T

    2015-11-05

    Laboratory data indicate the hip capsular ligaments prevent excessive range of motion, may protect the joint against adverse edge loading and contribute to synovial fluid replenishment at the cartilage surfaces of the joint. However, their repair after joint preserving or arthroplasty surgery is not routine. In order to restore their biomechanical function after hip surgery, the positions of the hip at which the ligaments engage together with their tensions when they engage is required. Nine cadaveric left hips without pathology were skeletonised except for the hip joint capsule and mounted in a six-degrees-of-freedom testing rig. A 5 N m torque was applied to all rotational degrees-of-freedom separately to quantify the passive restraint envelope throughout the available range of motion with the hip functionally loaded. The capsular ligaments allowed the hip to internally/externally rotate with a large range of un-resisted rotation (up to 50±10°) in mid-flexion and mid-ab/adduction but this was reduced towards the limits of flexion/extension and ab/adduction such that there was a near-zero slack region in some positions (pligamentous restraint averaged 0.8±0.3 N m/° and was greater in positions where there were large slack regions. These data provide a target for restoration of normal capsular ligament tensions after joint preserving hip surgery. Ligament repair is technically demanding, particularly for arthroscopic procedures, but failing to restore their function may increase the risk of osteoarthritic degeneration.

  14. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Talamillo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval-pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor, the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues.

  15. An anatomic arthroscopic description of the hip capsular ligaments for the hip arthroscopist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Jessica J M; Lindsey, Derek P; Giori, Nicholas J; Safran, Marc R

    2011-05-01

    To examine and describe the normal anatomic intra-articular locations of the hip capsular ligaments in the central and peripheral compartments of the hip joint. Eight paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric hips (mean age, 73.3 years) were carefully dissected free of soft tissue to expose the hip capsule. Needles were placed through the capsule along the macroscopic borders of the hip capsular ligaments. Arthroscopy was performed on each hip, and the relations of the needles, and thus the ligaments, to the arthroscopic portals and other soft-tissue and osseous landmarks in the hip were recorded by use of a clock-face reference system. The iliofemoral ligament (ILFL) ran from 12:45 to 3 o'clock. The ILFL was pierced by the anterolateral and anterior portals just within its lateral and medial borders, respectively. The pubofemoral ligament was located from the 3:30 to the 5:30 clock position; the lateral border was at the psoas-U perimeter, and the medial border was at the junction of the anteroinferior acetabulum and the cotyloid fossa. The ischiofemoral ligament (ISFL) ran from the 7:45 to the 10:30 clock position. The posterolateral portal pierced the ISFL just inside its superior/lateral border, and the inferior/lateral border was located at the posteroinferior acetabulum. In the peripheral compartment the lateral ILFL and superior/lateral ISFL borders were in proximity to the lateral synovial fold. The medial ILFL and lateral pubofemoral ligament borders were closely approximated to the medial synovial fold. The hip capsular ligaments have distinct and consistent arthroscopic locations within the hip joint and are associated with clearly identifiable landmarks in the central and peripheral compartments. The standard hip arthroscopy portals are closely related to the borders of the hip capsular ligaments. These findings will help orthopaedic surgeons know which structures are being addressed during arthroscopic surgery and may help in the development of future hip

  16. rt-PA with Antithrombotic Therapies in a Case with Capsular Warning Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseya, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Miyuki; Matsuda, Eri; Takada, Kozue; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Fujitake, Junko; Nakaya, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of capsular warning syndrome (CWS) that was successfully treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). A 70-year-old woman had repeated stereotyped transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) of right hemiparesis and dysarthria. After hospitalization, argatroban, aspirin, and cilostazol were started but were ineffective. Thirteen hours after the first episode of TIAs, severe symptoms occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute infarctions in the internal capsule to corona radiata, so we used rt-PA. Since then, the TIAs have not occurred, and the symptoms have considerably improved. This case suggests that rt-PA might be effective and safe for use in treating CWS. PMID:28202868

  17. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the...

  18. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...... no significant differences among the groups. The response to the TT part of the vaccine showed the same pattern. CONCLUSION: Although the most immature infants may show an inadequate antibody response to the initial immunizations, many preterm infants can benefit from vaccination with HibCP-TT when starting...

  19. Molecular cloning of chicken FTZ-F1-related orphan receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, T; Sutou, S

    1997-09-15

    FTZ-F1 is a member of the orphan nuclear receptors, which belongs to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, and plays a role in the blastoderm and nervous system development in Drosophila. Recently, several FTZ-F1 family genes have been cloned in several species. SF-1/Ad4BPs have been identified as master regulators controlling steroidogenic P-450 genes in mammals and are considered to be the mammalian homologues of FTZ-F1. Moreover, SF-1/Ad4BP plays a critical role in the sexual differentiation of gonads in mammals. In vertebrates, except for mammals, the functional homologue of SF-1/Ad4BP has not been identified before. Herein, we cloned two chicken cDNAs (OR2.0 and OR2.1), which encode putative FTZ-F1 family receptors, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). OR2.1 consists of 3255 bp, is expressed in the adrenal glands and gonads, and is considered to be the chicken counterpart of mammalian SF-1/Ad4BP. However, OR2.0 consists of 2945 bp, is expressed in the livers and the adrenal glands, and is considered to be the chicken counterpart of mouse LRH-1, which is a member of the FTZ-F1 family in mammals.

  20. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-08-25

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼ 1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than k(B)T per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼ 1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines.

  1. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters.

  2. E2F1 in renal cancer: Mr Hyde disguised as Dr Jekyll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weihua; Cui, Fenggong; Esteban, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factor E2F1 has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties, depending on the context. Clarifying the function of E2F1 in different types of cancer is relevant because in those situations in which it acts as an oncogene there may be a route for therapeutic interference. Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent form of kidney cancer in adults and inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene underlies most cases. This malignancy represents a challenge for standard therapies due to drug- and radio-resistance, effects that fit well within the scope of functions of E2F1. A new report by Mans et al postulates that up-regulation of E2F1 in VHL-defective renal cell carcinoma induces cell senescence and can thus be considered a good prognostic factor. Here we discuss these findings in a wider context and propose that E2F1 may actually not play a uniform role in renal cell carcinoma but rather an ambiguous one whose deeper understanding could have practical implications. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Miyagishi, Makoto [Molecular Composite Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Wu, Shourong, E-mail: shourongwu@hotmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  4. Analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus of Porphyromonas gingivalis and development of a K1-specific polymerase chain reaction-based serotyping assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, J.; Crielaard, W.; Winkelhoff A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative obligate anaerobe that is strongly associated with severe periodontitis. Previous reports showed an association of P. gingivalis capsular polysaccharide with virulence. The K1 capsular polysaccharide was found to be more immunosti

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of anteroinferior capsular redundancy associated with anterior shoulder instability using an open Latarjet procedure and capsulorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Mickaël; Cretual, Armel; Kaila, Rajiv; Bonan, Isabelle; Hervé, Anthony; Thomazeau, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of data detailing management of anterior capsular redundancy (ACR) when using the Latarjet procedure for unidirectional instability. This study aimed to describe the surgical management and to assess the clinical profile of patients presenting with anterior capsular redundancy [ACR(+)] with anterior shoulder instability. Seventy-seven patients who had a Latarjet procedure were followed for a 55-month period. Per-operative ACR was assessed during surgery. ACR was considered present if the inferior capsular flap of a Neer T-shaft capsulorrhaphy was able to cover the superior capsular flap with the arm in the neutral position. Patients with ACR(+) received an additional Neer capsulorrhaphy, while patients with ACR(-) did not. This per-operative finding was correlated with demographics, clinical, radiological pre-operative data and surgical outcome. Patients presenting with a per-operative ACR(+) were significantly associated with a sulcus sign (P 4 (P 85°. Open standard Latarjet procedures with Neer capsulorrhaphy in ACR(+) patients showed excellent or good results and stability rate of 95 %. All patients except four who presented with a new dislocation after surgery were satisfied with their outcome. Thirteen patients (16 %) had a persistent apprehension sign at the last follow-up. ACR(+) and ACR(-) groups did not show significant difference in the mean values of Rowe, Walch-Duplay and Constant-Murley scores. ACR correlated with a sulcus sign, Beighton score and instability history. In anterior shoulder instability associated with ACR, the Latarjet procedure with a Neer capsulorrhaphy appears a satisfactory treatment alternative to arthroscopic or open capsular shift. It decreased apprehension in comparison with Latarjet procedures without capsular repair. Cases series, treatment study, Level IV.

  6. Nuclear factor YY1 activates the mammalian F0F1 ATP synthase alpha-subunit gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, G A; Vander Zee, C A; Jordan, E M

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the promoters of the bovine and human nuclear-encoded mitochondrial F0F1 ATP synthase alpha-subunit genes (ATPA) has identified several positive cis-acting regulatory regions that are important for basal promoter activity in human HeLa cells. We have previously determined that the binding of a protein factor, termed ATPF1, to an E-box sequence (CANNTG) located within one of these cis-acting regions is critical for transcriptional activation of the ATPA gene. In this article, we describe a second positive cis-acting regulatory element of the ATPA gene that is important for expression of the ATPA gene. We show that this cis-acting element also contains a binding site for a protein present in HeLa cells. On the basis of electrophoretic mobility shift patterns, oligonucleotide competition assays, and immunological cross-reactivity, we conclude that this protein factor is Yin-Yang 1 (YY1). Experiments carried out to examine the functional role of YY1 within the context of the ATPA promoter demonstrated that YY1 acts as a positive regulator of the ATPA gene. For example, when the YY1 binding site of the ATPA promoter was placed upstream of a reporter gene it was found to activate transcription in transient transfection assays. In addition, disruption of the YY1 binding site in the ATPA gene resulted in a loss of transcriptional activity. Furthermore, in cotransfection experiments overexpression of YY1 in trans was found to activate transcription of ATPA promoter-CAT constructs. Thus, at least two positive trans-acting regulatory factors, ATPF1 and YY1, are important for expression of the bovine and human F0F1 ATP synthase alpha-subunit genes.

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(f)-1 - Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property. 1.167(f)-1 Section 1.167(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(f)-1 Reduction of salvage value taken into account for...

  8. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  9. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Pou2f1 All cell types SRX877595,SRX877...592 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Pou2f1.AllCell.bed ...

  10. Discovery and expression of 3 siglecs-like in Oreochromis niloticus neutrophil, and their interaction with group B streptococcal sialylated capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junjian; Wei, Yuanzheng; Ye, Xing; Sun, Chengfei; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Maixin; Du, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhihang

    2016-05-01

    Sialic acid - binding immunoglobulin - like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the largest superfamily of immune receptors; they recognize sialic acid and are mainly expressed in immune cells. Studies on mammals indicate that Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) evade immune reactions by interacting with the host immune cells via the sialic acid of sialylated capsular polysaccharides. However, it is currently unknown if fish-derived GBS can interact with Siglecs to evade host immunity. In this study, we examined the binding of FITC-GBS with neutrophils to determine the presence of receptors that binds with GBS. Furthermore, 3 Siglec-like genes, (OnSiglec-1-like/-4b-like/-14-like) from the neutrophils cDNA were screened by PCR. All the genes had specific domains (immunostimulation and immunosuppression domains), conserved amino acid residues, and sialic acid polysaccharide binding sites that are found in mammalian Siglecs. Flow cytometry of Siglecs-like/COS-7 cells and ELISA of Siglecs/Ex-Fc fusion proteins confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like have high binding activity with GBS. Erythrocytes adhesion assays and sialylated glycans binding assay confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like bind to sialic acid polysaccharides. Siglecs-like had high expression levels in the spleen, gill, and kidney in Oreochromis niloticus by qPCR. After experimental infection, Siglec-1-like/-14-like showed a significant upregulated initially and later downregulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and gill. However, Siglec-4b-like was downregulated in most tissues, except that in liver. The results indicate that 3 OnSiglecs-like may recognize GBS sialylated capsular polysaccharides. GBS infections led to significant changes in Siglecs-like expression in immune-related tissues. However, immunostimulation or immunosuppression via the recognition of GBS by different Siglecs-like molecules requires additional studies.

