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Sample records for eyes control group

  1. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixing; Zong, Yuan; Wei, Tao; Sheng, Xun; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Zhong, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in China, but there are few studies examining hypertension in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. This study, Yunnan Minority Eye Study (YMES), was initially designed to determine the prevalence and impact of eye diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As a part of YMES, the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and the associated risk factors among the Yi ethnic population in rural China are reported. A population-based survey was conducted in 2012 with adult participants over 50 from rural communities in Shilin Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, located in southwest China. A random cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample. The participants' blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 2208 adults were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 37.0%. The proportion of patients who were aware of their hypertension among those diagnosed with hypertension was 24.8%. Of those aware of having hypertension, 23.6% took antihypertensive drugs. Among all hypertensive patients, only 7.2% had controlled their hypertension (ethnic group in China. The ratio of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were considerately low. Hypertension education and screening programs in rural China are recommended to improve the health status of this population.

  2. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology

  3. Control and Functions of Fixational Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Michele; Poletti, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other species explore a visual scene by rapidly shifting their gaze 2-3 times every second. Although the eyes may appear immobile in the brief intervals in between saccades, microscopic (fixational) eye movements are always present, even when attending to a single point. These movements occur during the very periods in which visual information is acquired and processed and their functions have long been debated. Recent technical advances in controlling retinal stimulation during normal oculomotor activity have shed new light on the visual contributions of fixational eye movements and their degree of control. The emerging body of evidence, reviewed in this article, indicates that fixational eye movements are important components of the strategy by which the visual system processes fine spatial details, enabling both precise positioning of the stimulus on the retina and encoding of spatial information into the joint space-time domain.

  4. Multipulse control of saccadic eye movements

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    Lehman, S. L.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    We present three conclusions regarding the neural control of saccadic eye movements, resulting from comparisons between recorded movements and computer simulations. The controller signal to the muscles is probably a multipulse-step. This kind of signal drives the fastest model trajectories. Finally, multipulse signals explain differences between model and electrophysiological results.

  5. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Bai ethnic group in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899 took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899 of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control.

  6. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  7. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  8. Evaluation of the Tobii EyeX Eye tracking controller and Matlab toolkit for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Vanegas, Mauricio; Bex, Peter J; Maiello, Guido

    2016-07-11

    The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking applications. We review the characteristics of the device for its possible use in scientific research. We develop and evaluate an open source Matlab Toolkit that can be employed to interface with the EyeX device for gaze recording in behavioral experiments. The Toolkit provides calibration procedures tailored to both binocular and monocular experiments, as well as procedures to evaluate other eye tracking devices. The observed performance of the EyeX (i.e. accuracy < 0.6°, precision < 0.25°, latency < 50 ms and sampling frequency ≈55 Hz), is sufficient for some classes of research application. The device can be successfully employed to measure fixation parameters, saccadic, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. However, the relatively low sampling rate and moderate precision limit the suitability of the EyeX for monitoring micro-saccadic eye movements or for real-time gaze-contingent stimulus control. For these applications, research grade, high-cost eye tracking technology may still be necessary. Therefore, despite its limitations with respect to high-end devices, the EyeX has the potential to further the dissemination of eye tracking technology to a broad audience, and could be a valuable asset in consumer and gaming applications as well as a subset of basic and clinical research settings.

  9. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  10. Some parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Namazova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury.Methods: Standard ophthalmologic and immunologic study of 12 patients aged 63±11 with eye injury complicated by inflamma- tion. Immunological study of peripheral blood, tear and conjunctival scraping from the injured eye and the binate eye was carried out on 1-3 days after the injury. the parameters of innate local immunity was determined in the result of immune-cytological study of the conjunctival scraping by assessing phagocytosis of neutrophils and index of neutrophils/lymphocytes (INL, immunofluorescent counting of NK-cells CD56+ (panel of monoclonal antibodies of company «Sorbent» Ltd., Russia. the concentration of transferrin (a set of «Human» Company, Germany in the blood and lacrimal fluid was assayed by the biochemical analyzer (Bioscreen MS-500. the results obtained were processed by the method of variational statistics.Results: As a result of the conducted studies there has been detected a decrease in the amount of transferrin both in blood and lacrimal fluid by almost 2 times (p <0,001. there was recorded the rise in the INL index at the systemic (3,8±0,1 and local (4.9±0.4 level, reflecting a compensatory, more pronounced activity of nonspecific protection factors of general and local immunity in the acute stage of inflammation. the level of phagocytosis in the blood of the examined patients was reduced relative to the control (p<0.001. In the scraping material of the injured eye the phagocytosis percentage was 16.4±0.9%. the results of a comparative study of the content of NK-cells (СD56+, revealed reduction in the average value of this parameter in the blood of the patients with eye injury relative to the control (p<0.001, and in the conjunctival scraping the level of СD56+-lymphocytes increased, amounting to 2-3 in the field of vision.Conclusion: In the senile group patients with an eye injury there is an activation of

  11. Comparison of novel lipid-based eye drops with aqueous eye drops for dry eye: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons PA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter A Simmons, Cindy Carlisle-Wilcox, Joseph G Vehige Ophthalmology Research and Development, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops.Methods: A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer’s test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments.Results: A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001 and TBUT (P≤0.005. LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events.Conclusion: In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears

  12. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    study was to identify human GIB (hGIB) in the normal human eye and investigate the pattern of expression in patients with eye diseases involving hGIB-rich cells. METHODS: Human GIB mRNA was identified in the human retina by means of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against...... hGIB were obtained and immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and pathological eyes. Donor eyes from patients with descemetization of the cornea, Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, age-related macular degeneration, malignant choroidal melanoma......, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  13. The genetic control of eye development and its implications for the evolution of the various eye-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the Pax 6 homologs of mammals and insects prevent eye development and targeted expression of both mammal and insect Pax 6 homologs is capable of inducing functional ectopic eyes. Supported by RNA interference experiments in planarians and nemerteans, these findings indicate that Pax 6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Since all metazoan eyes use rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule and the same master control gene for eye development, we postulate a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. The finding of well developed eyes in jellyfish which essentially lack a brain, leads us to propose that the eye as a sensory organ evolved before the brain which is an information processing organ. The finding of highly developed eyes with a lens, vitreous body, stacked membranes like a retina and shielding pigment in unicellular dinoflagellates, raises the possibility that the prototypic eyes might have been acquired from symbionts.

  14. [Bionic model for coordinated head-eye motion control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaobo; Chen, Tiejun

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.

  15. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

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    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  16. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

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    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  17. Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish.

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    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Stock, David W; Jeffery, William R

    2004-10-14

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are responsible for critical signalling events during development but their evolutionary roles remain to be determined. Here we show that hh gene expression at the embryonic midline controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. We use the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, a single species with an eyed surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and many blind cave forms (cavefish), to study the evolution of eye degeneration. Small eye primordia are formed during cavefish embryogenesis, which later arrest in development, degenerate and sink into the orbits. Eye degeneration is caused by apoptosis of the embryonic lens, and transplanting a surface fish embryonic lens into a cavefish optic cup can restore a complete eye. Here we show that sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh) gene expression is expanded along the anterior embryonic midline in several different cavefish populations. The expansion of hh signalling results in hyperactivation of downstream genes, lens apoptosis and arrested eye growth and development. These features can be mimicked in surface fish by twhh and/or shh overexpression, supporting the role of hh signalling in the evolution of cavefish eye regression.

  18. Do common systems control eye movements and motion extrapolation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    People are able to judge the current position of occluded moving objects. This operation is known as motion extrapolation. It has previously been suggested that motion extrapolation is independent of the oculomotor system. Here we revisited this question by measuring eye position while participants completed two types of motion extrapolation task. In one task, a moving visual target travelled rightwards, disappeared, then reappeared further along its trajectory. Participants discriminated correct reappearance times from incorrect (too early or too late) with a two-alternative forced-choice button press. In the second task, the target travelled rightwards behind a visible, rectangular occluder, and participants pressed a button at the time when they judged it should reappear. In both tasks, performance was significantly different under fixation as compared to free eye movement conditions. When eye movements were permitted, eye movements during occlusion were related to participants' judgements. Finally, even when participants were required to fixate, small changes in eye position around fixation (<2°) were influenced by occluded target motion. These results all indicate that overlapping systems control eye movements and judgements on motion extrapolation tasks. This has implications for understanding the mechanism underlying motion extrapolation.

  19. Using Eye Blinking for EOG-Based Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguleana, Mihai; Mogan, Gheorghe

    This paper proposes a new approach to real-time robot controlling by integrating an Electrooculography (EOG) measuring device within human-robot interaction (HRI). Our study focuses on controlling robots using EOG for fulfilling elementary robot activities such as basic motor movements and environment interaction. A new EOG-based HRI paradigm has been developed on the specific defined problem of eye blinking. The resulted model is tested using biometric capturing equipment. We propose a simple algorithm for real-time identification and processing of signals produced by eyes during blinking phases. We present the experimental setup and the results of the experiment. We conclude by listing further research issues.

  20. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  1. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  2. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  3. Eye injury risk associated with remote control toy helicopter blades.

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    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Eye injuries can be caused by a variety of consumer products and toys. Recently, indoor remote controlled (RC) toy helicopters have become very popular. The purpose of this study is to quantify eye injury risk associated with five commercially available RC toy helicopter blades. An experimental matrix of 25 tests was developed to test five different RC toy helicopter blades at full battery power on six postmortem human eyes. A pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve measured intraocular pressure. Corneal abrasion was assessed post-impact using fluorescein dye. Intraocular pressure was correlated to injury risk for hyphema, lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture using published risk functions. All tests resulted in corneal abrasions; however, no other injuries were observed. The 25 tests produced an increase intraocular pressure between 15.2 kPa and 99.3 kPa (114.3 mmHg and 744.7 mmHg). Calculated blade velocities ranged between 16.0 m/s and 25.4 m/s. Injury risk for hyphema was a maximum of 0.2%. Injury risk for lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture was 0.0% for all tests. Blade design parameters such as length and mass did not affect the risk of eye injury. This is the first study to quantify the risk of eye injury from RC toy helicopter blades. While corneal abrasions were observed, more serious eye injuries were neither observed nor predicted to have occurred. Results from this study are critical for establishing safe design thresholds for RC toy helicopter blades so that more serious injuries can be prevented.

  4. Eye-tracking controlled cognitive function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a controlled proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Horn, Hannah T; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. There is a need to establish an eye movement-based method of neuropsychological assessment suitable for severely physically impaired patients with ALS. Forty-eight ALS patients and thirty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex and education performed a hand and speech motor-free version of the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM) and the D2-test which had been especially adapted for eye-tracking control. Data were compared to a classical motor-dependent paper-pencil version. The association of parameters of the eye-tracking and the paper-pencil version of the tests and the differences between and within groups were studied. Subjects presented similar results in the eye-tracking and the corresponding paper-pencil versions of the CPM and D2-test: a correlation between performance accuracy for the CPM was observed for ALS patients (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001) and in the D2-test for controls (p = 0.048), whereas this correlation did not reach statistical significance for ALS patients (p = 0.096). ALS patients performed worse in the CPM than controls in the eye-tracking (p = 0.053) and the paper-pencil version (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eye-tracking versions of the CPM (p < 0.001) and the D2-test (p = 0.024) reliably distinguished between more and less cognitively impaired patients. Eye-tracking-based neuropsychological testing is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS.

  5. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  6. The Human Eye Position Control System in a Rehabilitation Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work at Ireland’s National Rehabilitation Hospital involves designing communication systems for people suffering from profound physical disabilities. One such system uses the electro-oculogram, which is an (x,y system of voltages picked up by pairs of electrodes placed, respectively, above and below and on either side of the eyes. The eyeball has a dc polarisation between cornea and back, arising from the photoreceptor rods and cones in the retina. As the eye rotates, the varying voltages projected onto the electrodes drive a cursor over a mimic keyboard on a computer screen. Symbols are selected with a switching action derived, for example, from a blink. Experience in using this mode of communication has given us limited facilities to study the eye position control system. We present here a resulting new feedback model for rotation in either the vertical or the horizontal plane, which involves the eyeball controlled by an agonist-antagonist muscle pair, modelled by a single equivalent bidirectional muscle with torque falling off linearly with angular velocity. We have incorporated muscle spindles and have tuned them by pole assignment associated with an optimum stability criterion.

  7. Human eye visual hyperacuity: Controlled diffraction for image resolution improvement

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    Lagunas, A.; Domínguez, O.; Martinez-Conde, S.; Macknik, S. L.; Del-Río, C.

    2017-09-01

    The Human Visual System appears to be using a low number of sensors for image capturing, and furthermore, regarding the physical dimensions of cones—photoreceptors responsible for the sharp central vision—we may realize that these sensors are of a relatively small size and area. Nonetheless, the human eye is capable of resolving fine details thanks to visual hyperacuity and presents an impressive sensitivity and dynamic range when set against conventional digital cameras of similar characteristics. This article is based on the hypothesis that the human eye may be benefiting from diffraction to improve both image resolution and acquisition process. The developed method involves the introduction of a controlled diffraction pattern at an initial stage that enables the use of a limited number of sensors for capturing the image and makes possible a subsequent post-processing to improve the final image resolution.

  8. Distinct cis-acting regions control six6 expression during eye field and optic cup stages of eye formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Kelley L; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I; Theisen, Matthew A; Rawlins, Karisa D; Viczian, Andrea S; Zuber, Michael E

    2017-06-15

    The eye field transcription factor, Six6, is essential for both the early (specification and proliferative growth) phase of eye formation, as well as for normal retinal progenitor cell differentiation. While genomic regions driving six6 optic cup expression have been described, the sequences controlling eye field and optic vesicle expression are unknown. Two evolutionary conserved regions 5' and a third 3' to the six6 coding region were identified, and together they faithfully replicate the endogenous X. laevis six6 expression pattern. Transgenic lines were generated and used to determine the onset and expression patterns controlled by the regulatory regions. The conserved 3' region was necessary and sufficient for eye field and optic vesicle expression. In contrast, the two conserved enhancer regions located 5' of the coding sequence were required together for normal optic cup and mature retinal expression. Gain-of-function experiments indicate endogenous six6 and GFP expression in F1 transgenic embryos are similarly regulated in response to candidate trans-acting factors. Importantly, CRISPR/CAS9-mediated deletion of the 3' eye field/optic vesicle enhancer in X. laevis, resulted in a reduction in optic vesicle size. These results identify the cis-acting regions, demonstrate the modular nature of the elements controlling early versus late retinal expression, and identify potential regulators of six6 expression during the early stages of eye formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  10. Comparison of the ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation between medically controlled and operated eyes with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Engelbrecht

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the fluctuation of the OPP between eyes treated with glaucoma medication and eyes with a functioning filtering bleb. Design: cross-sectional controlled paired-eye design. Methods: Fourteen patients with POAG with one eye operated on (trabeculectomy and the fellow eye treated with medication enrolled the study. Blood pressure and intraocular pressure were measured at 7 a.m., 1 p.m., and 7 p.m. Systolic, diastolic and mean OPP were calculated for the three time points and the fluctuation (range between the highest and the lowest values compared between the eyes. Results: Mean values of the mean OPP fluctuation were 7.2 ± 3.9 mmHg and 8.5 ± 4.0 mmHg, for operated eyes and medically treated eyes, respectively (P = 0.149; mean systolic OPP fluctuation was 20.7 ± 11.2 mmHg for operated eyes and 21.2 ± 11.7 mmHg for medically treated eyes (P = 0.478; the mean diastolic OPP fluctuation was 8.4 ± 4.4 mmHg for operated eyes and 10.5 ± 5.4 mmHg for medically treated eyes (P= 0.085. Conclusion: In this small cohort of patients with POAG the mean, systolic and diastolic OPP fluctuation did not differ between the operated eyes and medically treated ones. Financial disclosure: none.

  11. Eye movement prediction by oculomotor plant Kalman filter with brainstem control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleg V.KOMOGORTSEV; Javed I.KHAN

    2009-01-01

    Our work addresses one of the core issues related to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems that use eye gaze as an input.This issue is the sensor,transmission and other delays that exist in any eye tracker-based system,reducing its performance.A delay effect can be compensated by an accurate prediction of the eye movement trajectories.This paper introduces a mathematical model of the human eye that uses anatomical properties of the Human Visual System to predict eye movement trajectories.The eye mathematical model is transformed into a Kalman filter form to provide continuous eye position signal prediction during all eye movement types.The model presented in this paper uses brainstem control properties employed during transitions between fast (saccade) and slow (fixations,pursuit) eye movements.Results presented in this paper indicate that the proposed eye model in a Kalman filter form improves the accuracy of eye move-ment prediction and is capable of a real-time performance.In addition to the HCI systems with the direct eye gaze input,the proposed eye model can be immediately applied for a bit-rate/computational reduction in real-time gaze-contingent systems.

  12. Constraining eye movement when redirecting walking trajectories alters turning control in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Ambati, V N; Murray, Nicholas G; Saucedo, Fabricio; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Humans use a specific steering synergy, where the eyes and head lead rotation to the new direction, when executing a turn or change in direction. Increasing evidence suggests that eye movement is critical for turning control and that when the eyes are constrained, or participants have difficulties making eye movements, steering control is disrupted. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research regarding eye movements and steering control to a functional walking and turning task. This study investigated eye, head, trunk, and pelvis kinematics of healthy young adults during a 90° redirection of walking trajectory under two visual conditions: Free Gaze (the eyes were allowed to move naturally in the environment), and Fixed Gaze (participants were required to fixate the eyes on a target in front). Results revealed significant differences in eye, head, and trunk coordination between Free Gaze and Fixed Gaze conditions (p segments moved together with no significant differences between segment onset times. In addition, the sequence of segment rotation during Fixed Gaze suggested a bottom-up postural perturbation control strategy in place of top-down steering control seen in Free Gaze. The results of this study support the hypothesis that eye movement is critical for the release of the steering synergy for turning control.

  13. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  14. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  15. Parabolic flight reveals independent binocular control of otolith-induced eye torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, C. H.; Diamond, S. G.; Stoller, D. F.

