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Sample records for f001-f005 spent solvents

  1. Supercritical water oxidation of spent extraction solvent simulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 秦强; 陈土方方; 夏晓彬; 马洪军; 乔延波; 何柳斌

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of nuclear technology has led to more liquid organic radioactive wastes. Different from the regular aqueous radioactive wastes, these liquids possess a higher hazard potential and cannot be disposed through the conventional methods due to their radioactivity and chemical nature. Spent extraction solvent is a kind of common liquid organic radioactive wastes. In this work, tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), which is more difficult to degrade in the spent extraction solvent, was used as the model compound. Influences of reaction conditions on total organic carbon (TOC) removal and the volume percentage of each gas component under supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) were studied. The SCWO behaviors of spent extraction solvent simulants were studied under the optimal conditions derived from the TBP experiment. The SCWO experiments were studied at 400–550◦C, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 0–200%, feed concentration of 1.5%–4%and pressure of 25 MPa for 15–75 s. The results show that the TOC removal of the simulants was greater than 99.7%and CH4, H2 and CO were not detected at 550◦C, 25 MPa, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 150%, feed concentration of 3%, and residence time of 30 s.

  2. Separation and Recovery of Precious Metals from Leach Liquors of Spent Electronic Wastes by Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong; Wang, Lingyun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Solvent extraction was employed to recover precious metals (Au (III), Pd (II) and Pt (IV)) from the leach solution of spent electronic wastes containing Cu (II), Cr (III) and Fe (III). First, pure Fe (III) and Au (III) were recovered by simultaneous extraction with Cyanex 923 followed by selective stripping with HCl and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Second, Pt (IV), Pd (II) and Cu (II) were extracted by Alamine 336 from the raffinate. After the removal of Cu (II) by stripping with weak HCl, Pd (II) and Pt (IV) were separately stripped by controlling the concentration of thiourea in the mixture with HCl. A process flow sheet for the separation of precious metals was proposed.

  3. Recovery by solvent extraction of vanadium from spent catalysts leaching solutions using Primene 81R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, L. J.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in solutions coming from spent catalysts leaching process by means of solvent extraction techniques using primary amine Primene 81R, has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of these effluents. Results obtained allows to propose an extraction mechanism for vanadium(V with this amine in acidic media, verifying the great influence of pH on the process and fix adequate ranges for variables: O/A ratio, organic phase composition, pH, stirring speed and phase separation speed. These values were simulated in industrial conditions. Vanadium is finally recovered by means of precipitation as ammonium metavanadate and later calcination to obtain vanadium pentoxide of commercial grade.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en soluciones procedentes del proceso de lixiviación de catalizadores agotados, por medio de la técnica de extracción con disolventes, empleando la amina primaria PRIMENE 81R, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos efluentes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un mecanismo de extracción para el vanadio(V, con esta amina en medio ácido, verificando la gran influencia del pH en el proceso y Ajando los rangos adecuados para las siguientes variables: relación O/A, composición de la fase orgánica, pH, velocidad de agitación y velocidad de separación de fases. Esos valores se simularon en condiciones industriales. El vanadio se recupera finalmente precipitándolo como metavanadato amónico y posterior calcinación para obtener pentóxido de vanadio de calidad comercial.

  4. Study of cerium-promoted rhodium alumina catalyst as a steam reforming catalyst for treatment of spent solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hee-Chul Yang; Min-Woo Lee; Ho-Sang Hwang; Jei-Kwon Moon; Dong-Yong Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to develop an appropriate catalyst used for the steam reforming of gasified spent solvents. Rh2O3/ CeO2-Al2O3 catalysts with various CeO2 loadings were prepared and heated at different temperatures of 500 and 800 ºC, and their surface properties were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron mi-croscopy (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and Brumauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. Rhodium existed in the form of Rh2O3, regardless of the sample composition as well as the heating temperature. In the tested range of cerium addition (up to 12 times the rhodium mass), no significant changes in BET surface areas and binding energy corresponding to Rh 3d5/2were observed. Instead, the addition of cerium led to a greatly enhanced dispersion of rhodium nanoparticles, and no agglomeration of rhodium was observed for samples heated even at 800 ºC. Honeycomb monolith rhodium catalysts promoted with cerium were fabricated and tested for the steam reforming of a gasified spent solvent, mainly consisting of butylene (C4H8). The test results suggested that a ce-rium-promoted rhodium catalyst could be used as an appropriate reforming catalyst for treating low-quality non-methane hydrocar-bons without the formation of coke at high temperatures of up to 900 ºC.

  5. Recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries with chemical deposition and solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Zuo, Xiaoxi

    This paper describes a new recycling process of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). After the dismantling of the spent batteries steel crusts, the leaching of battery internal substances with alkaline solution and the dissolving of the residues with H 2SO 4 solution were carried out. Then mass cobalt was chemically deposited as oxalate, and Acorga M5640 and Cyanex272 extracted the small quantities of copper and cobalt, respectively. Lithium was recovered as deposition of lithium carbonate. It is shown that about 90% cobalt was deposited as oxalate with less than 0.5% impurities, and Acorga M5640 and Cyanex272 were efficient and selective for the extraction of copper and cobalt in sulfate solution. Over 98% of the copper and 97% of the cobalt was recovered in the given process. In addition, the waste solution was treated innocuously, and LiCoO 2 positive electrode material with good electrochemical performance was also synthesized by using the recovered compounds of cobalt and lithium as precursors. The process is feasible for the recycling of spent LIBs in scale-up.

  6. Two stage leaching of activated spent HDS catalyst and solvent extraction of aluminium using organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Mohapatra, Debasish; Nam, Chul-Woo

    2007-09-05

    Spent catalyst generally contains valuable metals like Mo, Co, Ni on a supporting material, such as gamma-A1(2)O(3). In the present study, a two stage alkali/acid leaching process is proposed to selectively target molybdenum and cobalt/nickel separately to facilitate the downstream processing. Prior to the leaching, the spent catalyst was calcined at 500 degrees C to remove C and S; and to convert metal sulphides to metal oxides. 98% Mo, 93% Co and 90% Ni was effectively recovered by this process. The sulphuric acid leaching of spent catalyst, previously treated by alkali solutions to remove Mo, yielded a solution rich in Ni, Co and Al. In order to recover Co and Ni, the Al impurity must be eliminated. The extraction and stripping of Al has been carried out using the organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272 diluted in carbon tetrachloride. Quantitative Al extraction efficiency was achieved with 1.0M Cyanex 272 in two stages at an aqueous:organic (A:O) phase ratio of 1:1 and equilibrium pH of 3.2. Complete stripping of Al from the loaded organic was carried out using 2M H(2)SO(4) at an A:O phase ratio of 1:1. The extraction reaction proceeded via the cation exchange mechanism and the extracted species was assumed to be AlA(3).3HA. The extraction of Al was carried out in the presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual ions. The regenerated solvent was successfully used for 8 cycles without any significant loss of extraction efficiency, suggesting that Cyanex 272 is extremely stable under present experimental conditions.

  7. Analysis of continuous solvent extraction of nickel from spent electroless nickel plating baths by a mixer-settler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Tanaka, Mikiya

    2009-05-30

    It is urgent to develop an effective technique to treat the large amount of spent electroless nickel plating bath and recycle the high concentration nickel. In our previous study, high recycling efficiency of nickel from the model spent bath was obtained by continuous solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime (LIX84I) as the extractant and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as the accelerator using a mixer-settler extractor. It was observed that the extraction efficiency was affected by the operation parameters such as the flow rates of the aqueous and organic phases and the total stage number. In the present study, the effects of the operation parameters on the extraction efficiency were quantitatively studied on the basis of the pseudo-first-order interfacial extraction rate equation together with the hydrodynamic properties in the mixer. The organic phase holdup, measured under varying conditions of the flow rates of both phases, was analyzed by the Takahashi-Takeuchi holdup model in order to estimate the specific interfacial area. The overall extraction rate coefficients defined by the product of the interfacial extraction rate constant and the specific interfacial area were evaluated using the experimental data and ranged from 3.5 x 10(-3) to 6.7 x 10(-3)s(-1), which was close to the value of 3.4 x 10(-3)s(-1) obtained by batch extraction. Finally, an engineering simulation method was established for assessing the extraction efficiency of nickel during a multistage operation.

  8. Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Hamida Y. Mostafa; Ebaa A. El-Shamy; Amal S. Farag; Nadia G. Kandile

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethylacetoacetate (EAA) and its mixtures with a co-solvent and an anti-solvent have been studied for refining of heavy wax distillate fraction to produce substantially non-carcinogenic base oil. The co-solvent and anti-solvent used are dipropylene glycol (DPG) and ethylene glycol (EG) respectively. The solubility characteristics of the main solvent and its mixed solvent systems were studied. Selection of the optimum solvent mixture and extraction variables has been studied. The effect of...

  9. Recovery of rare earths from acid leach solutions of spent nickel-metal hydride batteries using solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏允; 肖连生; 田吉英; 李兆洋; 曾理

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of rare earths from acid leach solutions of spent nickel-metal hydride batteries using a primary amine ex-tractant of N1923 was studied. The effects of feed pH, temperature, agitation rate and time on the extraction of rare earths, as well as stripping agent composition and concentration, phase ratio on the stripping were investigated. In addition, the extraction isotherm was determined. The pilot plant test results showed that the extraction of rare earths reached 99.98% after a five-stage counter current ex-traction. The mixed rare earths oxalates with the 99.77% purity of rare earth elements and impurity content less than 0.05% were ob-tained by the addition of oxalic acids in loaded strip liquors. The extractant exhibited good selectivity of rare earths over base metals of iron, nickel, copper and manganese.

  10. Chloride leaching and solvent extraction of cadmium, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-cadmium, batteries using Cyanex 923 and 272

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Ramachandra; Priya, D. Neela

    Studies are conducted on the leaching and solvent extraction separation of metals from chloride leach liquor of spent nickel-cadmium batteries with Cyanex 923 and 272 diluted in kerosene as the extractants. Dissolution of the metals increases with increase in acid concentration and time but decreases with the solids-to-liquid ratio. Complete dissolution of Cd, Co and Ni can be achieved with 1.5 M HCl at 85 °C for 8 h and a solids-to-liquid ratio of 4. Treatment of leach liquor for the separation of metals with Cyanex 923 shows that increase of extractant and chloride ion concentration increases the percentage extraction of cadmium. The plot of log[distribution coefficient] versus log[extractant]/[Cl -] is linear with a slope of 2, which indicates that the extraction follows a solvation mechanism with the extracted species as CdCl 2·2S (S, Cyanex 923). Moreover, Cyanex 923 enables a clear separation of Cd from Co and Ni. Extraction of cobalt with Cyanex 272 involves a cation-exchange mechanism with the formation of a 1:2 metal-to-ligand complex in the organic phase. Based on the distribution data, extractant concentration and equilibrium pH of the aqueous phase, a possible separation process is proposed for the recovery of cadmium, cobalt and nickel with >99% efficiency.

  11. Chloride leaching and solvent extraction of cadmium, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-cadmium, batteries using Cyanex 923 and 272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B. Ramachandra; Priya, D. Neela [Inorganic Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR), Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2006-10-27

    Studies are conducted on the leaching and solvent extraction separation of metals from chloride leach liquor of spent nickel-cadmium batteries with Cyanex 923 and 272 diluted in kerosene as the extractants. Dissolution of the metals increases with increase in acid concentration and time but decreases with the solids-to-liquid ratio. Complete dissolution of Cd, Co and Ni can be achieved with 1.5M HCl at 85{sup o}C for 8h and a solids-to-liquid ratio of 4. Treatment of leach liquor for the separation of metals with Cyanex 923 shows that increase of extractant and chloride ion concentration increases the percentage extraction of cadmium. The plot of log[distribution coefficient] versus log[extractant]/[Cl{sup -}] is linear with a slope of 2, which indicates that the extraction follows a solvation mechanism with the extracted species as CdCl{sub 2}.2S (S, Cyanex 923). Moreover, Cyanex 923 enables a clear separation of Cd from Co and Ni. Extraction of cobalt with Cyanex 272 involves a cation-exchange mechanism with the formation of a 1:2 metal-to-ligand complex in the organic phase. Based on the distribution data, extractant concentration and equilibrium pH of the aqueous phase, a possible separation process is proposed for the recovery of cadmium, cobalt and nickel with >99% efficiency. (author)

  12. Toward a Greenish Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Other Decontamination Processes for Contaminated Metal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The final disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is an area that requires innovative solutions. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) has been examined as one means to remediate SNF in a variety of different chemical environments and with different chemical starting materials. The effectiveness of various ILs for SNF reprocessing, as well as the reaction chemistry that occurs in them, is discussed.

  13. Recovery of zinc and cadmium from spent batteries using Cyphos IL 102 via solvent extraction route and synthesis of Zn and Cd oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Mahandra, Harshit; Gupta, Bina

    2017-09-01

    The overall aim of this study is to separate and recover zinc and cadmium from spent batteries. For this purpose Cyphos IL 102 diluted in toluene was employed for the extraction and recovery of Zn and Cd from Zn-C and Ni-Cd batteries leach liquor. The influence of extractant concentration for the leach liquors of Zn-C (0.01-0.05mol/L) and Ni-Cd (0.04-0.20mol/L) batteries has been investigated. Composition of the leach liquor obtained from Zn-C/Ni-Cd spent batteries is Zn - 2.18g/L, Mn - 4.59g/L, Fe - 4.0×10(-3)g/L, Ni - 0.2×10(-3)g/L/Cd - 4.28g/L, Ni - 0.896×10(-1)g/L, Fe - 0.148g/L, Co - 3.77×10(-3)g/L, respectively. Two stage counter current extraction at A/O 1:1 and 3:2 with 0.04mol/L and 0.2mol/L Cyphos IL 102 for Zn and Cd, respectively provide more than 99.0% extraction of both the metal ions with almost negligible extraction of associated metal ions. A stripping efficiency of around 99.0% for Zn and Cd was obtained at O/A 1:1 using 1.0mol/L HNO3 in two and three counter current stages, respectively. ZnO and CdO were also synthesized using the loaded organic phase and characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of ZnO and CdO correspond to zincite and monteponite, respectively. The average particle size was ∼27.0nm and ∼37.0nm for ZnO and CdO, respectively. The EDX analysis of ZnO and CdO shows almost 1:1 atomic percentage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 废磷酸三异戊酯有机溶剂的间接电化学氧化分解行为研究%Study on Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation for Destruction of Spent TiAP Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉波; 袁洁琼; 苏哲; 朱桐宇; 苏明业

    2014-01-01

    A silver mediated electrochemical oxidation is a promising technique for the destruction of organic compounds .The destruction of spent organic solvent in nitric acid medium containing Ag + was studied by using a laboratory scale electrochemical oxidation cell and fresh 30% tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) .The factors affecting the generation of Ag2 + and its capability to decompose TiAP were investigated , which include temperature , nitric acid concentration and current density . T he results show that the generation of Ag2+ increases with the concentrations of HNO3 and Ag+ and reduces with the increase of temperature .It is also found that the destruction rate of TiAP is 99.9% with a temperature of 40 ℃ ,a nitric acid concentration of 8 mol/L ,and a current density of 0.5 A/cm2 for 8 h .%银媒介间接电化学氧化(A g/M EO )技术是一种有机溶剂分解破坏的有效方法。本文采用小型氧化电解池和新鲜磷酸三异戊酯(TiAP)有机溶剂模拟研究了在含 Ag+的 HNO3溶液体系中氧化分解TiAP ,包括电解氧化过程中阳极室 HNO3浓度、操作温度等条件对Ag2+产生量的影响,以及影响Ag2+氧化分解TiAP有机溶剂的相关因素。研究结果表明,溶液中Ag+和HNO3浓度的提高有利于Ag2+的生成;操作温度的升高,不利于Ag2+的生成。最佳条件为:温度,40℃;HNO3浓度,8 mol/L;电流密度,0.5 A/cm2。在此条件下,8 h可将99.9%的T iA P氧化分解。

  15. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  16. Processing of spent nickelcatalyst for fat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASIR Mohammad Ibraim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent nickel catalyst (SNC has the potential of insulting the quality of the environment in a number of ways. Its disposal has a pollution effect. Optimum recovery of fat from SNC, could save the environment and reduce the oil loss. Hexane has been the solvent of choice for oil extraction. Alternative solvents considered to have been safer have been evaluated. Hexane, isopropanol, ethanol and heptane were examined using soxhlet extraction. While hexane is more efficient in oil recovery from SNC, isopropanol proved to be very good in clear separation of oil from waste material and also provides high solvent recovery compared to other solvents. Isopropanol extraction with chill separation of miscella into lower oil-rich phase, and an upper, solvent-rich recyclable phase save mush energy of vaporization for distilling. An aqueous extraction process with immiscible solvent assisted was tested. Solvent like hexane added to SNC, and water added later with continuous stirring. The mixture was stirred for about 30 minutes, prior to centrifugation. Aqueous process extracted less amount of oil compared to solvent extraction.

  17. Time well spent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early...... care on income and labor market participation....

  18. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  19. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  20. Time well spent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early...... adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7 220 children. The children experienced...... different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster...

  1. The recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassuoni, A.A.; Sherief, H.M.; Tayeb, A.M.; Ahmed, K.K. [Minia Univ., Minia (Egypt). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Four solvent based extraction methods to recover oil from spent bleached earth were presented. Spent bleaching earth is a solid waste that is generated during the processing of vegetable oils. It is removed from the oil with filters and contains approximately 25-29 per cent oil by weight. At the onset of the study, the oil entrained with the spent bleaching earth filtration was determined to be 25 per cent. Four solvents, N-hexane, carbon tetra chloride, benzene and 1,2 dichloroethane were used in this study. The per cent recovery of oil was calculated by measuring the concentration of oil by spectrophotometer. The effect of temperature on the recovery of oil and different solid:liquid ratios was also studied for the four solvents. The following four methods were used for the recovery of oil were solvent extraction, extraction with 1 per cent sodium carbonate solution, extraction with 4.5 per cent sodium dodecyl sulphite solution and boiling with 12 per cent sodium hydroxide solution. All methods gave satisfactory results indicating that the earth could be reused. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  3. Used Solvent Testing and Reclamation. Volume 2. Vapor Degreasing and Precision Cleaning Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Dependence of the 1,3-Dioxolane/AlCI 3 Reaction Using Arrhenius’ Law 88 36 Effect of 1,4-Dioxane on Reactor Pressure 91 67 Effect of 1,4-Dioxane on HCI...and spent solvent. This process was performed for all of the three solvents. Inhibitor Kinetic Studies Batch Reactions. Batch reactor kinetic studies...acceptor in chlorinated solvents. It is an 4 80. Levenspiel , Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, 1972), pp 41-86. 490

  4. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F. [and others

    1997-02-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  5. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials.

  6. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  7. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  8. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  9. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  10. The Content in Bioactive Compounds of Different Brewers' Spent Grain Aqueous Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Anca FARCAS; Sonia SOCACI; Maria TOFANA; Elena MUDURA; Salanta, Liana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade by-products of food and beverage processing have attracted much attention due to their functionality and potential as food ingredients. Brewers’ spent grain is the major by-product of the brewing industry representing a valuable source of bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extraction time and temperature on the efficiency of water as solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds from brewers’ spent grain (BSG). In terms of extractio...

  11. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  12. Hydrotreating of waste lube oil by rejuvenated spent hydrotreating catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeek A. Sadeek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of catalysts are used in the Egyptian refining industry for the purification and upgrading of various petroleum streams. These catalysts gradually lose activity through deactivation with time and the spent catalysts were usually discarded as solid waste. On the other hand, waste lube oil contains heavy metals coming from undergirded base oil and additives, these metals have carcinogenic effect and cause serious environmental problems. Studies are conducted on the reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse of the spent hydrotreating catalyst (Mo–Ni/Al which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company. Three leaching solvents were used: oxidized oxalic acid, benzoic acid and boric acid at different concentrations (4%, 8% and 16%, different oxidizing agents (H2O2 and Fe(NO33 and different modes of addition of oxidizing agents (batch and continuous. The results indicated that 4% oxalic acid + 5% Fe(NO33 at continuous addition of oxidizing agents was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate metal removal and rejuvenate catalyst. The fresh catalyst was applied for re-refining of waste lube oil under different reaction temperatures (320–410 °C in order to compare the hydrodesulphurization (HDS activity with both the fresh, treated and spent catalysts. The results indicated that the rejuvenation techniques introduce a catalyst have HDS activity nearly approach to that the fresh of the same type.

  13. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  14. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-06-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  15. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  16. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  17. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  18. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  19. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG...

  20. Apparatus and method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H. Sr.

    1982-01-19

    Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and non-volatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in the reaction region of a separation vessel which includes a reflux region positioned above the molten tin solvent. The reflux region minimizes loss of evaporated solvent during the separation of the actinide fuels from the volatile fission products. Additionally, inclusion of the reflux region permits the separation of the more volatile fission products (noncondensable) from the less volatile ones (condensable).

  1. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  2. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sawa, Toshio; Suzuoki, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, Yoichi; Kumagai, Mikiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention provides a method of reprocessing spent fuels to form MOX having a Pu/U ratio suitable to fuels of LWR or fast reactors and uranium oxides of fuels of an LWR reactor. In a brief separation step for uranium, carbonate is added to a nitric acid solution in which spent fuels are dissolved, to dissolve a portion of uranium in the nitric acid solution. The residual uranium, plutonium and fission products are made into complexes of carboxylic acid ions and precipitated. The precipitated complexes of carboxylic acid ions are brought into contact with a different nitric acid solution to recover the uranium, plutonium and fission products. The concentration of the carbonate in the nitric acid solution in which uranium is partially dissolved is determined in accordance with the plutonium/uranium ratio based on the relation between the saturation concentration of uranium to the concentration of carbonate in the nitric acid solution. (T.M.)

  3. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  4. Developments in spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.A. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The author gives a brief review of the his efforts to negotiate a site for monitored retrieval storage (MRS) of spent fuels in 1994. His efforts were centered on finding a voluntary host for the MRS site. He found politician were not opposed but did not want to make it a campaign issue during 1994. The author and his office came to the conclusion that to find a site voluntarily, the project would have to be an economic opportunity for the region.

  5. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  6. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  7. Optimized liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Ashraf; Naqvi, Syed Mumtaz Danish; Khan, Fasihullah

    2014-01-01

    Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol) and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone) as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R (2) = 0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp.) to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r). Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp.) so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7 h, T = 10°C, and r = 2) and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6 h, T = 10°C, and r = 5) established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge.

  8. Optimized Liquid-Liquid Extractive Rerefining of Spent Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R2=0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp. to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r. Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp. so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7 h, T=10°C, and r=2 and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6 h, T=10°C, and r=5 established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge.