  11. Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Sayaka; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Shiraki, Ayako; Onda, Nobuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Cochineal extracts (CE) is a coccid-derived natural food colorant containing carminic acid (CA) as an active ingredient that potentiates inhibition of tissue proteolysis mediated by activation of plasma hyaluronan-binding protein (PHBP). In our previous study, dietary administered CE (CA: 28.5% in CE) has shown to promote the macroscopic development of capsular invasive carcinomas (CICs) associated with up-regulation of angiogenesis-related genes in an intracapsular invasion model of experimental thyroid cancers using rats. However, the promoting effect of CE could not be confirmed histopathologically. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the promoting effect of CE through direct injections to animals on the development of CICs using this cancer invasion model. One week after initiation with N-bis(hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, male F344/NSlc rats were administered CA-enriched CE (CA: 52.6% in CE) by intraperitoneal injections every other day (10 mg/kg body weight) during the promotion with 0.15% sulfadimethoxine in the drinking water for 8 weeks. The multiplicities of macroscopical CICs and the mean area of early capsular invasive foci estimated by Tenascin (TN)-C-immunoreactivity in the thyroid significantly increased with CE-treatment, while the number of TN-C-positive foci did not change with CE. Transcript level of Phbp and downstream genes unchanged; however, transcript level of angiogenesis-related genes, i.e, Vegfb and its transcription factor gene, Hif1a, those being downstream of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt signaling, up-regulated in the thyroid tissue with CE-administration. These results suggest that CE potentiates promotion activity by facilitating angiogenesis through activation of PTEN/Akt signaling without accompanying modification of PHBP-related proteolysis.

  12. BMW Sauber F1 Team 车队专用——BMW X PUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian

    2007-01-01

    Puma x F1.第一时间会想起Puma与法拉利车队合作的法拉利系列.还有,Puma更与法拉利签下长期合作协议。可是.最近却杀出个程咬金-BMW Sauber F1 Team车队,说的是Puma与宝马车队联合设计的新系.当中最注目的有这双Kart Cat Ⅱ F1赛车鞋.鞋形延用Puma Cat一贯的流线形设计,除了用上宝马车队专用的宝蓝色外.中底更用上Puma CeⅡ蜂巢缓震系统,算是向法拉利车队示威吧!

  13. The Resistance of Chinese Wild Vitis to Uncinula necator and its Inheritance in F1 Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-xia; WANG Yue-jin; XU Yan

    2002-01-01

    By natural field identification, the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis to Uncinula necator and its inheritance in F1 generation were studied with 35 clones of 9 Chinese wild Vitis species, 171 F1 individuals of 4 inter-species cross between Chinese wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, and 16 individuals of selfpollinated Chinese wild Vitis. Results showed that the phenotypes of resistance to Uncinula necator in Chinese wild Vitis and its F1 generation were rich and diverse. Based on the segregation of resisitance to Uncinula necator in the progenies resulted from both interspecific hybridization and self-pollination, of Chinese native wild Vitis species and clones were controlled by polygenes showing dominant independent heredity. Minor resistant genes were also exist in Chinese wild susceptible Vitis species and clones.

  14. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F =1 atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooshin; Seo, Sang Won; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of 23Na atoms in the F =1 hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations in the presence of a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the F =1 absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of 23Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe-beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in the quantitative analysis of F =1 spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali-metal atoms with I =3 /2 nuclear spin such as 87Rb.

  15. Types of tree growth and fruit setting in F1 apple hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available 1656 F1 hybrid apple seedlings, belonging to 127 combinations, have been screened according to their growing and fruit setting types, as it was phenotypically expressed. LESPINASSE (1977; 1992 amalgamated these two traits into a single one which was named ";ideotype";. The screened F1 individuals have been considered as resembling one of the following four architectural ideotypes of the trees indicated by Lespinasse: columnar, spur, standard and weeping. Different ratios of spur, standard and columnar F1 individuals were obtained depending on genitors and on the fact that a certain genitor had been used as a maternal or paternal partner in direct/reciprocal crosses. The monogenic inheritance of the columnar ideotype, proposed by Kelsey and Brown (1992; Lane (1992, does not seem to be the only genetic mechanism involved in the inheritance of this trait. Our experimental results suggest the polygenic determination of this ideotype as more probable than the monogenic one.

  16. 墨西哥考虑2010年重返F1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    F1最早一次造访墨西哥是1962年,中间反复了两次,最后一次承办是1992年。墨西哥此后一直嚷嚷要重新承办F1,但这次是非常认真的,计划在2010年重返F1赛历。据来自墨西哥的消息称,有很多地方考虑新建赛道,其中呼声最高的是位于尤卡坦半岛的坎昆,另外两个地点是Puebla和Tijuana。

  17. Cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen levels in cars, dwellings and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesler, A; Ścigała, G; Łudzeń-Izbińska, B

    Pets are an important source of indoor allergens. The aim of the study was to compare cat and dog allergen levels in cars, schools and homes. The study was carried out in 17 cars, 14 classrooms and 19 dwellings located in the highly industrialized and urbanized region of Poland. Dust and air samples were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 using a double monoclonal ELISA assay. The highest amounts of cat and dog allergens (Fel d 1: 1169 μg/g; Can f 1: 277 μg/g) were found in dwellings with pets. Allergen concentrations were correlated with the number of animals kept at home. Although concentrations on automobile seats were lower, Fel d 1 levels exceeded 8 μg/g in 23.5 % of cars and high levels of Can f 1 (>10 μg/g) were found in 17.6 % of cars. The study revealed that cars of pet owners may be reservoirs of cat and dog allergens even when animals are not transported in them. In schools, concentrations of pet allergens did not reach high levels, but the moderate levels of Fel d 1 (≥1-8 μg/g) and Can f 1 (≥2-10 μg/g) were detected in 42.9 and 7.1 % of the investigated classrooms. Concentrations of cat and dog allergen in schools were higher than in homes without pets. While airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels were found low, residential allergen concentrations in settled dust and air were correlated. The study results suggest that classrooms and cars of pet owners may be important sites of exposure to cat and dog allergens, though the highest concentrations of Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are found in homes of pet owners.

  18. Multiple Roles of Myd88 in the Immune Response to the Plague F1-V Vaccine and in Protection against an Aerosol Challenge of Yersinia pestis CO92 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Dankmeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current candidate vaccine against Yersinia pestis infection consists of two subunit proteins: the capsule protein or F1 protein and the low calcium response V protein or V-antigen. Little is known of the recognition of the vaccine by the host’s innate immune system and how it affects the acquired immune response to the vaccine. Thus, we vaccinated Toll-like receptor (Tlr 2, 4, and 2/4-double deficient, as well as signal adaptor protein Myd88-deficient mice. We found that Tlr4 and Myd88 appeared to be required for an optimal immune response to the F1-V vaccine but not Tlr2 when compared to wild-type mice. However, there was a difference between the requirement for Tlr4 and MyD88 in vaccinated animals. When F1-V vaccinated Tlr4 mutant (lipopolysaccharide tolerant and Myd88-deficient mice were challenged by aerosol with Y. pestis CO92, all but one Tlr4 mutant mice survived the challenge, but no vaccinated Myd88-deficient mice survived the challenge. Spleens from these latter nonsurviving mice showed that Y. pestis was not cleared from the infected mice. Our results suggest that MyD88 appears to be important for both an optimal immune response to F1-V and in protection against a lethal challenge of Y. pestis CO92 in F1-V vaccinated mice.

  19. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramian, Babak; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Abani, Samira; Dabiri, Hossein; Beigverdi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections. A total of 194 S. agalactiae isolates, 55 isolates from bovines and 139 from humans, were analyzed for capsular types, virulence genes (scpB, hly, rib, bca and bac) and mobile genetic elements (IS1548 and GBSi1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (61%), followed by types V, II, Ib, and IV. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The virulence gene profiles scpB- hly- IS1548- rib-bca (51%) and scpB- hly- IS1548- bca (19%) were only predominant among human isolates. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from human infections, these result can support the idea that S. agalactiae isolated from humans and bovines are generally unrelated and probably belonged to separate populations.

  20. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment of capsular fibrosis after mammary augmentation - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Norbert; Prantl, Lukas; Eisenmann-Klein, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has undergone continuous development and has become a well-established therapy option both in urology and in orthopaedics/trauma surgery. Experimental and clinical studies have proved the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of connective tissue diseases such as fibromatosis. The pathomechanism of capsular fibrosis after augmentation of the female breast with silicone implants presents a series of analogies with mechanisms that are generally recognised to be associated with fibroproliferative diseases. The starting point of the disease is the inflammatory reaction caused by the silicone and/or by the sub-clinical bacterial contamination of the implant surface and can create an inflammatory reaction and fibrosis. A total of 19 cases of capsular fibrosis in 12 patients following insertion of mammary implants were treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. The therapy was performed with the Duolith SD1 system manufactured by Storz Medical. Shock waves were applied with the C-Actor handpiece designed for planar shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy appears to be a non-invasive, well-tolerated and easy-to-use procedure for pain reduction and fibrotic tissue softening, especially after aesthetic breast implant augmentation.

  1. Injection-molded capsular device for oral pulsatile release: development of a novel mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Macchi, Elena; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The development of a purposely devised mold and a newly set up injection molding (IM) manufacturing process was undertaken to prepare swellable/erodible hydroxypropyl cellulose-based capsular containers. When orally administered, such devices would be intended to achieve pulsatile and/or colonic time-dependent delivery of drugs. An in-depth evaluation of thermal, rheological, and mechanical characteristics of melt formulations/molded items made of the selected polymer (Klucel® LF) with increasing amounts of plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500, 5%-15% by weight) was preliminarily carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, a new mold was designed that allowed, through an automatic manufacturing cycle of 5 s duration, matching cap and body items to be prepared. These were subsequently filled and coupled to give a closed device of constant 600 μm thickness. As compared with previous IM systems having the same composition, such capsules showed improved closure mechanism, technological properties, especially in terms of reproducibility of the shell thickness, and release performance. Moreover, the ability of the capsular container to impart a constant lag phase before the liberation of the contents was demonstrated irrespective of the conveyed formulation.

  2. Reacción tisular a las prótesis mamarias: Contractura capsular periprotésica Tissue reaction to breast prostheses: Periprosthetic capsular contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Escudero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prótesis mamarias de silicona provocan el desarrollo de una envoltura fibrosa o cápsula periprotésica. La contractura de la cápsula, por retracción del tejido fibroso, es la complicación más frecuente e importante de estos implantes. Produce un endurecimiento de grado variable y, en los casos avanzados, deformidad de la mama. Se ha relacionado estrechamente con el tipo de superficie del implante (lisa o texturada y con la disposición de las fibras de colágeno, habiéndose sugerido que la formación de una cápsula continua, con fibras de colágeno dispuestas paralela y circularmente alrededor de las prótesis lisas, promueve el desarrollo de fuerzas contráctiles concéntricas, que traccionando al unísono producirían la contractura. Con las prótesis texturadas microporosas se ha demostrado una incidencia significativamente más baja de contractura capsular en comparación con las lisas. Se considera que el crecimiento tisular dentro de la estructura microporosa origina fuerzas contráctiles multidireccionales, con tendencia a neutralizarse entre ellas cuando su efecto se suma sobre el implante. La cápsula de estos implantes presenta una zona basal compuesta de múltiples capas de fibras de colágeno alineadas paralelamente, la cual podría contraerse. Sin embargo, la adherencia de las prótesis texturadas microporosas podría contrarrestar las fuerzas contráctiles.Silicone breast prostheses prompt the development of a fibrous casing or periprosthetic capsule. Capsular contracture, due to retraction of the fibrous tissue, is the most frequent and important complication of these implants. It produces varying degrees of hardening and, in advanced cases, deformity of the breast. It has been closely related to the type of surface of the implant (smooth or textured and with the alignment of the collagen fibers, and it has been suggested that the formation of a continuous capsule, with collagen fibers aligned in parallel and

  3. The gene desert mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs1a regulates Nr2f1 modifying mammary epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M G Smits

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have revealed that many low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are located in non-protein coding genomic regions; however, few have been characterized. In a comparative genetics approach to model such loci in a rat breast cancer model, we previously identified the mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs1a. We now localize Mcs1a to a critical interval (277 Kb within a gene desert. Mcs1a reduces mammary carcinoma multiplicity by 50% and acts in a mammary cell-autonomous manner. We developed a megadeletion mouse model, which lacks 535 Kb of sequence containing the Mcs1a ortholog. Global gene expression analysis by RNA-seq revealed that in the mouse mammary gland, the orphan nuclear receptor gene Nr2f1/Coup-tf1 is regulated by Mcs1a. In resistant Mcs1a congenic rats, as compared with susceptible congenic control rats, we found Nr2f1 transcript levels to be elevated in mammary gland, epithelial cells, and carcinoma samples. Chromatin looping over ∼820 Kb of sequence from the Nr2f1 promoter to a strongly conserved element within the Mcs1a critical interval was identified. This element contains a 14 bp indel polymorphism that affects a human-rat-mouse conserved COUP-TF binding motif and is a functional Mcs1a candidate. In both the rat and mouse models, higher Nr2f1 transcript levels are associated with higher abundance of luminal mammary epithelial cells. In both the mouse mammary gland and a human breast cancer global gene expression data set, we found Nr2f1 transcript levels to be strongly anti-correlated to a gene cluster enriched in cell cycle-related genes. We queried 12 large publicly available human breast cancer gene expression studies and found that the median NR2F1 transcript level is consistently lower in 'triple-negative' (ER-PR-HER2- breast cancers as compared with 'receptor-positive' breast cancers. Our data suggest that the non-protein coding locus Mcs1a regulates Nr2f1, which is a candidate

  4. Operating principles of rotary molecular motors: differences between F1 and V1 motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Murata, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Among the many types of bioenergy-transducing machineries, F- and V-ATPases are unique bio- and nano-molecular rotary motors. The rotational catalysis of F1-ATPase has been investigated in detail, and molecular mechanisms have been proposed based on the crystal structures of the complex and on extensive single-molecule rotational observations. Recently, we obtained crystal structures of bacterial V1-ATPase (A3B3 and A3B3DF complexes) in the presence and absence of nucleotides. Based on these new structures, we present a novel model for the rotational catalysis mechanism of V1-ATPase, which is different from that of F1-ATPases.