    2000-01-01

    To examine otolith-governed ocular torsion in hyper- and hypogravity, eight subjects, including two astronauts, underwent parabolic flight while seated upright with head fixed. A mask fitted with two video cameras provided synchronized images of both eyes at a rate of 25/sec during 15 parabolas, the individual parabolas separated by a few minutes of level 1 G flight. Three main findings emerged: 1) After the first parabola, most subjects showed differential torsional offset of the two eyes in the 1 G portions between parabolas, compared to the conjugate baseline position of the eyes prior to the first parabola. 2) Changes in binocular torsion in the 0 G and 1.8 G portions of parabolic flight revealed in most subjects systematic reversal of direction. The reversal was consistent within, but not across subjects. 3) Disconjugacy defined as the moment-to-moment difference in the movements of the two eyes, and evaluated without the contribution of the differential offset, found two subjects with relatively high disconjugacy scores, and the remaining six with low scores. On the basis of prior studies (9, 20), we would predict the first two would be subject to SMS, the remainder not. The two astronauts, who did not have SMS on their space missions, fell into the low scoring group. We propose that the disconjugacies may be due to intrinsic asymmetries in the otolith receptors on the two sides of the head, which appear to be independently linked to the extraocular muscles of the two eyes, a phenomenon masked in normal 1 G states by adaptation. The apparently independent control of the two sides cannot be detected by the simpler and more common monocular studies.

  16. Parabolic flight reveals independent binocular control of otolith-induced eye torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, C. H.; Diamond, S. G.; Stoller, D. F.

    2000-01-01

    To examine otolith-governed ocular torsion in hyper- and hypogravity, eight subjects, including two astronauts, underwent parabolic flight while seated upright with head fixed. A mask fitted with two video cameras provided synchronized images of both eyes at a rate of 25/sec during 15 parabolas, the individual parabolas separated by a few minutes of level 1 G flight. Three main findings emerged: 1) After the first parabola, most subjects showed differential torsional offset of the two eyes in the 1 G portions between parabolas, compared to the conjugate baseline position of the eyes prior to the first parabola. 2) Changes in binocular torsion in the 0 G and 1.8 G portions of parabolic flight revealed in most subjects systematic reversal of direction. The reversal was consistent within, but not across subjects. 3) Disconjugacy defined as the moment-to-moment difference in the movements of the two eyes, and evaluated without the contribution of the differential offset, found two subjects with relatively high disconjugacy scores, and the remaining six with low scores. On the basis of prior studies (9, 20), we would predict the first two would be subject to SMS, the remainder not. The two astronauts, who did not have SMS on their space missions, fell into the low scoring group. We propose that the disconjugacies may be due to intrinsic asymmetries in the otolith receptors on the two sides of the head, which appear to be independently linked to the extraocular muscles of the two eyes, a phenomenon masked in normal 1 G states by adaptation. The apparently independent control of the two sides cannot be detected by the simpler and more common monocular studies.

  17. Enhanced 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' in borderline personality disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertuck, E A; Jekal, A; Song, I; Wyman, B; Morris, M C; Wilson, S T; Brodsky, B S; Stanley, B

    2009-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is partly characterized by chronic instability in interpersonal relationships, which exacerbates other symptom dimensions of the disorder and can interfere with treatment engagement. Facial emotion recognition paradigms have been used to investigate the bases of interpersonal impairments in BPD, yielding mixed results. We sought to clarify and extend past findings by using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a measure of the capacity to discriminate the mental state of others from expressions in the eye region of the face. Thirty individuals diagnosed with BPD were compared to 25 healthy controls (HCs) on RMET performance. Participants were also assessed for depression severity, emotional state at the time of assessment, history of childhood abuse, and other Axis I and personality disorders (PDs). The BPD group performed significantly better than the HC group on the RMET, particularly for the Total Score and Neutral emotional valences. Effect sizes were in the large range for the Total Score and for Neutral RMET performance. The results could not be accounted for by demographics, co-occurring Axis I or II conditions, medication status, abuse history, or emotional state. However, depression severity partially mediated the relationship between RMET and BPD status. Mental state discrimination based on the eye region of the face is enhanced in BPD. An enhanced sensitivity to the mental states of others may be a basis for the social impairments in BPD.

  18. Temporal control of glial cell migration in the Drosophila eye requires gilgamesh, hedgehog, and eye specification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Attix, Suzanne; Gunning, Dorian; Zipursky, S Lawrence

    2002-01-17

    In the Drosophila visual system, photoreceptor neurons (R cells) extend axons towards glial cells located at the posterior edge of the eye disc. In gilgamesh (gish) mutants, glial cells invade anterior regions of the eye disc prior to R cell differentiation and R cell axons extend anteriorly along these cells. gish encodes casein kinase Igamma. gish, sine oculis, eyeless, and hedgehog (hh) act in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration. Targeted expression of Hh in this region rescues the gish phenotype, though the glial cells do not require the canonical Hh signaling pathway to respond. We propose that the spatiotemporal control of glial cell migration plays a critical role in determining the directionality of R cell axon outgrowth.

  19. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  20. Optimal Control of the Compensatory Eye Movement System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Sibindi (Tafadzwa)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, we utilized behavioural, electrophysiological, computational and stimulation techniques to delve our knowledge further into the functional neural network of the compensatory eye movement system (CEM). We first investigated the superposition violations and non-lineari

  1. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  2. Neural Control of Voluntary Eye Closure: A Case Study and an fMRI Investigation of Blinking and Winking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn G. van Koningsbruggen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper describes a rare case of a patient who suffered from unilateral apraxia of eye closure as a result of a bilateral stroke. Interestingly, the patient’s ability to voluntarily close both eyelids (i.e. blinking was not affected, indicating that different neural mechanisms control each type of eye closure. The stroke caused damage to a large part of the right frontal cortex, including the motor cortex, pre-motor cortex and the frontal eye field (FEF. The lesion in the left hemisphere was restricted to the FEF. In order to further study the neural mechanisms of eye closure, we conducted an fMRI study in a group of neurological healthy subjects. We found that all areas of the oculomotor cortex were activated by both left and right winking, including the FEF, supplementary eye field (SEF, and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Blinking activated FEF and SEF, but not PPC. Both FEF and PPC were significantly more active during winking than blinking. Together, these results provide evidence for a critical role of the FEF in voluntary unilateral eye closure.

  3. Continuous Auditory Feedback of Eye Movements: An Exploratory Study toward Improving Oculomotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O. Boyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.

  4. A single gene (yes controls pigmentation of eyes and scales in Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brown

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A yellow-eyed mutant was discovered in a strain of Heliothis virescens, the tobacco budworm, that already exhibited a mutation for yellow scale, y. We investigated the inheritance of these visible mutations as candidate markers for transgenesis. Yellow eye was controlled by a single, recessive, autosomal factor, the same type of inheritance previously known for y. Presence of the recombinant mutants with yellow scales with wild type eyes in test crosses indicated independent segregation of genes for these traits. The recombinant class with wild type scales and yellow eyes was completely absent and there was a corresponding increase of the double mutant parental class having yellow scales and yellow eyes. These results indicated that a single factor for yellow eye also controls yellow scales independently of y. This gene was named yes, for yellow eye and scale. We hypothesize that yes controls both eye and scale color through a deficiency in transport of pigment precursors in both the ommochrome and melanin pathways. The unlinked gene y likely controls an enzyme affecting the melanin pathway only. Both y and yes segregated independently of AceIn, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity, and sodium channel hscp, which are genes related to insecticide resistance.

  5. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

      Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people. This ...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  6. The bacterial etiology of conjunctivitis in early infancy. Eye Prophylaxis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Bell, T A; Kronmal, R A; Grayston, J T

    1993-09-01

    The authors conducted this study to determine the etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in early infancy. From 1985 to 1990, 630 infants enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-masked study of eye prophylaxis were observed for 60 days after delivery for signs of conjunctivitis. The following isolates were categorized as pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria cinerea, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Using conditional logistic regression for analysis of 97 infant pairs, the authors identified isolates categorized as pathogens almost exclusively among cases (odds ratio (OR) = 18.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-128). Among the microorganisms which have not usually been regarded as pathogens in the etiology of infant conjunctivitis, Streptococcus mitis was the only microorganism associated with an increased risk of conjunctivitis (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8-15.0). The findings concerning the species of bacteria most often associated with conjunctivitis, as well as the finding that method of delivery is unimportant, suggest that bacteria were transmitted to the infants' eyes after birth and not from the birth canal.

  7. A Study of the Possible Distinction Between "Controlling Eye" and "Dominant Eye" and the Effect of Both, with Hand Dominance, on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Robert W.; Hillerich, Robert L.

    This longitudinal study was a replication of two disparate studies, one of dominance and one of control, which had as subjects 277 seventh- and eighth-grade pupils remaining from an original dominance study of over 500. Eye dominance was determined through hole-in-paper and V-scope; eye control at near and far point, through the telebinocular;…

  8. Quick-Eye: Examination of Human Performance Characteristics Using Eye Tracking and Manual-Based Control Systems for Monitoring Multiple Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    integration effort to combine eye - tracking technology into a multiple display information system, validation of the resulting system, and results of...studies conducted to determine the performance impact to response time, accuracy, and user workload by using eye - tracking input instead of manual controls to switch control among multiple displays.

  9. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  10. Coordinated control of eye and hand movements in dynamic reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, S.F.W.; Bekkering, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we integrated two recent, at first sight contradictory findings regarding the question whether saccadic eye movements can be generated to a newly presented target during an ongoing hand movement. Saccades were measured during so-called adaptive and sustained pointing

  11. Coordinated control of eye and hand movements in dynamic reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, SFW; Bekkering, H

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we integrated two recent, at first sight contradictory findings regarding the question whether saccadic eye movements can be generated to a newly presented target during an ongoing hand movement. Saccades were measured during so-called adaptive and sustained pointing conditions

  12. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This... the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) relating to the application of the ``controlled group...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant...

  13. The Control Group and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Hunter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists use a mixture of different methodologies, which creates problems for researchers attempting to review the cumulative results of all studies.  Standard practice for review studies using meta-analysis is to adjust the findings of all studies that use control groups and to include studies not having control groups without adjustment for extraneous effects, or to not use studies that lack a control group, which could produce an erroneous result.  Our study develops a novel meta-analytic procedure that combines the evidence on control group change with evidence on change from the intervention, making it possible to adjust for the effects of extraneous factors in all studies and bridges the gap between control group studies and other types of studies. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18302

  14. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  15. A common control signal and a ballistic stage can explain the control of coordinated eye-hand movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Atul; Murthy, Aditya

    2016-06-01

    Voluntary control has been extensively studied in the context of eye and hand movements made in isolation, yet little is known about the nature of control during eye-hand coordination. We probed this with a redirect task. Here subjects had to make reaching/pointing movements accompanied by coordinated eye movements but had to change their plans when the target occasionally changed its position during some trials. Using a race model framework, we found that separate effector-specific mechanisms may be recruited to control eye and hand movements when executed in isolation but when the same effectors are coordinated a unitary mechanism to control coordinated eye-hand movements is employed. Specifically, we found that performance curves were distinct for the eye and hand when these movements were executed in isolation but were comparable when they were executed together. Second, the time to switch motor plans, called the target step reaction time, was different in the eye-alone and hand-alone conditions but was similar in the coordinated condition under assumption of a ballistic stage of ∼40 ms, on average. Interestingly, the existence of this ballistic stage could predict the extent of eye-hand dissociations seen in individual subjects. Finally, when subjects were explicitly instructed to control specifically a single effector (eye or hand), redirecting one effector had a strong effect on the performance of the other effector. Taken together, these results suggest that a common control signal and a ballistic stage are recruited when coordinated eye-hand movement plans require alteration.

  16. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  17. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    , and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58......PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting...... randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics...

  18. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ranney, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. Methods We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Results Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Conclusions Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics. PMID:27668270

  19. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics.

  20. Do we see eye to eye? The relationship between internal communication and between-group strategic consensus: A case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Desmidt (Sebastian); B.R.J. George (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlthough organization-wide strategic consensus is considered a prerequisite for effective strategy execution, research analyzing the degree, content, and antecedents of strategic consensus between hierarchically distant employee groups is limited. The present study addresses this issue

  1. Do we see eye to eye? The relationship between internal communication and between-group strategic consensus: A case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Desmidt (Sebastian); B.R.J. George (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlthough organization-wide strategic consensus is considered a prerequisite for effective strategy execution, research analyzing the degree, content, and antecedents of strategic consensus between hierarchically distant employee groups is limited. The present study addresses this issue b

  2. Do we see eye to eye? The relationship between internal communication and between-group strategic consensus: A case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Desmidt (Sebastian); B.R.J. George (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlthough organization-wide strategic consensus is considered a prerequisite for effective strategy execution, research analyzing the degree, content, and antecedents of strategic consensus between hierarchically distant employee groups is limited. The present study addresses this issue b

  3. Information fusion control with time delay for smooth pursuit eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Xin; Qin, Bin; Wang, Guangmao; Guo, Yanan; Xu, Zhigang; Wang, Yafang; Li, Yibin

    2016-05-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movement depends on prediction and learning, and is subject to time delays in the visual pathways. In this paper, an information fusion control method with time delay is presented, implementing smooth pursuit eye movement with prediction and learning as well as solving the problem of time delays in the visual pathways. By fusing the soft constraint information of the target trajectory of eyes and the ideal control strategy, and the hard constraint information of the eye system state equation and the output equation, optimal estimations of the co-state sequence and the control variable are obtained. The proposed control method can track not only constant velocity, sinusoidal target motion, but also arbitrary moving targets. Moreover, the absolute value of the retinal slip reaches steady state after 0.1 sec. Information fusion control method elegantly describes in a function manner how the brain may deal with arbitrary target velocities, how it implements the smooth pursuit eye movement with prediction, learning, and time delays. These two principles allowed us to accurately describe visually guided, predictive and learning smooth pursuit dynamics observed in a wide variety of tasks within a single theoretical framework. The tracking control performance of the proposed information fusion control with time delays is verified by numerical simulation results.

  4. Development of Instrument Control System Using Biosignals Created by the Change of Eyes Movement Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yun-xiang(肖云翔); LI Gang(李刚); NOGATA Fumio

    2003-01-01

    A new biosignal control system that offers the disables the opportunities to control electric appliances is proposed. The four types of signals created by the eyes movements in four directions ( up, down, left, and right) ,which are taken as four basic signals, are detected at the forehead. Permutation of 2 signals out of them creates 16 different signals. Permutation of 3 signals out of them creates 64 signals. They all amounts to 84 control signals. They are thought to be applicable for the operation of some instruments. Furthermore, the dynamic biosignals created by the slow eyes movement is speculated to be applicable for the more convenient control of them.

  5. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W Lapan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  6. Monocular tool control, eye dominance, and laterality in New Caledonian crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Antone; Burns, Zackory T; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-12-15

    Tool use, though rare, is taxonomically widespread, but morphological adaptations for tool use are virtually unknown. We focus on the New Caledonian crow (NCC, Corvus moneduloides), which displays some of the most innovative tool-related behavior among nonhumans. One of their major food sources is larvae extracted from burrows with sticks held diagonally in the bill, oriented with individual, but not species-wide, laterality. Among possible behavioral and anatomical adaptations for tool use, NCCs possess unusually wide binocular visual fields (up to 60°), suggesting that extreme binocular vision may facilitate tool use. Here, we establish that during natural extractions, tool tips can only be viewed by the contralateral eye. Thus, maintaining binocular view of tool tips is unlikely to have selected for wide binocular fields; the selective factor is more likely to have been to allow each eye to see far enough across the midsagittal line to view the tool's tip monocularly. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that tool side preference follows eye preference and found that eye dominance does predict tool laterality across individuals. This contrasts with humans' species-wide motor laterality and uncorrelated motor-visual laterality, possibly because bill-held tools are viewed monocularly and move in concert with eyes, whereas hand-held tools are visible to both eyes and allow independent combinations of eye preference and handedness. This difference may affect other models of coordination between vision and mechanical control, not necessarily involving tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How to Research People's First Impressions of Websites? Eye-Tracking as a Usability Inspection Method and Online Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendy, Csilla

    The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.

  8. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    further enable enzyme encapsulation to improve the efficiency of light-driven hydrogen fuel production. 5. Changes in key personnel, if applicable : -None ...Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W9132T-14-2-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst

  9. GROUP VELOCITY CONTROL SCHEME WITH LOW DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to prevent smearing the discontinuity, a modified term is added to the third order Upwind Compact Difference scheme to lower the dissipation error. Moreover, the dispersion error is controled to hold back the non-physical oscillation by means of the group velocity control. The scheme is used to simulate the interactions of shock-density stratified interface and the disturbed interface developing to vortex rollers. Numerical results are satisfactory.

  10. Real-Time Control of a Video Game Using Eye Movements and Two Temporal EEG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-controlled gaming applications range widely from strictly medical to completely nonmedical applications. Games can provide not only entertainment but also strong motivation for practicing, thereby achieving better control with rehabilitation system. In this paper we present real-time control of video game with eye movements for asynchronous and noninvasive communication system using two temporal EEG sensors. We used wavelets to detect the instance of eye movement and time-series characteristics to distinguish between six classes of eye movement. A control interface was developed to test the proposed algorithm in real-time experiments with opened and closed eyes. Using visual feedback, a mean classification accuracy of 77.3% was obtained for control with six commands. And a mean classification accuracy of 80.2% was obtained using auditory feedback for control with five commands. The algorithm was then applied for controlling direction and speed of character movement in two-dimensional video game. Results showed that the proposed algorithm had an efficient response speed and timing with a bit rate of 30 bits/min, demonstrating its efficacy and robustness in real-time control.

  11. [Several common biases and control measures during sampling survey of eye diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin

    2008-06-01

    Bias is a common artificial error during sampling survey in eye diseases, and is a major impact factor for validity and reliability of the survey. The causes and the control measures of several biases regarding current sampling survey of eye diseases in China were analyzed and discussed, including the sampling bias, non-respondent bias, and diagnostic bias. This review emphasizes that controlling bias is the key to ensure quality of sampling survey. Random sampling, sufficient sample quantity, careful examination and taking history, improving examination rate, accurate diagnosis, strict training and preliminary study, as well as quality control can eliminate or minimize biases and improve the sampling survey quality of eye diseases in China

  12. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  13. Saccadic and Postsaccadic Disconjugacy in Zebrafish Larvae Suggests Independent Eye Movement Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction. We investigated the underlying mechanism of this ocular disconjugacy in the dark with a top-down approach. A mathematic ocular motor model, including an eye plant, a set of burst neurons and a velocity-to-position neural integrator (VPNI), was built to simulate the typical larval eye movements in the dark. The modeling parameters, such as VPNI time constants, neural impulse signals generated by the burst neurons and time constants of the eye plant, were iteratively adjusted to fit the average saccadic eye movement. These simulations suggest that four pools of burst neurons and four pools of VPNIs are needed to explain the disconjugate eye movements in our results. A premotor mechanism controls the synchronous timing of binocular saccades, but the pools of burst and integrator neurons in zebrafish larvae seem to be different (and maybe separate) for both eyes and horizontal directions, which leads to the observed ocular disconjugacies during saccades and postsaccadic drifts in the dark. PMID:27761109

  14. The EyeHarp: A Gaze-Controlled Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakousis, Zacharias; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We present and evaluate the EyeHarp, a new gaze-controlled Digital Musical Instrument, which aims to enable people with severe motor disabilities to learn, perform, and compose music using only their gaze as control mechanism. It consists of (1) a step-sequencer layer, which serves for constructing chords/arpeggios, and (2) a melody layer, for playing melodies and changing the chords/arpeggios. We have conducted a pilot evaluation of the EyeHarp involving 39 participants with no disabilities ...