  9. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  10. Solvents in novolak synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobodacha, Chet J.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Durham, Dana L.; Paradis, Valerie R.

    1993-09-01

    Novolac resins may be prepared with or without a solvent present. We have found that solvent power greatly affects the properties of the finished resin and thus gives the resist chemist another variable with which to `fine-tune' resist properties. Using designed experiments, we investigated the effect of solvent power, as measured by Hansen's Solubility Parameters, of a number of solvents and solvent mixtures on the final properties of the novolac resin. We found that the relative molecular weight (RMW) and dissolution rate of a novolac resin can be varied by selection of a solvent or solvent mixture with the appropriate polarity and hydrogen- bonding characteristics. The solvent polarity and hydrogen-bonding characteristics may affect the stability of the cresol/formaldehyde transition state, thus causing the observed changes in RMW and dissolution rate.

  11. Solvent abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G E

    1979-01-01

    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. What does time spent on searching indicate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Jensen, Sabine Dreier Elgaard; Byström, Katriina

    2012-01-01

    . This phenomenon of time spent is interesting from an IR evaluation point of view with reference to how time spent is to be interpreted. A comparison of time spent between a semi-lab interactive IR (IIR) study using simulated work task situations and a naturalistic IIR study is presented. The findings...... of this comparison are further related to a study on information searching and seeking in the real work environment that provides a resonance board for the reported IIR studies. The main conclusion is that time spent searching depends not only on interest, but also on circumstances such as prior knowledge...

  13. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  15. Compound of Feed for Pyrolyzing and Combusting Spent TBP/Kerosene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion technology is an available method to treat spent organic solvent, such asintermediate-level radioactive TBP /kerosene. In the process TBP is decomposed into C4H8 and P2O5 thatwill corrode equipment and pipes. In order to convert P2O5 into calcium phosphate or pyrophosphate, andthen separate them from the pyrolysis reactor, calcium hydroxide and emulsifier solutions are added to the

  16. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  17. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  18. Processing of spent nickel catalyst for fat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent nickel catalyst (SNC have the potential of insulting the quality of the environment in a number of ways. The disposal of SNC will have a pollution effect. Optimum recovery of fat from SNC , could save the environment and reduce the oil loss. Hexane has been the solvent of choice for oil extraction. Alternative solvents that are considered safer have been evaluated. Hexane, isopropanol, ethanol, and heptane were examined using soxhlet extraction. While hexane was more efficient in oil recovery from SNC, isopropanol proved to be very good, to clarifying separation of oil from waste material and also provide high solvent recovery compared to other solvents. Isopropanol extraction with chill provided separation of miscella into two phases: lower oil–rich and an upper solvent – rich. It saved much energy of vaporization for distilling. An aqueous extraction process with immiscible solvent assisted was tested. Solvent like hexane added to SNC, and water added later with continuous stirring. The mixture was stirred for about 30 minutes, prior to centrifugation. Aqueous process extracted less amount of oil compared to solvent extraction.El catalizador agotado de níquel (SNC tiene el potencial de dañar la calidad del medio ambiente de diversas formas. El depósito de SNC tendrá un efecto de polución. La recuperación óptima de la grasa a partir del SCN, podría conservar el medio ambiente y reducir la pérdida de aceite. El hexano ha sido el disolvente elegido para la extracción del aceite. También se han evaluado disolventes alternativos que son considerados seguros. Se han examinado hexano, isopropanol, etanol y heptano usando extracción con soxhlet. Mientras que el hexano fue el mas eficaz en la recuperación del aceite, el isopropanol demostró ser muy bueno para aclarar la separación del aceite a partir de la materia residual y también proporcionó una alta recuperación del disolvente en comparación con los otros

  19. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  20. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  1. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  2. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one- ... of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients have depression, a new review finds. Each year, more than ...

  3. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of edible mushrooms generates spent mushroom substrate that ... specific enzymatic lacasses, manganese peroxidases, versatile peroxidases, ... nitrogen and 0.3% phosphorus) and bioaugmentation of the microorganisms of ...

  4. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges.

  5. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO{sub 2} fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO{sub 2} dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with {sup 238}Pu doped UO{sub 2} M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO{sub 2} studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with {alpha} doped UO{sub 2} in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO{sub 2} / water interfaces under He{sup 2+} beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO{sub 2} alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines

  6. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using SO2-ethanol-water spent liquor from spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Jurgens, German; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2011-12-01

    SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) spent liquor from spruce chips was successfully used for batch and continuous production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). Initially, batch experiments were performed using spent liquor to check the suitability for production of ABE. Maximum concentration of total ABE was found to be 8.79 g/l using 4-fold diluted SEW liquor supplemented with 35 g/l of glucose. The effect of dilution rate on solvent production, productivity and yield was studied in column reactor consisting of immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 on wood pulp. Total solvent concentration of 12 g/l was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.21 h(-1). The maximum solvent productivity (4.86 g/l h) with yield of 0.27 g/g was obtained at dilution rate of 0.64 h(-1). Further, to increase the solvent yield, the unutilized sugars were subjected to batch fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  8. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  9. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  10. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  11. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  12. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  13. Halogenated solvent remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  14. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  17. Spent fuel management of Jose Cabrera NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Zurro, J.E.; Garcia Costilla, M. [Area de Generacion - Unidad Nuclear, Gas Natural Fenosa, Avda. de San Luis, 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Lavara Sanz, A. [Division Nuclear, SOCOIN, P. del Club Deportivo, 1 - Edificio 5, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain); Martinez Abad, J.E. [Departamento de Residuos de Alta Actividad, ENRESA, C/ Emilio Vargas, 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The definitive shutdown of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant took place on 30. of April 2006. From this moment, cooperation agreements between ENRESA and GAS NATURAL FENOSA were established to reach, among others objectives, its decommissioning, 3 years after the shutdown of the reactor. In order to accomplish the Spanish nuclear regulation, a spent fuel management plan was developed. This plan determined that the fuel assemblies placed in the spent fuel pool would be managed by means of their storage in an interim installation. For this reason, an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) was built at plant site, pioneer in Spain by its characteristics of design. Different administrative authorizations from the point of view of nuclear safety as well as from the environmental were required for ISFSI licensing process. The transference and storage of spent fuel was carried out using the HI-STORM 100Z Dry Storage System, developed by HOLTEC INTERNATIONAL. This system, designed for the spent fuel storage in casks, supports abnormal and very hard accident conditions. The system has three main components: Storage Cask (HI-STORM), Transfer Cask (HI-TRAC) and Multipurpose Canister (MPC). In addition to this, the system has a specific Transport Cask (HI-STAR) for the future transport out of the Plant. More than 30 Design Modifications to the system and plant were implemented to solve structural problems and to include safety and ALARA improvements. The transfer of the spent fuel and its emplacement in the ISFSI began on January 2009 and finished on September of that year allowing starting the decommissioning process, three years and a half after Jose Cabrera NPP shutdown. (authors)

  18. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  19. Spent fuel container and a material thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, Motoji; Kikuchi, Masaaki

    1998-12-04

    The material of a vessel for containing spent fuels of the present invention is prepared by compositing boron fibers in a volume rate of about 30% in a metal base of Al-Mg-Si alloy containing 3% of boron. It has characteristics of the maximum strength at break being 1.8 times or more at a room temperature and at 200degC, a neutron transmittance being about 1/4, and a specific gravity being 1/3 or less compared with those of conventional austenite stainless steel to which 6% of boron is added. With such a constitution, spent fuels can be used smoothly. (T.M.)

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  1. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  3. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  4. Stability of Solvent Radiolysis in Purex Process of Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In Purex process the regradation of TBP-diluents due to the radiolysis may cause diffculty for the process. Three diluents such as n-dodecane, hydrogenation kerosene, special kerosene were used in Purex

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Technical Databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1998-10-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Technical Databook is developed for use as a common authoritative source of fuel behavior and material parameters in support of the Hanford SNF Project. The Technical Databook will be revised as necessary to add parameters as their Databook submittals become available.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel rods encapsulated in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, H.D.

    1984-04-01

    Using hot isostatic pressing, spent nuclear fuel rods and other radioactive wastes can be encapsulated in solid copper. The copper capsule which is formed is free of pores and cracks, and is highly resistant to attack by reducing ground waters. Such capsules should contain radioactive materials safely for hundreds of thousands of years in underground storage.

  7. Older peoples' perspectives on time spent alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Mandy; Richard, Ashley; Williams, Shoshannah

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of time spent alone by older people have been associated with loneliness and poor mental and physical health. There is a paucity of research, however, that examines time alone from an occupational perspective. In this exploratory study we explored the perspectives of older people on their time spent alone. A qualitative descriptive study design was selected. With the aim of maximising variation, five participants were recruited from retirement villages and seven participants who lived independently in the community. Participants recorded time spent alone in a time diary for three days as priming for a semi-structured in-depth interview. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Three key themes were identified: 'it is a matter of getting some balance'; 'keeping busy'; and 'the nights are the worst'. The study highlights the importance older people place on the need to manage time alone so that it is a positive and nourishing experience and to avoid experiencing extended periods of boredom potentially leading to loneliness. Older people utilise occupations to keep busy and achieve an individually acceptable level of time alone. Enabling older people to balance time spent alone by addressing barriers to participation in the community in addition to finding engaging occupations to occupy time has the potential to prevent boredom, loneliness and improve wellbeing. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Reconstruction of Spent Fuel Dissolver Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Shu-hong; ZHU; Qing-fu; ZHOU; Qi; QUAN; Yan-hui; YANG; Li-jun; LUO; Huang-da; LIU; Yang; ZHANG; Wei; ZHOU; Xiao-ping; LIU; Dong-hai

    2015-01-01

    During the twelfth Five-Year period,Reactor Physics Laboratory has taken on the research item about spent fuel dissolver critical experiment in nuclear power development project,which should be accomplished by using the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment device.Due to the differences of experimental content

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-02-25

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  11. Electro Static Precipitator for Spent Wash Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulagala Srinivas Rama Kumar (M.S.Rama Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The distillery sector is major polluting industries in India & world. These units generate large volume of dark brown colored wastewater, which is known as “spent wash”. Liquid wastes from breweries and distilleries possess a characteristically high pollution load and have continued to pose a critical problem of environmental pollution in India and many countries.

  12. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  13. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  14. Role of solvent/non-solvent ratio on microsphere formation using the solvent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, J; Scott, E; Pattamunuch, P; Chen, S; Mathiowitz, E

    2004-03-01

    The importance of good solvent concentration in the non-solvent mixture and the non-solvent viscosity on the ability to form microspheres using solvent removal process was investigated. The higher the viscosity of the polymer solutions, the higher the concentration of good solvent needed in the nonsolvent mixture to produce microspheres. This finding was due to faster precipitation of the polymer phase. Also, the addition of a model drug, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin, to the polymer solution (10% poly-L-lactic acid:poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride in methylene chloride) resulted in an overall lower polymer solution viscosity (15.5 cP with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin as compared with 18.25 cP for blank polymer at 25 degrees C). Additionally, the effect of good solvent concentration on non-solvent viscosity was evaluated, and the viscosity decreased as the concentration of good solvent increased. The effect of good solvent concentration on the non-solvent mixture on sphere formation was of great importance. Microspheres would not form when the good polymer solvent (methylene chloride) in the non-solvent phase was too low (below 175 ml for poly-L-lactic acid or 150 ml for poly(D,L-lactidco-glycolid)) or was replaced by another good solvent such as ethyl acetate, even though the same viscosity was achieved. It was shown that the concentration of the good solvent in the non-solvent mixture was more of a controlling factor than the viscosity of the non-solvent mixture in microsphere formation and the findings support the conclusion that diffusion is the main controlling parameter in solvent removal.

  15. Diamex solvent regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, C.; Cames, B.; Margot, L.; Ramain, L. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The CEA has undertaken the development of the DIAMEX process as the first step in the strategy aiming at recovering minor actinides which could then be transmuted or separately conditioned. The scientific feasibility of this process was demonstrated during counter current hot tests operated in 1993. Then experimental works were conducted, on one hand to optimise the extractant formula, on the other hand to improve the flowsheet. Reference extractant and flowsheet were then chosen, respectively in 1995 and 1996. The next step, still in progress, is the demonstration of the DIAMEX technical feasibility (in 2002); this means that the flowsheet should include solvent regeneration treatments. In this aim, degradation studies were performed to quantify main degradation products, and identify those which could be disturbing in the process. This paper deals with experimental studies performed with intend to propose a regeneration treatment, included in the flowsheet, so that the solvent could be recycled. It comprises: - Quantification of the main degradation products issued from radiolysis or hydrolysis, which are methyl octyl amine (MOA) and carboxylic acids; - Effects of these products on extracting and hydrodynamics performances of the process; - Study of methods able to remove mainly disturbing degradation products. Acidic scrubbing, which are performed in the scrubbing and stripping sections of the DIAMEX process, should allow the quantitative removal of methyl octyl amine. Then basic scrubbings, which were more especially studied, should eliminate at least 80% of carboxylic acids, and part of the cations remaining in the solvent. (authors)

  16. Preparation of Potassium Ferrate from Spent Steel Pickling Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 is a multi-functional green reagent for water treatment with considerable combined effectiveness in oxidization, disinfection, coagulation, sterilization, adsorption, and deodorization, producing environment friendly Fe(III end-products during the reactions. This study uses a simple method to lower Fe(VI preparation cost by recycling iron from a spent steel pickling liquid as an iron source for preparing potassium ferrate with a wet oxidation method. The recycled iron is in powder form of ferrous (93% and ferric chlorides (7%, as determined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectrum (XANES simulation. The synthesis method involves three steps, namely, oxidation of ferrous/ferric ions to form ferrate with NaOCl under alkaline conditions, substitution of sodium with potassium to form potassium ferrate, and continuously washing impurities with various organic solvents off the in-house ferrate. Characterization of the in-house product with various instruments, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, proves that product quality and purity are comparative to a commercialized one. Methylene blue (MB de-colorization tests with in-house potassium ferrate shows that, within 30 min, almost all MB molecules are de-colorized at a Fe/carbon mole ratio of 2/1.

  17. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    WAIl TIME 9 741 5.3 5.3 1000 -.- *; ICTAL 13932 100.0 100.0 VALID CASES 13932 PI SSING CASES 0 18-G °. Table 10 Darnal1 TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT NURSING...91C 4 1668 180C 18.0 67.8 LPN 5 192 29 1 2.1 69.9 91B 91F 91G 6 1452 15.6 15.6 85.5 AIDE 7 762 8.2 8.2 93.7 WARD CLERK 8 582 6.3 6.3 100.0 ICTAL 9282...27o8 94.9 SATURDAY 7 168 5.1 .o1 100.0 ICTAL 3276 100.0 300.0 VALID CASES 3276 MISSING CASES 0 24-C Table 3 ’I" Ft Devens TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  19. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  20. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  1. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of cucumber ... to determine the effects of spent mushroom compost (SMC), which is a waste product ... processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic

  2. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2125, ``Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA...): You may access publicly-available documents online in the NRC Library at...

  3. Experience on management of CANDU spent fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.-Y.; Choi, B.-I.; Yoon, J.-H.; Seo, U.-S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Nuclear Environment Technology Inst. (KHNP/NETEC), Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In Korea, national policy on the management of spent fuel from both PWR and CANDU reactors demands that all the spent fuel be kept within reactor site in until 2016 the time spent fuel interim storage facility might open. Based on the end of 2001, KHNP has 4 CANDU reactors in operation generating approximately 5,000 bundles of spent fuels per each unit annually. The generation, accumulation, and management of CANDU spent fuel by KHNP in Korea are reviewed. CANDU spent fuel storage technology including pool storage in fuel building, concrete silo storage, and on going project for consolidating storage adapting modular vault type MACSTOR concept are outlined. Especially current joint development of storage of CANDU spent fuel for improving land usage is addressed. The explanation of the new consolidated dry storage system includes description of the storage facility, its safety evaluations, and final implementation. Finally future movement on management of spent fuel in Korea is also briefly introduced. (author)

  4. Direct reuse of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Nader M.A., E-mail: mnader73@yahoo.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new design for the PWR assemblies for direct use of spent fuel was proposed. • The PWR spent fuel will be transferred directly (after a certain cooling time) to CANDU reactors. • The proposed assembly has four zircaloy-4 tubes contains a number of CANDU fuel bundles (7 or 8 bundles per tube) stacked end to end. • MCNPX is used for the calculations that showed that the burnup can be increased by about 25%. • Acceptable linear heat generation rate in hot rods and improved Pu proliferation resistance. - Abstract: In this paper we proposed a new design for the PWR fuel assembly for direct use of the PWR spent fuel without processing. The PWR spent fuel will be transferred directly (after a certain cooling time) to CANDU reactors which preferably built in the same site to avoid the problem of transportations. The proposed assembly has four zircaloy-4 tubes contains a number of CANDU fuel bundles (7 or 8 bundles per tube) stacked end to end. Each tube has the same inner diameter of that of CANDU pressure tube. The spaces between the tubes contain low enriched UO{sub 2} fuel rods and guide tubes. MCNPX code is used for the simulation and calculation of the burnup of the proposed assembly. The bundles after the discharge from the PWR with their materials inventories are burned in a CANDU cell after a certain decay time. The results were compared with reference results and the impact of this new design on the uranium utilization improvement and on the proliferation resistance of plutonium is discussed. The effect of this new design on the power peaking, moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity and CANDU coolant void reactivity are discussed as well.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  6. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  9. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi.

  10. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  11. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  12. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a time...

  13. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  14. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  15. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  16. The Content in Bioactive Compounds of Different Brewers' Spent Grain Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARCAS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade by-products of food and beverage processing have attracted much attention due to their functionality and potential as food ingredients. Brewers’ spent grain is the major by-product of the brewing industry representing a valuable source of bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extraction time and temperature on the efficiency of water as solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds from brewers’ spent grain (BSG. In terms of extraction efficiency, the results from polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, showed that the best extraction parameters for aqueous extracts are 90⁰C and 60 minutes. In comparison with the control, the best extraction method generated 87% of the phenolics and 43.46% of the flavonoids obtained by a methanol extraction. The preliminary results for the aqueous extracts showed that water can be used as extraction solvent, but a higher extraction time and temperature are needed in order to have a content in bioactive compounds similar to that of methanolic extracts. The obtained values for polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, emphasize the importance and the opportunities of the reuse of this agro-industrial waste.

  17. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  18. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  19. A present status for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Park, H. Y.; Seo, K. S

    2003-04-01

    National policy for management of a spent nuclear fuel does not establish in Korea yet. A storage capacity of a storage pool that is to store the spent nuclear fuel will be exceeded an amount of accumulation from the first Woljin nuclear power plant in 2007. Therefore it is necessary that dry storage facility is secured to store safely the spent nuclear fuel on site of the nuclear power plant until national policy for a back-end spent nuclear fuel cycle is established. In order to store safely spent nuclear fuel, it is important that the present status and technology on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is looked over. Therefore, the present status on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed so as to develop dry storage system and choose a proper dry storage method domestic.

  20. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  2. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO

    2008-01-01

    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  3. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.

  4. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  5. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  6. Antineutrino monitoring of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries world wide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this letter, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to re-verify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in ...

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL; Yan, Yong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to collect dynamic experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), the hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The collected CIRFT data will be utilized to support ongoing spent fuel modeling activities, and support SNF transportation related licensing issues. Recent testing to understand the effects of hydride reorientation on SNF vibration integrity is also being evaluated. CIRFT results have provided insight into the fuel/clad system response to transportation related loads. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance, Fuel structure contributes to the SNF system stiffness, There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interaction, and SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous. Because of the non-homogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, finite element analyses (FEA) are needed to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles. The detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained directly from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, detailed FEA is used to understand the global test response, and that data will also be presented.

  8. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  9. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, Wolfgang; Smalian, Silva; Hinterding, Peter [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover, GmbH and Co. KG, Hanover (Germany); Volzke, Holger; Wolff, Dietmar; Kasparek, Eva-Maria [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more obvious. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields. All safety relevant issues like safe enclosure, shielding, removal of the decay heat or behavior of cask and building under accident conditions are checked and validated with state-of-the-art methods and computer codes before the license approval. It is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  10. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  12. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  13. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......Solvents are liquid solutions consisting of one or more chemicals. They have a very wide use and their use is not necessarily restricted to the process industries. This lecture will discuss the different roles and uses of solvents in chemical products and processes that manufacture them...... and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules...

  14. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Vitrification of spent ion exchange resin from Korean NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Choi, Kwan Sik; Yang, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Spent resin is the main wet waste generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs). Vitrification is conceptually attractive because of the potential durability of the final product and the large volume reduction. The vitrification of spent resin from NPPs is examined. There is a large amount of sulfate in spent resin ash. However, the limited solubility of sulfate in glass resulted in the low waste loading of spent resin. High sulfate in glass led to the phase separation. Some well-developed glasses frits have been used to vitrify spent resin from Korean NPPs. The waste loading is less than 5 wt percent of resin ash. Spent resin also was added to the borate waste glasses, 20 g of dry resin could be vitrified in 100 g of borate waste glass without phase separation and final waste from has good durability. (author). 12 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Switchable Polarity Solvents: Are They Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaumann, Heinz

    2017-03-01

    Solvents play an incredibly important role in large scale chemical reactions. Switchable polarity solvents may prove to be a class of solvent that offers energy and material efficiencies greater than existing solvents. This paper examines such solvents and their potential in a variety of chemical reactions.

  17. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project technical databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1998-07-22

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project technical databook provides project-approved summary tables of selected parameters and derived physical quantities, with nominal design and safety basis values. It contains the parameters necessary for a complete documentation basis of the SNF Project technical and safety baseline. The databook is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 presents K Basins SNF related information. Volume 2 (not yet available) will present selected sludge and water information, as it relates to the sludge and water removal projects. The values, within this databook, shall be used as the foundation for analyses, modeling, assumptions, or other input to SNF project safety analyses or design. All analysis and modeling using a parameter available in this databook are required to use and cite the appropriate associated value, and document any changes to those values (i.e., analysis assumptions, equipment conditions, etc). Characterization and analysis efforts are ongoing to validate, or update these values.

  19. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed.

  20. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-10-01

    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  1. In-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for sustainable biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses in-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) for the production of biodiesel. For in-situ transesterification process, the methanol, organic solvent and acid catalyst were mixed with wet SCG in one pot and the mixture was heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. Maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 16.75wt.% based on the weight of dry SCG at 95°C. Comprehensive experiments were conducted with varying temperatures and various amounts of moisture, methanol, co-solvent and acid catalyst. Moderate polar and alcohol-miscible organic solvent is suitable for the high FAME yield. Unsaturated FAMEs are subject to oxidative cleavage by nitric acid and shorter chain (C6 and C10) FAMEs were mainly produced while sulfuric acid yielded long chain unsaturated FAMEs (C16 and C18). Utilization of wet SCGs as a biodiesel feedstock gives economic and environmental benefits by recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  3. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-30

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  4. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-09-30

    Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

  6. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  7. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    problems are presented: 1) solvent selection and design for organic synthesis, 2) solvent screening and design of solvent mixtures for pharmaceutical applications and 3) ionic liquids selection and design as solvents. The application of the framework is highlighted successfully through case studies...... focusing on solvent replacement problem in organic synthesis and solvent mixture design for ibuprofen respectively....