  5. An approximation for zero-balanced Appell function $F_1$ near $(1,1)$

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest an approximation for the zero-balanced Appell hypergeometric function $F_1$ near the singular point $(1,1)$. Our approximation can be viewed as a generalization of Ramanujan's approximation for zero-balanced ${_2F_1}$ and is expressed in terms of ${_3F_2}$. We find an error bound and prove some basic properties of the suggested approximation which reproduce the similar properties of the Appell function. Our approximation reduces to the approximation of Carlson-Gustafson when the Ap...

  6. HMGA2 induces pituitary tumorigenesis by enhancing E2F1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedele, Monica; Visone, Rosa; De Martino, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    HMGA2 gene amplification and overexpression in human prolactinomas and the development of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2 transgenic mice showed that HMGA2 plays a crucial role in pituitary tumorigenesis. We have explored the pRB/E2F1 pathway to investigate the mechanism by which HMGA2 acts. Here we......2 mice. Thus, HMGA2-mediated E2F1 activation is a crucial event in the onset of these tumors in transgenic mice and probably also in human prolactinomas....

  7. Binding of the immunomodulatory drug Bz-423 to mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase in living cells by FRET acceptor photobleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Ilka; Johnson, Kathryn M.; Petersen, Jan; Gräber, Peter; Opipari, Anthony W.; Glick, Gary D.; Börsch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Bz-423 is a promising new drug for treatment of autoimmune diseases. This small molecule binds to subunit OSCP of the mitochondrial enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase and modulates its catalytic activities. We investigate the binding of Bz-423 to mitochondria in living cells and how subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase, i.e. the mechanochemical mechanism of this enzyme, is affected by Bz-423. Therefore, the enzyme was marked selectively by genetic fusion with the fluorescent protein EGFP to the C terminus of subunit γ. Imaging the threedimensional arrangement of mitochondria in living yeast cells was possible at superresolution using structured illumination microscopy, SIM. We measured uptake and binding of a Cy5-labeled Bz-423 derivative to mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase in living yeast cells using FRET acceptor photobleaching microscopy. Our data confirmed the binding of Cy5-labeled Bz-423 to the top of the F1 domain of the enzyme in mitochondria of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  8. Privileged scaffolds or promiscuous binders: a glance of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazines and related bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu'ning; Zhan, Peng; Zhang, Qingzhu; Liu, Xinyong

    2013-01-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine template, a unique bridgehead nitrogen heterocycle, certainly deserves the title of "privileged scaffold" in the drug discovery field because of the versatility and potential to yield derivatives with a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), VEGFR-2, EGFR and/or HER2, Met kinase, p38α mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) kinase activities, etc. These different biological properties of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine derivatives have motivated new studies in searching for novel derivatives with improved activity and also other applications in pharmaceutical field. However, no systematic review is available in the literature on the pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazine derivatives concerning the design of potent drug-like compounds. Owing to the importance of this heterocyclic system, the present paper is an attempt to the pharmacological activities, structural modifications and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) reported for bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles in the current literature, making an effort to highlight the importance and therapeutic potentials of the pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine scaffold and its bridgehead nitrogen bioisosters as heterocyclic privileged medicinal scaffolds.

  9. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease E2F1 expression and inhibit cell growth in ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca L Valle

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that the regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs drugs is associated with a reduced risk of various cancers. In addition, in vitro and experiments in mouse models have demonstrated that NSAIDs decrease tumor initiation and/or progression of several cancers. However, there are limited preclinical studies investigating the effects of NSAIDs in ovarian cancer. Here, we have studied the effects of two NSAIDs, diclofenac and indomethacin, in ovarian cancer cell lines and in a xenograft mouse model. Diclofenac and indomethacin treatment decreased cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, diclofenac and indomethacin reduced tumor volume in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. To identify possible molecular pathways mediating the effects of NSAID treatment in ovarian cancer, we performed microarray analysis of ovarian cancer cells treated with indomethacin or diclofenac. Interestingly, several of the genes found downregulated following diclofenac or indomethacin treatment are transcriptional target genes of E2F1. E2F1 was downregulated at the mRNA and protein level upon treatment with diclofenac and indomethacin, and overexpression of E2F1 rescued cells from the growth inhibitory effects of diclofenac and indomethacin. In conclusion, NSAIDs diclofenac and indomethacin exert an anti-proliferative effect in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo and the effects of NSAIDs may be mediated, in part, by downregulation of E2F1.

  10. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery on posterior capsule opacification in the human capsular bag in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Christian; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Dirisamer, Martin; Eibl-Lindner, Kirsten; Kook, Daniel; Priglinger, Siegfried; Mayer, Wolfgang J

    2017-03-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by observing lens epithelial cell growth in the human capsular bag in vitro between conventional lens surgery using phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique and femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery (FLACS). For the in vitro human capsular bag model, 18 cadaver eyes from nine human donors underwent three types of lens surgery. Three groups consisting of six capsular bags were established, that is FLACS, Phaco and extracapsular lens extraction (ECCE). The capsular bag was transferred into equal cell culture conditions after using one of the defined surgical approaches. Cellular growth of lens epithelial cells was observed and photo-documented. The time until full cell-coverage of the capsular bag was measured. The human capsular bag model can be successfully prepared using FLACS. There was no statistically significant difference in time until cell-coverage of the human donor capsular bag in vitro in all three surgical settings (ECCE versus Phaco p = 0.6; ECCE versus FLACS p = 1.0; Phaco versus FLACS p = 1.0). In our in vitro human capsular bag model, we could not observe a statistically significant difference in PCO formation using different surgical approaches of lens extraction. Therefore, PCO formation might not be attributed to the type of surgery. Furthermore, this study shows that FLACS can be used for the human capsular bag model preparation and validates the human capsular bag model for future research. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn*

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-Ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-01-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor inde...

  12. Síndrome de distensión del saco capsular: Presentación de un caso Capsular bag distension syndrome: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmary Aragonés Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La capsulorrexis es el método preferido para la realización de la capsulotomía anterior. El síndrome de distensión del saco capsular es una complicación posoperatoria poco frecuente asociada a esta técnica. En este artículo presentamos un caso clínico de una mujer de 70 años, que presentaba una catarata nuclear dura en ojo izquierdo, a la cual se le realizó cirugía extracapsular técnica de Mini Nuc de Blumenthal, con capsulorrexis anterior e implante de LIO de Polimetil Metacrilato en cápsula posterior. Un mes más tarde la paciente acude con disminución de la visión, con sobrerrefracción miópica postoperatoria y desplazamiento anterior del lente. Se realizó capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser Nd YAG que resolvió la complicación, con recuperación de la profundidad de la cámara anterior y reposicionamiento del lente. La capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser es la mejor opción terapéutica, al ser inocua, de rápida recuperación, excelentes resultados visuales y mínimas complicacionesCapsulorrhexis is the preferred method to perform anterior capsulotomy. Capsular bag distension syndrome is one of the less frequent postoperative complications associated to this technique. This article prresented the clinical case of a 70-years-old woman who presented with hard nuclear cataract in hter left eye and underwent an extracapsular surgery by Mini Nuc technique, with anterior capsulorrhexis and polymethyl-metacrylate IoL implant in posterior capsule. A month after surgery, the patient went to the doctor´s with reduced vision, posoperative myopic overrefraction and anterior displacement of the lens. Then, peripheral anterior capsulotomy with Nd YAG laser was used to overcome this problem; anterior chamber depth and repositioning of the lens were recovered. Peripheral anterior capsulotomy with laser is the best therapeutic choice since it is harmless, and offers rapid recovery, excellent visual results and minimal

  13. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Jiang

    Full Text Available The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance.

  14. Measurement of growth curve in F1 generation of Rongshui miniature pig%融水小型猪 F1代生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施赫赫; 陈淦; 刘运忠; 刘科; 邝少松; 任海涛; 余细勇; 唐小江

    2015-01-01

    目的:测定融水小型猪F1代体重和体尺。方法选取F1代融水小型猪83头(雌性48头,雄性35头),测定初生至12月龄的体重、体长、体高、胸围、胸宽、胸深、管围、腿围、嘴裂长度共9个生长发育指标,并应用SPSS统计软件和Logistic非线性生长模型进行分析。结果融水小型猪F1代的初生体重雌雄分别为0.61±0.14 kg和0.55±0.13 kg,6月龄体重雌雄分别为17.21±5.20 kg和16.35±5.23 kg,12月龄体重雌雄分别为26.97±6.49 kg和26.53±5.65 kg。雌雄比较,9项指标所测结果接近,除了初生体重和体长、10月龄胸宽有差异( P <0.05),其余指标同月龄雌雄之间均无明显差异。应用Logistic模型分析,体重生长拐点在5~6月龄间,体长和腿围生长拐点在2~3月龄间,体高、胸围、胸宽、胸深、管围和嘴裂长度的生长拐点在1~2月龄间。结论融水小型猪F1代成年体重轻,性情温顺,具备培养成实验用小型猪基本条件。%Objective To measure the body weight and body size of the F1 generation in Rongshui miniature pig ( RMP ).Methods 83 F1 generations of RMPs (48 females and 35 males) were selected randomly.9 traits included body-weight, body-length, body-height, chest-circumference, chest-breadth, chest-depth, circum of pastern, girth of leg and rictus were measured, and analyzed statistically by SPSS statistical software and Logistic nonlinear growth analysis model.Results In the F1 generations of RMP, the weights of birth day、6thmonth and 12th month of female and male were 0.61 ±0.14 kg and 0.55 ±0.13 kg, 17.21 ±5.20 kg and 16.35 ±5.23 kg, 26.97 ±6.49 kg and 26.53 ±5.65 kg respectively.There was no difference significantly between the genders of the 9 measured traits except for born-weight, born-length and chest-breadth in 10th month ( P <0.05 ).According to the analysis in Logistic model, body-weight inflection point was between 5th -6th month, body length

  15. Structures of the thermophilic F1-ATPase epsilon subunit suggesting ATP-regulated arm motion of its C-terminal domain in F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiromasa; Kajiwara, Nobumoto; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2007-07-03

    The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ATP-bound epsilon subunit from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 at 1.9-A resolution. The C-terminal two alpha-helices were folded into a hairpin, sitting on the beta sandwich structure, as reported for Escherichia coli. A previously undescribed ATP binding motif, I(L)DXXRA, recognizes ATP together with three arginine and one glutamate residues. The E. coli epsilon subunit binds ATP in a similar manner, as judged on NMR. We also determined solution structures of the C-terminal domain of the PS3 epsilon subunit and relaxation parameters of the whole molecule by NMR. The two helices fold into a hairpin in the presence of ATP but extend in the absence of ATP. The latter structure has more helical regions and is much more flexible than the former. These results suggest that the epsilon C-terminal domain can undergo an arm-like motion in response to an ATP concentration change and thereby contribute to regulation of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  17. 76 FR 28997 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Haitian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... earthquake. See 75 FR 3476. Haiti has limited resources to cope with a natural disaster like this earthquake... students whose country of citizenship is Haiti and who are experiencing severe economic hardship as a... requirements governing on-campus and off-campus employment for F-1 nonimmigrant students whose country...

  18. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  19. Nucleotide occupancy of F1-ATPase catalytic sites under crystallization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbau, S; Weber, J; Senior, A E

    1997-03-03

    Using site-directed tryptophan fluorescence we studied nucleotide occupancy of the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, under conditions used previously for crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of the bovine mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams et al. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628]. We found that only two of the three catalytic sites were filled in the E. coli enzyme under these conditions (250 microM MgAMPPNP plus 5 microM MgADP), consistent with what was reported in the bovine F1 X-ray structure. However, subsequent addition of a physiological concentration of MgATP readily filled the third catalytic site. Therefore the enzyme form seen in the X-ray structure results from the fact that it is obtained under sub-saturating nucleotide conditions. The data show that the X-ray structure is compatible with a catalytic mechanism in which all three F1-ATPase catalytic sites must fill with MgATP to initiate steady-state hydrolysis [e.g. Weber and Senior (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1275, 101-104]. The data further demonstrate that the site-directed tryptophan fluorescence technique can provide valuable support for F1 crystallography studies.