  15. High altitude and the eye: a case controlled study in clinical ocular anthropometry of changes in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jatinder; Chaudhary, K P; Thakur, Renu

    2005-01-01

    Tribal natives of two spatially separate districts of Lahaul-Spiti (mean altitude = 3300 m) and Kinnaur (mean altitude = 1,700 m) in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh have lived for centuries as closed isolated groups, marrying within the local community up to the recent past. Studies on highland natives in the Andes have shown differences in chest diameters, lung volumes, hematocrit, and the like, in those living at high altitudes. We wanted to study whether stay at high altitude for generations confers any change in the ocular anthropometry. No study of this nature is available in the literature. We studied the ocular parameters using Snellen's charts, Standard Royal-Air-Force Rule, A-2,500 Sonomed A-Scan, Goldmann's aplanation tonometer, and S-7,000 Autorefractometer on 50 healthy volunteers at the Indira Gandhi Medical College Out Patient Department at Shimla (mean altitude = 2,100 m). Those living at higher altitudes in Lahaul-Spiti [LS] (n = 10) had significantly wider nose bridge width (p < 0.05); inter-inner canthal distance [IICD] (p < 0.05); inter-outer canthal distance [IOCD] (p < 0.05); and interpupillary distance [IPD] (p < 0.05) than the group living at Kinnaur (n = 40) at lower elevation. The LS group also had narrower palpebral fissure length in the vertical dimension (p = 0.05) and a lower IOP (p = 0.002) than the Kinnaur group. The axial length, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth were comparable in the two groups. It appears that the eye and its adnexa respond to hypoxia, ultraviolet radiations, and persistent snow cover at high altitude by altering its anthropometry in a subtle but discernible manner. This was a hitherto unexplored area in the literature. Further studies to elucidate and substantiate the findings of the study are indicated.

  16. Remote Control of an Autonomous Robotic Platform Based on Eye Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASARICA, A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking devices are currently used for improving communication and psychosocial status among patients with neuro-motor disabilities. This paper presents the experimental implementation of a control system for a robotic platform using eye tracking technology. The main system is based on an eye tracking subsystem that uses the circular Hough transform algorithm. A central processing unit performs the data transmission between the user and the robotic platform. Experimental tests were conducted to determine the device's performances and usability for patients with neuro-motor disabilities. Moreover, the test results were used to determine the control system learning curve. We created a data base containing information on the robotic platform processing time and precision of movement for improving the platform's performances.

  17. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  18. Intraocular Lens Power Estimation in Combined Phacoemulsification and Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Eyes with Epiretinal Membranes: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min; Kim, Hyoung Eun; Lee, Dong Hyun; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of postoperative refractive outcomes of combined phacovitrectomy for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in comparison to cataract surgery alone. Materials and Methods Thirty-nine eyes that underwent combined phacovitrectomy with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for cataract and ERM (combined surgery group) and 39 eyes that received phacoemulsification for cataract (control group) were analyzed, retrospectively. The predicted preoperative refractive aim was compared with the results of postoperative refraction. Results In the combined surgery group, refractive prediction error by A-scan and IOLMaster were -0.305±0.717 diopters (D) and -0.356±0.639 D, respectively, compared to 0.215±0.541 and 0.077±0.529 in the control group, showing significantly more myopic change compared to the control group (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). Within each group, there was no statistically significant difference in refractive prediction error between A-scan and IOLMaster (all p>0.05). IOL power calculation using adjusted A-scan measurement of axial length based on the macular thickness of the normal contralateral eye still resulted in significant postoperative refractive error (all ppower estimation in eyes with cataract and ERM, sequential surgery for ERM and cataract may need to be considered. PMID:25837189

  19. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Diwakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS, and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG, which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition. MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and

  20. Dynamic thermal imaging control of an eye in postoperative period after cataract phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Lopatinskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study the impact of various schemes of antibacterial therapy in the postoperative period in patients after cataract phacoemulsification with distant thermography. Under observation there were 68 patients with cortical initial cataract. All patients were subjected to cataract phacoemulsification. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 34 patients of the first group after the operation dropped into the operated eye medication «Oftaquiks» 1 drop 5 times a day for one day before surgery and for 5 days postoperatively. 34 patients from the second group as an antibacterial drug received medication "Cipromed" in a similar way. Inflammatory reaction in postoperative period in the first group was not evident. In the second group the presence of inflammatory reaction of various degrees was revealed. Period of its reduction was 6,3 ± 2 days. The temperature difference between the non-operated and operated eye in the 3d day in most cases was less than 1 day after surgery. In the first group of patients the average temperature difference in the 3d day after surgery was 0.35 ± 0.21 ° C, and in the second group of patients - 1.3±0.83°C. Advantages of dynamic thermal imaging method for monitoring the state of the eye, including the analysis of time dependencies of temperature in the process of natural load test, which allows to select the optimal drug correction of postoperative cataract pha-coemulsification were revealed

  1. Through the eyes of the consumer. A look at marketing group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, G L

    1983-01-01

    The marketing concept should be understood and practiced in varying degrees by all medical groups; otherwise, growth is left to chance. Operating on this premise, the author has set forth a very clearly written description of the key components and general considerations of a long-range marketing plan. The managerial functions of a plan are presented, as well as controllable and uncontrollable factors, and the needs and associated risks of various marketing growth strategies. Within this discussion, the administrator will find a framework for evaluating his particular situation and planning for the future.

  2. The effect of an eyes-closed dance-specific training program on dynamic balance in elite pre-professional ballet dancers: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Kimberley; Redding, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Visual conditions for a dancer vary greatly between theatrical performance environments and dance studios, and this variability may be detrimental to their dynamic balance performance, particularly under stage lighting. In order to maintain balance control, dancers reportedly rely heavily on visual input, yet those who rely more on proprioceptive strategies for balancing have been found to be more stable. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of an eyes-closed, dance-specific training program to nurture in dancers proprioceptive mechanisms that may facilitate their dynamic balance control. Eighteen elite pre-professional ballet dancers were randomly assigned to either a control (eyes open) or experimental (eyes closed) group for the intervention. The balance abilities of all subjects were tested using five dance-specific variations of the Star Excursion Balance Test before and after a 4 week balance intervention. Reach distance and time to complete the tests were recorded separately as indirect measurements of dynamic balance. The intervention consisted of dance-specific, eyes-closed exercises integrated into the dancers' daily ballet class and designed progressively to challenge the dancers' balance. During the intervention period, the control group undertook the same exercise program with their eyes open. Results revealed significant improvements in time to complete the three "timed" balance tests, and distances reached significantly improved in one of the two "reach" balance tests. No significant improvements were observed in the control group for any variation of the tests. These results indicate that dancers can be trained to adopt proprioceptive strategies to maintain dynamic balance, which consequently improves their balance performance. Such findings could encourage use of eyes-closed training in daily dance classes due to its potential to improve dancers' balance control.

  3. Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control training; An eye-tracking approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., De Bock, J. J. P. R., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed Learning Skills in Air-traffic Control Training; An Eye-tracking Approach. Paper presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology, Budapest.

  4. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  5. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  6. Eye-Movement Control in RAN and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Henry, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the "visual scanning hypothesis", which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in 3…

  7. Analyzing the Stimulus Control Acquisition in Simple Discrimination Tasks through Eye Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Massayuki Huziwara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate whether simultaneous or successive presentation of stimuli is related to the duration of eye fixation (i.e., the time spent gazing a specific stimulus, this study described the eye movements of young adults in simultaneous and successive simple discrimination tasks. Using 12 landscape scenes as visual stimuli, three participants were exposed to a simple discrimination training with simultaneously presented stimuli (Si Procedure and then to a second simple discrimination training with successively presented stimuli (Su Procedure. Another three participants were exposed to the Procedure in the opposite order. In both cases, the learning criterion was that at least 90% of the responses should be correct in one block. Eye movements were recorded during the whole experiment. Participants achieved the learning criteria in both procedures. Beyond that, eye fixation time in the Su Procedure was higher than in the Si Procedure, regardless of the training sequence. Taken together with previous results in different experiments, our findings suggest that the duration of eye fixation plays a central role in the establishment of different stimulus control topographies.

  8. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved packaging cover conforms to the eyeball thereby preventing the eye tissue from contacting the actuating membrane. By pulsed operation of the device, using an externally applied magnetic field, the drug released from the device accumulates in a cavity adjacent to the tissue. As such, docetaxel (DTX), an antiangiogenic drug, diffuses through the eye tissue, from sclera and choroid to retina. DTX uptake by sclera and choroid were measured to be 1.93±0.66 and 7.24±0.37 μg/g tissue, respectively, after two hours in pulsed operation mode (10s on/off cycles) at 23°C. During this period, a total amount of 192 ng DTX diffused into the exposed tissue. This MEMS device shows great potential for the treatment of ocular posterior segment diseases such as diabetic retinopathy by introducing a novel way of drug administration to the eye. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Teachers' Experiences of Using Eye Gaze-Controlled Computers for Pupils with Severe Motor Impairments and without Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytterström, Patrik; Borgestig, Maria; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers' experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers with pupils with severe disabilities. Technology to control a computer with eye gaze is a fast growing field and has promising implications for people with severe disabilities. This is a new assistive technology and a new learning situation for…

  10. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims.

  11. The pink-eyed dilution locus controls the biogenesis of melanosomes and levels of melanosomal proteins in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlow, S J; Brilliant, M H

    1999-02-01

    The pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control the quantity of melanin pigment made within melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the eye. We have examined the effects of several mutant allele combinations at the murine p locus on the number and morphology of melanosomes in choroidal melanocytes and RPE cells as well as on the levels of four proteins known to be present within melanosomes: tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 (TRP-1 and TRP-2) and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1). By electron microscopy, we observed a modest diminution in the size and number of choroidal melanosomes in pbs/pJ mice but a more dramatic decrease in the RPE in comparison with wild-type P/P mice. By contrast, a drastic reduction in melanosome size and number was present in the choroid and RPE of pun/pun and p6H/pcp mice, and in the RPE of p6H/pcp mice, melanosomes were essentially undetectable. In wild-type mice, levels of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 were high at birth and showed a second peak of expression at 10-14 days of age, declining to undetectable levels by 42 days. All three mutant allele combinations reduced the levels of these melanosomal proteins with the relative severity of effects being p6H/pcp>pun/pun>pbs/pJ. In the null p6H/pcp mice, levels of these proteins were extremely low at birth, no postnatal peak was observed, and levels declined to undetectable by 14 days. Levels of LAMP-1 in wild-type mice rose initially and then declined whereas in the mutant mice, levels decreased gradually from birth. Higher levels of LAMP-1 were observed in each of the mutants than in the wild-type mice at 21 days of age. Our results demonstrate that mutations at the p locus affect the size, number, shape and contents of melanosomes, implicating the p gene product in the normal biogenesis of this organelle.

  12. Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moritaki, Takeya; Okuda, Yuki; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sousounis, Konstantinos; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods have an elaborate camera eye whereas nautiloids have primitive pinhole eye without lens and cornea. The Nautilus pinhole eye provides a unique example to explore the module of lens formation and its evolutionary mechanism. Here, we conducted an RNA-seq study of developing eyes of Nautilus and pygmy squid. First, we found that evolutionary distances from the common ancestor to Nautilus or squid are almost the same. Although most upstream eye development controlling genes were expressed in both species, six3/6 that are required for lens formation in vertebrates was not expressed in Nautilus. Furthermore, many downstream target genes of six3/6 including crystallin genes and other lens protein related genes were not expressed in Nautilus. As six3/6 and its controlling pathways are widely conserved among molluscs other than Nautilus, the present data suggest that deregulation of the six3/6 pathway led to the pinhole eye evolution in Nautilus.

  13. Refractive predictability in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade - results of a prospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenfeld, Lars; Hermsdorf, Kristin; Stemplewitz, Birthe; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Frings, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To determine the postoperative refractive error in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade in combined phacovitrectomy using a Z-haptic intraocular lens (IOL). This prospective non-randomized case-control study compared patients with combined phacovitrectomy with or without intraocular gas tamponade to cataract surgery-only. The main outcome measure was the IOL power prediction error (PE). Secondary outcome measures were spherical equivalent, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and axial length. Thirty-four patients with epiretinal membranes and 18 patients with cataract only were enrolled. There were no statistically significant (P>0.05) differences of IOL power PE or postoperative ACDs (P=0.952-1.00). Nevertheless, IOL power PE indicated a myopic shift in cases with phacovitrectomy independent of gas tamponade (P=1.00). No statistically significant between-group differences between secondary outcome measures were observed. A myopic shift after phacovitrectomy seems to be independent of the use of intraocular gas tamponade. When using a Z-haptic IOL, aiming for slight residual hyperopia (+0.50 D) is suggested in patients having phacovitrectomy.

  14. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

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    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  15. Attentional bias scores in patients with depression and effects of age: a controlled, eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfu; Xu, Jiying; Li, Mi; Xue, Jia; Lu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Objective To compare the attentional bias of depressed patients and non-depressed control subjects and examine the effects of age using eye-tracking technology in a free-viewing set of tasks. Methods Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-depressed control subjects completed an eye-tracking task to assess attention of processing negative, positive and neutral facial expressions. In this cross-sectional study, the tasks were separated in two types (neutral versus happy faces and neutral versus sad faces) and assessed in two age groups ('young' [18-30 years] and 'middle-aged' [31-55 years]). Results Compared with non-depressed control subjects ( n = 75), patients with MDD ( n = 90) had a significant reduced positive attentional bias and enhanced negative attentional bias irrespective of age. The positive attentional bias in 'middle-aged' patients with MDD was significantly lower than in 'young' patients, although there was no difference between the two age groups in negative attentional bias. Conclusions These results confirm that there are emotional attentional biases in patients with MDD and that positive attentional biases are influenced by age.

  16. Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: chromatic pupillometry in affected, fellow non-affected and healthy control eyes

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    Kristina eHerbst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs express the photopigment melanopsin, which is sensitive to blue light. Previous chromatic pupillometry studies have shown that the post-illumination response is considered an indicator of the melanopsin activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20 s blue (470 nm or red (660 nm light of high intensity (300 cd/m2 were recorded in each eye for 10 patients. Comparisons were performed both intra-individually (affected versus non-affected eyes and inter-individually (compared with healthy controls. The pupil response was calculated both during the illumination and during the post-illumination phase. The pupil responses to blue and red colours were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue light exposure were increased in the fellow non-affected patients’ eyes, compared with the healthy controls. However, significance was only reached for the late post-illumination response. In conclusion, chromatic pupillometry disclosed reduced post-illumination pupil responses in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the non-affected fellow eyes, suggesting dysfunction of the ipRGCs. Compared with the responses of the healthy controls, the blue light post-illumination pupil responses were similar in the affected eyes and increased in the fellow non-affected eyes. This suggests a possible adaptive phenomenon, involving the ipRGCs of both eyes after unilateral NAION.

  17. Visual acuity and quality of life in dry eye disease: Proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Del-Castillo, José; Labetoulle, Marc; Baudouin, Christophe; Rolando, Maurizio; Akova, Yonca A; Aragona, Pasquale; Geerling, Gerd; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Boboridis, Kostas

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists. Functional visual acuity (FVA) is a measure of visual acuity after sustained eye opening without blinking for at least 10 s and mimics the sustained visual acuity of daily life. Measuring dynamic FVA allows the detection of impaired visual function in patients with DED who may display normal conventional visual acuity. There are currently several tests and methods that can be used to measure dynamic visual function: the SSC-350 FVA measurement system, assessment of best-corrected visual acuity decay using the interblink visual acuity decay test, serial measurements of ocular and corneal higher order aberrations, and measurement of dynamic vision quality using the Optical Quality Analysis System. Although the equipment for these methods may be too large or unaffordable for use in clinical practice, FVA testing is an important assessment for DED.

  18. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  19. Rebamipide (OPC-12759) in the treatment of dry eye: a randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Awamura, Saki; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the dose response for efficacy of 1% and 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension compared with placebo in patients with dry eye. A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response phase II study. A total of 308 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week screening period, patients were randomized to receive placebo or 1% rebamipide or 2% rebamipide administered as 1 drop in each eye 4 times daily for 4 weeks. The primary objective end point was change in fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score from baseline to last observation carried forward (LOCF). Secondary objective end points were lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and the Schirmer's test. Secondary subjective end points included dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision) score and patients' overall treatment impression score. Rebamipide dose response was observed in FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. Both 1% and 2% rebamipide were significantly more effective than the placebo in terms of the change from baseline to LOCF for FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. There was no significant difference between the rebamipide and placebo groups from baseline to LOCF in Schirmer's test values, and dose response was not observed. In the predefined dry eye subpopulation with a baseline FCS score of 10 to 15, the mean change from baseline in the 2% rebamipide group was larger than that in the 1% rebamipide group. Change from baseline to LOCF for all 5 dry eye-related ocular symptom scores and patients' overall treatment impression showed significant improvements in the 1% and 2% rebamipide groups compared with the placebo group, except for photophobia in the 1% rebamipide group. No deaths or drug-related serious adverse events occurred in any treatment group. The incidence of ocular abnormalities was similar across the rebamipide and placebo groups. Rebamipide was effective in

  20. Eye-Tracking Control to Assess Cognitive Functions in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Schneider, Erich; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-10-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment. The requirements, in terms of oculomotor parameters that have to be met for sufficient eye-tracking in ALS patients are presented. The properties of stimuli, including type of neuropsychological tests and style of presentation, best suited to successfully assess cognitive functioning, are also described. Furthermore, recommendations regarding procedural requirements are provided. Overall, this methodology provides a reliable, easy to administer and fast approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS. The only confounding factor might be deficits in voluntary eye movement control in a subset of ALS patients.