  8. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  9. Practical Approaches to Green Solvents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph M. DeSimone

    2002-01-01

    Solvents are widely used in commercial manufacturing and service industries. Despite abundant precaution, they inevitably contaminate our air, land, and water because they are difficult to contain and recycle...

  10. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  11. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  12. Applied biotransformations in green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáiz, María J; Alcántara, Andrés R; García, José I; Sinisterra, José V

    2010-08-16

    The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes.

  13. The First Dissolution of Real Spent Fuel in CRARL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Fang; CHANG; Shang-wen; LUO; Fang-xiang; YAN; Tai-hong; HE; Hui; ZHENG; Wei-fang

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of the spent fuel was accomplished in CRARL under the cooperation among three divisions of department of radiochemistry.The experiment was started in 22September,and was completed in 27September.Two batches spent fuel of xx reactor was dissolved in these 6days.About 13liters feed of the co-decontamination

  14. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1985-09-01

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  15. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  16. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhijani, A. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  17. Some factors to consider in handling and storing spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Wet storage experience has been summarized earlier in several other reports. This report summarizes pertinent items noted during FY 1985 concerning recent developments in the handling and storage of spent fuel and associated considerations. The subjects discussed include recent publications, findings, and developments associated with: (1) storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools, (2) extended-burnup fuel, (3) fuel assembly reconstitution and reinsertion, (4) rod consolidation, (5) variations in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition of failed fuel, (6) detection of failed fuel rods, and (7) extended integrity of spent fuel. A list of pertinent publications is included.

  18. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F

    2013-04-01

    Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase.

  20. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  1. SACSESS – the EURATOM FP7 project on actinide separation from spent nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourg Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes. Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of particular importance for further development of this field.

  2. Potential applications of sonochemistry in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S I; Venault, L; Pflieger, R; Chave, T; Bisel, I; Moisy, P

    2010-08-01

    The industrial treatment of spent nuclear fuel is based upon a hydrometallurgical process in nitric acid medium. In order to minimize the volume of radioactive waste it seems interesting to generate the reactive species in situ in such solutions using ultrasonic irradiation without addition of salt-forming reagents. This review summarizes for the first time the versatile sonochemical processes with uranium, neptunium and plutonium in homogeneous nitric acid solutions and heterogeneous systems. The dissolution of refractory solids, ultrasonically driven liquid-liquid extraction and the sonochemical degradation of the volatile products of organic solvent radiolysis issued from PUREX process are considered. Also the guidelines for required further work to ensure successful application of the studied processes at industrial scale are discussed.

  3. Potential applications of sono-chemistry in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing: A short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitenko, S. I.; Pflieger, R.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, CNRS, UMII, ICSM, ENSCM, UMR 5257, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Venault, L.; Bisel, I.; Moisy, P. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    The industrial treatment of spent nuclear fuel is based upon a hydrometallurgical process in nitric acid medium. In order to minimize the volume of radioactive waste it scorns interesting to generate the reactive species in situ in such solutions using ultrasonic irradiation without addition of salt-forming reagents. This review summarizes for the first time the versatile sono-chemical processes with uranium, neptunium and plutonium in homogeneous nitric acid solutions and heterogeneous systems. The dissolution of refractory solids, ultrasonically driven liquid-liquid extraction and the sono-chemical degradation of the volatile products of organic solvent radiolysis issued from PUREX process are considered. Also the guidelines for required further work to ensure successful application of the studied processes at industrial scale are discussed. (authors)

  4. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  5. 78 FR 3853 - Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 71 and 72 Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an... several key areas, such as: retrievability, cladding integrity, and safe handling of spent fuel... potential policy issues and requirements related to retrievability, cladding integrity, and safe handling...

  6. Recovery of cathode materials and Al from spent lithium-ion batteries by ultrasonic cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Cathode materials are difficult to separate from Al-foil substrates during the recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of the strong bonding force present. In this study, ultrasonic cleaning was used to separate and recycle these cathode materials. The mechanism of separation was ascribed to the dissolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and the cavitation caused by ultrasound. Based on this mechanism, the key parameters affecting the peel-off efficiency of cathode materials from Al foil was identified as solvent nature, temperature, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time. The peel-off efficiency of cathode materials achieved ∼ 99% under the optimized conditions of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) cleaning fluid, 70°C process temperature, 240 W ultrasonic power, and 90 min of ultrasonication. The cathode materials separated from Al foil displayed a low agglomeration degree, which is beneficial to the subsequent leaching process. Finally, a new, environmentally-sound process was proposed to efficiently recycle cathode materials and Al from spent LIBs, consisting of manual dismantling, ultrasonic cleaning, and picking.

  7. Lab-scale demonstration of the UREX+1a process using spent nuclear fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Regalbuto, M. C.; Bakel, A.; Bowers, D.; Gelia, A. V.; Hebden, A. S.; Maggos, L. E.; Stepinski, D.; Tsai, Y.; Laidler, J. J.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing technologies to greatly expand repository capacity, improve proliferation resistance, and recover valuable energy that would otherwise be discarded; thus assuring a stable energy supply for the future. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides followed by either superior waste-disposal forms and/or transmutation of long-lived isotopes. To that end, the GNEP is developing advanced fuel reprocessing systems that separate key radionuclides from spent fuel. One of these systems is the UREX+1a process. The UREX+1a process is a series of four solvent-extraction flowsheets that perform the following operations: (1) recovery of U and Tc (UREX), (2) recovery of Cs and Sr (CCD-PEG), and (3) recovery of TRU and rare earth elements (TRUEX), and (4) separation of TRU elements from the rare earths (TALSPEAK). This paper discusses the results of the demonstration of the UREX, TRUEX, and TALSPEAK processes using spent nuclear fuel, as well as future development needs and plans.

  8. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  9. Handbook of green chemistry, green solvents, supercritical solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Anastas, Paul T; Jessop, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a vitally important subject area in a world where being as green and environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises 12 volumes, split into subject-specific sets as follows: Set I: Green Catalysis Set II: Green Solvents Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents Volume 5: Reactions in Water Volume 6: Ionic Liquids

  10. Estimation of CANDU spent fuel disposal canister lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Dong Hak; Lee, Min Soo; Hwang, Yong Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Active nuclear energy utilization causes significant spent fuel accumulation problem. The cumulative amount of spent fuel is about 10,083 ton as of Dec. 2008, and is expected to increase up to 19,000 ton by 2020. Of those, CANDU spent fuels account for more than 60% of the total amounts. CANDU spent fuels had been stored in dry concrete silos since 1991 and during the past 15 years, 300 silos were constructed and {approx}3,200 ton of spent fuels are stored now. Another dry storage facility MACSTOR /KN-400 will store new-coming CANDU spent fuels from 2009. But, after intermediate storage ends, all CANDU spent fuels have to be disposed within multi-layer metallic canister which is composed of cast iron inside and copper outside. Canister lifetime estimation, therefore, is very important for the final disposal safety analysis. The most significant factor of lifetime is copper corrosion, and Y. S. Hwang developed a corrosion model in order to predict the general corrosion effect on copper canister lifetime during the final disposal period. This research applied his model to KURT1 where many disposal researches are being performed actively and the results shows safe margin of the copper canister for the very long-term disposal.

  11. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  12. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  13. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    , millions of tons solvents have to be wasted every year [2]. Therefore, it becomes important to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible, to satisfy the “Green Chemistry Principles” [3]. Another challenge is that currently solvent selection relies very much on previous...... is to develop a systematic framework and implement it as software for selection and design of solvents for many applications including organic synthesis, complex reaction systems and solvent-based separations. The solvent selection framework is based on a combination of knowledge from industrial practice...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  14. Glycerol based solvents: synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    García, José I.; García-Marín, Héctor; Pires, Elísabet

    2014-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of glycerol and glycerol derivatives as solvents are reviewed. There are an increasing number of examples of the use of glycerol itself as a reaction medium, solvent-reagent or a dispersive medium for a large variety of applications. In the case of glycerol derivatives, new synthetic methods, physico-chemical properties and application examples as solvents are revised. Recent studies in the field of solvent classification, as well as solvent substitution is...

  15. Spent fuel data base: commercial light water reactors. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauf, M.J.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1979-12-01

    As a consequence of this country's non-proliferation policy, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been delayed indefinitely. This has resulted in spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel being considered as a potential waste form for disposal. Since the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing methodologies for use in the regulation of the management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes, a comprehensive data base describing LWR fuel technology must be compiled. This document provides that technology baseline and, as such, will support the development of those evaluation standards and criteria applicable to spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs.

  17. Existing Condition Analysis of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; XU Lan; HAO Jian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As in some domestic nuclear power plants, spent fuel pools near capacity, away-from-reactor type storage should be arranged to transfer spent fuel before the pool capacity is full and the plants can operate in safety. This study compares the features of wet and dry storage technology, analyzes the actualities of foreign dry storage facilities and then introduces structural characteristics of some foreign dry storage cask. Finally, a glance will be cast on the failure of away-from-reactor storage facilities of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR)to meet the need of spent-fuel storage. Therefore, this study believes dry storage will be a feasible solution to the problem.

  18. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  20. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  1. The antioxidant properties of dried extracts from the spent espresso coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Milica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of coffee waste utilization is based on the fact that it contains a large amount of biologically valuable components. Preparation of espresso coffee produces substantial quantities of polyphenolic acids that have a significant antioxidant activity. In this work, the contents of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from spent espresso coffee were analyzed using different solvent systems. The 70% solution of methanol, and 70% solution of ethanol and distilled water were used as solvents. The total amounts of polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH inhibition (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power. Both methods confirmed that the order of antioxidant activity of obtained dried extracts is as follows: water extract < methanol extract < ethanol extract, which was in accordance with their polyphenols content. Mild prooxidant activity was observed in the concentration of 200 μg/ml while investigating the DPPH inhibition. Prooxidant activity is a characteristic of some polypenolic acids that is considered to be one of the mechanisms of anticancer activity. The inhibition of DPPH radical, expressed by IC50 values, was compared with the results of the commercial antioxidants such are ascorbic acid and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene. Comparing the IC50 values of ascorbic acid and BHT with the IC50 values of tested extracts it can be concluded that waste coffee extracts could be a good source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Scientists warn of 'trillion-dollar' spent-fuel risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A study by two Princeton University physicists suggests that a major fire in the spent nuclear fuel stored on the sites of US nuclear reactors could “dwarf the horrific consequences of the Fukushima accident”.

  3. Detecting pin diversion from pressurized water reactors spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young S.; Sitaraman, Shivakumar

    2017-01-10

    Detecting diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) by determining possible diversion including the steps of providing a detector cluster containing gamma ray and neutron detectors, inserting the detector cluster containing the gamma ray and neutron detectors into the spent fuel assembly through the guide tube holes in the spent fuel assembly, measuring gamma ray and neutron radiation responses of the gamma ray and neutron detectors in the guide tube holes, processing the gamma ray and neutron radiation responses at the guide tube locations by normalizing them to the maximum value among each set of responses and taking the ratio of the gamma ray and neutron responses at the guide tube locations and normalizing the ratios to the maximum value among them and producing three signatures, gamma, neutron, and gamma-neutron ratio, based on these normalized values, and producing an output that consists of these signatures that can indicate possible diversion of the pins from the spent fuel assembly.

  4. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with

  5. Changes in the Nutrient Composition of Brewery Spent Grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The Crude Fibre content of the spent grain dropped to 10.54% while Calcium and phosphorous ..... amino acids from protein metabolism causes the release of ammonia ... growing rabbit diets on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits ...

  6. Decolourisation of chemically different dyes by enzymes from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Key words: Synthetic dye decolourisation, spent mushroom compost, Pleurotus sajor-caju, dye kinetics. ... photocatalysis or ozonation are effective but rather costly ... organic matter, balance pH, add beneficial micro-.

  7. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  8. Economic and Innovative Spent Fuel Pool Level Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, R.; Scecina, J.; Koenig, W.

    2014-07-01

    At Fukushima, significant attention and resources were concentrated on providing makeup water to the Spent Fuel Pools (SFP). No level indication was available and the assumption was that the water level was dangerously low. As it later turned out, the applied resources could have been used more effectively elsewhere. In reaction, Nuclear Regulatory Authorities worldwide have issued orders to add rugged, seismically qualified level instrumentation to Spent Fuel Pools. (Author)

  9. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Modification of spent filter treat method at Uljin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong rak; Ha, Jong Hyun [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Spent resin drying system(SRDS) and concentrated waste drying system (CWDS) have been introduced into Uljin NPP designed to treat spent resin, concentrated waste and spent filter at the waste cementation facility. Spent filter has been the only waste to treat at the cementation facility so that it is to become difficult to be provided the C-type containers needed to treat spent filter. To solve this problem, two programs including to change the spent filter container have been considered. One os to treat spent filter at the cementation facility using DOT - 17H drum, and another is to contain several spent filters in a High Integrated Container(HIC). (author)

  11. Which solvent for olfactory testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Wolstenholme, C R; Murty, G E

    2004-12-01

    The physical properties of any carrier can deteriorate over time and thus alter the results in any olfactory test. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically potential solvents as a clean odourless carrier for olfactory testing. Sweet almond oil, pure coconut oil, pure peach kernel oil, dipropylene glycol, monopropylene glycol, mineral oil and silicone oil were studied. The experimentation was conducted in two parts. First, an olfactory device was used to conduct air through the solvents on a weekly basis using a cohort of six volunteers to assess the perceived odour of each solvent at weekly intervals. Secondly a cross-reference test was performed using small bottled solutions of phenylethyl-alcohol and 1-butanol in 10-fold dilutions to compare any perceived difference in concentrations over a period of 8 weeks. We concluded that mineral oil is the most suitable carrier for the purpose of olfactory testing, possessing many desirable characteristics of an olfactory solvent, and that silicone oil may provide a suitable alternative for odorants with which it is miscible.

  12. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks.

  16. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  17. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  18. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  19. Studies on spent nuclear fuel evolution during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinella, V.V.; Wiss, T.A.G.; Papaioannou, D.; Nasyrow, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2015-07-01

    Initially conceived to last only a few decades (40 years in Germany), extended storage periods have now to be considered for spent nuclear fuel due to the expanding timeline for the definition and implementation of the disposal in geologic repository. In some countries, extended storage may encompass a timeframe of the order of centuries. The safety assessment of extended storage requires predicting the behavior of the spent fuel assemblies and the package systems over a correspondingly long timescale, to ensure that the mechanical integrity and the required level of functionality of all components of the containment system are retained. Since no measurement of ''old'' fuel can cover the ageing time of interest, spent fuel characterization must be complemented by studies targeting specific mechanisms that may affect properties and behavior of spent fuel during extended storage. Tests conducted under accelerated ageing conditions and other relevant simulations are useful for this purpose. During storage, radioactive decay determines the overall conditions of spent fuel and generates heat that must be dissipated. Alpha-decay damage and helium accumulation are key processes affecting the evolution of properties and behavior of spent fuel. The radiation damage induced by a decay event during storage is significantly lower than that caused by a fission during in-pile operation: however, the duration of the storage is much longer and the temperature levels are different. Another factor potentially affecting the mechanical integrity of spent fuel rods during storage and handling / transportation is the behavior of hydrogen present in the cladding. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements, part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, spent fuel alterations as a function of time and activity are monitored at different scales, from the microstructural level (defects and lattice parameter swelling) up to macroscopic properties such as

  20. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of alternativ

  1. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of

  2. The solvent component of macromolecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichenberger, Christian X. [European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, Bozen/Bolzano, I-39100 Südtirol/Alto Adige (Italy); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kantardjieff, Katherine [California State University, San Marcos, CA 92078 (United States); Rupp, Bernhard, E-mail: br@hofkristallamt.org [k.-k. Hofkristallamt, 991 Audrey Place, Vista, CA 92084 (United States); Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-04-30

    On average, the mother liquor or solvent and its constituents occupy about 50% of a macromolecular crystal. Ordered as well as disordered solvent components need to be accurately accounted for in modelling and refinement, often with considerable complexity. The mother liquor from which a biomolecular crystal is grown will contain water, buffer molecules, native ligands and cofactors, crystallization precipitants and additives, various metal ions, and often small-molecule ligands or inhibitors. On average, about half the volume of a biomolecular crystal consists of this mother liquor, whose components form the disordered bulk solvent. Its scattering contributions can be exploited in initial phasing and must be included in crystal structure refinement as a bulk-solvent model. Concomitantly, distinct electron density originating from ordered solvent components must be correctly identified and represented as part of the atomic crystal structure model. Herein, are reviewed (i) probabilistic bulk-solvent content estimates, (ii) the use of bulk-solvent density modification in phase improvement, (iii) bulk-solvent models and refinement of bulk-solvent contributions and (iv) modelling and validation of ordered solvent constituents. A brief summary is provided of current tools for bulk-solvent analysis and refinement, as well as of modelling, refinement and analysis of ordered solvent components, including small-molecule ligands.

  3. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  4. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  5. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  6. Microbial Biofilm Growth on Irradiated, Spent Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Frank

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 103 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  7. Development of Experimental Facilities for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Jung, W. M.; Ku, J. H. [and others

    2004-07-01

    The advanced spent fuel management process(ACP), proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. This technology convert spent fuels into pure metal-base uranium with removing the highly heat generating materials(Cs, Sr) efficiently and reducing of the decay heat, volume, and radioactivity from spent fuel by 1/4. In the next phase(2004{approx}2006), the demonstration of this technology will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For this demonstration, the hot cell facilities of {alpha}-{gamma} type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of {beta}-{gamma} type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. In this study, the design requirements are established, and the process detail work flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell. And also, the basic and detail design of hot cell facility and process, and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell facility and process.

  8. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  10. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  11. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability.

  12. Solidification of Spent Ion Exchange Resin Using ASC Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀中; 云桂春; 叶裕才

    2002-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IERs) have been widely used in nuclear facilities. However, the spent radioactive IERs result in major quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This article describes a laboratory experimental study on solidification processing of IERs using a new type of cement named ASC cement. The strength of the cementation matrix is in the range of 18-20 MPa (28 d); the loading of the spent IER in the cement-resin matrix is over 45% and leaching rates of 137Cs, 90Sr and 60Co are 7.92×10-5, 5.7×10-6, and 1.19×10-8 cm/d. The results show that ASC cement can be a preferable cementation material for immobilization of radioactive spent IER.

  13. Extraction of Nanosized Cobalt Sulfide from Spent Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Kosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to understand the sulfidizing mechanism. The suggested separation procedure was effective and achieved an extraction of approximately 80–90%. In addition, the sulfidization mechanism was identified. This sulfidizing process for Co was found to involve an intermediate, the structure of which was proposed. This proposed intermediate was confirmed through simulations. Moreover, the activities of the spent and the regenerated catalyst were examined in the cracking of toluene. The modification of the spent catalyst through the use of different iron oxide loadings improved the catalytic activity.

  14. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  15. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.B.

    1979-04-01

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 25/sup 0/C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239 +240/Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures.

  16. Treatment of spent NTA-based decontamination solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, A.; Semelová, M.; John, J.; Černochová, K.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with potential treatment of spent NTA-containing decontamination solutions for final disposal. The method proposed is based on the degradation of organic substances followed by the separation of radionuclides. The influence of various parameters (pH value, irradiation time, temperature, catalyst amount, type and various combinations of catalysts) on photocatalytic degradation of NTA has been studied. Photo-Fenton reagent (Fe3+/H2O2) as a homogenous catalyst was found to be much more efficient than the TiO2-based heterogeneous catalyst Degussa P25. Under optimum conditions NTA in a simulant of a spent decontamination solution without or with hydrazine could be degraded within 5 or 9 hours, respectively. The study of sorption properties of a series of absorbers revealed that radiostrontium and radiosilver can be effectively removed from the simulant of a spent decontamination solution even in the presence of NTA, while total NTA degradation is necessary for effective radiocobalt separation.

  17. Dry spent fuel storage with the MACSTOR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). CANDU Operations

    1996-10-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and Transnuclear Inc. (TNI) began in 1989 the development of the concrete spent fuel storage system, called MACSTOR (Modular Air-Cooled Canister STORage) for use with LWR spent fuel assemblies. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure that can accommodate up to 20 spent fuel canisters. Each canister typically holds up to 21 PWR or 44 BWR spent fuel assemblies with a nominal fuel burn up rate of 40,000 MWD/MTU and a 7 year minimum cooling period. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. Thus, the utility can be assured of both positive cooling of the fuel and verification of the integrity of the fuel confinement boundary. The structure is seismically designed and is capable of withstanding site design basis accident events. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. The MACSTOR system can economically address a wide range of storage capacity requirements. The modular concept allows for flexibility in determining each module`s capacity. Starting with 8 canisters, the capacity can be increased by increments of 4 up to 20 canisters. The MACSTOR system is also flexible in accommodating the various spent fuel types from such reactors as VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK 1500. (J.P.N.)

  18. A novel application of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from brewer's spent grain with HPLC-DAD-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Manuela M; Morais, Simone; Barros, Aquiles A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guido, Luís F

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a novel application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from brewer's spent grains (BSG). A 2(4) orthogonal composite design was used to obtain the optimal conditions of MAE. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the extraction yield of ferulic acid was investigated through response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal conditions were 15 min extraction time, 100 °C extraction temperature, 20 mL of solvent, and maximum stirring speed. Under these conditions, the yield of ferulic acid was 1.31 ± 0.04% (w/w), which was fivefold higher than that obtained with conventional solid-liquid extraction techniques. The developed new extraction method considerably reduces extraction time, energy and solvent consumption, while generating fewer wastes. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis indicated that other hydroxycinnamic acids and several ferulic acid dehydrodimers, as well as one dehydrotrimer were also present, confirming that BSG is a valuable source of antioxidant compounds.

  19. Effect of solvents on the characteristics of rosin walled microcapsules prepared by a solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, D S; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Rosin microcapsules were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique using solvents with different rates of evaporation. Sulphadiazine was used as a model drug. The microcapsules were studied for their size, drug content, wall thickness, surface characteristics and in vitro release. The mean diameter increased and the drug content decreased as the rate of evaporation of the solvent increased. Fast evaporating solvents produced thick walled microcapsules with innumerable surface pores/cracks compared with slow evaporating solvents.