  20. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  1. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  2. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  3. Induction og 2n gametes for overcoming F1-sterility in lily and tulip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barba Gonzalez, R.; Miller, C.T.; Ramanna, M.S.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2006-01-01

    For overcoming F1-sterility in interspecific hybrids, mitotic and meiotic polyploidisation is applied in lily and can result in fertile allopolyploids. The mechanism of viable pollen production of mitotic and meiotic polyploidisation is quite different. Mitotic polyploids are obtained by artificial

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BU1F-1OOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BU1F-1OOTA 1BU1 1OOT F A -IIVVALYDYEAIHHEDLSFQKGDQMVVLEES---GEWW...4> 1OOT A 1OOTA ...in> -2.4820001125335693 10.661999702453613 46.814998626708984 ...8 -0.6930000185966492 -0.30300000309944153 tion> 2.081804037094116 A 1OOTA WTGRV--NGREG

  5. Linkage analysis and map construction in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we considered four categories of molecular markers based on the number of distinguishable alleles at the marker locus and the number of distinguishable genotypes in clonal F1 progenies. For two marker loci, there are nine scenarios that allow the estimation of female, male, and/or combined recombination frequencies. In a double cross population derived from four inbred lines, five categories of markers are classified and another five scenarios are present for recombination frequency estimation. Theoretical frequencies of identifiable genotypes were given for each scenario, from which the maximum likelihood estimates of one or more of the three recombination frequencies could be estimated. If there was no analytic solution, then Newton-Raphson method was used to acquire a numerical solution. We then proposed to use an algorithm in Traveling Salesman Problem to determine the marker order. Finally, we proposed a procedure to build the two haploids of the female parent and the two haploids of the male parent in clonal F1. Once the four haploids were built, clonal F1 hybrids could be exactly regarded as a double cross population. Efficiency of the proposed methods was demonstrated in simulated clonal F1 populations and one actual maize double cross. Extensive comparisons with software JoinMap4.1, OneMap, and R/qtl show that the methodology proposed in this article can build more accurate linkage maps in less time.

  6. Less is more: reduced catechol production permits Pseudomonas putida F1 to grow on styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W; Hay, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonas putida F1 is unable to grow on styrene due to the accumulation of 3-vinylcatechol, a toxic metabolite that is produced through the toluene degradation (tod) pathway and causes catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) inactivation. In this study, we characterized a spontaneous F1 mutant, designated SF1, which acquired the ability to grow on styrene and did not accumulate 3-vinylcatechol. Whereas adaptation to new aromatic substrates has typically been shown to involve increased C23O activity or the acquisition of resistance to C23O inactivation, SF1 retained wild-type C23O activity. Surprisingly, SF1 grew more slowly on toluene, its native substrate, and exhibited reduced toluene dioxygenase (TDO) activity (approximately 50 % of that of F1), the enzyme responsible for ring hydroxylation and subsequent production of 3-vinylcatechol. DNA sequence analysis of the tod operon of SF1 revealed a single base pair mutation in todA (C479T), a gene encoding the reductase component of TDO. Replacement of the wild-type todA allele in F1 with todA(C479T) reduced TDO activity to SF1 levels, obviated vinylcatechol accumulation, and conferred the ability to grow on styrene. This novel 'less is more' strategy - reduced catechol production as a means to expand growth substrate range - sheds light on an alternative approach for managing catechol toxicity during the metabolism of aromatic compounds.

  7. Inheritance of S-genotypes in Paviot × Kabaasi apricot F1 progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Tuğba Murathan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility plays an important role in the fertilization of fruit species such as apricot. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shows gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. In this study, S-alleles of 77 F1 progenies derived from Paviot, which is one of the French local cultivars, and Kabaasi, one of the most important Turkish dried apricot cultivars, parents were identified by S-RNase intron regions polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The results from the S-allele PCR analysis revealed that the Paviot female parent had an ScS2 genotype and the Kabaasi male parent had S1S9 alleles. Forty-three of the F1 progenies showed self-compatibility allele (Sc by having either ScS9 or ScS1 alleles. Thirty-four of the F1 progenies were self-incompatible by having either S2S1 or S2S9 alleles. The distributions of detected alleles in F1 progenies were determined as follows: ScS1 31.2%, S1S2 27.3%, ScS9 24.7% and S2S9 16.8%. The results from the study are relevant for the data obtained in apricot breeding programmes in the selection of crossing combinations and in the establishment of commercial orchards.

  8. 78 FR 69538 - Attestation Process for Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... workers, Employment, Employment and training, Enforcement, Forest and forest products, Fraud, Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers, Nonimmigrant workers, Passports... employers seeking to hire F-1 foreign students as part-time workers off-campus. These subparts...

  9. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  10. In Utero Nutritional Manipulation Provokes Dysregulated Adipocytokines Production in F1 Offspring in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Y. Hanafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as diabetes. Diabetes and obesity are associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal obesity and malnutrition on adipokines production (adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α in F1 offspring in rats. Materials and Methods. Wistar rats were allocated in groups: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CF1-CD and under high-fat diet (CF1-HCD, F1 offspring of obese mothers under CD (OF1-CD and under HCD (OF1-HCD, and F1 offspring of malnourished mothers under CD (MF1-CD and under HCD (MF1-HCD. Every 5 weeks postnatally, blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results. At the end of the 30-week follow-up, OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD exhibited hyperinsulinemia, moderate dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD demonstrated low serum levels of adiponectin and high levels of leptin compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-CD, OF1-HCD, and MF1-HCD had elevated serum levels of TNF-α compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD (p<0.05. Conclusion. Maternal nutritional manipulation predisposes the offspring to development of insulin resistance in their adult life, probably via instigating dysregulated adipokines production.

  11. Expression of Transcription Factor E2F-1 and Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene(PTTG)in Rat Prolactinoma%转录因子E2F-1与垂体肿瘤转化基因(PTTG)在大鼠PRL瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海梅; 徐春; 杨雪梅; 刘晓军

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过检测垂体肿瘤转化基因(PTTG)与腺病毒E2启动子结合因子1(E2F-1)在大鼠催乳素(PRL)瘤中的表达来探讨两者在PRL瘤发生发展过程中的作用.方法 40只大鼠随机分为两组:实验组(E组,n=20):皮下植入17β-雌二醇的方法诱发大鼠PRL瘤;对照组(C组,n=20):皮下植入空白硅胶管.雌激素诱导10周后处死大鼠,心脏穿刺取血,4%多聚甲醛体内灌流取出脑垂体,称重,ELISA方法检测两组大鼠血清PRL水平,垂体组织行病理组织学观察,免疫组化SP方法检测两组大鼠垂体组织中PTTG蛋白质、E2 F-1蛋白质的表达.结果 雌二醇作用10周后,据垂体重量、垂体组织学变化和血清PRL水平证实PRL瘤诱导成功.PRL瘤组中,PTTG蛋白质、E2F-1蛋白质均明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.01);且PTTG蛋白质和E2F-1蛋白质的表达呈明显正相关(γ=0.764,P<0.01).结论 PTTG与 E2F-1在大鼠PRL瘤中共同过度表达,参与了大鼠PRL瘤的发生发展.%Objective To detect the expression of adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor 1 ( E2F-1) and Pituitary tumor transforming gene ( PTTG) in rat prolactinoma and to explore their role in the development of prolactinoma. Methods 40 male Wistar( 120 ~ 150g) rats were randomly divided into two groups; experimental group ( E group, n = 20): 170-estradiol stuffed in silicone tube was subcutaneously implanted to induce rat prolactinoma model; the control group (C group, n =20) blank silicone tube was subcutaneously implanted. After 10 weeks, all the rats were executed, blood was taken by cardiac puncture, 4% paraformaldehyde was intracardially perfused and pituitary tissues were harvested, weighed. Serum PRL levels were detected by ELISA method; Pituitary tissue histopathological changes were observed; both expression of PTTG protein and E2F-1 protein were detected by immunohistochemistry SP method. Result! Prolactinoma models were induced successfully as reflected by pituitary

  12. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone in reducing flexion contracture in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis with surgical capsular release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. D.; Morrey, M. E.; Hartzler, R. U.; Arsoy, D.; Riester, S.; van Wijnen, A. J.; Morrey, B. F.; Sanchez-Sotelo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Animal models have been developed that allow simulation of post-traumatic joint contracture. One such model involves contracture-forming surgery followed by surgical capsular release. This model allows testing of antifibrotic agents, such as rosiglitazone. Methods A total of 20 rabbits underwent contracture-forming surgery. Eight weeks later, the animals underwent a surgical capsular release. Ten animals received rosiglitazone (intramuscular initially, then orally). The animals were sacrificed following 16 weeks of free cage mobilisation. The joints were tested biomechanically, and the posterior capsule was assessed histologically and via genetic microarray analysis. Results There was no significant difference in post-traumatic contracture between the rosiglitazone and control groups (33° (standard deviation (sd) 11) vs 37° (sd14), respectively; p = 0.4). There was no difference in number or percentage of myofibroblasts. Importantly, there were ten genes and 17 pathways that were significantly modulated by rosiglitazone in the posterior capsule. Discussion Rosiglitazone significantly altered the genetic expression of the posterior capsular tissue in a rabbit model, with ten genes and 17 pathways demonstrating significant modulation. However, there was no significant effect on biomechanical or histological properties. Cite this article: M. P. Abdel. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone in reducing flexion contracture in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis with surgical capsular release: A biomechanical, histological, and genetic analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:11–17. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000593 PMID:26813567

  13. The K1 Serotype Capsular Polysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis Elicits Chemokine Production from Murine Macrophages That Facilitates Cell Migration ▿

    OpenAIRE

    d'Empaire, Gabriela; Baer, Michael T.; Gibson, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is the principal organism associated with aggressive forms of generalized periodontal disease. Previous reports have suggested that encapsulated P. gingivalis strains are more virulent than unencapsulated strains; however, the contribution of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) to the virulence of this organism is poorly understood. Since periodontal disease presents with a complex inflammatory cell lesion comprised of neutrophils and monocytes, we cultured murine peritonea...

  14. Properties of F1-ATPase from the uncD412 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J G; Duncan, T M; Latchney, L R; Cox, D N; Senior, A E

    1983-11-01

    Properties of purified F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli mutant strain AN484 (uncD412) have been studied in an attempt to understand why the amino acid substitution in the beta-subunit of this enzyme causes a tenfold reduction from normal MgATP hydrolysis rate. In most properties that were studied, uncD412 F1-ATPase resembled normal E. coli F1-ATPase. Both enzymes were found to contain a total of six adenine-nucleotide-binding sites, of which three were found to be non-exchangeable and three were exchangeable (catalytic) sites. Binding of the non-hydrolysable substrate analogue adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppA) to the three exchangeable sites showed apparent negative co-operativity. The binding affinities for p[NH]ppA, and also ADP, at the exchangeable sites were similar in the two enzymes. Both enzymes were inhibited by efrapeptin, aurovertin and p[NH]ppA, and were inactivated by dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan and p-fluorosulphonyl-benzoyl-5'-adenosine. Km values for CaATP and MgATP were similar in the two enzymes. uncD412 F1-ATPase was abnormally unstable at high pH, and dissociated into subunits readily with consequent loss of activity. The reason for the impairment of catalysis in uncD412 F1-ATPase cannot be stated with certainty from these studies. However we discuss the possibility that the mutation interrupts subunit interaction, thereby causing a partial impairment in the site-site co-operativity which is required for 'promotion' of catalysis in this enzyme.

  15. Study on the polymorphism of POU1F1 gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan Bai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, POU1F1 gene polymorphism was detected in five sheep populations (large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Lanzhou large-tailed, and Mongolian sheep, using DNA pooling and sequencing, to provide theoretical basis for the breeding of excellent sheep varieties. Three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci of POU1F1 gene were detected in five sheep populations, namely C355T (C/T, C71G (C/G, and C330G (C/G. C and T frequencies of C355T were 0.67/0.33, 0.81/0.19, 0.67/0.33, 1.00/0.00, and 0.93/0.07, respectively, in large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Mongolian, and Lanzhou large-tailed sheep. C of C355T locus was the dominant allele in five sheep populations. C and G allele frequencies of C330G locus were detected in Yuxi fat-tailed sheep; their frequencies were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. C and G allele of C71G locus were only detected in Yuxi fat-tailed and large-tailed Han sheep; their frequencies were 0.87/0.13 and 0.87/0.13, respectively. The cluster analysis based on POU1F1 gene sequence showed that bactrian camel, dromedary, and wild camel clustered first, and dolphin and killer whales clustered according to taxonomy. Although the four species Tibetan antelope, buffalo, goat, and sheep were alone, they got close and the relative genetic relationship was intimate according to the dendrogram. The mutation site analysis of the POU1F1 gene in five sheep populations in this study would be favorable for uncovering the function of POU1F1 gene deeply.