  1. Effect of narrowing the base of support on the gait, gaze and quiet eye of elite ballet dancers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, Derek; Vickers, Joan N

    2011-08-01

    We determined the gaze and stepping behaviours of elite ballet dancers and controls as they walked normally and along progressively narrower 3-m lines (l0.0, 2.5 cm). The ballet dancers delayed the first step and then stepped more quickly through the approach area and onto the lines, which they exited more slowly than the controls, which stepped immediately but then slowed their gait to navigate the line, which they exited faster. Contrary to predictions, the ballet group did not step more precisely, perhaps due to the unique anatomical requirements of ballet dance and/or due to releasing the degrees of freedom under their feet as they fixated ahead more than the controls. The ballet group used significantly fewer fixations of longer duration, and their final quiet eye (QE) duration prior to stepping on the line was significantly longer (2,353.39 ms) than the controls (1,327.64 ms). The control group favoured a proximal gaze strategy allocating 73.33% of their QE fixations to the line/off the line and 26.66% to the exit/visual straight ahead (VSA), while the ballet group favoured a 'look-ahead' strategy allocating 55.49% of their QE fixations to the exit/VSA and 44.51% on the line/off the line. The results are discussed in the light of the development of expertise and the enhanced role of fixations and visual attention when more tasks become more constrained.

  2. Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.

  3. Feasibility of creating a normative database of colour Doppler imaging parameters in glaucomatous eyes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, Deepam; Harris, Alon; Pernic, Allison; Williamson, Kathleen M; Moss, Adam M; Shoshani, Yochai Z; Siesky, Brent

    2011-09-01

    Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) is a frequently cited methodology for quantifying ocular blood flow velocities. This investigation reviews the feasibility of creating a normative database of CDI parameters in glaucoma patients and controls. A literature search was conducted for CDI studies involving glaucomatous eyes. Using data from these studies, a weighted mean was derived for the peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and Pourcelot's resistive index in the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify whether methodological characteristics contributed to the inter-study variance in CDI values. Data from 3061 glaucoma patients and 1072 controls were included. The mean values for glaucomatous eyes were within one standard deviation of the values for controls for most CDI parameters. Gender mix (p=0.043), intraocular pressure status (p=0.017), frequency of the ultrasound transducer (p=0.02) and whether the patients were on antihypertensive therapy (p=0.004) contributed to the variance. Methodological differences create inter-study variance in CDI values, complicating the construction of a normative database and limiting its utility. Because the mean values for glaucomatous and normal eyes have overlapping ranges, caution should be used when classifying glaucoma status based on a single CDI measurement.

  4. Eye-gaze control of the computer interface: Discrimination of zoom intent

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    Goldberg, J.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Schryver, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    An analysis methodology and associated experiment were developed to assess whether definable and repeatable signatures of eye-gaze characteristics are evident, preceding a decision to zoom-in, zoom-out, or not to zoom at a computer interface. This user intent discrimination procedure can have broad application in disability aids and telerobotic control. Eye-gaze was collected from 10 subjects in a controlled experiment, requiring zoom decisions. The eye-gaze data were clustered, then fed into a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) for optimal definition of heuristics separating the zoom-in, zoom-out, and no-zoom conditions. Confusion matrix analyses showed that a number of variable combinations classified at a statistically significant level, but practical significance was more difficult to establish. Composite contour plots demonstrated the regions in parameter space consistently assigned by the MDA to unique zoom conditions. Peak classification occurred at about 1200--1600 msec. Improvements in the methodology to achieve practical real-time zoom control are considered.

  5. Dry Eye

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    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  6. Eye Allergies

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    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  7. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cliff Richardson,1 Lisa Brunton,1 Nicola Olleveant,1 David B Henson,1 Mark Pilling,1 Jane Mottershead,2 Cecilia H Fenerty,2 Anne Fiona Spencer,2 Heather Waterman1 1School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Manchester, 2Royal Manchester Eye Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom Background: Adherence with therapy could influence the progression of glaucoma and ultimately affect the onset of visual impairment in some individuals. This feasibility study evaluated the measures to be used for a future randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of group-based education on adherence with eye drops. Methods: People diagnosed with glaucoma within the previous 12 months attending a regional ophthalmology clinic in the North West of England were recruited. A two-session education program delivered one week apart had been devised as part of a previous project. A combined adult learning and health needs approach to education was taken. Outcomes measured were knowledge of glaucoma, self-report of adherence, illness perception, beliefs about medicines, patient enablement, and general health (Short Form-12. Adherence was also measured objectively using a Medical Events Monitoring System device. Results: Twenty-six participants consented to undertake the educational program and 19 produced analyzable data. Knowledge of glaucoma, illness perception, beliefs about medicine, and patient enablement all showed statistically significant improvements after education. Mean adherence with eye drops was maintained above 85% before and for 3 months after attendance at the educational program. Self-report exaggerated adherence by at least 10% when compared with the objective Medical Events Monitoring System data, and in fact the kappa agreement was zero. Conclusion: All questionnaires other than the Short Form-12 were considered to be valuable measures and use of a Medical Events Monitoring System device was

  8. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye. Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and right eye showed corneal opacity with Descemet’s tear (status post hydrops. RESULT The patient was prescribed cycloplegics, hypertonic saline for left eye and was advised against scratching the eye and was given protective goggles and was told for close followup in conjunction with psychiatric management. CONCLUSION Impulse control disorders are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by clinicians, patients suffering from the disorder and public. And hence identification of this disorder and close observation of patient allows for avoiding complications such as progression of hydrops, perforation and infection.

  9. Controlling Posture and Vergence Eye Movements in Quiet Stance: Effects of Thin Plantar Inserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Foisy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess properties of vergence and saccade eye movements as well as posture in quiet stance, and the effects of thin plantar inserts upon postural and oculomotor control. The performances of 36 young healthy subjects were recorded by a force platform and an eye tracker in three testing conditions: without plantar stimulation, with a 3 millimetre-thick plantar insert, either a Medial or a Lateral Arch Support (MAS/LAS. The results showed a decrease of the Surface and Variance of Speed and a more posterior position of the CoP with either stimulation compared with the control condition. The fractal analysis showed a decrease with MAS. Wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the Cancelling Time of the low frequency band with MAS. These results suggest a better stability for a lower energy cost. Concerning eye movements, the inserts influenced only vergence (not saccades: MAS caused an increase of the phasic amplitude of divergence, and conversely a decrease of the tonic amplitude. In contrast, LAS caused an increase of the tonic amplitude of convergence. Thus, MAS renders divergence less visually driven, while LAS renders convergence more visually driven. We conclude that the CNS uses the podal signal for both postural and vergence control via specific mechanisms. Plantar inserts have an influence upon posture and vergence movements in a different way according to the part of the foot sole being stimulated. These results can be useful to clinicians interested in foot or eye.

  10. Head-eye tracking in two-dimensional pursuit tasks. [sensory feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirachi, D. K.; Black, J. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The neurological control systems for the eye and head are studied by investigating dynamic eye and head rotations in two degrees of freedom using bandlimited, white noise stimuli, nominally wide field of view stimulus presentations of + or - 10 deg and power spectral analysis of the data to produce input/output transfer and coherence functions. Determined were frequency response characteristics of these systems, the linearity of the transfer functions in both coupled and decoupled vertical and horizontal stimulus/response reference axes and the amount of cross axis coupling present in system responses. A comparative study was also conducted to assess the differences in response characteristics between single axis and dual axis visual stimulation for the same subject.

  11. Inhibitory control processes and the strategies that support them during hand and eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Michelle Schmitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate behaviors, a process referred to as response inhibition. Stop Signal tests (SSTs are the most frequently studied paradigm used to assess response inhibition. Previous studies of SSTs have indicated that inhibitory control behavior can be explained using a common model in which GO and STOP processes are initiated independent from one and another, and the process that is completed first determines whether the behavior is elicited (GO process or terminated (STOP process. Consistent with this model, studies have indicated that individuals strategically delay their behaviors during SSTs in order to increase their stopping abilities. Despite being controlled by distinct neural systems, prior studies have largely documented similar inhibitory control performance across eye and hand movements. Though, no existing studies have compared the extent to which individuals strategically delay behavior across different effectors is not yet clear. Here, we compared the extent to which inhibitory control processes and the cognitive strategies that support them during oculomotor and manual motor behaviors. Methods: We examined 29 healthy individuals who performed parallel oculomotor and manual motor SSTs. Participants also completed a separate block of GO trials administered prior to the Stop Signal tasks to assess baseline reaction times for each effector and reaction time increases during interleaved GO trials of the SST. Results: Our results showed that stopping errors increased for both effectors as the interval between GO and STOP cues was increased (i.e., stop signal delay, but performance deteriorated more rapidly for eye compared to hand movements with increases in stop signal delay. During GO trials, participants delayed the initiation of their responses for each effector, and greater slowing of reaction times on GO trials was associated with

  12. Nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

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    Hua-Ling Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nestin is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPC of developing brain. Despite its wide use as an NPC marker, the function of nestin in embryo development is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As nestin is conserved in zebrafish and its predicted sequence is clustered with the mammalian nestin orthologue, we used zebrafish as a model to investigate its role in embryogenesis. Injection of nestin morpholino (MO into fertilized eggs induced time- and dose-dependent brain and eye developmental defects. Nestin morphants exhibited characteristic morphological changes including small head, small eyes and hydrocephalus. Histological examinations show reduced hind- and mid-brain size, dilated ventricle, poorly organized retina and underdeveloped lens. Injection of control nestin MO did not induce brain or eye changes. Nestin MO injection reduced expression of ascl1b (achaete-scute complex-like 1b, a marker of NPCs, without affecting its distribution. Nestin MO did not influence Elavl3/4 (Embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 3/4 (a neuronal marker, or otx2 (a midbrain neuronal marker, but severely perturbed cranial motor nerve development and axon distribution. To determine whether the developmental defects are due to excessive NPC apoptosis and/or reduced NPC proliferation, we analyzed apoptosis by TUNEL assay and acridine orange staining and proliferation by BrdU incorporation, pcna and mcm5 expressions. Excessive apoptosis was noted in hindbrain and midbrain cells. Apoptotic signals were colocalized with ascl1b. Proliferation markers were not significantly altered by nestin MO. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development probably through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

  13. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Involving the Eye and Ocular Adnexa: Tumor Control, Visual Outcomes, and Globe Salvage in 30 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Wasim A; Khoo, Chloe T L; Say, Emil Anthony T; Saktanasate, Jarin; Eagle, Ralph C; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

    2015-10-01

    To report clinical features and treatment outcomes of ocular juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). Retrospective case series. There were 32 tumors in 31 eyes of 30 patients with ocular JXG. Review of medical records. Tumor control, intraocular pressure (IOP), and visual acuity. The mean patient age at presentation was 51 months (median, 15 months; range, 1-443 months). Eye redness (12/30, 40%) and hyphema (4/30, 13%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Cutaneous JXG was concurrently present in 3 patients (3/30, 10%), and spinal JXG was present in 1 patient (1/30, 3%). The ocular tissue affected by JXG included the iris (21/31, 68%), conjunctiva (6/31, 19%), eyelid (2/31, 6%), choroid (2/31, 6%), and orbit (1/31, 3%). Those with iris JXG presented at a median age of 13 months compared with 30 months for those with conjunctival JXG. In the iris JXG group, mean IOP was 19 mmHg (median, 18 mmHg; range, 11-30 mmHg) and hyphema was noted in 8 eyes (8/21, 38%). The iris tumor was nodular (16/21, 76%) or diffuse (5/21, 24%). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was used in 10 cases and confirmed JXG cytologically in all cases. The iris lesion was treated with topical (18/21, 86%) and/or periocular (4/21, 19%) corticosteroids. The eyelid, conjunctiva, and orbital JXG were treated with excisional biopsy in 5 patients (5/9, 56%), topical corticosteroids in 2 patients (2/9, 22%), and observation in 2 patients (2/9, 22%). Of 28 patients with a mean follow-up of 15 months (median, 6 months; range, 1-68 months), tumor regression was achieved in all cases, without recurrence. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Upon follow-up of the iris JXG group, visual acuity was stable or improved (18/19 patients, 95%) and IOP was controlled long-term without medication (14/21 patients, 74%). No eyes were managed with enucleation. Ocular JXG preferentially affects the iris and is often isolated without cutaneous involvement. Iris JXG responds to topical or periocular corticosteroids, often with

  14. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudleman E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  15. Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jun Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Moon, Nam Ju

    2016-10-28

    In 2014, the overall rate of smartphone use in Korea was 83 and 89.8 % in children and adolescents. The rate of smartphone use differs according to region (urban vs. rural) and age (younger grade vs. older grade). We investigated risk and protective factors associated with pediatric dry eye disease (DED) in relation to smartphone use rate according to region and age. We enrolled 916 children and performed an ocular exam that included slit lamp exam and tear break-up time. A questionnaire administered to children and their families consisted of video display terminal (VDT) use, outdoor activity, learning, and modified ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score. DED was defined based on the International Dry Eye Workshop guidelines (Objective signs: punctate epithelial erosion or short tear break-up time; subjective symptoms: modified OSDI score) We performed statistical analysis of risk factors and protective factors in children divided into groups as follows: DED vs. control, urban vs. rural, younger grade (1st to 3rd) vs. older grade (4th to 6th). A total of 6.6 % of children were included in the DED group, and 8.3 % of children in the urban group were diagnosed with DED compared to 2.8 % in the rural group (P = 0.03). The rate of smartphone use was 61.3 % in the urban group and 51.0 % in the rural group (P = 0.04). In total, 9.1 % of children in the older-grade group were diagnosed with DED compared to 4 % in the younger-grade group (P = 0.03). The rate of smartphone use was 65.1 % in older-grade children and 50.9 % in younger-grade children (P smartphone use was longer in the DED group than controls (logistic regression analysis, P smartphone use for 4 weeks in the DED group, both subjective symptoms and objective signs had improved. Smartphone use in children was strongly associated with pediatric DED; however, outdoor activity appeared to be protective against pediatric DED. Older-grade students in urban environments had DED risk

  16. Speed and Vibration Performance as well as Obstacle Avoidance Performance of Electric Wheel Chair Controlled by Human Eyes Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed and vibration performance as well as obstacle avoidance performance of the previously proposed Electric Wheel Chair: EWC controlled by human eyes only is conducted. Experimental results show acceptable performances of speed vibration performance as well as obstacle avoidance performance for disabled persons. More importantly, disabled persons are satisfied with the proposed EWC because it works by their eyes only. Without hands and finger, they can control EWC freely.

  17. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  18. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  19. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  20. Language can mediate eye movement control within 100 milliseconds, regardless of whether there is anything to move the eyes to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Gerry T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The delay between the signal to move the eyes, and the execution of the corresponding eye movement, is variable, and skewed; with an early peak followed by a considerable tail. This skewed distribution renders the answer to the question “What is the delay between language input and saccade execution?” problematic; for a given task, there is no single number, only a distribution of numbers. Here, two previously published studies are reanalysed, whose designs enable us to answer, instead, the question: How long does it take, as the language unfolds, for the oculomotor system to demonstrate sensitivity to the distinction between “signal” (eye movements due to the unfolding language) and “noise” (eye movements due to extraneous factors)? In two studies, participants heard either ‘the man…’ or ‘the girl…’, and the distribution of launch times towards the concurrently, or previously, depicted man in response to these two inputs was calculated. In both cases, the earliest discrimination between signal and noise occurred at around 100 ms. This rapid interplay between language and oculomotor control is most likely due to cancellation of about-to-be executed saccades towards objects (or their episodic trace) that mismatch the earliest phonological moments of the unfolding word. PMID:20965479

  1. Attentional bias modification in depression through gaze contingencies and regulatory control using a new eye-tracking intervention paradigm: study protocol for a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Carmelo; Blanco, Ivan; Sanchez, Alvaro; McNally, Richard J

    2016-12-08

    Attentional biases, namely difficulties both to disengage attention from negative information and to maintain it on positive information, play an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disorder. Recently, researchers have developed specific attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques aimed to modify these maladaptive attentional patterns. However, the application of current ABM procedures has yielded, so far, scarce results in depression due, in part, to some methodological shortcomings. The aim of our protocol is the application of a new ABM technique, based on eye-tracker technology, designed to objectively train the specific attentional components involved in depression and, eventually, to reduce depressive symptoms. Based on sample size calculations, 32 dysphoric (BDI ≥13) participants will be allocated to either an active attentional bias training group or a yoked-control group. Attentional training will be individually administered on two sessions in two consecutive days at the lab. In the training task series of pairs of faces (i.e. neutral vs. sad; neutral vs. happy; happy vs. sad) will be displayed. Participants in the training group will be asked to localize as quickly as possible the most positive face of the pair (e.g., the neutral face in neutral vs. sad trials) and maintain their gaze on it for 750 ms or 1500 ms, in two different blocks, to advance to the next trial. Participants' maintenance of gaze will be measured by an eye-tracking apparatus. Participants in the yoked-control group will be exposed to the same stimuli and the same average amount of time than the experimental participants but without any instruction to maintain their gaze or any feedback on their performance. Pre and post training measures will be obtained to assess cognitive and emotional changes after the training. The findings from this research will provide a proof-of-principle of the efficacy of eye-tracking paradigms to modify attentional biases and

  2. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  3. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting ACTION: Public ICWG... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals....mil by August 7, 2013. Public Interface Control Working Group Meeting (ICWG) Date(s) and Times:...

  4. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  5. Crossed hand-eye dominance in male psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, Orestis

    2002-12-01

    Increased incidence of left-eye and crossed hand-eye dominance have been considered as indicating left hemispheric dysfunction in many neuropsychiatric disorders. This study investigates the incidence of left-eye and crossed hand-eye dominance in patience with schizophrenia (n = 68), panic disorder (n = 62), personality disorder (n = 35), heroin addiction (n = 54), and mental retardation (n = 33), in comparison with controls (n = 944). All psychiatric groups, except the group with panic disorder, had significantly greater frequency of left-eye dominance than the control group. Furthermore, all psychiatric groups, except the personality-disordered group, had significantly greater frequency of crossed hand-eye dominance than the control group. These findings further support the evidence of an anomaly in hemispheric lateralization among different psychiatric populations, particularly among those with psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits.