  20. Dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in carbonate-peroxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck; Hanson, Brady

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that spent UO2 fuel can be completely dissolved in a room temperature carbonate-peroxide solution apparently without attacking the metallic Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd fission product phase. In parallel tests, identical samples of spent nuclear fuel were dissolved in nitric acid and in an ammonium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide solution. The resulting solutions were analyzed for strontium-90, technetium-99, cesium-137, europium-154, plutonium, and americium-241. The results were identical for all analytes except technetium, where the carbonate-peroxide dissolution had only about 25% of the technetium that the nitric acid dissolution had.

  1. Spent fuel dissolution studies FY 1991 to 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.J.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-12-01

    Dissolution and transport as a result of groundwater flow are generally accepted as the primary mechanisms by which radionuclides from spent fuel placed in a geologic repository could be released to the biosphere. To help provide a source term for performance assessment calculations, dissolution studies on spent fuel and unirradiated uranium oxides have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes work for fiscal years 1991 through 1994. The objectives of these studies and the associated conclusions, which were based on the limited number of tests conducted so far, are described in the following subsections.

  2. Design of demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, E. P.; Baek, S. R.; Lee, K. I.; You, K. S.; Park, S. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP) was proposed and developed for effective management of the PWR spent fuel. The detail plan was established for demonstration and verification of the ACP, and an existing hot cell will be modified as {alpha}-{gamma} type hot cell. In this study, the process mechanical flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell, and the detail design of hot cell including the auxiliary facility and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell system. And then, this results will be utilized for hot cell refurbishment and license.

  3. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  4. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  5. European workshop on spent catalysts. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In 1999 and 2002 two well attended workshops on recycling, regeneration, reuse and disposal of spent catalysts took place in Frankfurt. This series has been continued in Berlin. The workshop was organized in collaboration with DGMK, the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology. Contributions were in the following areas of catalyst deactivation: recycling of spent catalysts in chemical and petrochemical industry, recycling of precious metal catalysts and heterogenous base metal catalysts, legal aspects of transboundary movements, catalyst regeneration, quality control, slurry catalysts, commercial reactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. (uke)

  6. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  7. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  8. Oil removal of spent hydrotreating catalyst CoMo/Al2O3 via a facile method with enhanced metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jianlong; Zhao, Zhongwei; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-15

    Deoiling process is a key issue for recovering metal values from spent hydrotreating catalysts. The oils can be removed with organic solvents, but the industrialized application of this method is greatly hampered by the high cost and complex processes. Despite the roasting method is simple and low-cost, it generates hardest-to-recycle impurities (CoMoO4 or NiMoO4) and enormous toxic gases. In this study, a novel and facile approach to remove oils from the spent hydrotreating catalysts is developed. Firstly, surface properties of spent catalysts are characterized to reveal the possibility of oil removal. And then, oils are removed with water solution under the conditions of 90°C, 0.1wt% SDS, 2.0wt% NaOH and 10ml/gL/S ratio for 4h. Finally, thermal treatment and leaching tests are carried out to further explore the advantages of oil removal. The results show that no hardest-to-recycle impurity CoMoO4 is found in XPS spectra of thermally treated samples after deoiling and molybdenum is leached completely with sodium carbonate solution. It means that the proposed deoiling method can not only remove oils simply and without enormous harmful gases generating, but also avoid the generation of detrimental impurity and promote recycling of valuable metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts.

  9. Re-fermentation of washed spent solids from batch hydrogenogenic fermentation for additional production of biohydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2012-03-01

    In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6 mmol H(2)/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N(2) allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H(2) could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H(2) was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H(2) production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4 mmol H(2)/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis.

  10. Summary of findings on evaluation of aqueous degreasers versus chlorinated solvents at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Spent trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TC-ane), and sludge are generated mainly as a result of vapor degreasing operations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Additionally, small quantities of spent chlorinated solvents are generated as a result of small parts cleanup. Additionally, some of the solvents become contaminated with uranium which classifies them as mixed waste for which no disposal method is currently available. Due to health and environmental concerns and the desire to minimize mixed and hazardous waste generation, a study was initiated to identify nonchlorinated, less toxic degreasers, perform laboratory testing of the most promising alternatives, and initiate field testing to determine if alternate degreasers present operational problems. The degreaser that cleaned and protected metal surfaces best was an all-purpose, water-based, hard surface cleaner consisting of biodegradable synthetic detergents, inorganic builders, and glycol either solvent. Additionally, this product was free-rinsing and did not leave any contaminants that would react with commonly used process gases. This product is recommended as a replacement for chlorinated solvents for many degreasing operations at PGDP.

  11. Pyrometallurgical Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Spent Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Tang, Huimin; Ye, Lei; Ma, Yutian; Rao, Mingjun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-09-01

    As an important secondary resource with abundant platinum group metals (PGMs), spent catalysts demand recycling for both economic and environmental benefits. This article reviews the main pyrometallurgical processes for PGM recovery from spent catalysts. Existing processes, including smelting, vaporization, and sintering processes, are discussed based in part on a review of the physiochemical characteristics of PGMs in spent catalysts. The smelting technology, which produces a PGM-containing alloy, is significantly influenced by the addition of various collectors, such as lead, copper, iron, matte, or printed circuit board (PCB), considering their chemical affinities for PGMs. The vaporization process can recover PGMs in vapor form at low temperatures (250-700°C), but it suffers high corrosion and potential environmental and health risks as a result of involvement of the hazardous gases, mainly Cl2 and CO. The sintering process serves as a reforming means for recycling of the spent catalysts by in situ reduction of their oxidized PGMs components. Among these processes, the smelting process seems more promising although its overall performance can be further improved by seeking a suitable target-oriented collector and flux, together with proper pretreatment and process intensification using an external field.

  12. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) Design Report Project W-518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-27

    The SSFC Design Report Describes A spent fuel canister for Shippingport Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies. The design of the SSFC is a minor modification of the MCO. The modification is limited to the Shield Plug which remains unchanged with regard to interfaces with the canister shell. The performance characteristics remain those for the MCO, which bounds the payload of the SSFC.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  14. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  15. Protease-induced solubilisation of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulds, C.B.; Collins, S.; Robertson, J.A.; Treimo, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Buchert, J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of microbial proteases on the release of carbohydrates from BSG was studied. The proteases were able to release the non-cellulosic glucose, a portion of feruloylated arabinoxylan and over 50% of the protein from brewers' spent grain (BSG) after 24 h hydrolysis. The non-cellulosic glucose

  16. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,00

  17. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  18. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  19. Aspects of VVR-S spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlea, C.; Garlea, I.; Grancea, I.; Olteanu, A.I.; Kelerman, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-79617 Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-07-01

    The management of two fuel types is presented, for the period 1957-1997. The research reactor VVR-S used EK-10 and S-36 fuel supplied by the former Soviet Union. The status of the spent fuel and possible options for medium term storage are described. (author)

  20. Synthesis on the spent fuel long term evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Broudic, V. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Cappelaere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire(DMN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desgranges, L. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Ph. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 30 - Marcoule (France); Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marimbeau, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gras, J.M.; Bouffioux, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The French research on spent fuel long term evolution has been performed by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) since 1999 in the PRECCI project with the support of EDF (Electricite de France). These studies focused on the spent fuel behaviour under various conditions encountered in dry storage or in deep geological disposal. Three main types of conditions were discerned: - The evolution in a closed system which corresponds to the normal scenario in storage and to the first confinement phase in disposal; - The evolution in air which corresponds to an incidental loss of confinement during storage or to a rupture of the canister before the site re-saturation in geological disposal; - The evolution in water which corresponds to the normal scenario after the breaching of the canister in repository conditions. This document produced in the frame of the PRECCI project is an overview of the state of knowledge in 2004 concerning the long-term behavior of spent fuel under these various conditions. The state of the art was derived from the results obtained under the PRECCI project as well as from a review of the literature and of data acquired under the European project on Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions. The main results issued from the French research are underlined. (authors)

  1. High-Ability Students' Time Spent outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Wai, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study considered how three groups of academically talented high school students--those who attended an academic summer program (TIP), those who qualified for the program but chose not to attend (QNA), and those who did not qualify (DNQ)--spent time outside the classroom. These groupings differentiated students by ability (QNA vs. DNQ) and…

  2. Distillery spent wash: treatment technologies and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-04-15

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors.

  3. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohana, Sarayu [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: sarayu124@yahoo.com; Acharya, Bhavik K. [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: acharyabhavik@yahoo.com; Madamwar, Datta [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: datta_madamwar@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors.

  4. Modelling of radiation field around spent fuel container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryuchkov, EF; Opalovsky, VA; Tikhomirov, GV

    2005-01-01

    Operation of nuclear reactors leads to the production of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). There are two basic strategies of SNF management: ultimate disposal of SNF in geological formations and recycle or repeated utilisation of reprocessed SNF. In both options, there is an urgent necessity to study radiat

  5. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.

  6. 77 FR 75065 - Rescinding Spent Fuel Pool Exclusion Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... impacts of spent fuel storage are so significant and where the insights from the Fukushima accident have... from consideration in environmental impact statements (EISs) for renewal of nuclear power plant... subpart A, appendix B], because * * * many of the implications of the Fukushima accident for the...

  7. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  8. Dynamics around solutes and solute-solvent complexes in mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyungwon; Park, Sungnam; Fayer, M D

    2007-09-04

    Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo experiments, IR pump-probe experiments, and FT-IR spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch of phenol-OD in three solvents, CCl4, mesitylene (1, 3, 5 trimethylbenzene), and the mixed solvent of mesitylene and CCl4 (0.83 mole fraction CCl4), are used to study solute-solvent dynamics via observation of spectral diffusion. Phenol forms a complex with Mesitylene. In the mesitylene solution, there is only complexed phenol; in the CCl4 solution, there is only uncomplexed phenol; and in the mixed solvent, both phenol species are present. Dynamics of the free phenol in CCl4 or the mixed solvent are very similar, and dynamics of the complex in mesitylene and in the mixed solvent are very similar. However, there are differences in the slowest time scale dynamics between the pure solvents and the mixed solvents. The mixed solvent produces slower dynamics that are attributed to first solvent shell solvent composition variations. The composition variations require a longer time to randomize than is required in the pure solvents, where only density variations occur. The experimental results and recent MD simulations indicate that the solvent structure around the solute may be different from the mixed solvent's mole fraction.

  9. A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material involves the detection of diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials, and the deterrence of such diversions by the risk of early detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguards nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from spent fuel; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium and other actinides of interest in spent fuel. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of cost effective techniques for quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel for nuclear safeguards. A standardized assessment process was developed to compare the effective merits and faults of 12 different detection techniques in order to integrate a few techniques and to down-select among the techniques in preparation for experiments. The process involves generating a basis burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library, creating diversion scenarios, developing detector models and quantifying the capability of each NDA technique. Because hundreds of input and output files must be managed in the couplings of data transitions for the different facets of the assessment process, a graphical user interface (GUI) was development that automates the process. This GUI allows users to visually create diversion scenarios with varied replacement materials, and generate a MCNPX fixed source detector assessment input file. The end result of the assembly library assessment is to select a set of common source terms and diversion scenarios for quantifying the capability of each of the 12 NDA techniques. We present here the generalized

  10. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  13. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solvent. In addition, hydrocarbon mixtures, aromatic hydrocarbon, and Medium Aliphatic Solvent Naphtha are descriptors used by the manufactures to...Enamel Aromatic Hydrocarbon 14 Mineral Spirits 10 Naphtha 10 Ethyl Benzene 0.21 Xylene 1.0 Sherwin Williams Co Enamel Mineral Spirits 49...Solvent Naphtha 31.5 Non-hazardous Ingredients 68 Parker Paints Enamel Mineral Spirits 17 Naphtha 7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 3 1,2,4

  14. Screening of TODGA/TBP/OK solvent mixtures for the grouped extraction of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jamie; Carrott, Michael J; Maher, Chris J; Mason, Chris; McLachlan, Fiona; Sarsfield, Mark J; Taylor, Robin J; Woodhead, Dave A [National Nuclear Laboratory, B170, Sellafield, Seascale, CUMBRIA, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Fox, O Danny, E-mail: mark.sarsfield@nnl.co.uk [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Herdus House, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, CA24 3HU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The solvent combination N,N,N'N'- tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA)/tributyl phosphate (TBP)/odourless kerosene (OK) is examined as a potential solvent system for a Grouped Actinide Extraction (GANEX) process to separate all of the actinides from fission products when reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. A series of solvent extraction batch experiments were performed with a range of TODGA/TBP/OK solvent combinations to assess the sensitivity of distribution values for a number of key elements towards [TBP] (0 - 1.1M), [TODGA] (0.1-0.4M), [HNO{sub 3}] (0.1-5M) and heavy metal loading ([U] 0-200g/l). There is little impact on D{sub Am} or D{sub Eu} across the solvent range and no influence from U loading. Excellent D{sub Np} values (> 10) are observed, increasing with increasing [TODGA], with [TBP] having little influence. Such high D{sub Np} values may obviate the need for preconditioning of dissolved fuel feeds to control Np routing. High D{sub Tc} values are found even at 5M HNO{sub 3}, therefore Tc is expected to remain in the solvent phase. Both Pu(III) and Pu(IV) are readily extracted with D{sub Pu(III)} > D{sub Pu(IV)}. Uranium is extracted by both TBP and TODGA and TBP is shown to effectively compete with TODGA for uranium coordination sites. Third phase formation occurs at high [U] loading and [HNO{sub 3}] but is suppressed by increasing [TBP].

  15. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  16. A solvent tolerant isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Singh, Rajni; Khare, S K; Gupta, M N

    2006-01-01

    A solvent tolerant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Presence of cyclohexane (20%) in culture media prolonged the lag phase and caused reduction in biomass. Transmission electron micrographs showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvent in case of the cells grown in cyclohexane. The Enterobacter isolate was able to grow in the range of organic solvents having log P above 3.2 and also in presence of mercury, thus showing potential for treatment of solvent rich wastes.

  17. Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years.

  18. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL SOLVENT EXPOSURE ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic solvent is a broad term that applies to many classes of chemicals. The solvent (benzene, toluene etc. aspects of occupational exposure are reviewed via the examination of the use, occurrence, and disposition as well as population’s potential of risk. The general public can be exposed to solvent in ambient air as a result of its occurrence in paint process. Solvents are primarily irritants to the skin and mucous membranes and have narcotic properties at high concentrations. Published epidemiological data identified various types of birth defects in certain occupations.

  20. Modelling spent fuel and HLW behaviour in repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, A. M.; Esteban, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give the reader an overall insight of the different models, which are used to predict the long-term behaviour of the spent fuels and HLW disposed in a repository. The models must be established on basic data and robust kinetics describing the mechanisms controlling spent fuel alteration/dissolution in a repository. The UO2 matrix, or source term, contains embedded in it the , majority of radionuclides of the spent fuel (some are in the gap cladding). For this reason the SF radionuclides release models play a significant role in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The differences existing between models published in the literature are due to the conceptual understanding of the processes and the degree of the conservatism used with the parameter values, and the boundary conditions. They mainly differ in their level of simplification and their final objective. Sometimes are focused the show compliance with regulatory requirements, other to support decision making, to increase the level of confidence of public and scientific community, could be empirical, semi-empirical or analytical. The models take into account the experimental results from radionuclides releases and their extrapolation to the very long term. Its necessary a great statistics for have a representative dissolution rate, due at the number of experimental results is not very high and many of them show a great scatter, independently of theirs different compositions by axial and radial variations, due to linear power or local burnup. On the other hand, it is difficult to predict the spent fuel behaviour over the long term, based in short term experiments. In this report is given a little description of the radionuclides distribution in the spent fuel and also in the cladding/pellet gap, grain boundary, cracks and rim zones (the matrix rim zone can be considered with an especial characteristics very different to the rest of the spent fuel), and structural

  1. A review of metal recovery from spent petroleum catalysts and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcil, Ata; Vegliò, Francesco; Ferella, Francesco; Okudan, Mediha Demet; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    With the increase in environmental awareness, the disposal of any form of hazardous waste has become a great concern for the industrial sector. Spent catalysts contribute to a significant amount of the solid waste generated by the petrochemical and petroleum refining industry. Hydro-cracking and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts are extensively used in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. The catalysts used in the refining processes lose their effectiveness over time. When the activity of catalysts decline below the acceptable level, they are usually regenerated and reused but regeneration is not possible every time. Recycling of some industrial waste containing base metals (such as V, Ni, Co, Mo) is estimated as an economical opportunity in the exploitation of these wastes. Alkali roasted catalysts can be leached in water to get the Mo and V in solution (in which temperature plays an important role during leaching). Several techniques are possible to separate the different metals, among those selective precipitation and solvent extraction are the most used. Pyrometallurgical treatment and bio-hydrometallurgical leaching were also proposed in the scientific literature but up to now they did not have any industrial application. An overview on patented and commercial processes was also presented.

  2. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  3. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Almeida, Valmor de [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Xiangmin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Sims, Brett [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Borough of Manhattan Community College; Li, Xaiolin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments with dilu......Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...... such as incineration. Although the total COD reduction achieved is limited, bioenergy is produced and readily biodegradable matter is removed causing less load on post-treatment installations. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Estimating Source Terms for Diverse Spent Nuclear Fuel Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Layne Pincock

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is responsible for developing a defensible methodology for determining the radionuclide inventory for the DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be dispositioned at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. SNF owned by DOE includes diverse fuels from various experimental, research, and production reactors. These fuels currently reside at several DOE sites, universities, and foreign research reactor sites. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these fuels will require radiological source terms as inputs to safety analyses that support design and licensing of the necessary equipment and facilities. This paper summarizes the methodology developed for estimating radionuclide inventories associated with DOE-owned SNF. The results will support development of design and administrative controls to manage radiological risks and may later be used to demonstrate conformance with repository acceptance criteria.

  6. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  7. Stabilization and volume reduction of radioactive spent ionexchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Stabilization and volume reduction of spent radioactive ion-exchange resins (IERs)were studied. Stabilization technology includes volume reduction with wet chemicaloxidation process and immobilization of the residue into cement. Undersuitable conditions, the exhaustedradioactive ion-exchange resins were dissolved successfully in aH2O2-Fe2+/Cu2+ catalytic oxidationsystem (Fenton reagent). The analytical results indicated that the radioactive nuclides loaded in the resins were concentrated in decomposed solution and solid residues. The process parameters ofwet chemical oxidation and solidification were also obtained. Thedecomposition ratios were 100%and more than 90% for cation and anion IERs respectively. The waste volume was decreased by40% compared with that of original spent resins.

  8. Equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C. C. F.; Carter, C. C.; Doubt, H. A. [GEC Alsthom Engineering System Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-15

    UK experience over the last thirty years with the design and implementation of equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes has ranged from remote handling, through encapsulation and containerisation, to the medium-term storage of heat-producing fuels and wastes in the dry state. The design principles involved in handling, transporting and storing hazardous materials safely and reliably, while ensuring biological shielding, containment and cooling of radioactive materials, are common to the various kinds of equipment presented in this paper, even though the individual requirements may be very different. The UK nuclear programme over the last thirty years has encouraged the development of extensive expertise in the engineering of equipment for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This expertise can be applied with benefit to the Korean nuclear programme.

  9. Fabrication and Installation of Radiation Shielded Spent Fuel Fusion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Dal; Park, Yang Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Ha, Yeong Keong; Song, Kyu Seok

    2010-02-15

    Most of the generated fission gases are retained in the fuel matrix in supersaturated state, thus alter the original physicochemical properties of the fuel. And some of them are released into free volume of a fuel rod and that cause internal pressure increase of a fuel rod. Furthermore, as extending fuel burnup, the data on fission gas generation(FGG) and fission gas release(FGR) are considered very important for fuel safety investigation. Consequently, it is required to establish an experimental facility for handling of highly radioactive sample and to develop an analytical technology for measurement of retained fission gas in a spent fuel. This report describes not only on the construction of a shielded glove box which can handle highly radioactive materials but also on the modifications and instrumentations of spent fuel fusion facilities and collection apparatuses of retained fission gas

  10. Admixtures in Spent Plutonium Sources and Gamma-Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Pelanytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of several spent smoke detectors containing plutonium has been investigated. The article also presents the calculated results of 241Am and 241Pu activities in smoke detectors. The received values vary from (0.934±0.028 MBq to (91.2±4.6 MBq. The eguivalent dose rate of the established gamma radiation vary from 220 nSv/h to 500 nSv/h. A dose caused by artificial radionuclides in spent smoke detectors was evaluated and compared in the article. It has been found out that due to smoke detectors, an annual dose varies from 0.06 mSv to 0.31 mSv. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Spent nuclear fuel for disposal in the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Per; Moren, Lena; Wiborgh, Maria

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site as well as to the operational safety report, SR-Operation. The report presents the spent fuel to be deposited, and the requirements on the handling and selection of fuel assemblies for encapsulation that follows from that it shall be deposited in the KBS-3 repository. An overview of the handling and a simulation of the encapsulation and the resulting canisters to be deposited are presented. Finally, the initial state of the encapsulated spent nuclear fuel is given. The initial state comprises the radionuclide inventory and other data required for the assessment of the long-term safety

  12. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  13. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Jonkmans, G; Jewett, C; Thompson, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on nuclear waste and the contents of Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy.

  14. Additive diffusion from LDPE slabs into contacting solvents as a function of solvent absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, Th.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  15. Additive Diffusion from LDPE Slabs into Contacting Solvents as a Function of Solvent Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  16. Size Design of CdZnTe Detector Shield for Measuring Burnup of Spent Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is important to measure the burnup of spent fuel for nuclear safeguards, burnup credit and critical safety in spent-fuel reprocessing process. The purpose of this work is designing a portable device to

  17. Fenton- and Persulfate-driven Regeneration of Contaminant-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton- or persulfate-driven chemical oxidation regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto GAC and chemical oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC. Environmental...

  18. Proceedings of spent fuel management technology workshop, 1997. 11. 13 - 11. 14, Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings cover the advanced spent fuel process technology, the development of a test facility for spent fuel management and remote handling technology, and the characteristics test technology. Fifteen papers are submitted.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

  20. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Rossana Liguori; Carlos Ricardo Soccol; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Vincenza Faraco

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG) was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, fo...

  1. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  2. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  3. Spent FCC catalyst for improving early strength Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan; Vunda, Christian; VELÁZQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ, SERGIO; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst from the petrol industry has proven to be a very active pozzolanic material. This behavior leads to an additional increase in the strength of the mortar that contains this catalyst. Pozzolanic effects tend to be considered for periods above three days, whereas in shorter times, the influence of pozzolan is usually negligible. The reactivity of FCC is so high, however, that both pozzolanic effects and acceleration of cement hydration are evident in...