  16. Resveratrol enhances the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by downregulating E2F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuhui; Wei, Xianli; Zhang, Wenyin; Wang, Xiaolan; Wang, Kun; Du, Biaoyan; Xiao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    Identification of safe, effective radiosensitizing agents is urgently needed to improve the outcome of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). In this study, we assessed the ability of the polyphenol resveratrol to act as a radiosensitizer in vitro and in vivo. CNE-1 cells were treated with 50 µM resveratrol for 24 h, then irradiated. E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) was stably knocked down and overexpressed using lentiviruses. A xenograft model of NPC was established in nude mice using CNE-1 cells. Compared to control DMSO‑treated CNE-1 cells, resveratrol inhibited colony-forming ability and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Radiation survival curves confirmed resveratrol significantly sensitized CNE-1 cells, and resveratrol in combination with 2 Gy irradiation synergistically increased apoptosis. Immunoblotting showed resveratrol dose- and time-dependently downregulated E2F1 and phospho-AKT (p-AKT). Knockdown of E2F1 significantly increased radiosensitivity and downregulated p-AKT; overexpression of E2F1 reversed resveratrol-induced radiosensitivity and upregulated p-AKT. In vivo, 50 mg/kg/day resveratrol and 4 Gy irradiation led to significantly lower tumor volume and tumor weight compared to resveratrol or irradiation alone. Our findings show that resveratrol increases the radiosensitivity of NPC cells by downregulating E2F1 and inhibiting p-AKT, and therefore has potential as a radiosensitizer for NPC.

  17. Epitope characterization and variable region sequence of f1-40, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin type a (Hall strain.

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    Miles C Scotcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Botulism, an often fatal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT which consist of a family of seven serotypes (A-H produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. BoNT, considered the most potent biological toxin known, is a 150 kDa protein consisting of a 100 kDa heavy-chain (Hc and a 50 kDa light-chain (Lc. F1-40 is a mouse-derived, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds the light chain of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A and is used in a sensitive immunoassay for toxin detection. We report the fine epitope mapping of F1-40 and the deduced amino acid sequence of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To characterize the binding epitope of F1-40, three complementary experimental approaches were selected. Firstly, recombinant peptide fragments of BoNT/A light-chain were used in Western blots to identify the epitope domains. Secondly, a peptide phage-display library was used to identify the specific amino acid sequences. Thirdly, the three-dimensional structure of BoNT/A was examined in silico, and the amino acid sequences determined from the phage-display studies were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure in order to visualize the epitope. F1-40 was found to bind a peptide fragment of BoNT/A, designated L1-3, which spans from T125 to L200. The motif QPDRS was identified by phage-display, and was mapped to a region within L1-3. When the three amino acids Q138, P139 and D140 were all mutated to glycine, binding of F1-40 to the recombinant BoNT/A light chain peptide was abolished. Q-138, P-139 and D-140 form a loop on the external surface of BoNT/A, exposed to solvent and accessible to F1-40 binding. CONCLUSIONS: The epitope of F1-40 was localized to a single exposed loop (ss4, ss5 on the Lc of BoNT. Furthermore amino acids Q138, P139 and D140 forming the tip of the loop appear critical for binding.

  18. Improving the Th1 cellular efficacy of the lead Yersinia pestis rF1-V subunit vaccine using SA-4-1BBL as a novel adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Gunes; Pennington, Jarrod M; Yolcu, Esma S; Lawrenz, Matthew B; Shirwan, Haval

    2014-09-03

    The lead candidate plague subunit vaccine is the recombinant fusion protein rF1-V adjuvanted with alum. While alum generates Th2 regulated robust humoral responses, immune protection against Yersinia pestis has been shown to also involve Th1 driven cellular responses. Therefore, the rF1-V-based subunit vaccine may benefit from an adjuvant system that generates a mixed Th1 and humoral immune response. We herein assessed the efficacy of a novel SA-4-1BBL costimulatory molecule as a Th1 adjuvant to improve cellular responses generated by the rF1-V vaccine. SA-4-1BBL as a single adjuvant had better efficacy than alum in generating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing TNFα and IFNγ, signature cytokines for Th1 responses. The combination of SA-4-1BBL with alum further increased this Th1 response as compared with the individual adjuvants. Analysis of the humoral response revealed that SA-4-1BBL as a single adjuvant did not generate a significant Ab response against rF1-V, and SA-4-1BBL in combination with alum did not improve Ab titers. However, the combined adjuvants significantly increased the ratio of Th1 regulated IgG2c in C57BL/6 mice to the Th2 regulated IgG1. Finally, a single vaccination with rF1-V adjuvanted with SA-4-1BBL+alum had better protective efficacy than vaccines containing individual adjuvants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SA-4-1BBL improves the protective efficacy of the alum adjuvanted lead rF1-V subunit vaccine by generating a more balanced Th1 cellular and humoral immune response. As such, this adjuvant platform may prove efficacious not only for the rF1-V vaccine but also against other infections that require both cellular and humoral immune responses for protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of native capsular polysaccharide structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 39, 42, and 47F and comparison to genetically or serologically related strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bent O; Meier, Sebastian; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Redondo, Antonio R; Skovsted, Ian C

    2014-08-18

    The diversity of capsular polysaccharides of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to at least 91 different serotypes. While the genetic loci for capsular biosynthesis have been characterized for all serotypes, the determination of resultant polysaccharide structures remains incomplete. Here, we report the chemical structures of the capsular polysaccharides of serotypes 39, 42, and 47F from the genetic cluster 4, and discuss the structures in the context of structures from serologically and genetically related serotypes. Antigenic determinants can be approximated in this manner. The structure of the serotype 39 capsular polysaccharide is [formula: see text] and has identical composition to the capsular polysaccharide 10A, but two different linkages. The serotype 42 structure [formula: see text] closely resembles the genetically related serotype 35A, which does not contain residue A. The structure of the serotype 47F capsular polysaccharide [formula: see text] is somewhat different from a recently determined structure from the same serogroup, while containing a structural motif that is reflected in serotype 35A and 42 capsular polysaccharide structures, thus explaining the cross-reactivity of serotype 47F with the typing serum 35a.

  20. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  1. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1) are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1) produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  2. Prophylactic Leukotriene Inhibitor Therapy for the Reduction of Capsular Contracture in Primary Silicone Breast Augmentation: Experience with over 1100 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role of leukotriene inhibitors used immediately postoperatively to potentially influence the development of capsular contracture is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of capsular contracture among women undergoing primary smooth silicone gel breast augmentation, with or without postoperative leukotriene inhibitor therapy. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, 1122 consecutive women undergoing primary silicone gel breast augmentation were evaluated retrospectively. All underwent augmentation with smooth, Mentor Memory Gel implants, using a dual-plane technique, with periareolar or inframammary approaches. Patients were treated voluntarily with either no leukotriene inhibitor, montelukast (Singulair), or zafirlukast (Accolate) for 3 months. All patients received informed consent for the off-label use of leukotriene inhibitors. Liver function studies were obtained for all patients undergoing Accolate therapy after 1 month of therapy. The presence of capsular contracture was measured by the Baker scale at 1 year postoperatively. Results: Patients receiving Accolate therapy (n = 520) demonstrated an encapsulation rate of 2.19 percent. Women receiving Singulair therapy (n = 247) had an encapsulation rate of 3.27 percent. Patients not receiving leukotriene inhibitor therapy had an encapsulation rate of 5.02 percent. There were no long-term complications among patients evaluated. Conclusions: Accolate therapy used for 3 months postoperatively was associated with significantly lower capsular contracture rates compared with untreated patients at 1-year follow-up (p contracture rates compared with controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The findings suggest that Accolate therapy, with monitoring and consent, reduces the incidence of capsular contracture following primary smooth silicone gel breast augmentation. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

  3. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  4. Serological response following re-vaccination with Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines in healthy adult travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggelin, Louise; Vinnemeier, Christof D; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Johnson-Weaver, Brandi T; Rolling, Thierry; Burchard, Gerd D; Staats, Herman F; Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-08-01

    An injectable Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever is available but vaccine-induced immunity tends to wane over time. The phenomenon of immunotolerance or hyporesponsiveness has earlier been described for polysaccharide vaccines such as pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine and some publications also suggest a possible immunotolerance after revaccination with Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. In this study, post-immunisation antibody concentrations in adult travellers first vaccinated with a Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine (primary vaccination group) were compared with those having received one or more vaccinations previously (multiple vaccinations group). Vaccines administered were Typherix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), Typhim Vi(®) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) or Hepatyrix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline). Blood samples were obtained prior to vaccination (day 0) and on day 28 (-1/+14) after vaccination. Serum Vi-Antigen IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA. Of the 85 subjects included in the per protocol data set, 45 (53%) belonged to the multiple vaccinations group. In both groups, geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination. Pre-vaccination GMCs were lower in the primary vaccination group than in the multiple vaccinations group (3.40 μg/ml versus 6.13 μg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no significant difference in the post vaccination GMCs between groups (11.34 μg/ml versus 14.58 μg/ml, P=0.4). In the multiple vaccinations group, vaccination was performed 18 to 57 months after the last vaccination (median 38 months) and there was a negative correlation between time since last vaccination and antibody concentration on day 0. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a relevant immunotolerance after multiple versus primary vaccination with S. typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines.

  5. Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for recurrent anterior shoulder instability: functional outcomes and identification of risk factors for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Issaq; Ashton, Fiona; Robinson, Christopher Michael

    2012-07-18

    Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift is a well-established technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift and to identify risk factors that are predictive of recurrence of glenohumeral instability. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database consisting of 302 patients who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. The prevalence of patient and injury-related risk factors for recurrence was assessed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the predicted probability of recurrence within two years. The chief outcome measures were the risk of recurrence and the two-year functional outcomes assessed with the Western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores. The rate of recurrent glenohumeral instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift was 13.2%. The median time to recurrence was twelve months, and this complication developed within one year in 55% of these patients. The risk of recurrence was independently predicted by the patient's age at surgery, the severity of glenoid bone loss, and the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (all p Bankart repair and capsular shift. These data can be useful for counseling patients undergoing this procedure for the treatment of recurrent glenohumeral instability and individualizing treatment options for particular groups of patients. Prognostic level I. See Instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page TP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy P Page,1 Jeffrey Whitman2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, 2Key-Whitman Eye Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods: Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results: A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion: Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. Keywords: z-syndrome, pseudophakic tilt, IOL subluxation, CTR, capsular tension ring, capsular fibrosis

  7. Production of Hybrid F1 Between Avena magna and Avena nuda and It's Identification%四倍体大燕麦×六倍体裸燕麦的杂种F1的产生及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云云; 周小梅; 杨才

    2003-01-01

    本研究以四倍体大燕麦(Avena magna L.)做母本,六倍体裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)做父本进行杂交,利用幼胚拯救技术获得了杂种F1,并对其后代形态特征进行了观察;对杂种F1同工酶图谱和DNA指纹图谱进行了分析.杂种F1形态特征偏亲本或介于双亲之间;同工酶研究表明多数F1具有双亲互补酶带;RAPD分析不同引物扩增产物F1呈共显性或偏父、偏母.这些结果表明F1为真杂种.

  8. Characterization of oligomeric forms from mammalian F0F1ATP synthase by BN-PAGE: the role of detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto, Elena; Giorgio, Valentina; Di Pancrazio, Francesca; Mavelli, Irene; Lippe, Giovanna

    2007-12-01

    It is now widely accepted that F0F1ATPsynthase is present in membrane, beside as monomers, in homo-dimeric and higher homo-oligomeric forms, which probably play critical roles in determining mitochondrial morphology. One-step mild detergent extraction followed by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is a very interesting tool for studying the native membrane protein assemblies which can be associated with second/third-dimensional SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, in-gel enzyme activity staining and mass spectrometry analyses. By combining these techniques, we resolved monomers and higher oligomeric forms of ATPsynthase from bovine heart mitochondria. However, a critical point is the choice of the detergents, which strongly influence the protein pattern of BN-PAGE. By using Triton X-100 we obtained that, in spite of the same subunit composition, monomers have a much lower specific activity than dimers and the two forms have a different pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that monomers and dimers are functionally distinct in membrane. In addition, enzyme self-association appeared to occur independently from the binding to ATPsynthase of the inhibitor protein IF1. Dodecylmaltoside was optimal to extract the enzyme from single biopsy samples, allowing us to demonstrate that IF1 plays a central role in regulating the enzyme activity in heart in vivo. Only low concentration of digitonin maintained significant amounts of ATPsynthase oligomers, which seemed to retain intact their native catalytic properties.