  6. Age-related deficits in voluntary control over saccadic eye movements: consideration of electrical brain stimulation as a therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po Ling; Machado, Liana

    2016-05-01

    Sudden changes in our visual environment trigger reflexive eye movements, so automatically they often go unnoticed. Consequently, voluntary control over reflexive eye movements entails considerable effort. In relation to frontal-lobe deterioration, adult aging adversely impacts voluntary saccadic eye movement control in particular, which compromises effective performance of daily activities. Here, we review the nature of age-related changes in saccadic control, focusing primarily on the antisaccade task because of its assessment of 2 key age-sensitive control functions: reflexive saccade inhibition and voluntary saccade generation. With an ultimate view toward facilitating development of therapeutic strategies, we systematically review the neuroanatomy underpinning voluntary control over saccadic eye movements and natural mechanisms that kick in to compensate for age-related declines. We then explore the potential of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to counteract aging deficits. Based on evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can confer a range of benefits specifically relevant to aging brains, we put forward this neuromodulation technique as a therapeutic strategy for improving voluntary saccadic eye movement control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile Eye Tracking Methodology in Informal E-Learning in Social Groups in Technology-Enhanced Science Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita; Larsen, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health…

  8. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., "John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…"), or nominal control (e.g., "John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…"). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  9. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  10. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  12. Case-control study of risk factors for no light perception after open-globe injury: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kang; Shen, Lijun; Pang, Xiuqin; Jiang, Yanrong; Nie, Hongping; Wang, Zhijun; Hu, Yuntao; Ma, Zhizhong

    2011-11-01

    Investigate possible risk factors of no light perception (NLP) after open-globe injury. Explore whether these risk factors are predictors for an unfavorable visual outcome. This case-control study matched 72 eyes with NLP according to type and zone of injury to 2 controls per case with light perception or better vision. Cases were selected from the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study database. All injured eyes in the study underwent surgical intervention. Ciliary body damage (odds ratio = 2.94), closed funnel retinal detachment (odds ratio = 2.43), and choroidal damage (odds ratio = 2.80) were independent risk factors for NLP after open-globe injury. There were 67 traumatized eyes with NLP that had ≥1 of these risk factors. In 43 of the cases (64.2%), the eyes recovered light perception or better after vitreoretinal surgery. The five traumatized NLP cases without these risk factors obtained a favorable visual outcome after vitreoretinal surgery. There was no statistical significance in visual outcome between them (P = 0.162). Ciliary body damage, closed funnel retinal detachment, and choroidal damage are independent risk factors for NLP posttrauma but not prognostic indicators for NLP visual outcome. Traumatized eyes with NLP may recover light perception or better vision if appropriate interventional measures are used for treatment of the injured ciliary body, retina, and choroid.

  13. Saccadic eye movements in a high-speed bimanual stacking task: changes of attentional control during learning and automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Koesling, Hendrik; Schneider, Werner X

    2011-06-10

    Principles of saccadic eye movement control in the real world have been derived by the study of self-paced well-known tasks such as sandwich or tea making. Little is known whether these principles generalize to high-speed sensorimotor tasks and how they are affected by learning and automatization. In the present study, right-handers practiced the speed-stacking task in 14 consecutive daily training sessions, while their eye movements were recorded. Speed stacking is a high-speed sensorimotor task that requires grasping, moving, rotating, and placing of objects. The following main results emerged. Throughout practice, the eyes led the hands, displayed by a positive eye-hand time span. Moreover, visual information was gathered for the subsequent manual sub-action, displayed by a positive eye-hand unit span. With automatization, the eye-hand time span became shorter, yet it increased when corrected by the decreasing trial duration. In addition, fixations were mainly allocated to the goal positions of the right hand or objects in the right hand. The number of fixations decreased while the fixation rate remained constant. Importantly, all participants fixated on the same task-relevant locations in a similar scan path across training days, revealing a long-term memory-based mode of attention control after automatization of a high-speed sensorimotor task.

  14. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  15. Characteristics of Corneal Astigmatism of Anterior and Posterior Surface in a Normal Control Group and Patients With Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Mehdi; Friderich, Stefan; Pour Sadeghian, Miad; Schmack, Ingo; Kohnen, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare power and axis orientation of anterior and posterior astigmatism in eyes with keratoconus with healthy eyes. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 861 eyes of 494 patients diagnosed with keratoconus at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Frankfurt, and 256 eyes of 256 healthy individuals. Using a Scheimpflug device (Pentacam HR), we measured the magnitude and axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism, corneal thickness, and conus location. The results were compared between different stages of the disease according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification and the control group. Magnitude of corneal astigmatism was 3.47 ± 2.10 diopters (D) on the anterior surface and 0.69  ± 0.40 D on the posterior surface in eyes across all keratoconus stages. We found a significant increase of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism with progression of disease (P keratoconus a match between anterior and posterior alignment when alignment was vertical in 97% of eyes, 46% when oblique and 61% when horizontal (Cohen kappa coefficient κ = 0.55, P keratoconus, posterior axis alignment of corneal astigmatism is in line with alignment of the anterior surface in the majority of cases. Posterior astigmatism axis alignment could potentially be used in algorithms to support diagnosis and staging of keratoconus.

  16. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  17. Parent Perception of Two Eye-Gaze Control Technology Systems in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Petra; Wallen, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Eye-gaze control technology enables people with significant physical disability to access computers for communication, play, learning and environmental control. This pilot study used a multiple case study design with repeated baseline assessment and parents' evaluations to compare two eye-gaze control technology systems to identify any differences in factors such as ease of use and impact of the systems for their young children. Five children, aged 3 to 5 years, with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, and their families participated. Overall, families were satisfied with both the Tobii PCEye Go and myGaze® eye tracker, found them easy to position and use, and children learned to operate them quickly. This technology provides young children with important opportunities for learning, play, leisure, and developing communication.

  18. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  19. Inhibitory Control for Emotional and Neutral Scenes in Competition: An Eye-Tracking Study in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed. Manic patients showed a higher percentage of initial fixations on happy scenes than on the other scenes, regardless of the instructions. However, in the attend-to-neutral block, their gaze durations were longest for threatening scenes. Inhibitory control was not modulated by the scene's emotional salience in the other groups. Thus, manic patients had difficulties voluntarily ignoring emotional information - this was characterized by a happy-related bias during initial orienting, but a threat-related bias during attentional engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Eye movements in pedophiles: automatic and controlled attentional processes while viewing prepubescent stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, Peter; Jordan, Kirsten; Steinkrauss, Henrike; von Herder, Jakob; Stolpmann, Georg; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Müller, Jürgen Leo

    2013-05-01

    Recent theories in sexuality highlight the importance of automatic and controlled attentional processes in viewing sexually relevant stimuli. The model of Spiering and Everaerd (2007) assumes that sexually relevant features of a stimulus are preattentively selected and automatically induce focal attention to these sexually relevant aspects. Whether this assumption proves true for pedophiles is unknown. It is aim of this study to test this assumption empirically for people suffering from pedophilic interests. Twenty-two pedophiles, 8 nonpedophilic forensic controls, and 52 healthy controls simultaneously viewed the picture of a child and the picture of an adult while eye movements were measured. Entry time was assessed as a measure of automatic attentional processes and relative fixation time in order to assess controlled attentional processes. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly shorter entry time to child stimuli than to adult stimuli. The opposite was the case for nonpedophiles, as they showed longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli, and, against all expectations, pedophiles also demonstrated longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli. The results confirmed the hypothesis that pedophiles automatically selected sexually relevant stimuli (children). Contrary to all expectations, this automatic selection did not trigger the focal attention to these sexually relevant pictures. Furthermore, pedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and pubic regions of children; nonpedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and breasts of adults. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that the face and pubic region are the most attracting regions in children for pedophiles.

  1. Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-04-01

    To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P < 0.001 for all). Peripheral reticular pseudodrusen were seen in 15%. Senile reticular pigmentary change was the predominant peripheral change seen in 48% of cases and 16% of controls in zone 2 (P < 0.001). Nonreticular pigment changes were less frequent in the periphery than in the posterior pole (46% vs. 76%) and negligible in controls. Peripheral retinal changes are more prevalent in eyes with AMD than in control eyes. Drusen are seen in a majority of eyes with AMD in both the mid and far periphery, whereas

  2. When we cannot speak: Eye contact disrupts resources available to cognitive control processes during verb generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shogo; Nomura, Michio

    2016-12-01

    Although eye contact and verbal processing appear independent, people frequently avert their eyes from interlocutors during conversation. This suggests that there is interference between these processes. We hypothesized that such interference occurs because both processes share cognitive resources of a domain-general system and explored the influence of eye contact on simultaneous verb generation processes (i.e., retrieval and selection). In the present experiment, viewing a movie of faces with eyes directed toward the viewer delayed verbal generation more than a movie of faces with averted eyes; however, this effect was only present when both retrieval and selection demands were high. The results support the hypothesis that eye contact shares domain-general cognitive resource with verb generation. This further indicates that a full understanding of functional and dysfunctional communication must consider the interaction and interference of verbal and non-verbal channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autonomous Control of Eye Based Electric Wheel Chair with Obstacle Avoidance and Shortest Path Findings Based on Dijkstra Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Eye Based Electric Wheel Chair: EBEWC control system which allows handicap person (user to control their EWC with their eyes only is proposed. Using EBEWC, user can move to anywhere they want on a same floor in a hospital autonomously with obstacle avoidance with visible camera and ultrasonic sensor. User also can control EBEWC by their eyes. The most appropriate route has to be determined with avoiding obstacles and then autonomous real time control has to be done. Such these processing time and autonomous obstacle avoidance together with the most appropriate route determination are important for the proposed EBEWC. All the required performances are evaluated and validated. Obstacles can be avoided using acquired images with forward looking camera. The proposed EBEWC system allows creation of floor layout map that contains obstacles locations in a real time basis. The created and updated maps can be share by the electric wheel chairs on a same floor of a hospital. Experimental data show that the system allows computer input (more than 80 keys almost perfectly and electric wheel chair can be controlled with human eyes-only safely.

  4. A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Ho, Chien-Wa; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Hung, San-Shan; Shei, Hung-Jung; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human-machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human-machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes with CCD cameras, which can also measure the angle and position of the light sources. In the eye-tracking system, the program in the computer will locate each center point of the pupils in the images, and record the information on moving traces and pupil diameters. In the head gesture measurement system, the user wears a double-source eyeglass frame, so the system catches images of the user's head by using a CCD camera in front of the user. The computer program will locate the center point of the head, transferring it to the screen coordinates, and then the user can control the cursor by head motions. We combine the eye-controlled and head-controlled human-machine interface system for the virtual reality applications.

  5. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  6. Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Jouan, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A vector field on a connected Lie group is said to be linear if its flow is a one parameter group of automorphisms. A control-affine system is linear if the drift is linear and the controlled vector fields right invariant. The controllability properties of such systems are studied, mainly in the case where the derivation of the group Lie algebra that can be associated to the linear vector field is inner. After some general considerations controllability properties on semi simple, nilpotent an...

  7. Modeling control of eye orientation in three dimensions. I. Role of muscle pulleys in determining saccadic trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphan, T

    1998-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of muscle axis shifts on the performance of a vector velocity-position integrator in the CNS. Earlier models of the oculomotor plant assumed that the muscle axes remained fixed relative to the head as the eye rotated into secondary and tertiary eye positions. Under this assumption, the vector integrator model generates torsional transients as the eye moves from secondary to tertiary positions of fixation. The torsional transient represents an eye movement response to a spatial mismatch between the torque axes that remain fixed in the head and the displacement plane that changes by half the angle of the change in eye orientation. When muscle axis shifts were incorporated into the model, the torque axes were closer to the displacement plane at each eye orientation throughout the trajectory, and torsional transients were reduced dramatically. Their size and dynamics were close to reported data. It was also shown that when the muscle torque axes were rotated by 50% of the eye rotation, there was no torsional transient and Listing's law was perfectly obeyed. When muscle torque axes rotated >50%, torsional transients reversed direction compared with what occurred for muscle axis shifts of law is implemented by the oculomotor plant subject to a two-dimensional command signal that is confined to the pitch-yaw plane, having zero torsion. Saccades that bring the eye to orientations outside Listing's plane could easily be corrected by a roll pulse that resets the roll state of the velocity-position integrator to zero. This would be a simple implementation of the corrective controller suggested by Van Opstal and colleagues. The model further indicates that muscle axis shifts together with the torque orientation relationship for tissue surrounding the eye and Newton's laws of motion form a sufficient plant model to explain saccadic trajectories and periods of fixation when driven by a vector command confined to the pitch-yaw plane. This implies

  8. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen

    2002-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  9. Hand-eye-vision based control for an inspection robot’s autonomous line grasping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 吴功平; 白玉成; 肖华; 杨智勇; 严宇; 何缘; 徐显金; 苏帆

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure that the off-line arm of a two-arm-wheel combined inspection robot can reliably grasp the line in case of autonomous obstacle crossing, a control method is proposed for line grasping based on hand-eye visual servo. On the basis of the transmission line’s geometrical characteristics and the camera’s imaging principle, a line recognition and extraction method based on structure constraint is designed. The line’s intercept and inclination are defined in an imaging space to represent the robot’s change of pose and a law governing the pose decoupling servo control is developed. Under the integrated consideration of the influence of light intensity and background change, noise (from the camera itself and electromagnetic field) as well as the robot’s kinetic inertia on the robot’s imaging quality in the course of motion and the grasping control precision, a servo controller for grasping the line of the robot’s off-line arm is designed with the method of fuzzy control. An experiment is conducted on a 1:1 simulation line using an inspection robot and the robot is put into on-line operation on a real overhead transmission line, where the robot can grasp the line within 18 s in the case of autonomous obstacle-crossing. The robot’s autonomous line-grasping function is realized without manual intervention and the robot can grasp the line in a precise, reliable and efficient manner, thus the need of actual operation can be satisfied.

  10. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  11. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  12. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  13. Expertise development for a visual task: Eye movements, verbal reports, and spatial abilities in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011, August). Expertise development for a visual task: Eye movements, verbal reports, and spatial abilities in air traffic control. Poster presented at the 16th European Conferen

  14. Safety and efficacy of MIM D3 ophthalmic solutions in a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerovitch K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Meerovitch,1 Gail Torkildsen,2 John Lonsdale,3 Heidi Goldfarb,4 Teresa Lama,1 Garth Cumberlidge,1 George W Ousler III5 1Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 3Central Maine Eye Care, Lewiston, ME, USA; 4SDC, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic MIM-D3, a tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor agonist, in patients with dry eye. Design: A prospective, two-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study. Methods: A total of 150 dry eye patients were randomized 1:1:1 to study medication (1% MIM-D3, 5% MIM-D3, or placebo and dosed twice daily (BID for 28 days. Key eligibility criteria included exacerbation in corneal staining and ocular discomfort in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM on two visits, separated by 1 week of BID dosing with artificial tears. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at baseline, throughout treatment, and for 2 weeks post-treatment. The pre-specified primary outcome measures were fluorescein corneal staining post-CAE at day 28 and diary worst symptom scores over 28 days. Secondary outcomes included the pre-, post-, and the change from pre- to post-CAE fluorescein and lissamine green staining in both corneal and conjunctival regions, as well as individual diary symptoms. Results: The prespecified primary endpoints were not met. Compared with placebo, fluorescein corneal staining at day 28 was significantly improved (P < 0.05 in the 1% MIM-D3 group for the assessment of change from pre-CAE to post-CAE. In addition, following CAE exposure, patients in the 1% MIM-D3 group showed significant improvements versus placebo (P < 0.05 in inferior fluorescein and lissamine green staining after 14 and 28 days. Compared with placebo, patients in the 5% MIM-D3 group reported significantly lower daily diary scores for ocular dryness (P < 0.05. In a subgroup defined by higher symptom scores during

  15. Robotic Wheelchair Using Eye Blink Sensors and Accelerometer Provided with Home Appliance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to a new report prepared jointly by the World Health Organization and the World Bank, 15 percent of the world‘s population is disabled. The use of powered wheelchairs with high navigational intelligence is one of the great steps towards the integration of severely physically disabled and mentally handicapped people. Driving a wheelchair is a tedious task for severely handicapped persons, unless they use the tongue to control the joystick. Simultaneously blind and paraplegic people deal with two problems, which creates uneasy situation for them, i.e locomotion and localization. Different systems are being developed to overcome the problems described above, allowing the end-user to perform safe movements and accomplish some daily life important tasks. Our Robotic wheelchair uses eye blink and head tilt movement to steer the wheelchair. In addition, we can give more independence to the disabled person by using the same head-tilt movement to communicate with the devices in a room for example: a fan. This communication is done using a RF transmitter and receiver. Using this, the person can control various devices easily.

  16. Patterned cortical tension mediated by N-cadherin controls cell geometric order in the Drosophila eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eunice HoYee; Chavadimane Shivakumar, Pruthvi; Clément, Raphaël; Laugier, Edith; Lenne, Pierre-François

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion molecules hold cells together but also couple cell membranes to a contractile actomyosin network, which limits the expansion of cell contacts. Despite their fundamental role in tissue morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, how adhesion molecules control cell shapes and cell patterns in tissues remains unclear. Here we address this question in vivo using the Drosophila eye. We show that cone cell shapes depend little on adhesion bonds and mostly on contractile forces. However, N-cadherin has an indirect control on cell shape. At homotypic contacts, junctional N-cadherin bonds downregulate Myosin-II contractility. At heterotypic contacts with E-cadherin, unbound N-cadherin induces an asymmetric accumulation of Myosin-II, which leads to a highly contractile cell interface. Such differential regulation of contractility is essential for morphogenesis as loss of N-cadherin disrupts cell rearrangements. Our results establish a quantitative link between adhesion and contractility and reveal an unprecedented role of N-cadherin on cell shapes and cell arrangements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22796.001 PMID:28537220

  17. Controllability of Linear Systems on Generalized Heisenberg Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dath, Mouhamadou; Jouan, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of controllability of linear systems on generalized Heisenberg groups. Some general necessary controllability conditions and some sufficient ones are provided. We introduce the notion of decoupled systems, and more precise controllability criteria are stated for them.