  4. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral,Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  5. Metallography and Microanalysis of Qinshan PhaseⅠ NPP Spent Fuel Rods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Jin; BIAN; Wei; GUO; Li-na; GUO; Yi-fan; CHU; Feng-min; LIANG; Zheng-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Qinshan PhaseⅠNPP is a first domestic commercial PWR and its fuel rods and fuel assembly were designed and manufactured by China.In order to assess the irradiation properties of the fuel rods,8spent fuel rods which were drew out from 3fuel assemblies were transferred to CIAE hot cells for post irradiation examination(PIE)in 2014.The cladding material of the fuel

  6. Handling of damaged spent fuel at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Ronny [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany); Bechtel, Sascha [Hoefer und Bechtel GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is situated in the north-eastern part of Lithuania close to the borders with Latvia and Belarus and on the shore of Lake Druksiai. It is approximately 120 km from the capital city Vilnius. The power plant has two RMBK type water cooled graphite moderated pressure tube reactors each of design capacity 1500MW(e). The start of operation of the Unit 1 was in 1983 and of the Unit 2 in 1987. In the period 1987 - 1991 (i.e. Soviet period) a small proportion of the existing spent nuclear fuel suffered minor to major damages. In the frame of decommissioning of INPP it is necessary that this damaged fuel is retrieved from the storage pools and stored in an interim spent fuel store. NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany) as part of a consortium with GNS mbH (Germany) was awarded the contract for an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (B1- ISFSF). This contract includes the design, procurement, manufacturing, supply and installation of a damaged fuel handling system (DFHS). Objective of this DFHS is the safe handling of spent nuclear fuel with major damages, which result in rupture of the cladding and potential loss of fuel pellets from within the cladding. Typical damages are bent fuel bundle skeletons, broken fuel rods, missing or damaged end plugs, very small gaps between fuel bundles, bent central rods between fuel bundles. The presented concept is designed for Ignalina NPP. However, the design is developed more generally to solve these problems with damaged fuel at other nuclear power plants applying these proven techniques. (orig.)

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1998-07-22

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. A base case, reflecting the Fiscal Year 1998 process configuration, is evaluated. Parametric evaluations are also considered, investigating the impact of higher fuel retrieval system productivity and reduced shift operations at the canister storage building on total project duration.

  8. Review of partitioning proposals for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, D.F.

    1976-07-01

    The initial phase of a study about recovery of valuable fission products from spent nuclear fuels has been to review various partitioning proposals. This report briefly describes the aqueous Purex process, the salt transport process, melt refining, fluoride volatility process, and gravimetric separations. All these processes appear to be possible technically, but further research will be necessary to determine which are most feasible. This review includes general recommendations for experimental research and development of several partitioning options.

  9. Hanford`s spent nuclear fuel retrieval: an agressive agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-06

    Starting December 1997, spent nuclear fuel that has been stored in the K Reactor Fuel Storage Basins will be retrieved over a two year period and repackaged for long term dry storage. The aging and sometimes corroding fuel elements will be recovered and processed using log handled tools and teleoperated manipulator technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to this urgent schedule because of the environmental threats to the groundwater and nearby the Columbia River.

  10. Integrated volarization of spent coffee grounds to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtu Haile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable energy source produced from natural oils and fats, and is being used as a substitute for petroleum diesel. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and its by-products to produce pelletized fuel, which is expected to help the biodiesel production process achieve zero waste. For this experiment, spent coffee grounds sample was collected from Kaldis coffee, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Extraction of the spent coffee grounds oil was then conducted using n-hexane, ether and mixture of isopropanol to hexane ratio (50:50 %vol, and resulted in oil yield of 15.6, 17.5 and 21.5 %w/w respectively. A two-step process was used in biodiesel production with conversion of about 82 %w/w. The biodiesel quality parameters were evaluated using the American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D 6751. The major fatty acid compositions found by Gas chromatography were linoleic acid (37.6%, palmitic acid (39.8%, oleic (11.7%, and stearic acid (8.6%. In addition, solid waste remaining after oil extraction and glycerin ratio (glycerin content from 20-40% was evaluated for fuel pellet (19.3-21.6 MJ/Kg applications. Therefore, the results of this work could offer a new perspective to the production of biofuel from waste materials without growing plants and/or converting food to fuel.

  11. Direct disposal of spent fuel: developing solutions tailored to Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hideki [Obayashi Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); McKinley, Ian G [McKinley Consulting, Baden (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    With the past Government policy of 100% reprocessing in Japan now open to discussion, options for direct disposal of spent fuel (SF) are now being considered in Japan. The need to move rapidly ahead in developing spent fuel management concepts is closely related to the ongoing debate on the future of nuclear power in Japan and the desire to understand the true costs of the entire life cycle of different options. Different scenarios for future nuclear power - and associated decisions on extent of reprocessing - will give rise to quite different inventories of SF with different disposal challenges. Although much work has been carried out spent fuel disposal within other national programmes, the potential for mining the international knowledge base is limited by the boundary conditions for disposal in Japan. Indeed, with a volunteer approach to siting, no major salt deposits and few undisturbed sediments, high tectonic activity, relatively corrosive groundwater and no deserts, it is evident that a tailored solution is needed. Nevertheless, valuable lessons can be learned from projects carried out worldwide, if focus is placed on basic principles rather than implementation details. (authors)

  12. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  13. Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

  14. A Review on Sabotage against Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol; Lim, Jihwan [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This report assesses the risk of routine transportation including cask response to an impact or fire accidents. In addition, we have still found the non-negligible difference among the studies for scenarios, approaches, and data. In order to evaluate attack cases on the same basis and reflect more realistic situations, at this moment, it is worthwhile to thoroughly review and analyze the existing studies and to suggest further development directions. In Section 2, we compare scenarios of terror attacks against spent fuel storage and transportation. Section 3 compares target scenarios, capabilities, and limitations of assessment methods. In addition, we collect and compare modeling data used for previous studies to analyze gaps and uncertainties in the existing studies. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility. The government should not be the only ones contributing to this dialogue. This dialogue that needs to happen should work both ways, with the government presenting their information and statistics and the public relaying their concerns for the government to review.

  15. Digital mock-up for the spent fuel disassembly processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the graphical design system is developed and the digital mock-up is implemented for designing the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes. The system consists of a 3D graphical modeling system, a devices assembling system, and a motion simulation system. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. By using this system, all the process involved in the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes are analyzed and optimized. Also, this system is used in developing the on-line graphic simulator which synchronously simulates the motion of the equipment in a real time basis by connecting the device controllers with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. This simulator can be effectively used for detecting the malfunctions of the process equipment which is remotely operated. Thus, the simulator enhances the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process. The graphical design system and the digital mock-up system can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process. And the on-line graphic simulator can be an alternative of the conventional process monitoring system which is a hardware based system.

  16. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

  17. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  18. DESIGN OF LSDS FOR ISOTOPIC FISSILE ASSAY IN SPENT FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGDEOK LEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A future nuclear energy system is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, the system involves a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR linked with the pyro-process. The pyro-process produces a source material to fabricate a SFR fuel rod. Therefore, an isotopic fissile content assay is very important for fuel rod safety and SFR economics. A new technology for an analysis of isotopic fissile content has been proposed using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The new technology has several features for a fissile analysis from spent fuel: direct isotopic fissile assay, no background interference, and no requirement from burnup history information. Several calculations were done on the designed spectrometer geometry: detection sensitivity, neutron energy spectrum analysis, neutron fission characteristics, self shielding analysis, and neutron production mechanism. The spectrum was well organized even at low neutron energy and the threshold fission chamber was a proper choice to get prompt fast fission neutrons. The characteristic fission signature was obtained in slowing down neutron energy from each fissile isotope. Another application of LSDS is for an optimum design of the spent fuel storage, maximization of the burnup credit and provision of the burnup code correction factor. Additionally, an isotopic fissile content assay will contribute to an increase in transparency and credibility for the utilization of spent fuel nuclear material, as internationally demanded.

  19. Solvent effect in the Walden inversion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Oliva, A.; Bertrán, J.

    1984-04-01

    The solvent effect on the fluoride exchange reaction has been studied by means of ab initio calculations using the 3-21G basis set. It is shown that the motion of the solvent molecules is an important part of the reaction coordinate.

  20. Solvation of rhodamine575 in some solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-05-01

    FTIR spectra of Rhodamine575 dye in powder form and in different solvents are reported. Positions of some of the observed FTIR bands show noticeable change in solvents. The bands, which shift, have contributions from the vibrational motion of nitrogen atoms of the ethylamine groups, oxygen atom of the carboxylic group attached to the phenyl ring and oxygen atom of the Xanthene ring.

  1. Composite capillary membrane for solvent resistant nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, S.M.; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) is a membrane separation process allowing for an efficient separation of small molecules of 200–1000 g mol−1 from organic solvents. The application of SRNF in industry applications is currently hindered by a limited choice of SRNF membranes and configurations.

  2. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  3. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  4. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  5. Relationship between Fermi Resonance and Solvent Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiu-Lan; LI Dong-Fei; SUN Cheng-Lin; LI Zhan-Long; YANG Guang; ZHOU Mi; LI Zuo-Wei; GAO Shu-Qin

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally study the relationship between Fermi resonance and solvent effects and investigate the Fermi resonance of p-benzoquinone and cyclopentanone in different solvents and the Fermi resonance of CS2 in C6H6 at different concentrations. Also, we investigate the Fermi resonance of C6H6 and CCl4 in their solution at different pressures. It is found that solvent effects can be utilized to search Fermi resonance parameters such as coupling coefficient and spectral intensity ratio, etc., on the other hand, the mechanism of solvent effects can be revealed according to Fermi resonance at high pressure.%@@ We theoretically and experimentally study the relationship between Fermi resonance and solvent effects and investigate the Fermi resonance of p-benzoquinone and cyclopentanone in different solvents and the Fermi resonance of CS2 in C6H6 at different concentrations.Also,we investigate the Fermi resonance of C6H6 and CCl4 in their solution at different pressures.It is found that solvent effects can be utilized to search Fermi resonance parameters such as coupling coefficient and spectral intensity ratio,etc.,on the other hand,the mechanism of solvent effects can be revealed according to Fermi resonance at high pressure.

  6. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  7. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia Malaguarnera; Emanuela Cataudella; Maria Giordano; Giuseppe Nunnari; Giuseppe Chisari; Mariano Malaguarnera

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals,and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents.Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and,moreover,organic solvents are used in various industrial processes.Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity.Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are:species differences,nutritional condition,genetic factors,interaction with medications in use,alcohol abuse and interaction,and age.This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity.The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are:inflammation,dysfunction of cytochrome P450,mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work.

  8. Assessment of solvents for cellulose dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tsianou, Marina; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2017-03-01

    A necessary step in the processing of biomass is the pretreatment and dissolution of cellulose. A good solvent for cellulose involves high diffusivity, aggressiveness in decrystallization, and capability of disassociating the cellulose chains. However, it is not clear which of these factors and under what conditions should be improved in order to obtain a more effective solvent. To this end, a newly-developed phenomenological model has been applied to assess the controlling mechanism of cellulose dissolution. Among the findings, the cellulose fibers remain crystalline almost to the end of the dissolution process for decrystallization-controlled kinetics. In such solvents, decreasing the fiber crystallinity, e.g., via pretreatment, would result in a considerable increase in the dissolution rate. Such insights improve the understanding of cellulose dissolution and facilitate the selection of more efficient solvents and processing conditions for biomass. Specific examples of solvents are provided where dissolution is limited due to decrystallization or disentanglement.

  9. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  10. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  11. Green-solvent-processable organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processable organic photovoltaics (OPV has emerged as a promising clean energy-generating technology due to its potential for low-cost manufacturing with a high power/weight ratio. The state-of-the-art OPV devices are processed by hazardous halogenated solvents. Fabricating high-efficiency OPV devices using greener solvents is a necessary step toward their eventual commercialization. In this review, recent research efforts and advances in green-solvent-processable OPVs are summarized, and two basic strategies including material design and solvent selection of light-harvesting layers are discussed. In particular, the most recent green-solvent-processable OPVs with high efficiencies in excess of 9% are highlighted.

  12. 77 FR 24585 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear... amends the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 System... International HI-STORM 100 System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to...

  13. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility..., subpart K, a general license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an independent spent fuel...

  14. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  15. 78 FR 77606 - Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72 and 73 RIN 3150-AI78 Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear... requirements for storing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI), and for storing SNF and/or high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in a monitored retrievable storage...

  16. [Neurotoxicity of organic solvents--recent findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-06-01

    In this review, the recent findings of central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) dysfunction induced by occupational exposure to organic solvents are described. While acute, high-level exposure to almost all organic solvents causes the general, nonspecific depression of CNS, it is still not clear whether chronic, low-level occupational exposure causes the chronic neurological dysfunction which has been called "organic solvent syndrome", "painters syndrome", "psycho-organic syndrome" or "chronic solvent encephalopathy". At least at lower than occupational exposure limits, chronic and low-level organic solvent exposure does not appear to cause the "sy mptomatic" neurological dysfunction. The chronic, moderate- to high-level exposure to a few organic solvents (such as carbon disulfide, n-hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone) affects CNS or PNS specifically. The substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons, 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane were shown to have the peripheral nerve toxicity in the experimental animals. Shortly after these observations, human cases of 1-bromopropane intoxication with the dysfunction of CNS and PNS were reported in the United States. Neurological abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory in China were also reported. Thus, the possible neurotoxicity of newly introduced substitutes for ozone-depleting solvents into the workplace must be considered. Enough evidences indicate that some common solvents (such as toluene and styrene) induce sensorineural hearing loss and acquired color vision disturbances in workers. In some studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral atrophy, patchy periventricular hyperintensities and hypointensities in the basal ganglia were found in solvent-exposed workers as have been shown in toluene abusers (toluene leukoencephalopathy). Further studies using the neurobehavioral test batteries, neurophysiological measurements and advanced neuroimaging techniques are required to detect the

  17. Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Corey Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Julia M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, Alissa [TAMU; Charlton, William [TAMU

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX

  18. An approach to determine a defensible spent fuel ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2014-03-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. In all the previous studies, the postulated attack of greatest interest was by a conical shape charge (CSC) that focuses the explosive energy much more efficiently than bulk explosives. However, the validity of these large-scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical DUO2 surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Different researchers have suggested using SFR values of 3 to 5.6. Sound technical arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Currently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in possession of several samples of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that were used in the original SFR studies in the 1980s and were intended for use in a modern effort at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 2000s. A portion of these samples are being used for a variety of research efforts. However, the entirety of SNF samples at ORNL is scheduled for disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by approximately the end of 2015. If a defensible SFR is to be determined for use in storage and transportation security analyses, the need to begin this effort

  19. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  20. [Problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Andréoletti, A; Chauchard, E; Rodgers, R F; Chabrol, H

    2016-06-01

    Internet addiction or problematic Internet use is a recent and increasingly recognized disorder which has been consistently associated with many psychiatric disorders, adding to the documented negative consequences of problematic Internet use. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits and none in a French sample. Moreover, those which have evaluated this relationship have mainly been conducted on small samples. The main goal of our study was to explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits in a French sample, taking into account the presence of depressive symptoms, and gender. A sample of 276 participants aged from 18 to 50 (M=28; SD=8.9) completed a questionnaire assessing problematic Internet use, time spent online, the presence of ten personality traits and depressive symptoms. Our results revealed significant differences between genders. Among men, problematic Internet use was associated with personality clusters A and B while in women no cluster or personality traits were associated. Time spent online was predicted by schizoid personality traits among men and avoidant personality traits among women. Our results indicate that cluster A (schizoid and schizotypal) and cluster B traits (borderline and antisocial) play a more important role in problematic Internet use than cluster C traits among men. Differences between men and women regarding the relationships between personality traits, time online and problematic Internet use may be related to differences in the activities engaged in by men and women online. We observed that communication websites use was more prevalent among women while erotic, gambling and shopping websites use was more prevalent among men suggesting that the characteristics of problematic Internet use may vary according to gender. Few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent

  1. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  2. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  3. The role of aggregate formation in solvent extraction of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaonkar, A.G.; Neuman, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    In solvent extraction processes involving hydrometallurgical separations, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, and nuclear waste processing operations, metal ions transfer across the boundary between two immiscible liquids. Hence, the properties of the liquid/liquid interface can often influence the extraction process. This suggests that one, therefore, should be able to control the extraction rate by proper manipulation of the nature of the liquid/liquid interface. In an earlier communication (1) from this laboratory, aggregates, possibly reversed micelles, were proposed to form in the system di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)/n-hexane/CaCl/sub 2/ solution under certain conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the amount of calcium extracted and the rate of extraction become significant when reversed micelles form. The interfacial tension (..gamma..), equilibrium distribution coefficient (K/sub d/), and mass transfer coefficient (k/sub ao/) were obtained for the system HDEHP/n-hexane/0.01 mol dm/sup -3/ CaCl/sub 2/ solution. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-09-14

    The successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the most serious challenges to the successful completion of the nuclear fuel cycle and the future of nuclear power generation. In the United States, 21 percent of the electricity is generated by 107 commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), each of which generates 20 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel annually. In 1996, the total accumulation of spent nuclear fuel was 33,700 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) stored at 70 sites around the country. The end-of-life projection for current nuclear power plants (NPP) is approximately 86,000 MTHM. In the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain over 95% of the radioactivity originates from spent nuclear fuel. World-wide in 1998, approximately 130,000 MTHM of SNF have accumulated, most of it located at 236 NPP in 36 countries. Annual production of SNF is approximately 10,000 MTHM, containing about 100 tons of ''reactor grade'' plutonium. Any reasonable increase in the proportion of energy production by NPP, i.e., as a substitute for hydrocarbon-based sources of energy, will significantly increase spent nuclear fuel production. Spent nuclear fuel is essentially UO{sub 2} with approximately 4-5 atomic percent actinides and fission product elements. A number of these elements have long half-lives hence, the long-term behavior of the UO{sub 2} is an essential concern in the evaluation of the safety and risk of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. One of the unique and scientifically most difficult aspects of the successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} years) as required by the performance objectives set in regulations, i.e. 10 CFR 60. The direct verification of these extrapolations or interpolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the

  5. Predicting the Solubility of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals in Solvent/Anti-Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lange

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the solubilities of pharmaceutical cocrystals in solvent/anti-solvent systems were predicted using PC-SAFT in order to increase the efficiency of cocrystal formation processes. Modeling results and experimental data were compared for the cocrystal system nicotinamide/succinic acid (2:1 in the solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ethanol/water, ethanol/acetonitrile and ethanol/ethyl acetate at 298.15 K and in the ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture also at 310.15 K. The solubility of the investigated cocrystal slightly increased when adding small amounts of anti-solvent to the solvent, but drastically decreased for high anti-solvent amounts. Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures showed strong deviations from ideal-solution behavior. However, by accounting for the thermodynamic non-ideality of the components, PC-SAFT is able to predict the solubilities in all above-mentioned solvent/anti-solvent systems in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Spent NiMH batteries-The role of selective precipitation in the recovery of valuable metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuol, Daniel Assumpção; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    The production of electronic equipment, such as computers and cell phones, and, consequently, batteries, has increased dramatically. One of the types of batteries whose production and consumption has increased in recent times is the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery. This study evaluated a hydrometallurgical method of recovery of rare earths and a simple method to obtain a solution rich in Ni-Co from spent NiMH batteries. The active materials from both electrodes were manually removed from the accumulators and leached. Several acid and basic solutions for the recovery of rare earths were evaluated. Results showed that more than 98 wt.% of the rare earths were recovered as sulfate salts by dissolution with sulfuric acid, followed by selective precipitation at pH 1.2 using sodium hydroxide. The complete process, precipitation at pH 1.2 followed by precipitation at pH 7, removed about 100 wt.% of iron and 70 wt.% of zinc from the leaching solution. Results were similar to those found in studies that used solvent extraction. This method is easy, economic, and does not pose environmental threats of solvent extraction.

  8. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  9. Polar Solvents Trigger Formation of Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2015-06-09

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and molecular thermodynamics to investigate the formation of reverse micelles in a system of surfactants and nonpolar solvents. Since the early observation of reverse micelles, the question has been whether the existence of polar solvent molecules such as water is the driving force for the formation of reverse micelles in nonpolar solvents. In this work, we use a simple coarse-grained model of surfactants and solvents to show that a small number of polar solvent molecules triggers the formation of large permanent aggregates. In the absence of polar molecules, both the thermodynamic model and molecular simulations show that small aggregates are more populated in the solution and larger ones are less frequent as the system evolves over time. The size and shape of reverse micelles depend on the size of the polar core: the shape is spherical for a large core and ellipsoidal for a smaller one. Using the coarse-grained model, we also investigate the effect of temperature and surfactant tail length. Our results reveal that the number of surfactant molecules in the micelle decreases as the temperature increases, but the average diameter does not change because the size of the polar core remains invariant. A reverse micelle with small polar core attracts fewer surfactants when the tail is long. The uptake of solvent particles by a micelle of longer surfactant tail is less than shorter ones when the polar solvent particles are initially distributed randomly.

  10. Auditory dysfunction associated with solvent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuente Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have demonstrated that solvents may induce auditory dysfunction. However, there is still little knowledge regarding the main signs and symptoms of solvent-induced hearing loss (SIHL. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between solvent exposure and adverse effects on peripheral and central auditory functioning with a comprehensive audiological test battery. Methods Seventy-two solvent-exposed workers and 72 non-exposed workers were selected to participate in the study. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry (PTA, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE, Random Gap Detection (RGD and Hearing-in-Noise test (HINT. Results Solvent-exposed subjects presented with poorer mean test results than non-exposed subjects. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression model analysis was performed. One model for each auditory outcome (PTA, TEOAE, RGD and HINT was independently constructed. For all of the models solvent exposure was significantly associated with the auditory outcome. Age also appeared significantly associated with some auditory outcomes. Conclusions This study provides further evidence of the possible adverse effect of solvents on the peripheral and central auditory functioning. A discussion of these effects and the utility of selected hearing tests to assess SIHL is addressed.

  11. Solvent Effect on the Photolysis of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Bano, Raheela; Hafeez, Ambreen

    2015-10-01

    The kinetics of photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in water (pH 7.0) and in organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate) has been studied using a multicomponent spectrometric method for the assay of RF and its major photoproducts, formylmethylflavin and lumichrome. The apparent first-order rate constants (k obs) for the reaction range from 3.19 (ethyl acetate) to 4.61 × 10(-3) min(-1) (water). The values of k obs have been found to be a linear function of solvent dielectric constant implying the participation of a dipolar intermediate along the reaction pathway. The degradation of this intermediate is promoted by the polarity of the medium. This indicates a greater stabilization of the excited-triplet states of RF with an increase in solvent polarity to facilitate its reduction. The rate constants for the reaction show a linear relation with the solvent acceptor number indicating the degree of solute-solvent interaction in different solvents. It would depend on the electron-donating capacity of RF molecule in organic solvents. The values of k obs are inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium as a result of diffusion-controlled processes.