  9. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  10. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  11. Transient Automatic Writing Behavior following a Left Inferior Capsular Genu Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital with decreased spontaneity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left inferior capsular genu infarction. 99mTC-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a left-dominant diffuse hypoperfusionin the basal ganglia and frontal lobe. The patient showed abulia and increased writing activity without motor or sensory deficit. The writing was mainly perseverative, and words written along lines were legible and without spatial distortions. This augmented writing behavior disappeared on day 21. The writing characteristic was more similar to automatic writing behavior than hypergraphia. Dissociation between speech and writing behavior was present in our patient. We suggest that a disconnection within the frontal-subcortical circuit contributed to the development of motor perseveration in writing.

  12. Capsular glucan and intracellular glycogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biosynthesis and impact on the persistence in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambou, Tounkang; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Stadthagen, Gustavo;

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer. To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence...... of these bacteria, orthologues of the glg genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycogen in Escherichia coli were identified in M. tuberculosis H37Rv and inactivated by allelic replacement. Biochemical analyses of the mutants and complemented strains indicated that the synthesis of glucan and glycogen involves...... the alpha-1,4-glucosyltransferases Rv3032 and GlgA (Rv1212c), the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase GlgC (Rv1213) and the branching enzyme GlgB (Rv1326c). Disruption of glgC reduced by half the glucan and glycogen contents of M. tuberculosis, whereas the inactivation of glgA and Rv3032 affected the production...

  13. Purification of capsular polysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Tânia Pinheiro; Barbosa, Antonio de Pádua R; da Silva Junior, José Godinho

    2006-03-07

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C capsular polysaccharide (MenCPS) is an important antigen against meningococcal infection. This paper describes a new purification methodology employing liquid chromatography that resulted in a polysaccharide showing the characteristics recommended by the World Health Organization for vaccine purposes. In this method, steps of the traditional procedure that yield low recovery and use toxic materials were modified. The present process consists in the following steps: (1) continuous flow centrifugation of the culture for removal of the cells; (2) supernatant concentration by tangential filtration (100 kDa cutoff); (3) addition of 0.5% DOC, heating to 55 degrees C during 30 min and tangential filtration (100 kDa cutoff); (4) anion exchange chromatography (Source 15Q) and (5) size exclusion chromatography (Sepharose CL-4B). The polysaccharide C fraction obtained in that way was dialyzed and freeze-dried. The structural identity of the polysaccharide was demonstrated by (1)H-NMR spectrometry.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz-Aviles, G; Velázquez-Meza, M E; Carnalla-Barajas, M N; Soto-Noguerón, A; Solórzano-Santos, F; Pérez Miravete, A; Gatica-Marquina, R; di Fabio, J L

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) initiative, we conducted a surveillance study to determine the relative prevalence of capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates in children less than 5 years old. We collected 220 isolates and found 33 of the 90 known types, with type 23F as the most common followed by types 6A+B, 14, 19F, and 19A. High penicillin resistance was found in 49 strains (22.2%), 31 belonging to type 23F. Twenty-nine (13.1%) were resistant to erythromycin, 95 (43.1%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 24 (10.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime. No strains were resistant to vancomycin.

  15. So-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, K; Hajikano, H; Sakaguchi, H

    1991-01-01

    The so-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium (EHBCE) is a rather specific lesion occurring in kidneys of patients maintained on chronic dialysis. It consists of poorly differentiated cells proliferating around sclerosed or obsolescent glomeruli. In this study, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of EHBCE was performed. The poorly differentiated cells in the lesion exhibited a positive reaction for vimentin and a negative one for cytokeratin (PKK 1) and epithelial membrane antigen. On ultrastructural examination, specialized junctions between adjoining cells, microvilli-like structures on their surfaces, and immature basal folds were observed. These observations suggest that the cells of EHBCE may be associated with the anlage of glomerular epithelium. The background in which neoplasms like renal cell carcinoma or atypical epithelium of cyst wall develop in end-stage kidneys of adult patients on long-term dialysis may cause such a proliferation of poorly differentiated cells in young or paediatric age group patients.

  16. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Tamding; Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Spees, Alanna M; Yu, Chenzhou; Kingsbury, Dawn D; Winter, Sebastian E; Hastey, Christine J; Wilson, R Paul; Heinrich, Volkmar; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor (C5aR). Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi) capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  17. Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Jia, Shi-ru; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-lei

    2014-05-25

    The influences of different wavelengths of light (red 660nm, yellow 590nm, green 520nm, blue 460nm, purple 400nm) and white light on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production by Nostoc flagelliforme in liquid culture were demonstrated in this study. The results showed that, compared with white light, red and blue lights significantly increased both EPS and CPS production while yellow light reduced their production; purple and green lights stimulated EPS production but inhibited CPS formation. Nine constituent monosaccharides and one uronic acid were detected in both EPS and CPS, and their ratios showed significant differences among treatment with different light wavelengths. However, the advanced structure of EPS and CPS from various light conditions did not present obvious difference through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization. These findings establish a basis for development of high-yielding polysaccharide production process and understanding their regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide types 5 and 8 reduce killing by bovine neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Annette H; Tollersrud, Tore; Lund, Arve

    2005-03-01

    Isogenic variants of Staphylococcus aureus strain Reynolds expressing either no capsule or capsular polysaccharide (CP) type 5 (CP5) or type 8 (CP8) were used to assess the effect of CP on bacterial killing and the respiratory burst of bovine neutrophils. The effects of antisera specific for CP5 and CP8 were also evaluated. The killing of live bacteria by isolated neutrophils was quantified in a bactericidal assay, while the respiratory burst after stimulation with live bacteria in whole blood was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of a CP5 or CP8 capsule protected the bacteria from being killed by bovine neutrophils in vitro (P killing of the capsule-expressing bacteria and enhanced their stimulating effect in the respiratory burst assay (P killing and prevents the bacteria from inducing respiratory burst of bovine neutrophils in vitro and that these effects can be reversed by the addition of serotype-specific antisera.

  19. Variations in the molecular masses of the capsular exopolysaccharides amylovoran, pyrifolan and stewartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeyer, Martin; Langlotz, Christine; Huber, Anton; Coplin, David L; Geider, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora, causing fire blight of apple, pear and some ornamentals, Erwinia pyrifoliae, causing Asian pear blight, and Pantoea stewartii, causing Stewart's wilt of sweet maize, synthesize capsular extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with a high molecular mass. The EPSs are virulence factors and form viscous aggregates, which participate in clogging vessels of infected plants and causing wilting. The sizes of EPSs produced under different environmental growth conditions were determined by analysis with large pore HPLC columns. Their molecular mass of ca. 5 MDa, when isolated from agar plates, decreases to ca. 1 MDa for E. amylovora amylovoran from freeze-dried supernatants from liquid cultures and to 2 MDa for freeze-dried preparations of P. stewartii stewartan. Size changes were also found following growth in various other media and for different strains. Stewartan, amylovoran and E. pyrifoliae pyrifolan were also shown to be completely degraded by a bacteriophage EPS depolymerase.

  20. Transient Automatic Writing Behavior following a Left Inferior Capsular Genu Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-05-09

    A 79-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital with decreased spontaneity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left inferior capsular genu infarction. (99m) TC-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a left-dominant diffuse hypoperfusionin the basal ganglia and frontal lobe. The patient showed abulia and increased writing activity without motor or sensory deficit. The writing was mainly perseverative, and words written along lines were legible and without spatial distortions. This augmented writing behavior disappeared on day 21. The writing characteristic was more similar to automatic writing behavior than hypergraphia. Dissociation between speech and writing behavior was present in our patient. We suggest that a disconnection within the frontal-subcortical circuit contributed to the development of motor perseveration in writing.

  1. Further examination of seventeen mutations in Escherichia coli F1-ATPase beta-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, A E; al-Shawi, M K

    1992-10-25

    Seventeen mutations in beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase which had previously been characterized in strain AN1272 (Mu-induced mutant) were expressed in strain JP17 (beta-subunit gene deletion). Six showed unchanged behavior, namely: C137Y; G142D; G146S; G207D; Y297F; and Y354F. Five failed to assemble F1F0 correctly, namely: G149I; G154I; G149I,G154I; G223D; and P403S,G415D. Six assembled F1F0 correctly, but with membrane ATPase lower than in AN1272, namely: K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; D242N; and D242V. AN1272 was shown to unexpectedly produce a small amount of wild-type beta-subunit; F1-ATPase activities reported previously in AN1272 were referable to hybrid enzymes containing both mutant and wild-type beta-subunits. Purified F1 was obtained from K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; and D242N mutants in JP17. Vmax ATPase values were lower, and unisite catalysis rate and equilibrium constants were perturbed to greater extent, than in AN1272. However, general patterns of perturbation revealed by difference energy diagrams were similar to those seen previously, and the new data correlated well in linear free energy relationships for reaction steps of unisite catalysis. Correlation between multisite and unisite ATPase activity was seen in the new enzymes. Overall, the data give strong support to previously proposed mechanisms of unisite catalysis, steady-state catalysis, and energy coupling in F1-ATPases (Al-Shawi, M. K., Parsonage, D. and Senior, A. E. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4402-4410). The K155Q, K155E, D242N, and E181Q mutations caused 5000-fold, 4000-fold, 1800-fold, and 700-fold decrease, respectively, in Vmax ATPase, implying possibly direct roles for these residues in catalysis. Experiments with the D242N mutant suggested a role for residue beta D242 in catalytic site Mg2+ binding.

  2. Reactivation of the tumour suppressor RASSF1A in breast cancer by simultaneous targeting of DNA and E2F1 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Montenegro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumour suppressor genes are often transcriptionally silenced by promoter hypermethylation, and recent research has implicated alterations in chromatin structure as the mechanistic basis for this repression. In addition to DNA methylation, other epigenetic post-translational modifications that modulate the stability and binding of specific transcription factors to gene promoters have emerged as important mechanisms for controlling gene expression. The aim of this study was to analyse the implications of these mechanisms and their molecular connections in the reactivation of RASSF1A in breast cancer. METHODS: Compounds that modulate the intracellular concentration of adenosine, such as dipyridamole (DIPY, greatly increase the antiproliferative effects of 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl-(--catechin (TMCG, a synthetic antifolate derived from the structure of tea catechins. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that this combination (TMCG/DIPY induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by modulating the methylation levels of DNA and proteins (such as E2F1, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were employed to confirm that this combination induced chromatin remodelling of the RASSF1A promoter and increased the occupancy of E2F1 at the promoter of this tumour suppressor gene. RESULTS: The TMCG/DIPY combination acted as an epigenetic treatment that reactivated RASSF1A expression and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In addition to modulating DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling, this combination also induced demethylation of the E2F1 transcription factor. The ChIP assay showed enhancement of E2F1 occupancy at the unmethylated RASSF1A promoter after TMCG/DIPY treatment. Interestingly, inhibition of E2F1 demethylation using an irreversible inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1 reduced both TMCG/DIPY-mediated RASSF1A expression and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting

  3. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide antigen in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients Detección del antígeno capsular del Cryptococcus neoformans en pacientes asintomáticos infectados por HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Negroni

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 242 HIV-positive persons were studied for the detection of capsular polysaccha-ride antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans; 193 of these patients presented less than 300 CD4+ cells/µl of blood and 49 patients had more than 300 CD4+ cells/µl. None of them had symptoms or signs characteristic of cryptococcosis. The capsular antigen of C. neofarmans was detected by latex agglutination technique with pronase pre-treatment (IMMY, Crypto-Latex Antigen Detection System, Immunomycologics Inc., OK, USA; in 61% of the samples, ELISA technique was also used (Premier, Cryptococcal Antigen, Meridian Diagnostic Inc., Cincinatti, Oh, USA. The comparative study of both methods showed that the results obtained were similar in 96.9% of the cases. The capsular antigen was detected in 13 out of 193 (6.7% patients with less than 300 CD4+ cells/µl. Cryptococcosis was confirmed mycologically in 3 of these 13 cases (23% by the isolation of C. neoformans in CSF or blood cultures. Three patients, who had presented negative results of both tests for capsular antigen, suffered disseminated cryptococcosis 4 to 8 months later. The predictive diagnostic value of capsular antigen detection of C. neoformans seems tobe low and we believe that it should not be done routinely in asymptomatic HIV-positive persons.Fueron examinadas las muestras de suero de 242 personas, HIV positivas, para determinar la presencia de antígeno capsular del C. neoformans, 193 de estos pacientes tenían recuentos de células CD4 + inferiores a los 300/µl y 49 pacientes presentaron recuentos superiores a este límite. Ninguno de los enfermos tenía sintomatología que hiciese sospechar criptococosis. El antígeno capsular del C. neoformans fue determinado por una técnica de aglutinación de partículas de látex previo tratamiento con pronasa (IMM, latex-Crypto antigen detection system, Immunomycologics, Oh, USA y 61% de las muestras fueron también examinadas mediante la técnica de

  4. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

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    Eva Külshammer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12 and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1. We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8. While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our

  5. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In

  6. Identification and validation of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase as the molecular target of the immunomodulatory benzodiazepine Bz-423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathryn M; Chen, Xueni; Boitano, Anthony; Swenson, Lara; Opipari, Anthony W; Glick, Gary D

    2005-04-01

    Bz-423 is a 1,4-benzodiazepine that suppresses disease in lupus-prone mice by selectively killing pathogenic lymphocytes, and it is less toxic compared to current lupus drugs. Cells exposed to Bz-423 rapidly generate O(2)(-) within mitochondria, and this reactive oxygen species is the signal initiating apoptosis. Phage display screening revealed that Bz-423 binds to the oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) component of the mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase. Bz-423 inhibited the F(1)F(0)-ATPase in vitro, and reconstitution experiments demonstrated that inhibition was mediated by the OSCP. This target was further validated by generating cells with reduced OSCP expression using RNA interference and studying the sensitivity of these cells to Bz-423. Our findings help explain the efficacy and selectivity of Bz-423 for autoimmune lymphocytes and highlight the OSCP as a target to guide the development of novel lupus therapeutics.