  18. Davida Teller Award Lecture 2013: the importance of prediction and anticipation in the control of smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowler, Eileen; Aitkin, Cordelia D; Ross, Nicholas M; Santos, Elio M; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The ability of smooth pursuit eye movements to anticipate the future motion of targets has been known since the pioneering work of Dodge, Travis, and Fox (1930) and Westheimer (1954). This article reviews aspects of anticipatory smooth eye movements, focusing on the roles of the different internal or external cues that initiate anticipatory pursuit.We present new results showing that the anticipatory smooth eye movements evoked by different cues differ substantially, even when the cues are equivalent in the information conveyed about the direction of future target motion. Cues that convey an easily interpretable visualization of the motion path produce faster anticipatory smooth eye movements than the other cues tested, including symbols associated arbitrarily with the path, and the same target motion tested repeatedly over a block of trials. The differences among the cues may be understood within a common predictive framework in which the cues differ in the level of subjective certainty they provide about the future path. Pursuit may be driven by a combined signal in which immediate sensory motion, and the predictions about future motion generated by sets of cues, are weighted according to their respective levels of certainty. Anticipatory smooth eye movements, an overt indicator of expectations and predictions, may not be operating in isolation, but may be part of a global process in which the brain analyzes available cues, formulates predictions, and uses them to control perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes.

  19. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd, or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth, known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  20. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki) pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd), or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth), known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  1. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  2. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  3. Saccade-related activity in the prefrontal cortex: its role in eye movement control and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro eFunahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal neurons exhibit saccade-related activity and pre-saccadic memory-related activity often encodes the directions of forthcoming eye movements, in line with demonstrated prefrontal contribution to flexible control of voluntary eye movements. However, many prefrontal neurons exhibit post-saccadic activity that is initiated well after the initiation of eye movement. Although post-saccadic activity has been observed in the frontal eye field, this activity is thought to be a corollary discharge from oculomotor centers, because this activity shows no directional tuning and is observed whenever the monkeys perform eye movements regardless of goal-directed or not. However, prefrontal post-saccadic activities exhibit directional tunings similar as pre-saccadic activities and show context dependency, such that post-saccadic activity is observed only when monkeys perform goal-directed saccades. Context-dependency of prefrontal post-saccadic activity suggests that this activity is not a result of corollary signals from oculomotor centers, but contributes to other functions of the prefrontal cortex. One function might be the termination of memory-related activity after a behavioral response is done. This is supported by the observation that the termination of memory-related activity coincides with the initiation of post-saccadic activity in population analyses of prefrontal activities. The termination of memory-related activity at the end of the trial ensures that the subjects can prepare to receive new and updated information. Another function might be the monitoring of behavioral performance, since the termination of memory-related activity by post-saccadic activity could be associated with informing the correctness of the response and the termination of the trial. However, further studies are needed to examine the characteristics of saccade-related activities in the prefrontal cortex and their functions in eye movement control and a variety of

  4. Child attention to pain and pain tolerance are dependent upon anxiety and attention control: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, L C; Lau, J Y F; Mueller, S C; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Bosmans, M; Vervoort, T

    2017-02-01

    Pain is common and can be debilitating in childhood. Theoretical models propose that attention to pain plays a key role in pain outcomes, however, very little research has investigated this in youth. This study examined how anxiety-related variables and attention control interacted to predict children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking methodology, and their pain tolerance on the cold pressor test (CPT). Children aged 8-17 years had their eye-gaze tracked whilst they viewed photographs of other children displaying painful facial expressions during the CPT, before completing the CPT themselves. Children also completed self-report measures of anxiety and attention control. Findings indicated that anxiety and attention control did not impact children's initial fixations on pain or neutral faces, but did impact how long they dwelled on pain versus neutral faces. For children reporting low levels of attention control, higher anxiety was associated with less dwell time on pain faces as opposed to neutral faces, and the opposite pattern was observed for children with high attention control. Anxiety and attention control also interacted to predict pain outcomes. For children with low attention control, increasing anxiety was associated with anticipating more pain and tolerating pain for less time. This is the first study to examine children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking technology in the context of a salient painful experience. Data suggest that attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on multiple outcomes relevant to young people's pain experiences. This study uses eye tracking to study attention to pain cues in children. Attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on attention bias to pain and tolerance of cold pressor pain in youth. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  6. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group velocity control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a new way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  7. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  8. A novel EOG/EEG hybrid human-machine interface adopting eye movements and ERPs: application to robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a novel human-machine interface (HMI) based on both electrooculography (EOG) and electroencephalography (EEG). This hybrid interface works in two modes: an EOG mode recognizes eye movements such as blinks, and an EEG mode detects event related potentials (ERPs) like P300. While both eye movements and ERPs have been separately used for implementing assistive interfaces, which help patients with motor disabilities in performing daily tasks, the proposed hybrid interface integrates them together. In this way, both the eye movements and ERPs complement each other. Therefore, it can provide a better efficiency and a wider scope of application. In this study, we design a threshold algorithm that can recognize four kinds of eye movements including blink, wink, gaze, and frown. In addition, an oddball paradigm with stimuli of inverted faces is used to evoke multiple ERP components including P300, N170, and VPP. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, two different online experiments are carried out. One is to control a multifunctional humanoid robot, and the other is to control four mobile robots. In both experiments, the subjects can complete tasks effectively by using the proposed interface, whereas the best completion time is relatively short and very close to the one operated by hand.

  9. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its enhancement by vitamin A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Jangir; D V S Shekhawat; Acharya Prakash; K K Swami; Pawan Suthar

    2001-12-01

    After removal of both the lateral eyes of external gill stage tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus, the pineal organ gets transformed into a median eye. This type of transformation occurrs in tadpoles of both control and vitamin A treated groups. However, vitamin A increases the likelihood of homeotic regeneration (57% in the control group and 71% in the vitamin A treated group). Histological studies showed that the newly transformed median eye developed from the pineal organ. The pineal eye so developed possessed all components of a normal eye such as a retina, sensory cells and lens.

  10. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-biao Guo; Ping-ye Guo; Mao-hong Huang; Yin-gen Liu [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Geotechnical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investigations and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou coal mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-biao; GUO Ping-ye; HUANG Mao-hong; LIU Yin-gen

    2009-01-01

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investiga-tions and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring.

  12. Buddha as an eye opener: a link between prosocial attitude and attentional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Hommel, B.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hsieh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon's global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Zen Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to

  13. Buddha as an eye opener: a link between prosocial attitude and attentional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Hommel, B.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hsieh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon's global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Zen Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to ra

  14. Control groups in recent septic shock trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M; Wilkman, Erika; Perner, Anders; Takala, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. We searched for original articles presenting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58 % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2-17) were reported. Only 2 (8 %) trials provided adequate data to confirm that their control group treatment represented usual care. Recent trials in septic shock provide inadequate data on the control group treatment and hemodynamic values. We propose a standardized trial dataset to be created and validated, comprising characteristics of patient population, interventions administered, hemodynamic values achieved, surrogate organ dysfunction, and mortality outcomes, to allow better analysis and interpretation of future trial results.

  15. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Ni Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  16. A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Brown, Keith; McGoldrick, Theresa; Begum, Millia; Young, Jenny; Loughran, Paul; Chouliara, Zoë; Adams, Sally

    2011-06-01

    The present study reports on the first ever controlled comparison between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for posttraumatic stress disorder. A total of 46 participants were randomized to either EMDR (n = 23) or EFT (n = 23). The participants were assessed at baseline and then reassessed after an 8-week waiting period. Two further blind assessments were conducted at posttreatment and 3-months follow-up. Overall, the results indicated that both interventions produced significant therapeutic gains at posttreatment and follow-up in an equal number of sessions. Similar treatment effect sizes were observed in both treatment groups. Regarding clinical significant changes, a slightly higher proportion of patients in the EMDR group produced substantial clinical changes compared with the EFT group. Given the speculative nature of the theoretical basis of EFT, a dismantling study on the active ingredients of EFT should be subject to future research.

  17. Using E-Z Reader to examine the concurrent development of eye-movement control and reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Erik D; Liversedge, Simon P; Drieghe, Denis; Blythe, Hazel I; Joseph, Holly S S L; White, Sarah J; Rayner, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Compared to skilled adult readers, children typically make more fixations that are longer in duration, shorter saccades, and more regressions, thus reading more slowly (Blythe & Joseph, 2011). Recent attempts to understand the reasons for these differences have discovered some similarities (e.g., children and adults target their saccades similarly; Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009) and some differences (e.g., children's fixation durations are more affected by lexical variables; Blythe, Liversedge, Joseph, White, & Rayner, 2009) that have yet to be explained. In this article, the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading (Reichle, 2011; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998) is used to simulate various eye-movement phenomena in adults vs. children in order to evaluate hypotheses about the concurrent development of reading skill and eye-movement behavior. These simulations suggest that the primary difference between children and adults is their rate of lexical processing, and that different rates of (post-lexical) language processing may also contribute to some phenomena (e.g., children's slower detection of semantic anomalies; Joseph et al., 2008). The theoretical implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including possible alternative accounts of these developmental changes, how reading skill and eye movements change across the entire lifespan (e.g., college-aged vs. older readers), and individual differences in reading ability.

  18. A new allele uncovers the role of echinus in the control of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrasio, Silvia; Mlodzik, Marek; Fanto, Manolis

    2007-10-01

    The precise orientation of the ommatidia in the Drosophila eye is achieved through a specialized process of cell migration taking place in the third-instar eye imaginal disc when ommatidial clusters rotate by 90 degrees. This process is strictly coordinated with the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP), but it relies on a specific set of genes that control its mechanism independently from PCP signaling. Recently, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been implicated in determining ommatidial rotation. We have isolated a new allele of echinus, a gene known to control the patterning and number of interommatidial cells. We show that echinus displays defects in the rotation of ommatidia that are not evident until mid-pupal stages, and we propose that echinus action is that of opposing EGFR by an unknown mechanism and that this can explain both its influence in ommatidial rotation and lattice programmed cell death (PCD).

  19. A Hh-driven gene network controls specification, pattern and size of the Drosophila simple eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Domínguez-Cejudo, María A; Amore, Gabriele; Brockmann, Anette; Lemos, María C; Córdoba, Antonio; Casares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    During development, extracellular signaling molecules interact with intracellular gene networks to control the specification, pattern and size of organs. One such signaling molecule is Hedgehog (Hh). Hh is known to act as a morphogen, instructing different fates depending on the distance to its source. However, how Hh, when signaling across a cell field, impacts organ-specific transcriptional networks is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate this issue during the development of the Drosophila ocellar complex. The development of this sensory structure, which is composed of three simple eyes (or ocelli) located at the vertices of a triangular patch of cuticle on the dorsal head, depends on Hh signaling and on the definition of three domains: two areas of eya and so expression--the prospective anterior and posterior ocelli--and the intervening interocellar domain. Our results highlight the role of the homeodomain transcription factor engrailed (en) both as a target and as a transcriptional repressor of hh signaling in the prospective interocellar region. Furthermore, we identify a requirement for the Notch pathway in the establishment of en maintenance in a Hh-independent manner. Therefore, hh signals transiently during the specification of the interocellar domain, with en being required here for hh signaling attenuation. Computational analysis further suggests that this network design confers robustness to signaling noise and constrains phenotypic variation. In summary, using genetics and modeling we have expanded the ocellar gene network to explain how the interaction between the Hh gradient and this gene network results in the generation of stable mutually exclusive gene expression domains. In addition, we discuss some general implications our model may have in some Hh-driven gene networks.

  20. Testing an assumption of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control during reading: Using event-related potentials to examine the familiarity check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichle, E.D.; Tokowicz, N.; Liu, Y.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control, the completion of an early stage of lexical processing, the familiarity check, causes the eyes to move forward during reading (Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998). Here, we report an event-related potential (ERP

  1. Rapid reduction of hard exudates in eyes with diabetic retinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone: data from a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Kifley, Annette; Zhu, Meidong; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Sutter, Florian K P; Gillies, Mark C

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of triamcinolone acetonide over 3 months on hard exudates in patients with diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Thirty-two eyes of 16 patients with DMO and hard exudates were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Treated eyes received a single-dose (4 mg) intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Control eyes received an injection of subconjunctival saline. The overall area of hard exudates decreased significantly between the baseline and 3-month visits in treated eyes, but not in control eyes. The mean change in level of hard exudates between the two visits was -0.75 arbitrary units (AU) (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.32 to -0.18) in the central plus inner circle (1500 microm) and -0.81 AU (95% CI -1.49 to -0.13) over the whole grid (3000 microm) in treated eyes, compared with 0.31 AU (95% CI -0.19 to 0.82) and 0.31 AU (95% CI -0.11 to 0.74), respectively, in control eyes (p exudates in the short-term in eyes with DMO.

  2. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  3. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  4. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  5. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  6. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  7. Quantitative electroencephalography in Alzheimer's disease: comparison with a control group, population norms and mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2001-03-01

    Given that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) has repeatedly shown excessive slow wave activity in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) that increases with disease progression, we assessed the clinical utility of this tool by comparing various approaches used to assess slowing. Cross-sectional study comparing quantitative EEG data from patients with DAT with normative data from an elderly control group and from EEG norms derived from a large population. 35 subjects diagnosed with probable DAT and 30 elderly controls. EEG recorded from 21 scalp sites of each patient and elderly control during vigilance-controlled, eyes-closed, resting conditions was spectrally analyzed to yield measures of absolute and relative power in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and indices of mean alpha band and total band frequency. Group comparisons of raw or age-regressed z-score population normative values yielded different profiles with respect to direction of frequency band changes, regional topography and clinical rating correlations, but both procedures evidenced overall patterns of EEG slowing in DAT. However, both methodologies yielded only modest (75%) classification rates. Quantitative EEG remains a valuable research tool but, as yet, an unproven diagnostic tool, for DAT.

  8. CYFIP dependent Actin Remodeling controls specific aspects of Drosophila eye morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galy, A.; Schenck, A.; Sahin, H.B.; Qurashi, A.; Sahel, J.A.; Diebold, C.; Giangrande, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell rearrangements shape organs and organisms using molecular pathways and cellular processes that are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the Actin cytoskeleton in the formation of the Drosophila compound eye, which requires extensive remodeling and coordination between differ

  9. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  10. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  11. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products...

  12. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors...

  13. act up controls actin polymerization to alter cell shape and restrict Hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila eye disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlali, A; Draskovic, I; Hazelett, D J; Treisman, J E

    2000-04-28

    Cells in the morphogenetic furrow of the Drosophila eye disc undergo a striking shape change immediately prior to their neuronal differentiation. We have isolated mutations in a novel gene, act up (acu), that is required for this shape change. acu encodes a homolog of yeast cyclase-associated protein, which sequesters monomeric actin; we show that acu is required to prevent actin filament polymerization in the eye disc. In contrast, profilin promotes actin filament polymerization, acting epistatically to acu. However, both acu and profilin are required to prevent premature Hedgehog-induced photoreceptor differentiation ahead of the morphogenetic furrow. These findings suggest that dynamic changes in actin filaments alter cell shape to control the movement of signals that coordinate a wave of differentiation.

  14. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years, and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.

  15. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  16. radiation-related eye diseases among welders of suame

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    “Magazine” in the Kumasi metropolis were enrolled for the study. Methods employed in the ex- ... Repeated exposure of the eyes to UV radiation. (UVR) causes both short-term eye ... men and 121 (26.9%) women constituted the control group.

  17. Eye lrritation caused by Formaldehyde as an Indoor AIr Pollution—A Controlled Human Exposure Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXU; ZHANGYUN-PING; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on health assessment of wood based panels which are widely used in interior decoration practices over the recent years in China.Formaldehyde has been i-dentified as chemical indicator of (IAO) and an indoor air pollutant.To test its health effects experiment was undertaken.Method: A small environmental test chamber(60/L) was used as the genertor of emission gas from new panels,and was operating at a temperature of 22.7±0.6℃ and a humidity of 44.4±2.5% with an air exchange rate of 1.0±0.15h-1.On the three experimental days the values of product lodaing in chamber were 4,2 and 6m2/m3,respectively,Eight people were selected randomly from the students and employees of Wuhan Health and Anti-epidemic Station as subjects,with an average age of 21.9±5.9 years,and a gender ratio of 1:1,and two of them were smokders(one male and one female).The subjects' eyes were exposed to formaldehyde through a pair of googles.Each goggle had its flow inlet and outlet,and connected to chamber exhaust of emission gas and to an exhaust from the room.The exposure time was very short,just 5 minutes and the formaldehyde doses were at 1.65±0.01,2.99±0.07and 4.31±0.02ppm,A6-mm linear visual analogue rating scales was used to measure the intensity of sensory eye irritation and a video tape racorder was used to record eye blinking frequency.Results:the results demonstrated that tests of sensory eye irritation and eye blinking can be used for materials testing,and that a dose-effect as well as a time-variance of the effect can be measured.Conclusion:The tests showed that eye irritation was perceived at all of the three levels.±

  18. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  19. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun

    2014-03-03

    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  20. Eye movement training results in changes in qEEG and NIH stroke scale in subjects suffering from acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context:Eye-movement training (EMT can induce altered brain activation and change the functionality of saccades with changes of the brain in general. Objective:To determine if EMT would result in changes in qEEG and NIH Stroke Scales (NIHSS in patients suffering from acute middle cerebral artery (MCA infarction. Our hypothesis is that there would be positive changes in qEEG and NIHSS after EMT in patients suffering from acute MCA ischemic stroke.Design:Double blind randomized controlled trial.Setting and Participants:34 subjects with acute MCA ischemic stroke at university affiliated hospital intensive care unit.Interventions:Subjects were randomized into a control group treated only with aspirin (125 mg/day and a treatment group treated with aspirin (125 mg/day and a subject specific EMT. Main Outcome measures: Delta-Alpha Ratio, Power Ratio Index and the Brain Symmetry Index calculated by quantitative electroencephalograms, and NIHSS. Results:There was strong statistical and substantive significant improvement in all outcome measures for the group of stroke patients undergoing EMT. Such improvement was not observed for the control group and there were no adverse effects.Conclusions:The addition of EMT to a MCA ischemic stroke treatment paradigm has demonstrated statistically significant changes in outcome measures and is a low cost, safe and effective complement to standard treatment.

  1. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For solving complex flow field with multi-scale structure higher order accurate schemes are preferred. Among high order schemes the compact schemes have higher resolving efficiency. When the compact and upwind compact schemes are used to solve aerodynamic problems there are numerical oscillations near the shocks. The reason of oscillation production is because of non-uniform group velocity of wave packets in numerical solutions. For improvement of resolution of the shock a parameter function is introduced in compact scheme to control the group velocity. The newly developed method is simple. It has higher accuracy and less stencil of grid points.