  12. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  13. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  14. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  15. Compressive strength and heavy metal leaching behaviour of mortars containing spent catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasak, U; Jaturapitakkul, C; Sudaprasert, T

    2001-10-01

    This investigation was set and aimed to study the possibility of using spent catalyst as a concrete constituent which the spent catalyst was used as sand. Besides the spent catalyst was used as sand, it was also ground to very small particle size as small as that of cement and used as 20% replacement of cement by weight. Compressive strengths and leaching characteristics of lead, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in mortars containing spent catalyst and ground spent catalyst were tested. The results presented revealed that the compressive strength of mortar containing spent catalyst increased with ages. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of mortar containing spent catalyst at the proportion of 1.25 times of cement by weight was strong enough to make a concrete brick. In case of the ground spent catalyst being used to replace cement, it made the compressive strength lower than that of the standard mortar approximately 20%. The leachate results of lead and chromium from spent catalyst were lower than the allowance, but cadmium and nickel exceeded the limits. After the spent catalyst was fixed with cement, the leaching of the heavy metals did not exceed the industrial effluent standard. Therefore, the heavy metals mentioned earlier were not a problem in using spent catalyst as a concrete constituent.

  16. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Fikri Aulia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  17. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  18. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  19. Seismic analysis of spent nuclear fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Harstead, G.A. [Harstead Engineering Associates, Inc., Old Tappan, NJ (United States); Marquet, F. [ATEA/FRAMATOME, Carquefou (France)

    1996-06-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. No structural benefit from the BSS is assumed. This paper describes the methods used to perform seismic analysis of high density spent fuel storage racks. The sensitivity of important parameters such as the effect of variation of coefficients of friction between the rack legs and the pool floor and fuel loading conditions (consolidated and unconsolidated) are also discussed in the paper. Results of this study are presented. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, and the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. Friction cannot be precisely predicted, so a range of friction coefficients is assumed. The range assumed for the analysis is 0.2 to 0.8. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are normally analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies.

  20. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  1. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  2. Dosimetry at an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, M; Kulich, V; Studeny, J; Pokorny, P

    2007-01-01

    The Czech nuclear power plant Dukovany started its operation in 1985. All fuel spent from 1985 up to the end of 2005 is stored at a dry interim storage, which was designed for 60 CASTOR-440/84 casks. Each of these casks can accommodate 84 fuel assemblies from VVER 440 reactors. Neutron-photon mixed fields around the casks were characterized in terms of ambient dose equivalent measured by standard area dosemeters. Except this, neutron spectra were measured by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, and the measured spectra were used to derive the corresponding ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons.

  3. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  4. Development of dry storage technology of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruoka, Kunio [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Murakami, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Natsume, Tomohiro; Irino, Mitsuhiro

    1998-07-01

    The increasing demand for storage of spent fuel assemblies generated by commercial nuclear power plants is the urgent subject to solve. The dry storage system is as economically more advantageous than the pool storage system, and so, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the metal storage cask suited to small and medium storage capacity under 2000MTU - 3000MTU. For large scale capacity, the new `Mitsubishi Vault Storage System` has been developed, and it provides a safe and economical solution. Technical study concerning cooling ability was performed. (author)

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Brewers' Spent Grain Arabinoxylans

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, M. A. M.; Saraiva, J.; Coimbra,M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Brewers´ spent grain (BSG) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as a source of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) with prebiotic activity. In this study, microwave-assisted extractions were performed during 2 min at 140-210°Cin order to evaluate the feasibility of this extraction technology for quantitative extraction of the arabinoxylans (AX) or AXOS from BSG. The AX yield increasedwith the increase of the temperature in the range used. The best condition...

  6. Possible application of brewer's spent grain in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Jelena D.; Radosavljević Miloš S.; Grujić Olgica S.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Nikolić Svetlana B.; Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer) throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products) and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage cos...

  7. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of LWR spent fuel shipping casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, D.W.

    1978-02-01

    An analysis of nondestructve testing (NDT) methods currently being used to evaluate the integrity of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel shipping casks is presented. An assessment of anticipated NDT needs related to breeder reactor cask requirements is included. Specific R and D approaches to probable NDT problem areas such as the evaluation of austenitic stainless steel weldments are outlined. A comprehensive bibliography of current NDT methods for cask evaluation in the USA, Great Britain, Japan and West Germany was compiled for this study.

  9. Identification of nitrogen compounds and amides from spent hydroprocessing catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.K.; Gray, M.R. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-06-01

    A spent commercial naphtha hydrotreating catalyst was analyzed to identify compounds which had accumulated on the catalyst surface during its active life. The catalyst was extracted with methylene chloride, methanol and pyridine to remove adsorbed organic material, which was rich in nitrogen and oxygen. A series of quinolones were identified in the methanol extract after enrichment with HCl-modified silica gel adsorption and subsequent silica gel chromatography. Tetra- and hexahydroquinolones with alkyl substituents up to C{sub 3} were identified. Similar amides have been identified in asphaltenes, and are very resistant to hydrogenation. Tetrahydroquinolines and piperidines were detected in the pyridine extract. 36 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-10-18

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8

  11. Thermal processing of spent mushroom compost; Thermische verwerking champost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stam, A.F.; Erbrink, J.J. [KEMA Technical and Operational Services, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory research of the options of using spent mushroom compost as fuel, possibly combined with other biomass flows, to generate energy. The exploratory study consists of a desk study in which a chemical, physical analysis of the fuel is also conducted and focuses primarily on combustion techniques [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is een verkennend onderzoek uitvoeren naar de mogelijkheden om met champost als brandstof, eventueel samen met andere biomassastromen, in te zetten voor de opwekking van energie. Het verkennend onderzoek is een bureaustudie, waarbij tevens voorzien is in een chemisch fysische analyse van de brandstof en richt zich primair op verbrandingstechnieken.

  12. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  13. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  14. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  15. Spent grains : a new support for brewing yeast immobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A

    2001-01-01

    A novel carrier obtained from spent grains, a brewing by-product, was used for brewing yeast immobilisation in a continuous bubble-column reactor. The multiple-layer cell adhesion to the carrier particles resulted in a maximum cell load of 430 mg dry cell gˉ¹ dry carrier (d.c.). After 120 h of reactor operation, the cell load of DEAEmodified carrier was below 40 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. while the values for non-modified carrier reached at least 100 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. The changes in ...

  16. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  17. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 3, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly that is also radioactive and required disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volume 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  18. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 1, Activation measurements and comparison with calculations for spent fuel assembly hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, A.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1. 5 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 2, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Lotz, T.L.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report present a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from Laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  20. Solvent-Free Synthesis of New Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redah I. Al-Bayati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free synthesis of five series of coumarin derivatives using microwave assistant is presented herein. The synthesized compounds are fully characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. "Solvent Effects" in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Jose A. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple undergraduate experiment in chemistry dealing with the "solvent effects" in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Stresses the importance of having students learn NMR spectroscopy as a tool in analytical chemistry. (TW)

  2. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  3. Water as a Solvent for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    "Follow the water" is our basic strategy in searching for life in the universe. The universality of water as the solvent for living systems is usually justified by arguing that water supports the rich organic chemistry that seeds life, but alternative chemistries are possible in other organic solvents. Here, other, essential criteria for life that have not been sufficiently considered so far, will be discussed.

  4. Biofiltration of solvent vapors from air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-sook.

    1993-01-01

    For various industrial solvent vapors, biofiltration promises to offer a cost-effective emission control technology. Exploiting the full potential of this technology will help attain the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Concentrating on large volumes of volatile industrial solvents, stable multicomponent microbial enrichments capable of growing a mineral medium with solvent vapors as their only source of carbon and energy were obtained from soil and sewage sludge. These consortia were immobilized on an optimized porous solid support (ground peat moss and perlite). The biofilter material was packed in glass columns connected to an array of pumps and flow meters that allowed the independent variation of superficial velocity and solvent vapor concentrations. In various experiments, single solvents, such as methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, hexane and nitrobenzene, and solvent mixtures, such as benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) and chlorobenzene-o-dichlorobenzene (CB/DCB) were biofiltered with rates ranging from 15 to334 g solvent removed per m[sup 3] filter volume /h. Pressure drops were low to moderate (0-10 mmHg/m) and with periodic replacement of moisture, the biofiltration activity could be maintained for a period of several months. The experimental data on methanol biofiltration were subjected to mathematical analysis and modeling by the group of Dr. Baltzis at NJIT for a better understanding and a possible scale up of solvent vapor biofilters. In the case of chlorobenzenes and nitrobenzene, the biofilter columns had to be operated with water recirculation in a trickling filter mode. To prevent inactivation of the trickling filter by acidity during CB/DCB removal, pH control was necessary, and the removal rate of CB/DCB was strongly influenced by the flow rate of the recyling water. Nitrobenzene removal in a trickling filter did not require pH control, since the nitro group was reduced and volatilized as ammonia.

  5. Competitive solvent-molecule interactions govern primary processes of diphenylcarbene in solvent mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Johannes; Sokkar, Pandian; Schott, Sebastian; Costa, Paolo; Thiel, Walter; Sander, Wolfram; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Nuernberger, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical reactions in solution often proceed via competing reaction pathways comprising intermediates that capture a solvent molecule. A disclosure of the underlying reaction mechanisms is challenging due to the rapid nature of these processes and the intricate identification of how many solvent molecules are involved. Here combining broadband femtosecond transient absorption and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations, we show for one of the most reactive species, diphenylcarbene, that the decision-maker is not the nearest solvent molecule but its neighbour. The hydrogen bonding dynamics determine which reaction channels are accessible in binary solvent mixtures at room temperature. In-depth analysis of the amount of nascent intermediates corroborates the importance of a hydrogen-bonded complex with a protic solvent molecule, in striking analogy to complexes found at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show that adjacent solvent molecules take the role of key abettors rather than bystanders for the fate of the reactive intermediate.

  6. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.

    2013-03-01

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (ϕf) and fluorescence lifetime (τf) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, ϕf increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes.

  7. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  8. Towards implementation of spent nuclear fuel management in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eero, Patrakka

    2007-07-01

    The final disposal of spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be implemented by Posiva Oy, a company owned jointly by the two nuclear power producers Fortum Oyj and Teollisuuden Voima Oy. Preparations for nuclear waste management were started already in the 1970s. Potential sites for the disposal of spent fuel were screened in the 1980s, followed by detailed site investigations in the 1990s. In May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision-in-Principle that was a prerequisite for the selection of Olkiluoto as the site of the final disposal facility. The disposal project has progressed to the next stage -- constructing an underground characterization facility, known as ONKALO, at Olkiluoto, which has also been designed to serve as an access route to the repository when constructed. Work on the entire final disposal project is progressing so that disposal can commence in 2020. ONKALO will be used to obtain further information for the repository design, and it will also enable final disposal technology to be tested under actual conditions. Once ONKALO has been completed, work will start on building the encapsulation plant and final disposal repository in the 2010s. (auth)

  9. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  10. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  11. Microbiological degradation of a spent offset-printing developer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengris, Tomas; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita; Nivinskiene, Ona; Melvydas, Vytautas; Manusadzianas, Levonas

    2004-09-10

    To decontaminate spent offset-printing developer Polychrome 4003, several microorganisms were separated from the soil that has been used for developer dumping for 3 years. Two organism cultures were isolated and identified to genus Geomyces pannorum and Bacteria spp. These organisms, as well as commercial Septic Gobbler (SG) bacteria, were used to decontaminate the developer. Reduction of both the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the amount of total identified organic compounds reached 30% after 40 day treatment of waste suspension by G. pannorum and Bacteria spp. A substantially higher degree of COD reduction by approximately 80% and the total amount of identified organic compounds by approximately 90% was achieved when SG bacteria have been applied for the same period. According to a rapid electrophysiological test with macrophytic algae Nitellopsis obtusa, the toxicity of spent offset-printing developer Polychrome 4003 was classified as extremely toxic (>100 toxic units, T.U.), and it remained at the same level after treatment with G. pannorum and Bacteria spp. More effective biodegradation with SG bacteria diminished toxicity substantially.

  12. Radiation induced corrosion of copper for spent nuclear fuel storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkbacka, Åsa; Hosseinpour, Saman; Johnson, Magnus; Leygraf, Christofer; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-11-01

    The long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste is one of the main concerns for countries utilizing nuclear power. The integrity of engineered and natural barriers in such repositories must be carefully evaluated in order to minimize the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. One of the most developed concepts of long term storage of spent nuclear fuel is the Swedish KBS-3 method. According to this method, the spent fuel will be sealed inside copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and placed 500 m down in stable bedrock. Despite the importance of the process of radiation induced corrosion of copper, relatively few studies have been reported. In this work the effect of the total gamma dose on radiation induced corrosion of copper in anoxic pure water has been studied experimentally. Copper samples submerged in water were exposed to a series of total doses using three different dose rates. Unirradiated samples were used as reference samples throughout. The copper surfaces were examined qualitatively using IRAS and XPS and quantitatively using cathodic reduction. The concentration of copper in solution after irradiation was measured using ICP-AES. The influence of aqueous radiation chemistry on the corrosion process was evaluated based on numerical simulations. The experiments show that the dissolution as well as the oxide layer thickness increase upon radiation. Interestingly, the evaluation using numerical simulations indicates that aqueous radiation chemistry is not the only process driving the corrosion of copper in these systems.

  13. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  14. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  15. Production of microbial enzymes using brewers spent grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, H.; Yamashita, H.; Yabuuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Brewers spent grain was used as the raw material for production of three extracellular enzymes, ..cap alpha..-amylase, alkaline protease, and lichenase, by Bacillus licheniformis. The basal medium was composed of wet spent grain (about 80% moisture) and 40 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 (1:5-10, w/v). For ..cap alpha..-amylase production by strain No. 18, 0.5% corn oil was added to the basal medium, and the maximum activity (66 units/ml) was found in the culture solution of the 4th day of incubation at 45 degrees C. Alkaline protease from strain H-9 was produced in the basal medium supplemented with 2 mM CaCL/sub 2/ and 10mM sodium citrate. The maximum activity during incubation at 35 degrees C was 7.2 units/ml on the 4th day. On the other hand, lichenase was produced sufficiently in the basal medium by strain Y-25, and the activity reached the level of 20 units/ml on the 3rd day of incubation at 30 degrees C. This enzyme preparation could also hydrolyze ..beta..-glucans from malt and beer. 15 references.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel recycling with plasma reduction and etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Ho

    2012-06-05

    A method of extracting uranium from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) particles is disclosed. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (containing oxides of uranium, oxides of fission products (FP) and oxides of transuranic (TRU) elements (including plutonium)) are subjected to a hydrogen plasma and a fluorine plasma. The hydrogen plasma reduces the uranium and plutonium oxides from their oxide state. The fluorine plasma etches the SNF metals to form UF6 and PuF4. During subjection of the SNF particles to the fluorine plasma, the temperature is maintained in the range of 1200-2000 deg K to: a) allow any PuF6 (gas) that is formed to decompose back to PuF4 (solid), and b) to maintain stability of the UF6. Uranium (in the form of gaseous UF6) is easily extracted and separated from the plutonium (in the form of solid PuF4). The use of plasmas instead of high temperature reactors or flames mitigates the high temperature corrosive atmosphere and the production of PuF6 (as a final product). Use of plasmas provide faster reaction rates, greater control over the individual electron and ion temperatures, and allow the use of CF4 or NF3 as the fluorine sources instead of F2 or HF.

  17. SPENT SULPHITE LIQUOR FOR CULTIVATION OF AN EDIBLE RHIZOPUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Ferreira,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars, protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g, alkali-insoluble material (AIM (ca 0.15 g/g, and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM. During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars, protein (0.30-0.50 g/g, lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g, AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g, and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  18. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  19. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  20. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  1. Dissolution of Metal Supported Spent Auto Catalysts in Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornalczyk A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal supported auto catalysts, have been used in sports and racing cars initially, but nowadays their application systematically increases. In Metal Substrate (supported Converters (MSC, catalytic functions are performed by the Platinum Group Metals (PGM: Pt, Pd, Rh, similarly to the catalysts on ceramic carriers. The contents of these metals make that spent catalytic converters are valuable source of precious metals. All over the world there are many methods for the metals recovery from the ceramic carriers, however, the issue of platinum recovery from metal supported catalysts has not been studied sufficiently yet. The paper presents preliminary results of dissolution of spent automotive catalyst on a metal carrier by means of acids: H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4. The main assumption of the research was the dissolution of base metals (Fe, Cr, Al from metallic carrier of catalyst, avoiding dissolution of PGMs. Dissolution was the most effective when concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 2M sulfuric acid (VI was used. It was observed that the dust, remaining after leaching, contained platinum in the level of 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively.

  2. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries.

  3. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  4. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  5. Physical modeling of spent-nuclear-fuel container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new physical simulation model was developed to simulate the casting process of the ductile iron heavy section spent-nuclear-fuel container. In this physical simulation model, a heating unit with DR24 Fe-Cr-Al heating wires was used to compensate the heat loss across the non-natural surfaces of the sample, and a precise and reliable casting temperature controlling/monitoring system was employed to ensure the thermal behavior of the simulated casting to be similar to the actual casting. Also, a mould system was designed, in which changeable mould materials can be used for both the outside and inside moulds for different applications. The casting test was carried out with the designed mould and the cooling curves of central and edge points at different isothermal planes of the casting were obtained. Results show that for most isothermal planes, the temperature control system can keep the temperature differences within 6 ℃ between the edge points and the corresponding center points, indicating that this new physical simulation model has high simulation accuracy, and the mould developed can be used for optimization of casting parameters of spent-nuclear-fuel container, such as composition of ductile iron, the pouring temperature, the selection of mould material and design of cooling system. In addition, to maintain the spheroidalization of the ductile iron, the force-chilling should be used for the current physical simulation to ensure the solidification of casting in less than 2 h.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel recycling with plasma reduction and etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Ho

    2012-06-05

    A method of extracting uranium from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) particles is disclosed. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (containing oxides of uranium, oxides of fission products (FP) and oxides of transuranic (TRU) elements (including plutonium)) are subjected to a hydrogen plasma and a fluorine plasma. The hydrogen plasma reduces the uranium and plutonium oxides from their oxide state. The fluorine plasma etches the SNF metals to form UF6 and PuF4. During subjection of the SNF particles to the fluorine plasma, the temperature is maintained in the range of 1200-2000 deg K to: a) allow any PuF6 (gas) that is formed to decompose back to PuF4 (solid), and b) to maintain stability of the UF6. Uranium (in the form of gaseous UF6) is easily extracted and separated from the plutonium (in the form of solid PuF4). The use of plasmas instead of high temperature reactors or flames mitigates the high temperature corrosive atmosphere and the production of PuF6 (as a final product). Use of plasmas provide faster reaction rates, greater control over the individual electron and ion temperatures, and allow the use of CF4 or NF3 as the fluorine sources instead of F2 or HF.

  7. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  8. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    In the pharmaceutical processes, solvents have a multipurpose role since different solvents can be used in different stages (such as chemical reactions, separations and purification) in the multistage active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production process. The solvent swap and selection task......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  9. Influence of solvent polarity on preferential solvation of molecular recognition probes in solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Valeria; Cook, Joanne L; Hunter, Christopher A; Low, Caroline M R; Vinter, Jeremy G

    2012-12-13

    The association constants for formation of 1:1 complexes between a H-bond acceptor, tri-n-butylphosphine oxide, and a H-bond donor, 4-phenylazophenol, have been measured in a range of different solvent mixtures. Binary mixtures of n-octane and a more polar solvent (ether, ester, ketone, nitrile, sulfoxide, tertiary amide, and halogenated and aromatic solvents) have been investigated. Similar behavior was observed in all cases. When the concentration of the more polar solvent is low, the association constant is identical to that observed in pure n-octane. Once a threshold concentration of the more polar solvent in reached, the logarithm of the association constant decreases in direct proportion to the logarithm of the concentration of the more polar solvent. This indicates that one of the two solutes is preferentially solvated by the more polar solvent, and it is competition with this solvation equilibrium that determines the observed association constant. The concentration of the more polar solvent at which the onset of preferential solvation takes place depends on solvent polarity: 700 mM for toluene, 60 mM for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 20 mM for the ether, ester, ketone, and nitrile, 0.2 mM for the tertiary amide, and 0.1 mM for the sulfoxide solvents. The results can be explained by a simple model that considers only pairwise interactions between specific sites on the surfaces of the solutes and solvents, which implies that the bulk properties of the solvent have little impact on solvation thermodynamics.

  10. The use of spent glauconite in lightweight aggregate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franus, Wojciech

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented work has shown an application of spent glauconite bed after purification of wastewater for production of lightweight expanded clay aggregates. Sewage, from which it was removed Zn ions, came from technological line (zincworks of Communication Equipment Factory „PZL” Świdnik. Spent glauconite bed was used as an additive in lightweight aggregate production which was obtained using plastic method by sintering, at temperature 1140 ºC and 1200 ºC, of spent glauconite amouts 10, 15, 20 and 25% wt. with clays from open-cast mine „Budy Mszczonowskie”. The presence of the mineral improves sinter texture, increases porosity and contributes to formation of glassy layer on the surface of the aggregates. Tests of zinc elution from lightweight of aggregate samples has shown very low mobility of zinc ions. Content of zinc in water extracts obtained from lightweight of aggregate is definitely lower than zinc concentration permitted for sewage discharge to water or soil, means that spent material is not offensive for the environment as it can be used as a high quality building product.

    El trabajo presentado ha demostrado una aplicación de agotado depósito de glauconita después de la purificación de aguas residuales para la producción de áridos ligeros de arcilla expandida. Las aguas residuales, de la que fueron eliminados los iones Zn, vinieron de la línea tecnológica del equipo de comunicación de la fábrica “PZL” Świdnik. Agotado depósito de glauconita se utiliza como aditivo en la producción de áridos ligeros que se obtuvo utilizando el método de plástico de la sinterización, a temperatura C. 1140 º y 1200 º C, de spent glauconita amouts10, 15, 20 y 25% en peso. con arcillas de la mina a cielo abierto “Budy Mszczonowskie”. La presencia de este mineral mejora la textura de sinterización, aumenta la porosidad y contribuye a la formación de la capa vítrea en la superficie de los agregados. Pruebas de

  11. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  12. The use of environmentally sustainable bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Kathryn H. Smith; Geoffrey W. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by greener or more environmental y sustainable solvents is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing health and environmental concerns as wel as economic pressures associated with VOCs. Solvents that are derived from biomass, namely bio-derived solvents, are a type of green solvent that have attracted intensive investigations in recent years because of their advantages over con-ventional VOCs, such as low toxicity, biodegradability and renewability. This review aims to summarize the use of bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications, with special emphasis given to utilization of biodiesels and terpenes. Compared with the conventional VOCs, the overall performance of these bio-derived solvents is comparable in terms of extraction yields and selectivity for natural product extraction and no difference was found for metal extraction. To date most researchers have focused on laboratory scale thermodynamics studies. Future work is required to develop and test new bio-derived solvents and understand the kinetic performance as well as solvent extraction pilot plant studies.