  7. Generation and characterization of the human iPSC line PBMC1-iPS4F1 from adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Montes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the generation and characterization of the human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line PBMC1-iPS4F1 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy female with Spanish background. We used heat sensitive, non-integrative Sendai viruses containing the reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, whose expression was silenced in the established iPSC line. Characterization of the PBMC1-iPS4F1 cell line included analysis of typical pluripotency-associated factors at mRNA and protein level, alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, and in vivo and in vitro differentiation studies.

  8. Additional multifocal sulcus-based intraocular lens: alternative to multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Jens; Kroeber, Sandra; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual outcomes of additional multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) for sulcus fixation with those of standard multifocal IOLs in the capsular bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, Germany. Prospective controlled clinical trial. Eyes had phacoemulsification and implantation of a monofocal IOL in the capsular bag and an additional aberration-free diffractive IOL in the ciliary sulcus (multifocal add-on IOL group). Measurements of uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; contrast sensitivity; and defocus curve were performed 3 months postoperatively. Results were compared with those in eyes with an aberration-correcting diffractive posterior chamber IOL (multifocal PC IOL group). The multifocal add-on IOL group comprised 34 eyes of 20 patients and the multifocal PC IOL group, 31 eyes of 17 patients. Cataract surgery, IOL implantation, and the postoperative course were uneventful in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, or near visual acuities between the 2 groups. The median uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.00 logMAR in both groups, and the median uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.10 logMAR in both groups. Contrast sensitivity testing yielded significantly better results in the multifocal add-on IOL group, especially at spatial frequencies over 1.5 cycles per degree. Defocus curves were similar in the 2 groups. Visual performance with a multifocal diffractive add-on IOL was equivalent to that achieved with a commonly used multifocal diffractive PC IOL. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical application of capsular tension ring on cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy

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    Yi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the safety and efficacy of capsular tension ring(CTRinsertion combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in patient with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after anti-glaucoma surgery.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 10 eyes from 10 cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome following trabeculectomy surgery, and who underwent CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January, 2012 and June, 2013. All cases had nuclear cataracts(nuclear hardness Ⅱ 1 eye, nuclear hardness Ⅲ 4 eyes, nuclear hardness Ⅳ 5 eyes. One case with Ⅳ nuclear hardness cataract had iridodonesis and lens subluxation. Postoperative visual acuity, intra- and post-operative complications, anterior capsular opening, IOL position, and postoperative intraocular pressure(IOPwere assessed. Follow-ups ranged from 3 to 14mo. The t test was used to analyze the variables studied.RESULTS: All patients had a successful CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. A modified CTR insertion was performed in one case, the others underwent a standard CTR insertion. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas ≥0.5 in 3 eyes and 0.3-t=1.9955, P>0.05. The most common intrao- and post-operative complications were corneal edema, small pupil, residual cortex, spontaneous zonular dialysis.CONCLUSION: Suitable CTR insertion in appropriate occasion may be beneficial to patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy during cataract surgery. It prevents the IOL decentration and decrease the surgical complication. Less complication occurs at the early stage.

  10. Anterior chamber depth and refractive change in late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyu Yang

    Full Text Available To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS.Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes.Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00-0.90. ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034, equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068.Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS.

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate stem cell expressed genes Pou5f1 and Gfra1 in a male germ cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Godmann

    Full Text Available Male fertility is declining and an underlying cause may be due to environment-epigenetic interactions in developing sperm, yet nothing is known of how the epigenome controls gene expression in sperm development. Histone methylation and acetylation are dynamically regulated in spermatogenesis and are sensitive to the environment. Our objectives were to determine how histone H3 methylation and acetylation contribute to the regulation of key genes in spermatogenesis. A germ cell line, GC-1, was exposed to either the control, or the chromatin modifying drugs tranylcypromine (T, an inhibitor of the histone H3 demethylase KDM1 (lysine specific demethylase 1, or trichostatin (TSA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, (HDAC. Quantitative PCR (qPCR was used to identify genes that were sensitive to treatment. As a control for specificity the Myod1 (myogenic differentiation 1 gene was analyzed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP followed by qPCR was used to measure histone H3 methylation and acetylation at the promoters of target genes and the control, Myod1. Remarkably, the chromatin modifying treatment specifically induced the expression of spermatogonia expressed genes Pou5f1 and Gfra1. ChIP-qPCR revealed that induction of gene expression was associated with a gain in gene activating histone H3 methylation and acetylation in Pou5f1 and Gfra1 promoters, whereas CpG DNA methylation was not affected. Our data implicate a critical role for histone H3 methylation and acetylation in the regulation of genes expressed by spermatogonia--here, predominantly mediated by HDAC-containing protein complexes.

  12. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  13. Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminov, R.G., E-mail: Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Tagirov, L.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, Augsburg D-86159 (Germany); Gaifullin, R.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Karminskaya, T.Yu.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Fominov, Ya.V. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Golubov, A.A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the critical temperature T{sub c} of F2/F1/S trilayers (Fi is a ferromagnetic metal and S is a singlet superconductor), where the long-range triplet superconducting component is generated at noncollinear magnetizations of the F layers. In this paper we demonstrate a possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection (standard switching effect, the triplet spin-valve effect or reentrant T{sub c}(α) dependence) by the variation of the F2/F1 interface transparency. - Highlights: • T{sub c} of FFS trilayer as a function of angle between magnetizations is calculated. • T{sub c} of FFS structure for arbitrary FF interface transparencies γ{sub B} is calculated. • Possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection by the variation of γ{sub B} is shown.

  14. Purification and Activity of Antibacterial Substances Derived from Soil Streptomyces sp.CaiF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YANG; Guixiang PENG; Jianmin ZENG; Zhiyuan TAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to separate and purify antibacterial sub- stances from soil Streptomyces sp. CaiF1, and to explore the activities of this sub- stance. [Method] The antibacterial substances were separated and purified by Ethyl acetate extraction, macroporous adsorptive resin, silica gel chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and powdery mildew were taken as the indicating bacterial to study their activities. [Result] Antibacterial substances were purified and the stability analysis of the extracts from Streptomyces CaiF1 fermentation broth showed very stable at pH 2.0-pH 10.0, 100 ~C and changed very little under UV treatment for 24 h. Inhibition rate of powdery mildew was 69.7%. [Conclusion] The purified antibacterial substances showed good stability, which provided theoretical foundation for their structural identifications and future ap- plications.

  15. Effects of Nonylphenol on Brain Gene Expression Profiles in F1 Generation Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN-YIN XIA; PING ZHANG; YANG WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of nonylphenol on brain gene expression profiles in F1 generation rats by microarray technique.Methods mRNA was extracted from the brain of 2-day old F1 generation male rats Whose F0 female generation was either exposed to nonylphenol or free from nonylphenol exposure,and then it was reversely transcribed to cDNA hbeled with cy5 and cy3 fluorescence.Subsequently,cDNA probes were hybridized to two BiostarR-40S cDNA gene chips and fluorescent signals of cy5 and cy3 were scanned and analyzed. Results Two genes were differentially down-regulated.Conclusion Nonylphenol may disturb the neurcendocrine function of male rats when administered perinatally.

  16. The execution of the transcriptional axis mutant p53, E2F1 and ID4 promotes tumor neo-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontemaggi, Giulia; Dell'Orso, Stefania; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Shay, Tal; Melucci, Elisa; Fazi, Francesco; Terrenato, Irene; Mottolese, Marcella; Muti, Paola; Domany, Eytan; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Strano, Sabrina; Blandino, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    ID4 (inhibitor of DNA binding 4) is a member of a family of proteins that function as dominant-negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Growing evidence links ID proteins to cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Here we identify ID4 as a transcriptional target of gain-of-function p53 mutants R175H, R273H and R280K. Depletion of mutant p53 protein severely impairs ID4 expression in proliferating tumor cells. The protein complex mutant p53-E2F1 assembles on specific regions of the ID4 promoter and positively controls ID4 expression. The ID4 protein binds to and stabilizes mRNAs encoding pro-angiogenic factors IL8 and GRO-alpha. This results in the increase of the angiogenic potential of cancer cells expressing mutant p53. These findings highlight the transcriptional axis mutant p53, E2F1 and ID4 as a still undefined molecular mechanism contributing to tumor neo-angiogenesis.

  17. Oral vaccination with salmonella simultaneously expressing Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens protects against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Trunkle, Theresa; Bosio, Catharine M; Suo, Zhiyong; Tighe, Mike; Harmsen, Ann; Becker, Todd; Crist, Kathryn; Walters, Nancy; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W

    2007-01-15

    The gut provides a large area for immunization enabling the development of mucosal and systemic Ab responses. To test whether the protective Ags to Yersinia pestis can be orally delivered, the Y. pestis caf1 operon, encoding the F1-Ag and virulence Ag (V-Ag) were cloned into attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors. F1-Ag expression was controlled under a promoter from the caf1 operon; two different promoters (P), PtetA in pV3, PphoP in pV4, as well as a chimera of the two in pV55 were tested. F1-Ag was amply expressed; the chimera in the pV55 showed the best V-Ag expression. Oral immunization with Salmonella-F1 elicited elevated secretory (S)-IgA and serum IgG titers, and Salmonella-V-Ag(pV55) elicited much greater S-IgA and serum IgG Ab titers than Salmonella-V-Ag(pV3) or Salmonella-V-Ag(pV4). Hence, a new Salmonella vaccine, Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags, made with a single plasmid containing the caf1 operon and the chimeric promoter for V-Ag allowed the simultaneous expression of F1 capsule and V-Ag. Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags elicited elevated Ab titers similar to their monotypic derivatives. For bubonic plague, mice dosed with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags and Salmonella-F1-Ag showed similar efficacy (>83% survival) against approximately 1000 LD(50) Y. pestis. For pneumonic plague, immunized mice required immunity to both F1- and V-Ags because the mice vaccinated with Salmonella-(F1+V)Ags protected against 100 LD(50) Y. pestis. These results show that a single Salmonella vaccine can deliver both F1- and V-Ags to effect both systemic and mucosal immune protection against Y. pestis.

  18. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  19. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Wu, C L; Fattaey, A R

    1993-01-01

    homolog of DP-1. Human DP-1 and E2F-1 associate both in vivo and in vitro, and this interaction leads to enhanced binding to E2F DNA-binding sites. The association of E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative activation of an E2F-responsive promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 and DP-1 association...