  2. 77 FR 63874 - Birds Eye Foods, LLC; Fulton, NY Plant; A Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Pinnacle Foods Group LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Pinnacle Foods Group LLC; Including On-Site Leased Workers From W L Staff Svces., Inc. and Bemsa Holdings... wholly-owned subsidiary of Pinnacle Foods Group LLC, including on-site leased workers from W L Staff... Plant, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pinnacle Foods Group LLC, including on- site leased workers from W...

  3. Visual outcome, local tumour control, and eye preservation after {sup 106}Ru/Rh brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isager, Peter; Ehlers, Niels; Urbak, Steen F. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Overgaard, Jens [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology

    2005-05-15

    To study the visual outcome, local tumour control, and eye preservation 5 years after ruthenium/rhodium 106 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. The study included 55 consecutive patients treated by {sup 106}Ru/Rh brachytherapy for a choroidal melanoma during the period 1988-2000 and followed through 2004. The 5-year probability for not losing at least 5 Snellen lines was 59% (n=45), for retaining a visual acuity of 0.33 or better was 28% (n=34), and for retaining better than 0.1 was 40% (n=45). The 5-year probability for no local recurrence was 73% and for eye preservation 72% (n=55). {sup 106}Ru/Rh brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma resulted in a clinically significant vision loss, no local recurrence, and eye preservation in most patients after 5 years. {sup 106}Ru/Rh brachytherapy can be regarded as a good treatment option for small and medium-sized tumours but not for large tumours.

  4. FEATURES OF TAX CONTROL ON THE CONSOLIDATED GROUP OF TAXPAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article features of formation of the consolidated base on income tax of the organizations, difficulties of tax control of all participants of the consolidated group oftaxpayers are opened. On the basis of theanalysis of statistical reportes of FederalTax Service of Russia subjects of the Russian Federation in whom need of carryingout tax audits is proved are revealed.

  5. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties by CorVis ST in Patients with Dry Eye and in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate corneal biomechanical properties in patients with dry eye and in healthy subjects using Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CorVis ST. Methods. Biomechanical parameters were measured using CorVis ST in 28 eyes of 28 patients with dry eye (dry eye group and 26 normal subjects (control group. The Schirmer I test value, tear film break-up time (TBUT, and corneal staining score (CSS were recorded for each eye. Biomechanical properties were compared between the two groups and bivariate correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between biomechanical parameters and dry eye signs. Results. Only one of the ten biomechanical parameters was significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the dry eye group had significantly lower highest concavity time (HC-time (P=0.02 than the control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between HC-time and CSS with marginal P value (ρ=-0.39, P=0.04 in the dry eye group. Conclusions. The corneal biomechanical parameter of HC-time is reduced in dry eyes compared to normal eyes. There was also a very weak but significant negative correlation between HC-time and CSS in the dry eye group, indicating that ocular surface damage can give rise to a more compliant cornea in dry eyes.

  6. From deception trials to control reagents - The introduction of the control group about a century ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2000-01-01

    This is the story of the remarkable psychologist John E. Coover, who, in the early 1900s, was the first to advocate the comparison of experimental and control ol groups as a methodological necessity. Moreover, the author raises the issue of why control groups were launched about a century ago, and w

  7. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  8. The new biometric access control system resembles a big electronic eye. It will be used to control access to the LHC from 2007 onwards.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The new LHC access control systems will soon be using the latest technology: optical recognition based on iris image data. In order to gain access to the tunnel it will be your eye, not your credentials that you'll be required to show! As of September, the entrance point at Point 8 should be the first to be fitted out with iris recognition equipment. The other access shafts will then gradually be equipped one by one.

  9. Pain ameliorating effect of eye movement desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, H; Groth, S; Rogers, D

    1994-06-01

    This study explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) in the management of acute pain induced by hand exposures to ice water. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, (b) eye movement desensitization with music (EMD/M), and (c) control. The EMD/R participants focused on negative experiences associated with exposure to ice water, generated positive self-talk, and diverted their attention away from pain by focusing on a rapidly moving light on a monitor. The EMD with music group received eye movement desensitization coupled with preferred music. Repeated measures univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that both procedures alleviated participants' pain to a similar degree and significantly more than the control, P < 0.05.

  10. Globe salvage using chemoreduction for advanced retinoblastoma in a glaucomatous eye with buphthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvus, Britt J; Salazar, Pedro F; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2009-01-01

    To report globe salvage using chemoreduction (CRD) for advanced retinoblastoma in a glaucomatous eye with buphthalmos. Case report. A 7-month-old girl presented with epiphora and buphthalmos in the right eye. She was found to have bilateral retinoblastoma. Classified as group E, the right eye exhibited a total retinal detachment and buphthalmos from secondary glaucoma. The left eye was classified as group B. Systemic workup revealed no metastatic disease. CRD was employed with future planned enucleation of the right eye. After six cycles of CRD and focal consolidating treatments, complete regression of retinoblastoma in both eyes was achieved. The right eye showed complete resolution of the retinal detachment and no active tumor or seeds at 18 months follow-up, allowing for salvage of the eye. In this child with secondary glaucoma and buphthalmos from retinoblastoma, CRD provided complete tumor control and globe salvage.

  11. New Dystrophin/Dystroglycan interactors control neuron behavior in Drosophila eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishko Valentyna M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC is a large multi-component complex that is well known for its function in muscle tissue. When the main components of the DGC, Dystrophin (Dys and Dystroglycan (Dg are affected cognitive impairment and mental retardation in addition to muscle degeneration can occur. Previously we performed an array of genetic screens using a Drosophila model for muscular dystrophy in order to find novel DGC interactors aiming to elucidate the signaling role(s in which the complex is involved. Since the function of the DGC in the brain and nervous system has not been fully defined, we have here continued to analyze the DGC modifiers' function in the developing Drosophila brain and eye. Results Given that disruption of Dys and Dg leads to improper photoreceptor axon projections into the lamina and eye neuron elongation defects during development, we have determined the function of previously screened components and their genetic interaction with the DGC in this tissue. Our study first found that mutations in chif, CG34400, Nrk, Lis1, capt and Cam cause improper axon path-finding and loss of SP2353, Grh, Nrk, capt, CG34400, vimar, Lis1 and Cam cause shortened rhabdomere lengths. We determined that Nrk, mbl, capt and Cam genetically interact with Dys and/or Dg in these processes. It is notable that most of the neuronal DGC interacting components encountered are involved in regulation of actin dynamics. Conclusions Our data indicate possible DGC involvement in the process of cytoskeletal remodeling in neurons. The identification of new components that interact with the DGC not only helps to dissect the mechanism of axon guidance and eye neuron differentiation but also provides a great opportunity for understanding the signaling mechanisms by which the cell surface receptor Dg communicates via Dys with the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. Buddha as an eye opener: A link between prosocial attitude and attentional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon’s global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to race, intelligence, sex, and age. Given the Buddhist emphasis on compassion for the physical and social environment, we expected a more global bias in Buddhist than in Atheist participants. In line with these expectations, Buddhists showed a larger global-precedence effect and increased interference from global distracters when processing local information. This pattern reinforces the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects biases rewarded by their religious beliefs.

  13. Buddha as an Eye Opener: A Link between Prosocial Attitude and Attentional Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Hommel, Bernhard; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hsieh, Shulan

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon's global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Zen Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to race, intelligence, sex, and age. Given the Buddhist emphasis on compassion for the physical and social environment, we expected a more global bias in Buddhist than in Atheist participants. In line with these expectations, Buddhists showed a larger global-precedence effect and increased interference from global distracters when processing local information. This pattern reinforces the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects biases rewarded by their religious practices.

  14. Testing an assumption of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control during reading: using event-related potentials to examine the familiarity check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Erik D; Tokowicz, Natasha; Liu, Ying; Perfetti, Charles A

    2011-07-01

    According to the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control, the completion of an early stage of lexical processing, the familiarity check, causes the eyes to move forward during reading (Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998). Here, we report an event-related potential (ERP) experiment designed to examine the hypothesized familiarity check at the electrophysiological level. The results indicate ERP components modulated by word frequency at the time of the predicted familiarity check. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an early stage of lexical processing is linked to the "decisions" about when to move the eyes during reading. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Hypovitaminosis D according to psychiatric diagnosis groups: A study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Güliz Mert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the risk factor for different psychiatric disorders has been indicated as hypovit-aminosis D. The present study aimed to compare 25 (OH D level between 4 different types of psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety disorder and healthy controls, and to assess the risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in psychiatric inpatients. Method: This retrospective study included 974 individuals [depression (n=553, bipolar disorder (n=135, schizophrenia (n=186 and anxiety disorder (n=100] who received inpatient treatment in psychiatry clinic between 2012 and 2014, and 574 individuals in control group who were not diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. A 25 (OH D level less than 21 ng/mL was considered to indicate hypovitaminosis D. Results: 25 (OH D level average of the control group was found to be significantly higher than that of the four psychiatric diagnosis groups (p0.05. Lo-gistic regression analysis of the study parameters suggested that the female gender (odds ratio: 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.01, winter and spring seasons (odds ratio: 2.56; 95% con-fidence interval: 1.69-3.86 and odds ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.33-3.11, respectively were significant predictors in level of vitamin D in psychiatric inpatients. Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D is a condition that frequently exists in inpatients in psychiatry clinic suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder and depression. Being a female, winter and spring are the most remarkable risk factors in these patients.

  16. Dosimetry of (125)I and (103)Pd COMS eye plaques for intraocular tumors: report of Task Group 129 by the AAPM and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Astrahan, Melvin A; Finger, Paul T; Followill, David S; Meigooni, Ali S; Melhus, Christopher S; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Rogers, D W O; Thomson, Rowan M

    2012-10-01

    Dosimetry of eye plaques for ocular tumors presents unique challenges in brachytherapy. The challenges in accurate dosimetry are in part related to the steep dose gradient in the tumor and critical structures that are within millimeters of radioactive sources. In most clinical applications, calculations of dose distributions around eye plaques assume a homogenous water medium and full scatter conditions. Recent Monte Carlo (MC)-based eye-plaque dosimetry simulations have demonstrated that the perturbation effects of heterogeneous materials in eye plaques, including the gold-alloy backing and Silastic insert, can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. Even additional levels of complexity introduced through the use of gold foil "seed-guides" and custom-designed plaques can be calculated accurately using modern MC techniques. Simulations accounting for the aforementioned complexities indicate dose discrepancies exceeding a factor of ten to selected critical structures compared to conventional dose calculations. Task Group 129 was formed to review the literature; re-examine the current dosimetry calculation formalism; and make recommendations for eye-plaque dosimetry, including evaluation of brachytherapy source dosimetry parameters and heterogeneity correction factors. A literature review identified modern assessments of dose calculations for Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) design plaques, including MC analyses and an intercomparison of treatment planning systems (TPS) detailing differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous plaque calculations using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43U1 brachytherapy dosimetry formalism and MC techniques. This review identified that a commonly used prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth in homogeneous medium delivers about 75 Gy and 69 Gy at the same 5 mm depth for specific (125)I and (103)Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS plaque heterogeneities. Thus, the adoption of

  17. Mitochondrial control region diversity in Sindhi ethnic group of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Memona; Rakha, Allah; Noreen, Saadia; Salahuddin, Zeenat

    2017-05-01

    The entire mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 16024-576) of 88 unrelated individuals of Sindhi ethnic group residing in different parts of Sindh province of Pakistan was sequenced. Out of 66 different observed haplotypes 50 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. Results showed admixture of mtDNA pool constituting the haplogroups derived mainly from South Asia (47.6%) and West Eurasian (35.7%) whereas the contribution of the African haplogroup was very small (2.4%). High values of genetic diversity (0.992), power of discrimination (0.981) and low value of random match probability (0.018) indicates that mtDNA analysis for this population can effectively be used for forensic casework. The results are valuable contribution towards building mtDNA population variation database for this particular ethnic group from Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlling group velocity in a superconductive quantum circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Tian-Hui; Yang Guo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the controllable group velocity of a microwave probe field in a superconductive quantum circuit (SQC) pumped by microwave fields,and the use of such a SQC function as an artificial A-type three-level atom.The exchange between the subluminal and the superluminal states of the probe field can be realized simply by sweeping the pumping intensity,and the superluminal state is usually realized with a lower absorption.This work is one of the efforts to extend the study of electromagnetically induced transparency and its related properties from the lightwave band to the microwave band.

  19. Antagonism between Gdf6a and retinoic acid pathways controls timing of retinal neurogenesis and growth of the eye in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Leonardo E.; Lamb, Dayna B.; Horner, Wilson; Wierzbicki, Claudia; Tafessu, Amanuel; Williams, Audrey M.; Gestri, Gaia; Krasnow, Anna M.; Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra S.; Givens, McKenzie; Young, Rodrigo M.; Lawrence, Lisa M.; Stickney, Heather L.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Schwarz, Quenten P.; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Wilson, Stephen W.; Cerveny, Kara L.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining neurogenesis in growing tissues requires a tight balance between progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. In the zebrafish retina, neuronal differentiation proceeds in two stages with embryonic retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) of the central retina accounting for the first rounds of differentiation, and stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) being responsible for late neurogenesis and growth of the eye. In this study, we analyse two mutants with small eyes that display defects during both early and late phases of retinal neurogenesis. These mutants carry lesions in gdf6a, a gene encoding a BMP family member previously implicated in dorsoventral patterning of the eye. We show that gdf6a mutant eyes exhibit expanded retinoic acid (RA) signalling and demonstrate that exogenous activation of this pathway in wild-type eyes inhibits retinal growth, generating small eyes with a reduced CMZ and fewer proliferating progenitors, similar to gdf6a mutants. We provide evidence that RA regulates the timing of RPC differentiation by promoting cell cycle exit. Furthermore, reducing RA signalling in gdf6a mutants re-establishes appropriate timing of embryonic retinal neurogenesis and restores putative stem and progenitor cell populations in the CMZ. Together, our results support a model in which dorsally expressed gdf6a limits RA pathway activity to control the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the growing eye. PMID:26893342

  20. Antagonism between Gdf6a and retinoic acid pathways controls timing of retinal neurogenesis and growth of the eye in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Leonardo E; Lamb, Dayna B; Horner, Wilson; Wierzbicki, Claudia; Tafessu, Amanuel; Williams, Audrey M; Gestri, Gaia; Krasnow, Anna M; Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra S; Givens, McKenzie; Young, Rodrigo M; Lawrence, Lisa M; Stickney, Heather L; Hawkins, Thomas A; Schwarz, Quenten P; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Wilson, Stephen W; Cerveny, Kara L

    2016-04-01

    Maintaining neurogenesis in growing tissues requires a tight balance between progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. In the zebrafish retina, neuronal differentiation proceeds in two stages with embryonic retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) of the central retina accounting for the first rounds of differentiation, and stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) being responsible for late neurogenesis and growth of the eye. In this study, we analyse two mutants with small eyes that display defects during both early and late phases of retinal neurogenesis. These mutants carry lesions in gdf6a, a gene encoding a BMP family member previously implicated in dorsoventral patterning of the eye. We show that gdf6a mutant eyes exhibit expanded retinoic acid (RA) signalling and demonstrate that exogenous activation of this pathway in wild-type eyes inhibits retinal growth, generating small eyes with a reduced CMZ and fewer proliferating progenitors, similar to gdf6a mutants. We provide evidence that RA regulates the timing of RPC differentiation by promoting cell cycle exit. Furthermore, reducing RA signalling in gdf6a mutants re-establishes appropriate timing of embryonic retinal neurogenesis and restores putative stem and progenitor cell populations in the CMZ. Together, our results support a model in which dorsally expressed gdf6a limits RA pathway activity to control the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the growing eye.

  1. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  3. Inter-eye comparison of retinal oximetry and vessel caliber between eyes with asymmetrical glaucoma severity in different glaucoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Shu Ming Cheng,1,2 Yi Fang Lee,2 Charles Ong,3 Zhu Li Yap,2 Andrew Tsai,2 Aditi Mohla,2 Monisha E Nongpiur,4 Tin Aung,2,4 Shamira A Perera2,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Singapore National Eye Centre, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Background: To compare retinal vessel oxygenation and vessel caliber in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity.Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. The 159 subjects (PACG, n=39; POAG, n=41; NTG, n=41; normal controls, n=38 underwent retinal oxygen saturation measurements using the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter, optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field testing. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel diameter were compared between the glaucoma groups and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for comparison among different subtypes of glaucoma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the inter-eye differences.Results: Compared to normal controls, arteriolar oxygen saturation was increased in PACG eyes (P=0.048 but not in POAG or NTG eyes. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation in venules or arteriovenous (AV difference in all three glaucoma groups. Venular diameter was significantly reduced in all glaucoma groups compared to normal controls (P<0.001, but no such change was observed in arteriolar diameter (P=0.10. When comparing between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity, arteriolar oxygen saturation (P=0.03 and AV difference (P=0.04 were significantly higher, while arteriolar diameter was significantly lower (P=0.001 in the worse eye in PACG group. There were no significant

  4. Techniques used for the analysis of oculometer eye-scanning data obtained from an air traffic control display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Daniel J.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The methodology and techniques used to collect and analyze look-point position data from a real-time ATC display-format comparison experiment are documented. That study compared the delivery precision and controller workload of three final approach spacing aid display formats. Using an oculometer, controller lookpoint position data were collected, associated with gaze objects (e.g., moving aircraft) on the ATC display, and analyzed to determine eye-scan behavior. The equipment involved and algorithms for saving, synchronizing with the ATC simulation output, and filtering the data are described. Target (gaze object) and cross-check scanning identification algorithms are also presented. Data tables are provided of total dwell times, average dwell times, and cross-check scans. Flow charts, block diagrams, file record descriptors, and source code are included. The techniques and data presented are intended to benefit researchers in other studies that incorporate non-stationary gaze objects and oculometer equipment.

  5. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  6. Can You See Me Thinking (about My Answers)? Using Eye-Tracking to Illuminate Developmental Differences in Monitoring and Control Skills and Their Relation to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Thomas; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on relations between 7- and 9-year-old children's and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes. In addition to explicit confidence judgments (CJ), data for participants' control behavior during learning and recall as well as implicit CJs were collected with an eye-tracking device (Tobii 1750).…

  7. Design of Eye-Controlled Mouse Based on Eye Tracking Technology%基于视线追踪的眼控鼠标设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱麒文; 闫隆鑫; 张若兰; 张帅; 杨兰兰

    2016-01-01

    以Visual Studio为平台,OpenCV计算机视觉库为基础,辅助以单片机、传感器、无线传输模块等自主研发了一套头戴式视线追踪系统,完成瞳孔提取、视线追踪定位、眨眼检测等功能,实现眼球替代鼠标完成对电脑的指令。创新性地提出了椭圆拟合与积分投影去噪法等方法,以消除头部微小移动对定位带来的影响,使系统具有高的精确度和良好的实用价值。%With the platform of Visual Studio,the basis of OpenCV computer vision library and the assistance of a MCU,sensors and wireless transmission modules,a head-mounted eye tracking system is built. The system accom⁃plished pupil extraction,eye tracking positioning,blinking detection and other functions which enabled eyes instead of mouse to complete computer instructions. Innovative methods have been presented:integral projection denoising, capturing the pupil center through ellipse fitting algorithm,etc. This series of methods eliminates the influence of slight movement of the head on positioning accuracy,endowing the system with high accuracy and practicality.