  13. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  14. Influence of Energy on Solvent Diffusion in Polymer/Solvent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHuijun; JIANGWenhua; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Vrentas-Duda free-volume theory has been extensively used to correlate or predict the solvent diffusion coefficient of a polymer/solvent system.The energy term in the free volume diffusion equation is difficult to estimate,so the energy term was usually neglected in previous predictive versions of the free volume diffusion coefficient equation.Recent studies show that the energy effect is very important even above the glass transition temperature of the system. In this paper, a new evaluation method of the energy term is proposed,that is the diffusion energy at different solvent concentrations is assumed to be a linear function of the solvent diffusion energy in pure solvents and that in polymers under the condition that the solvent in infinite dilution.By taking consideration of the influence of energy on the solvent diffustion,the prediction of solvent diffusion coefficient was preformed for three polymer/solvent systems over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.The results show an improvement on the predictive capability of the free volume diffusion theory.

  15. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  16. ICPSEF: a user's manual for the computer mathematical model of the ICPP purex solvent extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixsen, C L

    1982-11-01

    A computer-based mathematical program, ICPSEF, was developed for the first-cycle extraction system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). At the ICPP, spent nuclear fuels are processed to recover unfissioned uranium. The uranium is recovered from aqueous solutions in a pulse column, solvent extraction system using tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent (purex process). A previously developed SEPHIS-MOD4 computer program was added to and modified to provide a model for the ICPP system. Major modifications included addition of: (1) partial theoretical stages to permit more accurate modeling of ICPP columns, (2) modeling ammonium hydroxide neutralization of nitric acid in a scrubbing column, and (3) equilibrium data for 5 to 10 vol % TBP. The model was verified by comparison with actual operating data. Detailed instructions for using the ICPSEF model and sample results of the model are included.

  17. Lipase catalyzed esterification of glycidol in nonaqueous solvents: solvent effects on enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J F; de Sampaio, T C; de Carvalho, I B; Barreiros, S

    1994-06-05

    We studied the effect of organic solvents on the kinetics of porcine pancreatic lipase (pp) for the resolution of racemic glycidol through esterification with butyric acid. We quantified ppl hydration by measuring water sorption isotherms for the enzyme in the solvents/mixtures tested. The determination of initial rates as a function of enzyme hydration revealed that the enzyme exhibits maximum apparent activity in the solvents/mixtures at the same water content (9% to 11% w/w) within the associated experimental error. The maximum initial rates are different in all the media and correlate well with the logarithm of the molar solubility of water in the media, higher initial rates being observed in the solvents/mixtures with lower water solubilities. The data for the mixtures indicate that ppl apparent activity responds to bulk property of the solvent. Measurements of enzyme particle sizes in five of the solvents, as function of enzyme hydration, revealed that mean particle sizes increased with enzyme hydration in all the solvents, differences between solvents being more pronounced at enzyme hydration levels close to 10%. At this hydration level, solvents having a higher water content lead to lower reaction rates; these are the solvents where the mean enzyme particle sizes are greater. Calculation of the observable modulus indicates there are no internal diffusion limitations. The observed correlation between changes in initial rates and changes in external surface area of the enzyme particles suggests that interfacial activation of ppl is only effective at the external surface of the particles. Data obtained for the mixtures indicate that ppl enantioselectivity depends on specific solvent-enzyme interactions. We make reference to ppl hydration and activity in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  18. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Diego Juan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to fix the most advantageous conditions using industrial application criterion and verifying that the process is difusión controlled. The work is completed by developing an industrial leaching cycle simulation with the aim of reproducing real performance of spent catalyst, proposing operating conditions, and verifying the non-toxic character of the final residue obtained.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en los catalizadores agotados procedentes de la fabricación del ácido sulfúrico, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos residuos, evitando su deposición o vertido directos. La caracterización de las muestras de catalizadores agotados disponibles confirmó los valores encontrados en la bibliografía. Se estudiaron las variables que influyen en el proceso de lixiviación (tipo de agente de lixiviación y concentración del mismo, relación S/L, velocidad de agitación y temperatura definiendo las condiciones más adecuadas desde el punto de vista industrial y verificando que el proceso está controlado por mecanismos difusionales. El trabajo se completa con la simulación de un ciclo industrial de lavado del catalizador y la verificación de la nula toxicidad de los lixiviados obtenidos por degradación del residuo final. 24 Aplicación de la resistencia de ruido al estudio de pinturas ricas en zinc Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints

  19. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  20. Determination of plutonium content in TRR spent fuel by nondestructive neutron counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-F. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, R.-J. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Chiao, L.-H.; Yuan, M.-C. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jiang, S.-H., E-mail: shjiang@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    For the nuclear safeguard purpose, this work aims to nondestructively determine the plutonium content in the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) spent fuel rods in the storage pool before the stabilization process, which transforms the metal spent fuel rods into oxide powder. A SPent-fuel-Neutron-Counter (SPNC) system was designed and constructed to carry out underwater scan measurements of neutrons emitting from the spent fuel rod, from which the {sup 240}Pu mass in the fuel rod will be determined. The SAS2 H control module of the SCALE 5.1 code package was applied to calculate the {sup 240}Pu-to-Pu mass ratio in the TRR spent fuel rod according to the given power history. This paper presents the methodology and design of our detector system as well as the measurements of four TRR spent fuel rods in the storage pool and the comparison of the measured results with the facility declared values.

  1. Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Suzaki, Takenori [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled 'Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels'. Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burn-up and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report. (author)

  2. Determination of plutonium content in TRR spent fuel by nondestructive neutron counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Yuan, Ming-Chen; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2010-07-01

    For the nuclear safeguard purpose, this work aims to nondestructively determine the plutonium content in the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) spent fuel rods in the storage pool before the stabilization process, which transforms the metal spent fuel rods into oxide powder. A SPent-fuel-Neutron-Counter (SPNC) system was designed and constructed to carry out underwater scan measurements of neutrons emitting from the spent fuel rod, from which the 240Pu mass in the fuel rod will be determined. The SAS2 H control module of the SCALE 5.1 code package was applied to calculate the 240Pu-to-Pu mass ratio in the TRR spent fuel rod according to the given power history. This paper presents the methodology and design of our detector system as well as the measurements of four TRR spent fuel rods in the storage pool and the comparison of the measured results with the facility declared values.

  3. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ROK SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIM BRAUN

    2013-08-01

    Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U.S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR. We note that the U.S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R&D project to be conducted by U.S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-from-reactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R&D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper.

  5. Training implementation matrix, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EATON, G.L.

    2000-06-08

    This Training Implementation Matrix (TIM) describes how the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.20A, Personnel Selection, Qualification, and Training Requirements for Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. The TIM defines the application of the selection, qualification, and training requirements in DOE Order 5480.20A at the SNFP. The TIM also describes the organization, planning, and administration of the SNFP training and qualification program(s) for which DOE Order 5480.20A applies. Also included is suitable justification for exceptions taken to any requirements contained in DOE Order 5480.20A. The goal of the SNFP training and qualification program is to ensure employees are capable of performing their jobs safely and efficiently.

  6. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  7. Recovery of natural antioxidants from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Petrucci, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) were extracted with an environmentally friendly procedure and analyzed to evaluate the recovery of relevant natural antioxidants for use as nutritional supplements, foods, or cosmetic additives. SCG were characterized in terms of their total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and antioxidant activity by the DPPH scavenging assay. Flavonoid content was also determined by a colorimetric assay. The total phenolic content was strongly correlated with the DPPH scavenging activity, suggesting that phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of SCG. An UHPLC-PDA-TOF-MS system was used to separate, identify, and quantify phenolic and nonphenolic compounds in the SCG extracts. Important amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds as well as caffeine (CAF) evidenced the high potential of SCG, a waste material that is widely available in the world, as a source of natural phenolic antioxidants.

  8. Bonner sphere neutron spectrometry at spent fuel casks

    CERN Document Server

    Rimpler, A

    2002-01-01

    For transport and interim storage of spent fuel elements from power reactors and vitrified highly active waste (HAW) from reprocessing, various types of casks are used. The radiation exposure of the personnel during transportation and storage of these casks is caused by mixed photon-neutron fields and, frequently, the neutron dose is predominant. In operational radiation protection, survey meters and even personal dosemeters with imperfect energy dependence of the dose-equivalent response are used, i.e. the fluence response of the devices does not match the fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion function. In order to achieve more accurate dosimetric information and to investigate the performance of dosemeters, spectrometric investigations of the neutron fields are necessary. Therefore, fluence spectra and dose rates were measured by means of a simple portable Bonner multisphere spectrometer (BSS). The paper describes briefly the experimental set-up and evaluation procedure. Measured spectra for different locat...

  9. End crop sealing method for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-04

    End crops of spent nuclear fuels and glass materials are sealed in a corrosion and heat resistant vessel having an upper portion opened, and the corrosion and heat resistant vessel is heated from outside to melt the glass materials and they are solidified to form glass solidification products in which the end crops and radioactive materials deposited on the end crops are sealed. Then, the opened portion is closed. Since the end crops and radioactive materials deposited on end crops are sealed as glass solidification products in the vessel, sealing property for radioactive materials can be enhanced. Accordingly, radioactive materials can be prevented from transferring to the outside upon storing wastes or processing them into underground. In addition, since a large quantity of end crops can be filled into the corrosion and heat resistant vessel to form high level wastes, the space for the storage of wastes and processing facilities can be reduced. (T.M.)

  10. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  11. Return of spent fuel from the Portuguese research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, A.J.G.; Marques, J.G.; Cardeira, F.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, PO-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Thirty-nine spent MTR fuel assemblies from the Portuguese Research Reactor were recently returned to the US. Prior to the shipment all assemblies were inspected for corrosion and sipped for determination of fission product leakage. Limitations on the floor loading of the reactor building and on the capacity of the crane prevented the placement and loading of the Transnucleaire IU04 transport cask inside the containment building. The transport cask was thus placed outside, under permanent surveillance, in a support structure built around it. A small transfer cask was used to carry individually the assemblies from the storage racks to the transport cask. A forklift was used as a shuttle between the pool and the IU04. A detailed description of the procedures is given. (author)

  12. Eddy Current Examination of Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Closure Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur D. Watkins; Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2006-04-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has developed standardized DOE SNF canisters for handling and interim storage of SNF at various DOE sites as well as SNF transport to and SNF handling and disposal at the repository. The final closure weld of the canister will be produced remotely in a hot cell after loading and must meet American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III, Division 3 code requirements thereby requiring volumetric and surface nondestructive evaluation to verify integrity. This paper discusses the use of eddy current testing (ET) to perform surface examination of the completed welds and repair cavities. Descriptions of integrated remote welding/inspection system and how the equipment is intended function will also be discussed.

  13. Biosorption of Azo dyes by spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Neeta A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was used for the removal of six azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The dye removal capacity of the biomass was evaluated by conducting batch tests as a function of contact time, biomass dosage, pH and initial dye concentrations. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999, suggesting that chemisorptions might be the rate limiting step. The equilibrium sorption data showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Among the six dyes tested, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for fast red A and metanil yellow was found to be 108.8 and 128.5 mg/g, respectively. These encouraging results suggest that dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass could be a potential biomaterial for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous dye solution.

  14. SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Richard Deible, R

    2007-11-03

    Spent nuclear fuels are received from reactor sites around the world and are being stored in the L-Basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The predominant fuel types are research reactor fuel with aluminum-alloy cladding and aluminum-based fuel. Other fuel materials include stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding with uranium oxide fuel. Chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs have been established and upgraded since the early 1990's to minimize corrosion degradation of the aluminum cladding materials, so as to maintain fuel integrity and minimize personnel exposure from radioactivity in the basin water. Recent activities have been initiated to support additional decades of wet storage which include fuel inspection and corrosion testing to evaluate the effects of specific water impurity species on corrosion attack.

  15. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustaffson, B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs.

  16. The orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the pure solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedermeijer-Denessen, H.J.M.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the preferential orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the solvent from the surface potential χ and its temperature coefficient, dχ/dT. The method is based on the model of Levine et al. of the Stern inner region at the mercury-water interface in

  17. The orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the pure solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedermeijer-Denessen, H.J.M.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the preferential orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the solvent from the surface potential χ and its temperature coefficient, dχ/dT. The method is based on the model of Levine et al. of the Stern inner region at the mercury-water interface in

  18. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Solvents are widely used across a number of industries in many applications such as separation agents, reaction mediums, cleaning agents and product carriers. Selection of optimal solvents in these applications is mostly based on previous experiences and experimental trial and error. A process sy...

  19. Solvent System Selection Strategies in Countercurrent Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J. Brent; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of applications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography, collectively known as countercurrent separation, are dedicated to medicinal plant and natural product research. In countercurrent separation, the selection of the appropriate solvent system is of utmost importance as it is the equivalent to the simultaneous choice of column and eluent in liquid chromatography. However, solvent system selection is often laborious, involving extensive partition and/or analytical trials. Therefore, simplified solvent system selection strategies that predict the partition coefficients and, thus, analyte behavior are in high demand and may advance both the science of countercurrent separation and its applications. The last decade of solvent system selection theory and applications are critically reviewed, and strategies are classified according to their data input requirements. This offers the practitioner an up-to-date overview of rationales and methods for choosing an efficient solvent system, provides a perspective regarding their accuracy, reliability, and practicality, and discusses the possibility of combining multiple methods for enhanced prediction power. PMID:26393937

  20. Otoneurologic disturbances caused by solvent pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkvist, L M; Möller, C; Thuomas, K A

    1992-06-01

    Subjects exposed to industrial solvents may experience vertigo and nausea. Solvents are usually volatile hydrocarbon compounds, which are important parts of everyday life in a modern society. They may also cause neurastenia, personality changes, and reduced intellectual capacity. The syndrome that may develop was formerly named psycho-organic syndrome (POS), but in modern terminology it is called chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE). The syndrome develops slowly, and during the first years no pathological findings will be found using various test batteries. Somewhat later, when the syndrome still might be reversible, psychometric, auditory, and otoneurologic testing may well unveil disturbances within the posterior fossa structures. Animal experiments suggest one site of effect for solvents to be within the cerebellum and brainstem regions with close relationship to the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) transmission. In the otoneurologic test battery, visual suppression and smooth pursuit are of extreme value, as are some auditory tests such as discrimination of interrupted speech and cortical response audiometry using frequency glides as stimuli. Dynamic posturography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently proved valuable in the diagnosis. Research is needed concerning the most efficient test battery for early detection of solvent-induced lesions. During further research it is important to unveil other toxic agents, like heavy metals and alcohol, and their damage to the central nervous system and to make comparisons between these substances and the lesions caused by hydrocarbon solvents.

  1. Spent Fuel NDA Research Path for the Sweden Encapsulation-Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Trellue, Holly R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden)

    2015-01-22

    This set of slides provides a description of research performed to date on spent fuel NDA: Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project, and NDA analysis and research planned for CLINK. The general purpose is strengthening the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors. Data mining is being applied to determine the optimal mathematical structure to match the complexity of spent fuel NDA signals and to enable a range of quantities to be estimated.

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

  4. Development of deep eutectic solvents applied in extraction and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as an alternative to ionic liquids, have greener credentials than ionic liquids, and have attracted considerable attention in related chemical research. Deep eutectic solvents have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of various target compounds from natural products. This review highlights the preparation of deep eutectic solvents, unique properties of deep eutectic solvents, and synthesis of deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials. On the other hand, application in the extraction and separation of deep eutectic solvents is also included in this report. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the applications and developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, an exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep eutectic solvents-based materials is expected to diversify into extraction and separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Agronomic assessment of spent substrates for mushroom cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picornell-Buendía, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spent Agaricus bisporus Imbach (Lange substrates (SAS and spent Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrates (SPS is studied. Objectives. The aim of this work is the qualitative agronomic evaluation of SPS and SAS and the mixture of thereof in different proportions, such as lignocellulosic sources in new growing cycles of P. ostreatus. Method. In addition to the commercial substrate used as a control reference, six different treatments are considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different amounts. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in cameras. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C – 65 °C, 8 h and a progressive temperature decrease for at least 15 h to a "seeding" temperature (25 °C. Results. SPS (3,600 g + SAS (2,400 g and SPS (3,000 g + SAS (3,000 g were prepared substrates that achieved acceptable crude protein content in their fruiting bodies. Additionally, we obtained higher ash content, lightness, yellow-blue (y-b and red-green (r-g chromaticity, breaking strength (Bs, and compression energy (CE in these mushrooms. These values were higher than the mean values, and even higher than the commercial substrate. Conclusions. Increased SAS participation in the mixture of the processed substrate (and the consequent reduction of SPS participation resulted in mushrooms that require higher Bs, and CE. These formulation-based composts degraded by the growth of P. ostreatus, could be a low-cost substrate with selective and balanced nutrients for growth and development of oyster mushrooms.

  6. Fort Calhoun Station disposal of spent fuel pool racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, T.W. [Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, NE (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The original plan was to have the racks pulled out of the pool, washed down and wrapped and placed in Sea/Lands to be sent to a vendor for free release and disposal. In the winter of 93 the proposed quotations on the Spent Fuel Rerack Processing were all rejected. With the rerack job starting in March of 94 and the closing of Barnwell in July we were faced with what to do with the racks. Processing of the existing racks were required since if the racks were sent to Barnwell for burial intact the cost would be prohibitive, that is, if Barnwell would have stayed open. If the racks were sent to a smelter, such as Scientific Ecology Group (SEG), there are restrictions on the length of the components that can go through the smelter. If SEG were to do the rack processing (sectioning) at their facility, the cost would also be prohibitive and they would not be in a position to receive the racks until June, 1995. Therefore, bid specifications were requested for on-site volume reduction processing of the existing spent fuel storage racks, with further ultimate disposal to be performed by SEG. The processing of the racks included piping and supports. Volume reduction (VR) was an issue in the evaluation since after this process the racks were to be shipped to SEG. If a low VR ratio option was chosen, OPPD would need a significant number of shipping containers and required more radwaste shipments versus if a high VR ratio option were chosen.

  7. Radiochemical analyses of several spent fuel Approved Testing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Wildung, N.J.

    1994-09-01

    Radiochemical characterization data are described for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} plus 3 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} commercial spent nuclear fuel taken from a series of Approved Testing Materials (ATMs). These full-length nuclear fuel rods include MLA091 of ATM-103, MKP070 of ATM-104, NBD095 and NBD131 of ATM-106, and ADN0206 of ATM-108. ATMs 103, 104, and 106 were all irradiated in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Reactor No.1), a pressurized-water reactor that used fuel fabricated by Combustion Engineering. ATM-108 was part of the same fuel bundle designed as ATM-105 and came from boiling-water reactor fuel fabricated by General Electric and irradiated in the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant. Rod average burnups and expected fission gas releases ranged from 2,400 to 3,700 GJ/kgM. (25 to 40 Mwd/kgM) and from less than 1% to greater than 10%, respectively, depending on the specific ATM. The radiochemical analyses included uranium and plutonium isotopes in the fuel, selected fission products in the fuel, fuel burnup, cesium and iodine on the inner surfaces of the cladding, {sup 14}C in the fuel and cladding, and analyses of the gases released to the rod plenum. Supporting examinations such as fuel rod design and material descriptions, power histories, and gamma scans used for sectioning diagrams are also included. These ATMs were examined as part of the Materials Characterization Center Program conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  8. Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.

  9. NEPA implementation: The Department of Energy`s program to manage spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) in its management of spent nuclear fuel. The DOE strategy is to address the short-term safety concerns about existing spent nuclear fuel, to study alternatives for interim storage, and to develop a long-range program to manage spent nuclear fuel. This paper discusses the NEPA process, the environmental impact statements for specific sites as well as the overall program, the inventory of DOE spent nuclear fuel, the alternatives for managing the fuel, and the schedule for implementing the program.

  10. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia; Transport de combustible use en provenance d'Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  11. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  12. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  13. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo [Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4630052 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  14. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  15. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  16. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warren K.; McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  17. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. TODGA Process Development: an Improved Solvent Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, Giuseppe [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) is studied in the European ACSEPT project as a promising extractant for actinide separations. A mixture of TODGA and TBP in TPH (a kerosene) [1] was successfully used for spiked and hot continuous counter-current tests for the separation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) from PUREX raffinate [2, 3]. Furthermore this solvent composition is used for GANEX (group actinide extraction) process development, i.e., co-extraction of Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Ln from PUREX raffinate with selective stripping of the actinides [4, 5]. We address two of this solvent's drawbacks by replacing TBP (which acts as phase modifier to prevent third phase formation) with 1-octanol: (1) The presence of a non-CHON compound (TBP); (2) The pronounced co-extraction of nitric acid (e.g., 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH extracts approx. 0.6 M HNO{sub 3} from 4 M HNO{sub 3}). Results: When contacting 0.2 M TODGA in TPH with 0.1 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 5 M HNO{sub 3}, as little as 3 % vol. 1-octanol suppresses the formation of a third phase. Thus, the following solvent composition is used for further studies: 0.2 M TODGA + 5 % vol. 1-octanol in TPH. Due to the absence of TBP, the amount of HNO{sub 3} extraction is reduced to approx. 50 % as compared to the solvent consisting of 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH. Am(III) and Eu(III) distribution ratios are similar to those with the TODGA + TBP solvent [1]. Loading the solvent by extracting from solutions of up to 0.2 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 3 M or 4 M HNO{sub 3} confirms a 1:3 stoichiometry of the extracted complex. Further investigations are under way. Conclusion: The improved solvent formulation reduces the HNO{sub 3} co-extraction which may be advantageous especially for GANEX process development. Furthermore, the solvent complies with the CHON principle. 1) G. Modolo, H. Asp, C. Schreinemachers, H. Vijgen, Development of a TODGA based process for partitioning of

  19. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

    1998-05-01

    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it.

  20. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  1. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  2. Solvent tuned single molecule dual emission in protic solvents: effect of polarity and H-bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreux, S; Allain, C; Wilbraham, L; Nakatani, K; Jacques, P; Ciofini, I; Lemercier, G

    2015-01-01

    Phen-PENMe2 has recently been proposed as a promising new molecule displaying solvent-tuned dual emission, highlighting an original and newly-described charge transfer model. The study of the photophysical behaviour of this molecule was extended to include protic solvents. The effects of polarity and hydrogen bonding lead to an even more evident dual emission associated with a large multi-emission band in some solvents like methanol, highlighting Phen-PENMe2 as a promising candidate for white light emission.