  20. Tipificación capsular mediante PCR de aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación PCR-based capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae isolates non-typeable by agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weltman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae es reconocido como un agente patógeno responsable de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas. Se han descrito 6 tipos de polisacáridos capsulares antigénicamente distintos (a, b, c, d, e, y f que se pueden identificar por aglutinación en lámina con antisueros específicos. También existen cepas no capsuladas (NC fenotípicamente no tipificables (NT. La introducción de la vacuna conjugada produjo una marcada disminución de las enfermedades invasivas causadas por H. influenzae tipo b. En este contexto, la tipificación capsular mediante PCR es el método más apropiado para distinguir las cepas no capsuladas de las mutantes b deficientes en cápsula (b- y detectar la presencia de cepas pertenecientes a otros serotipos que no puedan ser tipificables por aglutinación. Se determinó el genotipo capsular a 38 aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación, derivados al servicio de Bacteriología Clínica del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" en el período 2002-2004. El 78,9% de los aislamientos provenían de hemocultivos y la mayor parte de ellos estaban asociados a foco respiratorio. El 100% de los aislamientos fueron identificados como H. influenzae no capsulados mediante la técnica de PCR.Haemophilus influenzae is recognized as a pathogenic agent responsible of localized and systemic infections. Six antigenically different capsular polysaccharide types have been described (a, b, c, d, e, and f which can be identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Besides there are non capsulated strains that cannot be typed by slide agglutination. The introduction of the conjugated vaccine produced an important reduction of invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b. Capsular typing by PCR is the most appropriated method for distinguishing non capsulated strains from capsule deficient type b mutants (b- and for detecting strains of other serotypes that cannot be detected by slide

  1. Agraphia and acalculia after a left prefrontal (F1, F2) infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tohgi, H; Saitoh, K.; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Takahashi, H; Utsugisawa, K; Yonezawa, H.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1995-01-01

    A patient presented with agraphia and acalculia associated with a left frontal (F1, F2) infarction. He made mainly phonological but also lexical errors in writing (syllabograms), but his ability to write kanji (morphograms) was relatively preserved. Although he could add and subtract numbers, he could neither multiply nor divide them because of a difficulty in retrieving the multiplication tables and calculation procedures. Positron emission tomography showed decreased cerebral blood flow and...

  2. VIIRS F1 "best" relative spectral response characterization by the government team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave

    2011-10-01

    The VIIRS Flight 1 (F1) instrument completed sensor level testing, including relative spectral response (RSR) characterization in 2009 and is moving forward towards a launch on the NPP platform late in 2011. As part of its mandate to produce analyses of F1 performance essentials, the VIIRS Government Team, consisting of NASA, Aerospace Corp., and MIT/Lincoln Lab elements, has produced an independent (from that of industry) analysis of F1 RSR. The test data used to derive RSR for all VIIRS spectral bands was collected in the TVAC environment using the Spectral Measurement Assembly (SpMA), a dual monochromator system with tungsten and ceramic glow bar sources. These spectrally contiguous measurements were analyzed by the Government Team to produce a complete in-band + out-of-band RSR for 21 of the 22 VIIRS bands (exception of the Day-Night Band). The analysis shows that VIIRS RSR was well measured in the pre-launch test program for all bands, although the measurement noise floor is high on the thermal imager band I5. The RSR contain expected detector to detector variation resulting from the VIIRS non-telecentric optical design, and out-of-band features are present in some bands; non-compliances on the integrated out-of-band spectral performance metric are noted in M15 and M16A,B bands and also for several VisNIR bands, though the VisNIR non-compliances were expected due to known scattering in the VisNIR integrated filter assembly. The Government Team "best" RSR have been released into the public domain for use by the science community in preparation for the post-launch era of VIIRS F1.

  3. Mitogenic Sonic hedgehog signaling drives E2F1-dependent lipogenesis in progenitor cells and Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Bobby; Hsieh, Michael; Kenney, Anna Marie; Nahlé, Zaher

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation of the Rb/E2F tumor suppressor complex and aberrantion of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling are documented across the spectrum of human malignancies. Exaggerated de novo lipid synthesis is also found in certain highly proliferative, aggressive tumors. Here, we show that in Shh-driven medulloblastomas, Rb is inactivated and E2F1 is up-regulated, promoting lipogenesis. Extensive lipid accumulation and elevated levels of the lipogenic enzyme FASN mark those tumors. In primary cerebella...

  4. Trichloroethylene degradation by Escherichia coli containing the cloned Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zylstra, G J; Wackett, L P; Gibson, D T

    1989-01-01

    Toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 has been implicated as an enzyme capable of degrading trichloroethylene. This has now been confirmed with Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601) that contains the structural genes (todC1C2BA) of toluene dioxygenase under the control of the tac promoter. The extent of trichloroethylene degradation by the recombinant organism depended on the cell concentration and the concentration of trichloroethylene. A linear rate of trichloroethylene degradation was o...

  5. Studies of carcinogenicity of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, Y; Uchida, K; Nakae, D; Shiraiwa, K; Yamamoto, K; Konishi, Y

    1987-01-01

    The carcinogenic activities of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice were examined. Sodium chlorite was given at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.025% (low dose), or 0.05% (high dose) in the drinking water of 150 female and 150 male mice for 80 weeks, after which time the animals were returned to distilled water without sodium chlorite. All mice were sacrificed 85 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The incidence of tumor-bearing animals was 32% (control), 34% (low dose), and 26% (high dose) in female mice, and 46% (control), 57% (low dose), and 53% (high dose) in male mice. The types and incidence of neoplasms that occurred frequently in each group of both sexes were similar to those observed spontaneously in B6C3F1 mice. The incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in the high dose group of females (2%), however, was lower than that in the control group (15%). Furthermore, the incidence of pulmonary adenomas in the high dose group of males (12%) was higher than that in the control group (0%), but neither dose-related increases in the adenoma incidences nor increased incidences of the adenocarcinomas were observed. These results indicated no clear evidence of a carcinogenic potential of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice. PMID:3447900

  6. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  7. Properties of kojic acid and curcumin: Assay on cell B16-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Ariff, Arbakariya; Ahmad, Syahida; Hamid, Muhajir

    2016-03-01

    Ultra violet (UV) exposure and oxidative stress are casually linked to skin disorders. They can increase melanin synthesis, proliferation of melanocytes, and hyperpigmentation. It is possible that antioxidants or inhibitors may have a beneficial effect on skin health to reduce hyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested to reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to determine and to compare of kojic acid and curcumin properties to viability cell B16-F1. In this study, our data showed that the viability of cell B16-F1 was 63.91% for kojic acid and 64.12% for curcumin at concentration 100 µg/ml. Further investigation assay of antioxidant activities, indicated that IC50 for kojic acid is 63.8 µg/ml and curcumin is 16.05 µg/ml. Based on the data, kojic acid and curcumin have potential antioxidant properties to reduce hyperpigmentation with low toxicity effect in cell B16-F1.

  8. Quaternary structure of V1 and F1 ATPase: significance of structural homologies and diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svergun, D I; Konrad, S; Huss, M; Koch, M H; Wieczorek, H; Altendorf, K; Volkov, V V; Grüber, G

    1998-12-22

    The V1 ATPase from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The radii of gyration (Rg) of the complexes were 6.2 +/- 0.1 and 4.7 +/- 0.02 nm, respectively. The shape of the M. sexta V1 ATPase was determined ab initio from the scattering data showing six masses, presumed to be the A and B subunits, arranged in an alternating manner about a 3-fold axis. A seventh mass with a length of about 11.0 nm extends perpendicularly to the center of the hexameric unit. This central mass is presumed to be the stalk that connects V1 with the membrane domain (V(O)) in the intact V1V(O)-ATPase. In comparison, the shape of the F1 ATPase from E. coli possesses a quasi-3-fold symmetry over the major part of the enzyme. The overall asymmetry of the structure is given by a stem, assumed to include the central stalk subunits. The features of the V1 and F1 ATPase reveal structural homologies and diversities of the key components of the complexes.

  9. Complementation of Escherichia coli unc mutant strains by chloroplast and cyanobacterial F1-ATPase subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Burkovski, A; Altendorf, K; Junge, W; Engelbrecht, S

    1993-10-04

    The genes encoding the five subunits of the F1 portion of the ATPases from both spinach chloroplasts and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were cloned into expression vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant subunits formed inclusion bodies within the cells. Each particular subunit was expressed in the respective unc mutant, each unable to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. The following subunits restored growth under conditions of oxidative phosphorylation: alpha (both sources, cyanobacterial subunit more than spinach subunit), beta (cyanobacterial subunit only), delta (both spinach and Synechocystis), and epsilon (both sources), whereas no growth was achieved with the gamma subunits from both sources. Despite a high degree of sequence homology the large subunits alpha and beta of spinach and cyanobacterial F1 were not as effective in the substitution of their E. coli counterparts. On the other hand, the two smallest subunits of the E. coli ATPase could be more effectively replaced by their cyanobacterial or chloroplast counterparts, although the sequence identity or even similarity is very low. We attribute these findings to the different roles of these subunits in F1: The large alpha and beta subunits contribute to the catalytic centers of the enzyme, a function rendering them very sensitive to even minor changes. For the smaller delta and epsilon subunits it was sufficient to maintain a certain tertiary structure during evolution, with little emphasis on the conservation of particular amino acids.

  10. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation.

  11. Somatic development and embryo yield in crossbred F1 mice generated by different mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITP. Batista

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different mating strategies among endogamic strains to create F1 populations of mice, minimising the effect of inbreeding depression on somatic development and embryo yield. Females from the strains Swiss, CBA and C57Bl/6 were divided in nine experimental mate arrangements. The total numbers of pups born alive per dam and somatic development, estimated by weighing and measuring the crown-rump length, were recorded. Superovulation response was evaluated in outbreed females. Litter size differed among endogamic dams, irrespective of the sire. Somatic development results suggest heterosis and imprinting phenomena, once a differential parental effect was demonstrated. There was no difference in corpora lutea, ova or embryos recovered (P > 0.05, but recovery and viability rates differ among F1 groups (P < 0.05. The association of dam prolificity with somatic development and superovulation response of the pups should be considered for experimental F1 populations establishment. The use of outbreed animals, however, did not reduce response variability to hormone treatment.

  12. Psychoacoustical and ear canal cancellation of (2f1-f2)-distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, E; Harris, F P

    1990-06-01

    Level and phase of the (2f1-f2)-difference tone were measured as a function of primary-tone level using the psychoacoustical method of cancellation and the objective method of emission cancellation for four frequency separations of f1 = 1620 Hz and f2 in four subjects. Differences between hearing- and emission-cancellation levels ranged from 60-33 dB as delta f = f2-f1 increased from 180 to 432 Hz. For smaller separations of the primaries, phase changes for emission cancellation covered a wide range and had sharp "steps," whereas for hearing cancellation, the phase varied only slightly. With wider separations of the primaries, the phase became more varied for hearing cancellation and more homogeneous for emission cancellation. Both emission- and hearing-cancellation level functions were nonmonotonic as a function of constant SL1 and varied SL2. Remarkable phase shifts always appeared near minima in level at all separations of the primaries for emission cancellation. Four sources may be contributing to the differences in results: (a) the frequency-dependent attenuation of the middle-ear transfer function, (b) the frequency-dependent mismatch of the acoustical impedances at the eardrum, (c) the frequency dependence of the microphone's sensitivity mounted within the probe, and (d) the different reaction of active nonlinear cochlear processes on the hearing- and emission-cancellation tones.

  13. Nanosized free-energy transducer F1-ATPase achieves 100% efficiency at finite time operation

    CERN Document Server

    Toyabe, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    The free-energy transduction at 100% efficiency is not prohibited by thermodynamic laws. However, it is usually reached only at the quasi-static limit such as the macroscopic piston pulled or pushed at the infinitely slow velocity. If we operate the piston quickly, turbulence is inevitable and irreversible heat dissipates through the microscopic degrees of freedom. Here, we evaluated the work performed by the nano-sized biological free-energy transducer F1-ATPase by single-molecule experiments on the basis of nonequilibrium theory. We show that the F1-ATPase achieves a nearly 100% free-energy conversion efficiency even far from quasistatic process for both the mechanical-to-chemical and chemical-to-mechanical transductions. Such a high efficiency at a finite-time operation is not expected for macroscopic engines and highlights a remarkable property of the nano-sized engines working in the energy scale of k_{B}T. Some of the microscopic degrees of freedom may not be hidden but accessible to the F1-ATPase. Henc...

  14. Simultaneous F 0-F 1 modifications of Arabic for the improvement of natural-sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ykhlef, F.; Bensebti, M.

    2013-03-01

    Pitch (F 0) modification is one of the most important problems in the area of speech synthesis. Several techniques have been developed in the literature to achieve this goal. The main restrictions of these techniques are in the modification range and the synthesised speech quality, intelligibility and naturalness. The control of formants in a spoken language can significantly improve the naturalness of the synthesised speech. This improvement is mainly dependent on the control of the first formant (F 1). Inspired by this observation, this article proposes a new approach that modifies both F 0 and F 1 of Arabic voiced sounds in order to improve the naturalness of the pitch shifted speech. The developed strategy takes a parallel processing approach, in which the analysis segments are decomposed into sub-bands in the wavelet domain, modified in the desired sub-band by using a resampling technique and reconstructed without affecting the remained sub-bands. Pitch marking and voicing detection are performed in the frequency decomposition step based on the comparison of the multi-level approximation and detail signals. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by listening tests and compared to the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) technique in the third approximation level. Experimental results have shown that the manipulation in the wavelet domain of F 0 in conjunction with F 1 guarantees natural-sounding of the synthesised speech compared to the classical pitch modification technique. This improvement was appropriate for high pitch modifications.

  15. Bioleaching of h