  3. Bioremediation of {sup 60}Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashmi, K.; Naga Sowjanya, T.; Maruthi Mohan, P.; Balaji, V.; Venkateswaran, G

    2004-07-26

    Bioremediation of {sup 60}Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions by utilizing different biomass of (Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma viridae, Mucor recemosus, Rhizopus chinensis, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger and, Aspergillus flavus) fungi is reported. Various fungal species were screened to evaluate their potential for removing cobalt from very low concentrations (0.03-0.16 {mu}M) in presence of a high background of iron (9.33 mM) and nickel (0.93 mM) complexed with EDTA (10.3 mM). The different fungal isolates employed in this study showed a pickup of cobalt in the range 8-500 ng/g of dry biomass. The [Fe]/[Co] and [Ni]/[Co] ratios in the solutions before and after exposure to the fungi were also determined. At micromolar level the cobalt pickup by many fungi especially the mutants of N. crassa is seen to be proportional to the initial cobalt concentration taken in the solution. However, R. chinensis exhibits a low but iron concentration dependent cobalt pickup. Prior saturating the fungi with excess of iron during their growth showed the presence of selective cobalt pickup sites. The existence of cobalt specific sorption sites is shown by a model experiment with R. chinensis wherein at a constant cobalt concentration (0.034 {mu}M) and varying iron concentrations so as to yield [Fe/Co]{sub initial} ratios in solution of 10, 100, 1000 and 287 000 have all yielded a definite Co pickup capacity in the range 8-47 ng/g. The presence of Cr(III)EDTA (3 mM) in solution along with complexed Fe and Ni has not influenced the cobalt removal. The significant feature of this study is that even when cobalt is present in trace level (sub-micromolar) in a matrix of high concentration (millimolar levels) of iron, nickel and chromium, a situation typically encountered in spent decontamination solutions arising from stainless steel based primary systems of nuclear reactors, a number of fungi studied in this work showed a good sensitivity for cobalt pickup.

  4. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: vluca@cnea.gov.ar [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bianchi, Hugo L. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Ed. Tornavias, Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzini, Alberto C. [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH{sub 4}) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 Degree-Sign C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200-600 Degree-Sign C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 Degree-Sign C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 Degree-Sign C reached a plateau or

  5. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.;

    2013-01-01

    . Esterification of acrylic acid with octanol is also addressed. Solvents are screened and candidates identified, confirming existing experimental results. Although the examples involve lipases, the method is quite general, so there seems to be no preclusion against application to other biocatalysts....

  6. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.; Lazarov, L.; Amui, J.

    1992-04-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stage of direct coal liquefaction.

  7. Spherical polymer brushes under good solvent conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Verso, Federica; Egorov, Sergei A.; Milchev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    A coarse grained model for flexible polymers end-grafted to repulsive spherical nanoparticles is studied for various chain lengths and grafting densities under good solvent conditions by molecular dynamics methods and density functional theory. With increasing chain length, the monomer density...

  8. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was invented in 2006 as a miniaturized sample preparation technique for the separation of ionized species from aqueous samples. This concept has been investigated in different areas of analytical chemistry by different research groups worldwide since the introduct......Electromembrane extraction (EME) was invented in 2006 as a miniaturized sample preparation technique for the separation of ionized species from aqueous samples. This concept has been investigated in different areas of analytical chemistry by different research groups worldwide since...... the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...

  9. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all pr

  10. THE TRAVELLING SOLVENT METHOD OF CRYSTAL GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    dicumene Electron beam melting of Cr on SiC Wetting studies of Cr on SiC in different ambients Etching studies in molten salts Zone movement studies Ga-GaAs System P-N junction formation by solvent doping

  11. Organic solvent nanofiltration: prospects and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, A V; Korneeva, G A; Tereshchenko, Gennadii F [A. V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-30

    The key lines of research in a new field of the membrane science and technology, viz., organic solvent nanofiltration, are considered. The prospects for its use in chemical, petrochemical and food industries are discussed. Attention is focused on membranes developed for this method.

  12. ESES: Software for Eulerian solvent excluded surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Wang, Bao; Zhao, Rundong; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-03-15

    Solvent excluded surface (SES) is one of the most popular surface definitions in biophysics and molecular biology. In addition to its usage in biomolecular visualization, it has been widely used in implicit solvent models, in which SES is usually immersed in a Cartesian mesh. Therefore, it is important to construct SESs in the Eulerian representation for biophysical modeling and computation. This work describes a software package called Eulerian solvent excluded surface (ESES) for the generation of accurate SESs in Cartesian grids. ESES offers the description of the solvent and solute domains by specifying all the intersection points between the SES and the Cartesian grid lines. Additionally, the interface normal at each intersection point is evaluated. Furthermore, for a given biomolecule, the ESES software not only provides the whole surface area, but also partitions the surface area according to atomic types. Homology theory is utilized to detect topological features, such as loops and cavities, on the complex formed by the SES. The sizes of loops and cavities are measured based on persistent homology with an evolutionary partial differential equation-based filtration. ESES is extensively validated by surface visualization, electrostatic solvation free energy computation, surface area and volume calculations, and loop and cavity detection and their size estimation. We used the Amber PBSA test set in our electrostatic solvation energy, area, and volume validations. Our results are either calibrated by analytical values or compared with those from the MSMS software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleros, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of twenty different chalcones in the absence of solvent is presented. The results indicated that out of the twenty different chalcones investigated seventeen can be obtained in a matter of minutes by mixing the corresponding benzaldehyde and acetophenone in the presence of solid NaOH in a mortar with pestle.

  15. Effect of spent craft brewers’ yeast on fermentation and methane production by rumen microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key component of beer brewing and a major by-product. The leftover, spent brewers’ yeast, from large breweries has been used for some time as a protein supplement in cattle, however the possible advantages of spent yeast from smaller craft breweries, containing much hig...

  16. Electrochemical generation of Fenton's reagent to treat spent caustic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. K.; Nunez, P.; Rodriguez, N.; Guzman, J.

    2009-07-01

    An important wastewater stream from oil refineries is the spent caustic. Caustic solutions are used as scrubbing agent during the desulphurization process to eliminate sulphur an mercaptans from oil and gasses. Spent caustic is classified as DOO3 (reactive sulphide) hazardous waste under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). (Author)

  17. 77 FR 9515 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission) is amending its spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100... and safety will be adequately protected. This direct final rule revises the HI-STORM 100 listing in...

  18. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  19. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  20. Cadmium and lead bioavailability and their effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation by spent mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, C; Jiménez-Ayuso, N; Frutos, I; Gárate, A; Eymar, E

    2013-12-01

    Bioremediation of mixed metal-organic soil pollution constitutes a difficult task in different ecosystems all around the world. The aims of this work are to determine the capacity of two spent mushroom substrates (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus) to immobilize Cd and Pb, to assess the effect of these metals on laccase activity, and to determine the potential of spent A. bisporus substrate to biodegrade four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene, when those toxic heavy metals Cd and Pb are present. According to adsorption isotherms, spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed a high Pb and Cd adsorption capacity. Pb and Cd interactions with crude laccase enzyme extracts from spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed Cd and Pb enzyme inhibition; however, laccase activity of A. bisporus presented lower inhibition. Spent A. bisporus substrate polluted with PAH and Cd or Pb was able to biodegrade PAH, although both metals decrease the biodegradation rate. Spent A. bisporus substrate contained a microbiological consortium able to oxidize PAH with high ionization potential. Cd and Pb were immobilized during the bioremediation process by spent A. bisporus substrate. Consequently, spent A. bisporus substrate was adequate as a multi-polluted soil bioremediator.

  1. Time Spent on Homework, Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from a US Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Sheridan, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of time spent on homework and mathematics anxiety on mathematics achievement. Data from a nationally representative US sample consisting of 4,978 cases was used to predict mathematics achievement from time spent on homework and mathematics anxiety while controlling for demographic differences such as gender,…

  2. A spray cooling technique for spent fuel assembly stored in pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dao-Gang; Cao, Q. [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Wang, Y.; Zhong, Hao-Liang; Duan, Xiao-Han

    2016-05-15

    For the safety of spent nuclear fuel assemblies stored in storage pool in the extreme condition where the water is lost completely, a passive spray cooling technique was designed, and its effectiveness has been validated by a functional experiment. The spray cooling characteristics of the spent fuel assembly have also been investigated by the experiment.

  3. 75 FR 36449 - Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington...-MPC, Certificate of Compliance (CoC) No. 1025, to store spent nuclear fuel under a general license in... Nuclear Power Station, located at Rowe, Massachusetts. YAEC stores spent fuel in fifteen NAC-MPC casks...

  4. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001..., and 10 CFR part 50, allows ENO to possess and store spent nuclear fuel at the permanently shutdown and... Director, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety...

  5. 48 CFR 852.271-72 - Time spent by counselee in counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... counseling process. 852.271-72 Section 852.271-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 852.271-72 Time spent by counselee in counseling process. As prescribed in 871.212, insert the following clause: Time Spent by Counselee in Counseling Process (APR 1984) The contractor agrees that...

  6. 40 CFR 268.39 - Waste specific prohibitions-spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate wastes. 268.39 Section 268.39 Protection of Environment... Land Disposal § 268.39 Waste specific prohibitions—spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate...

  7. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  8. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Commission 10 CFR Part 51 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI47 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent... environmental considerations; it was based on finding that 30 years beyond the licensed life for operation...

  9. 5 CFR 551.424 - Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions. 551.424 Section 551.424 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.424 Time spent adjusting grievances...

  10. Solvent density mode instability in non-polar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Kar; Ranjit Biswas; J Chakrabarti

    2008-08-01

    We analyse the origin of the multiple long time scales associated with the long time decay observed in non-polar solvation dynamics by linear stability analysis of solvent density modes where the effects of compressibility and solvent structure are systematically incorporated. The coupling of the solute–solvent interactions at both ground and excited states of the solute with the compressibility and solvent structure is found to have important effects on the time scales. The present theory suggests that the relatively longer time constant is controlled by the solvent compressibility, while the solvent structure at the nearest-neighbour length scale dominates the shorter time constant.

  11. Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides in the Alteration Products of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Burns; Robert J. Finch; David J. Wronkiewicz

    2004-12-27

    Safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geological repository involves unique scientific and engineering challenges owing to the very long-lived radioactivity of the waste. The repository must retain a variety of radionuclides that have vastly different chemical characters for several thousand years. Most of the radioactivity that will be housed in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will be associated with spent nuclear fuel, much of which is derived from commercial reactors. DOE is custodian of approximately 8000 tons of spent nuclear fuel that is also intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. Unlike the spent fuel from commercial reactors, the DOE fuel is diverse in composition with more than 250 varieties. Safe disposal of spent fuel requires a detailed knowledge of its long-term behavior under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the spent fuel as waste containers are breached.

  12. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides in the Alteration Products of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Burns; Robert J. Finch; David J. Wronkiewicz

    2004-12-27

    Safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geological repository involves unique scientific and engineering challenges owing to the very long-lived radioactivity of the waste. The repository must retain a variety of radionuclides that have vastly different chemical characters for several thousand years. Most of the radioactivity that will be housed in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will be associated with spent nuclear fuel, much of which is derived from commercial reactors. DOE is custodian of approximately 8000 tons of spent nuclear fuel that is also intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. Unlike the spent fuel from commercial reactors, the DOE fuel is diverse in composition with more than 250 varieties. Safe disposal of spent fuel requires a detailed knowledge of its long-term behavior under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the spent fuel as waste containers are breached.

  14. Recent developments and perspective of the spent waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuquan; Liu, Junsheng

    2015-05-01

    The amount of spent electronic and electrical solid wastes (i.e. e-wastes) has increased to a new level with the rapid development of electronic and electrical industries. Management of e-wastes challenges the administrators and researchers. As a major component of the e-waste stream, pollution caused by the spent printed circuit boards has captured increasing attention. Various innovative methods have recently been developed to dispose and reuse these municipal spent printed circuit boards. In this mini-review article, the disposal approaches for spent printed circuit boards are highlighted. The present state and future perspective are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can promote the extensive understanding and effective disposal of the spent printed circuit boards in the field of solid waste treatment and resources.

  15. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer A; Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students' ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses.

  16. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  17. Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by acidophilic thermophile Acidianus brierleyi: Leaching mechanism and effect of decoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Abhilasha; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2013-02-01

    Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by thermophillic archae Acidianus brierleyi was investigated. The spent catalyst (containing Al, Fe, Ni and Mo as major elements) was characterized, and the effect of pretreatment (decoking) on two-step and spent medium leaching was examined at 1% w/v pulp density. Decoking resulted in removal of carbonaceous deposits and volatile impurities, and affected the solubility of metal compounds through oxidization of the metal sulfides. Nearly 100% extraction was achieved using spent medium leaching for Fe, Ni and Mo, and 67% for Al. Bioleaching reduced nickel concentration in the leachate below the regulated levels for safe waste disposal. Chemical (i.e. abiotic) leaching using equimolar concentration of sulfuric acid produced by the bacteria during two-step process achieved a lower leaching efficiency (by up to 30%). Results indicated that A. brierleyi successfully leached heavy metals from spent catalyst.

  18. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system for spent target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Sasaki, Shinobu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual design of a handling and storage system for spent target vessels has been carried out, in order to establish spent target technology for the neutron scattering facility. The spent target vessels must be treated remotely with high reliability and safety, since they are highly activated and contain the poisonous mercury. The system is composed of a target exchange trolley to exchange the target vessel, remote handling equipment such as manipulators, airtight casks for the spent target vessel, storage pits and so on. This report presents the results of conceptual design study on a basic plan, a handling procedure, main devices and their arrangement of a handling and storage system for the spent target vessels. (author)

  19. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  20. 5.0. Depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SCALE’s general depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms analysis capabilities are enabled through a family of modules related to the main ORIGEN depletion/irradiation/decay solver. The nuclide tracking in ORIGEN is based on the principle of explicitly modeling all available nuclides and transitions in the current fundamental nuclear data for decay and neutron-induced transmutation and relies on fundamental cross section and decay data in ENDF/B VII. Cross section data for materials and reaction processes not available in ENDF/B-VII are obtained from the JEFF-3.0/A special purpose European activation library containing 774 materials and 23 reaction channels with 12,617 neutron-induced reactions below 20 MeV. Resonance cross section corrections in the resolved and unresolved range are performed using a continuous-energy treatment by data modules in SCALE. All nuclear decay data, fission product yields, and gamma-ray emission data are developed from ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations. Decay data include all ground and metastable state nuclides with half-lives greater than 1 millisecond. Using these data sources, ORIGEN currently tracks 174 actinides, 1149 fission products, and 974 activation products. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the stand-alone capabilities and underlying methodology of ORIGEN—as opposed to the integrated depletion capability it provides in all coupled neutron transport/depletion sequences in SCALE, as described in other chapters.

  1. Disposal of spent tributylphosphate by gliding arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, David; Brisset, Jean Louis

    2003-08-29

    The gliding arc in humid air is a relevant source of free radicals and strongly oxidising species such as HO* (shown by emission spectroscopy), which are able to degrade organic wastes. This feature was used in a new process for mineralising spent tributylphosphate (TBP) which is an important waste from nuclear industry. The degradation kinetics is examined by monitoring the conversion of TBP into phosphoric acid in a batch reactor. The kinetics exhibits three steps and especially an overall zero-order linear step with a rate of 10 mmol h(-1) at the beginning of the treatment. This zero-order step agrees with a surface oxidation process. After a 13.7h treatment, about 45% of the TBP is converted into inorganic phosphorus compounds, with phosphoric acid as the major product (63% of inorganic phosphorus compounds), and at least 19.5% is not degraded. Dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was identified as the main by-product by a nuclear magnetic resonance technique, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography.

  2. Estrogens and congeners from spent hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Lucas R; Nikolic, Dejan; Burdette, Joanna E; Overk, Cassia R; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Fröhlich, Roland; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2004-12-01

    Estrogenicity-directed fractionation of a methanol extract of the strobiles of Humulus lupulus that had been extracted previously with supercritical CO(2), known as "spent hops", led to the isolation and identification of 22 compounds including 12 prenylated chalcones (1-8, 10-13), five prenylflavanones (14-17), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), sitosterol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (19), humulinone (20), and cohumulinone (21). In addition, the prenylated chalcone xanthohumol C (9a) was obtained as a 6:1 mixture along with its 1' ',2' '-dihydro derivative (9b). Three new chalcones (4, 11, 12) and four previously unreported constituents of hops (5, 6, 9b, 13) are reported. The structures of the new compounds were determined through a combination of spectrometric techniques including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ESIMS-MS. Full 1H NMR spin system analyses were performed to characterize the higher-order glucopyranosyl, prenyl, and chalcone B-ring spectra of the isolates. The principle estrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (15) from hops is an artifact formed along with its positional isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (16) through the spontaneous isomerization of the pro-estrogenic chalcone DMX (7).

  3. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  4. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions.

  5. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, for fermentation by the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 selected as the best producer among five ethanologenic microorganims. When the hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract, 12.79 g/L of ethanol, corresponding to 0.28 g of ethanol per grams of glucose consumed (55% efficiency, was obtained within 24 h, while in the non-supplemented hydrolysate, a similar concentration was reached within 48 h. The volumetric productivity increased from 0.25 g/L·h in the un-supplemented hydrolysate to 0.53 g/L h in the yeast extract supplemented hydrolysate. In conclusion, the strain S. cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 was shown able to produce ethanol from BSG. Although an equal amount of ethanol was reached in both BSG hydrolysate media, the nitrogen source supplementation reduced the ethanol fermentation time and promoted glucose uptake and cell growth.

  6. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  7. Climax spent fuel dosimetry. Short term exposure, 8 March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quam, W.; DeVore, T.

    1984-06-01

    The second short-term exposure (performed 8 March 1983) in Hole CFH3 at the Climax Spent Fuel Test site is described. These short-term (1 hour long) exposures are intended to provide an independent measurement of the exposure rate at the wall and the 0.51-m and 0.66-m locations. Only CaF{sub 2} TLD`s were used in the second short-term exposure. Harshaw chips were cut to 0.32 x 0.18 x 0.09 cm size and aged by several exposure/readout/bakeout cycles until all odd chips were weeded out and the remaining chips exhibited stable sensitivities. Exposure at Climax was done by removing the existing long-term dosimetry strings and inserting identical strings using the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s in the stainless steel holders. The first short-term exposure produced absorbed doses as high as {similar_to}000 rads-LiF. The linearity corrections determined for the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s at these exposure levels were {similar_to}2%. The present post-exposure calibration method used calibration doses very close to those encountered in the field.

  8. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  9. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 1, University Blvd., Yenchao, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  11. Valuation of brewers spent yeast polysaccharides: a structural characterization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mariana; Coelho, Elisabete; Nunes, Alexandra; Brandão, Tiago; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-02-13

    Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and α-amylase treatments showed the presence of both α- and β-(1→4)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water.

  12. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  13. Multi-Detector Analysis System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward Lawrence; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Cole, Jerald Donald; Drigert, Mark William; Jewell, James Keith; Egger, Ann Elizabeth; Cordes, Gail Adele

    1999-09-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) program at INEEL is developing a system to characterize SNF for fissile mass, radiation source term, and fissile isotopic content. The system is based on the integration of the Fission Assay Tomography System (FATS) and the Gamma-Neutron Analysis Technique (GNAT) developed under programs supported by the DOE Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. Both FATS and GNAT were developed as separate systems to provide information on the location of special nuclear material in weapons configuration (FATS role), and to measure isotopic ratios of fissile material to determine if the material was from a weapon (GNAT role). FATS is capable of not only determining the presence and location of fissile material but also the quantity of fissile material present to within 50%. GNAT determines the ratios of the fissile and fissionable material by coincidence methods that allow the two prompt (immediately) produced fission fragments to be identified. Therefore, from the combination of FATS and GNAT, MDAS is able to measure the fissile material, radiation source term, and fissile isotopics content.

  14. Physical and decay characteristics of commercial LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Claiborne, H.C.; Ashline, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Rhyne, B.T.

    1985-10-01

    Information was collected from the literature and from major manufacturers that will be useful in the design and construction of a mined geologic repository for the disposal of light-water-reactor spent fuel. Pertinent data are included on mechanical design characteristics and materials of construction for fuel assemblies and fuel rods and computed values for heat generation rates, radioactivity, and photon and neutron emission rates as a function of time for four reference cases. Calculations were made with the ORIGEN2 computer code for burnups of 27,500 and 40,000 MWd for a typical boiling-water reactor and 33,000 and 60,000 MWd for a typical pressurized-water reactor. The results are presented in figures depicting the individual contributions per metric ton of initial heavy metal for the activation products, fission products, and actinides and their daughters to the radioactivity and thermal power as a function of time. Tables are also presented that list the contribution of each major nuclide to the radioactivity, thermal power, and photons and neutrons emitted for disposal periods from 1 to 100,000 years.

  15. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach.

  16. An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel" standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W L; McKibben, J M

    1998-06-16

    Safe Pu management is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. Presidential Policy Directive 13 and analyses by scientific, technical, and international policy organizations brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and implement long-term disposition paths for surplus Pu. The principal goal is to render surplus Pu as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as Pu in spent reactor fuel. In the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons- Usable Fissile Materials (1997), DOE announced pursuit of two disposition technologies: (1) irradiation of Pu as MOX fuel in existing reactors and (2) immobilization of Pu into solid forms containing fission products as a radiation barrier. DOE chose an immobilization approach that includes "use of the can-in-canister option.. . for a portion of the surplus, non-pit Pu material." In the can-in-canister approach, cans of glass or ceramic forms containing Pu are encapsulated within canisters of HLW glass. In support of the selection process, a technical evaluation of retrievability and recoverability of Pu from glass and ceramic forms by a host nation and by rogue nations or subnational groups was completed. The evaluation involved determining processes and flowsheets for Pu recovery, comparing these processes against criteria and metrics established by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program and then comparing the recovery processes against each other and against SNF processes.

  17. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  18. Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Abdelhamid; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) is a waste generated by the edible oil industry that currently has limited options for beneficial reuse. In excess of ∼2 million tonnes per year of SBE is generated world-wide with major quantities available in the middle-east where significant volumes of edible oils are produced. Low pressure compaction followed by heat treatment at 150°C causes polymerisation of the residual organic components in SBE and this produces monolithic samples with high unconfined compressive strengths (54MPa). SBE can therefore be used to manufacture novel clay blocks for use in construction that are bonded by polymerised vegetable oil. This represents a new, innovative and resource efficient application for SBE. In this research, commercial SBE has been characterised and the effects of key processing variables (temperature and compaction pressure) on the compressive strength, porosity and density of the SBE clay blocks are reported and the mechanisms responsible for strength development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.