  8. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  10. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  11. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  12. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs...

  13. Clinical assessment of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Luo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the application of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: From January 2011 to February 2012, 38 eyes of 37 patients, who underwent toric intraocular lens implantation in this hospital, were randomly divided into diclofenac sodium eye drops group(trial groupand control group. Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery and inflammation postoperation after 1 day, 3,7, days, 1 month and 3 months were evaluated. RESULTS: Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery in the trial group(1.53±0.62was significantly better than in the control group(2.40±0.88, P<0.05. Inflammation reaction was gentle in the trial group 1 day postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium eye drops used during toric intraocular lens implantation can obviously alleviate eye irritation, and increase the cooperation of patients.

  14. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Versus Treatment as Usual for Non-Specific Chronic Back Pain Patients with Psychological Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gerhardt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eye-Movement-Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR – an evidence-based approach to eliminate emotional distress from traumatic experiences – was recently suggested for the treatment of chronic pain. Aim of this study was to estimate preliminary efficacy of a pain-focused EMDR intervention for the treatment of non-specific chronic back pain.Design: Randomized controlled pilot study.Methods: Forty non-specific chronic back pain patients reporting previous experiences of psychological trauma were consecutively recruited from outpatient tertiary-care pain centers. After baseline assessment, patients were randomized to intervention or control group (1:1. The intervention group received ten sessions standardized pain-focused EMDR in addition to treatment-as-usual. The control group received treatment-as-usual alone.The primary outcome was preliminary efficacy, measured by pain intensity, disability, and treatment satisfaction from the patients' perspective. Clinical relevance of changes was determined according to established recommendations. Assessments were conducted at the baseline, post-treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat-analysis with last-observation-carried-forward method was used. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01850875.Results: Estimated effect sizes (between-group, pooled standard deviation for pain intensity and disability were d=0.79 (CI95%: 0.13, 1.42 and d=0.39 (CI95%: -0.24, 1.01 post-treatment, and d=0.50 (CI95%: 0.14, 1.12 and d=0.14 (CI95%: -0.48, 0.76 at 6-month follow-up. Evaluation on individual patient basis showed that about 50% of the patients in the intervention group improved clinically relevant and also rated their situation as clinically satisfactory improved, compared to zero patients in the control group.Conclusions: There is preliminary evidence that pain-focused EMDR might be useful for non-specific chronic back pain patients with previous experiences of psychological trauma

  15. Control with an eye for perception: Precursors to an active psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The perception-action cycle is viewed within the context of research in manual control. A portrait of a perception-action system is derived from the primitives of control theory in order to evaluate the promise of this perspective of what Warren and McMillan (1984) have termed 'active psychophysics'. That is, a study of human performance that does justice to the intimate coupling between perception and action.

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  18. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  19. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  20. Eye Health in Sports and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer ... protection. High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries occur most frequently in baseball, basketball and racquet ...

  1. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  3. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  4. Semi-automated sorting using holographic optical tweezers remotely controlled by eye/hand tracking camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Zoltan; Keša, Peter; Nikorovič, Matej; Kaůka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    We proposed the improved control software for the holographic optical tweezers (HOT) proper for simple semi-automated sorting. The controller receives data from both the human interface sensors and the HOT microscope camera and processes them. As a result, the new positions of active laser traps are calculated, packed into the network format and sent to the remote HOT. Using the photo-polymerization technique, we created a sorting container consisting of two parallel horizontal walls where one wall contains "gates" representing a place where the trapped particle enters into the container. The positions of particles and gates are obtained by image analysis technique which can be exploited to achieve the higher level of automation. Sorting is documented on computer game simulation and the real experiment.

  5. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  6. A Novel scoring system for distinguishing keratoconus from normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruçoğlu, Faik; Toker, Ebru

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a novel scoring system in differentiation of keratoconus (KC) eyes from normal eyes using a Scheimpflug camera system tomography. Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey and Birinci Eye Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Retrospective case-control study. The study included 624 keratoconus eyes and 512 healthy eyes. Thirty nine significant parameters obtained from the Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam-Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) were studied. The cut-off value and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis for each studied parameter were established in the previous study. Minus three and plus three standard deviations of the cut-off value were scored after multiplication of AUROC for each parameter. The sum of all scores (TKS; Total Keratoconus Score) was compared between keratoconus and normal eyes. Average TKS value was -29.57±5.65 (Range from -43.11 to -7.09) in normal eyes and 36.23±24.3 (Range from -16.82 to 97.45) in keratoconus eyes (pkeratoconus group from the normal group with 99% sensitivity and 99% specificity at the best cut-off point of -12.45. The new scoring system measured by the Scheimpflug imaging system provides perfect discrimination of keratoconus from normal corneas. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Efficacy of atropine and anisodamine eye drops for adolescent pseudomyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect and local influence of atropine and anisodamine eye drops on adolescent pseudomyopia. METHODS:Totally 110 cases of juvenile pseudomyopia were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was given 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel, and the observation group was treated with 5g/L raceanisodamine eye drops. The efficacy of two methods, the changes of axial length and intraocular pressure before and after treatment, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in cure rate between the two groups(χ2=0.533, P=0.465, but the effective rate of observation group was significantly better than the control group(χ2=3.907, P=0.048. Compared with the same group before treatment, the length of the axial length of the two groups increased in different degrees,and the increase value of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. The intraocular pressure of the two groups was significantly lower than that of the same group before treatment, and the difference between the two groups after treatments was not statistically significant(P >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group(χ2=18.939, PCONCLUSION: Anisodamine eye drops in the treatment of juvenile pseudomyopia has obvious curative effect, its efficacy and safety are better than atropine eye gel.

  9. Inter-eye comparison of retinal oximetry and vessel caliber between eyes with asymmetrical glaucoma severity in different glaucoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Clarissa Shu Ming; Lee, Yi Fang; Ong, Charles; Yap, Zhu Li; Tsai, Andrew; Mohla, Aditi; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Aung, Tin; Perera, Shamira A

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare retinal vessel oxygenation and vessel caliber in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. The 159 subjects (PACG, n=39; POAG, n=41; NTG, n=41; normal controls, n=38) underwent retinal oxygen saturation measurements using the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter, optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field testing. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel diameter were compared between the glaucoma groups and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for comparison among different subtypes of glaucoma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the inter-eye differences. Results Compared to normal controls, arteriolar oxygen saturation was increased in PACG eyes (P=0.048) but not in POAG or NTG eyes. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation in venules or arteriovenous (AV) difference in all three glaucoma groups. Venular diameter was significantly reduced in all glaucoma groups compared to normal controls (P<0.001), but no such change was observed in arteriolar diameter (P=0.10). When comparing between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity, arteriolar oxygen saturation (P=0.03) and AV difference (P=0.04) were significantly higher, while arteriolar diameter was significantly lower (P=0.001) in the worse eye in PACG group. There were no significant differences in oximetric parameters or vessel calibers between the worse and the better eyes in POAG and NTG groups. Conclusion Eyes with PACG showed increased arteriolar oxygen saturation and increased AV difference. This was not observed in POAG and NTG eyes. Arteriolar diameter in PACG and venular diameter in all three glaucoma groups were reduced. The difference observed in PACG eyes may be due to an increased

  10. Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    exponentially stabilizing control law uSO(3) = H(x)ucfs(t, T (x)) (6.12) = H(x) =  cosx2 cosx3 − sec x2 sinx3 − cos x2 sinx3 − sec x2 cosx3  given ω is...nilpotentization, we constructed exponentially stabilizing control laws for non-nilpotent systems by extending the region of attraction of otherwise only locally...California Institute of Technology. Morin, P., Pomet, J.-B., & Samson, C. 1996. Design of Homogeneous Time- Varying Stabilizing Control Laws for Driftless

  11. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  12. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  13. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of

  14. twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene of Drosophila, acts upstream of eyeless in the control of eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, T; Halder, G; Kloter, U; Souabni, A; Gehring, W J; Busslinger, M

    1999-03-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless (ey) plays a key role in eye development. Here we show tht Drosophila contains a second Pax-6 gene, twin of eyeless (toy), due to a duplication during insect evolution. Toy is more similar to vertebrate Pax-6 proteins than Ey with regard to overall sequence conservation, DNA-binding function, and early expression in the embryo, toy and ey share a similar expression pattern in the developing visual system, and targeted expression of Toy, like Ey, induces the formation of ectopic eyes. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates, however, that Toy functions upstream of ey by directly regulating the eye-specific enhancer of ey. Toy is therefore required for initiation of ey expression in the embryo and acts through Ey to activate the eye developmental program.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  17. Protocol for the combined immunosuppression & radiotherapy in thyroid eye disease (CIRTED trial: A multi-centre, double-masked, factorial randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston Laura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significant side-effects with long-term use and recrudescence can occur on cessation. Current evidence is conflicting on the efficacy of radiotherapy and non-steroid systemic immunosuppression, and the majority of previous studies have been retrospective, uncontrolled, small or poorly designed. The Combined Immunosuppression and Radiotherapy in Thyroid Eye Disease (CIRTED trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of radiotherapy and azathioprine in combination with a standard course of oral prednisolone in patients with active thyroid eye disease. Methods/design Patients with active thyroid eye disease will be randomised to receive (i azathioprine or oral placebo and (ii radiotherapy or sham-radiotherapy in this multi-centre, factorial randomised control trial. The primary outcome is improvement in disease severity (assessed using a composite binary measure at 12 months and secondary end-points include quality of life scores and health economic measures. Discussion The CIRTED trial is the first study to evaluate the role of radiotherapy and azathioprine as part of a long-term, combination immunosuppressive treatment regime for Thyroid Eye Disease. It will provide evidence for the role of radiotherapy and prolonged immunosuppression in the management of this condition, as well as pilot data on their use in combination. We have paid particular attention in the trial design to establishing (a robust placebo controls and masking protocols which are effective and safe for both radiotherapy and the systemic administration of an antiproliferative drug; (b constructing effective inclusion and exclusion criteria to select for active disease; and (c selecting pragmatic outcome measures. Trial registration Current controlled trials

  18. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  19. Dominant Eye and Visual Evoked Potential of Patients with Myopic Anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective nonrandomized controlled study was conducted to explore the association between ocular dominance and degree of myopia in patients with anisometropia and to investigate the character of visual evoked potential (VEP in high anisometropias. 1771 young myopia cases including 790 anisometropias were recruited. We found no significant relation between ocular dominance and spherical equivalent (SE refraction in all subjects. On average for subjects with anisometropia 1.0–1.75 D, there was no significant difference in SE power between dominant and nondominant eyes, while, in SE anisometropia ≥1.75 D group, the degree of myopia was significantly higher in nondominant eyes than in dominant eyes. The trend was more significant in SE anisometropia ≥2.5 D group. There was no significant difference in higher-order aberrations between dominant eye and nondominant eye either in the whole study candidates or in any anisometropia groups. In anisometropias >2.0 D, the N75 latency of nondominant eye was longer than that of dominant eye. Our results suggested that, with the increase of anisometropia, nondominant eye had a tendency of higher refraction and N75 wave latency of nondominant eye was longer than that of dominant eye in high anisometropias.

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  1. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    Full Text Available Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale antiviral drug treatment program are as yet unknown. We provide population dynamical and game theoretical analyses of large-scale prophylactic antiviral treatment programs. Throughout we compare the antiviral control strategy that is optimal from the public health perspective with the control strategy that would evolve if individuals make their own, rational decisions. To this end we investigate the conditions under which a large-scale antiviral control program can prevent an epidemic, and we analyze at what point in an unfolding epidemic the risk of infection starts to outweigh the cost of antiviral treatment. This enables investigation of how the optimal control strategy is moulded by the efficacy of antiviral drugs, the risk of mortality by antiviral prophylaxis, and the transmissibility of the pathogen. Our analyses show that there can be a strong incentive for an individual to take less antiviral drugs than is optimal from the public health perspective. In particular, when public health asks for early and aggressive control to prevent or curb an emerging pathogen, for the individual antiviral drug treatment is attractive only when the risk of infection has become non-negligible. It is even possible that from a public health perspective a situation in which everybody takes antiviral drugs is optimal, while the process of individual choice leads to a situation where nobody is willing to take antiviral drugs.

  2. Retinal Morphology and Sensitivity Are Primarily Impaired in Eyes with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Ryutaro; Yokouchi, Hirotaka; Mori, Masahiro; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Sawai, Setsu; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed that the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in eyes without a history of optic neuritis (ON) was thinner than that of healthy controls. It remains unclear whether the ONL thinning is caused by a direct attack on the retina by an autoantibody or a retrograde degeneration. Objective To determine the mechanisms involved in the retinal damage in eyes with NMOSD without ON. Methods SD-OCT was used to determine the thicknesses of the different retinal layers of 21 eyes of 12 NMOSD patients without prior ON and 19 eyes of 10 healthy controls. Eyes with peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning were excluded to eliminate the confounding effects of retrograde degeneration. Microperimetry was used to determine the central retinal sensitivity. The data of the two groups were compared using generalized estimated equation models to account for inter-eye dependencies. Results The ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer plus outer plexiform layer thicknesses of the NMOSD eyes were not significantly different from that of the control eyes (P = 0.28, P = 0.78). However, the ONL and average macular thickness (AMT) in the NMOSD eyes were significantly thinner than that of the control eyes (P = 0.022, P = 0.036). The retinal sensitivity in the central 10°, 10° to 2°, and 2° sectors were significantly lower in the NMOSD eyes than in the control eyes (P = 0.013, P = 0.022, P = 0.002). Conclusions The ONL thinning, AMT thinning, and reduced retinal sensitivity in eyes with NMOSD without significant peripapillary RNFL thinning are most likely due to direct retinal pathology. PMID:27936154

  3. A fluorescence switch based on a controllable photochromic naphthopyran group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lizhen [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wang Guang, E-mail: wangg923@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhao Xiancai [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A fluorescence switch based on photoisomerization of naphthopyran (NP) has been designed by employing 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzimidazole (BPI) and the naphthopyran containing two pyran rings (NP) as fluorescent dye and photochromic compound, respectively. The fluorescence switch of benzimidazole derivative can be modulated either by controlling the irradiation time of UV light or by adjusting the amount ratio of fluorescent benzimidazole derivative to photochromic naphthopyran in both solution and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film. The experimental results indicated that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of benzimidazole derivative is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole with naphthopyran. - Highlights: > Naphthopyran was first used to fabricate fluorescence switch with benzimidazole derivative. > Fluorescence intensity can be modulated by controlling the UV irradiation time. > Fluorescence intensity can be adjusted by changing the ratio of benzimidazole derivative to naphthopyran. > Decrease of fluorescence intensity is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole derivative and naphthopyran.

  4. Control of Block Copolymer Morphology through End-functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Recently, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer electrolytes have attracted significant attention to be applied for lithium batteries. As the realization of high mechanical strength from the polymer electrolyte becomes of critical importance in high-energy lithium batteries, much effort has been devoted to developing PEO-based block copolymers comprising mechanically robust polymer chains. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by multiple observations of significant electrolytic conductivity enhancement imparted by microphase separation of block copolymers. In the present study, we report an intriguing methodology for modulating the morphology of poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) block copolymers with a single ionic group tethered at the chain end of PEO. Unique intra- and inter-chain interactions deduced from the end functional group afforded enriched nanostructures, i.e. disorder, lamellae, hexagonal cylinder, and gyroid, with significant differences in conductivities depending on lithium salt concentration. In particular, a gyorid morphology with a twofold-enhanced lithium ion transport efficiency was found for the end-functionalized PS-PEO block copolymer, attributed to the structural advantages of the gyroid having co-continuous ionic channels.

  5. Reduced sensitivity to contrast signals from the eye region in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Contrast-related signals from the eye region are known to be important for the processing of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have severe face recognition problems, which may be linked to deficits in the perceptual processing of identity-related information from the eyes. We tested this hypothesis by measuring N170 components in DP participants and age-matched controls in response to face images where the contrast polarity of the eyes and of other face parts was independently manipulated. In different trials, participants fixated either the eye region or the lower part of a face. In the Control group, contrast-reversal of the eyes resulted in enhanced and delayed N170 components, irrespective of the contrast of other face parts and of gaze location. In the DP group, these effects of eye contrast on N170 amplitudes were strongly and significantly reduced, demonstrating that perceptual face processing in DP is less well tuned to contrast information from the eye region. Inverting the contrast of other parts of the face affected N170 amplitudes only when fixation was outside the eye region. This effect did not differ between the two groups, indicating that DPs are not generally insensitive to the contrast polarity of face images. These results provide new evidence that a selective deficit in detecting and analysing identity-related information provided by contrast signals from the eye region may contribute to the face recognition impairment in DP.

  6. Potential of essential oils for the control of brown eye spot in coffee plants Potencial de óleos essenciais no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to assess the in vitro effect of essential oils extracted from cinnamon, citronella, lemon grass, India clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the conidia germination and on mycelial growth of Cercospora coffeicola, and their efficacy to control the brown eye spot in coffee seedlings (cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in a greenhouse, as well as their effects on the initial germination and infection events by scanning electron microscopy. All essential oils promoted the inhibition of conidia germination with increasing concentrations. India clove, cinnamon, neem, thyme and lemon grass oils inhibited the mycelial growth of C. coffeicola. The cinnamon and citronella oils were the most promising for brown eye spot control in all cultivars. In scanning electron microscopy, the cinnamon and citronella oils reduced germination and mycelial development of C. coffeicola in vivo, eight and 16 hours after inoculation, promoting, in some cases, the leakage of the cellular content. Essential oils of cinnamon and citronella reduced the incidence and severity of brown eye spot, in addition to presenting direct toxicity to the pathogen.Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais extraídos de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de conídios e no crescimento micelial de Cercospora coffeicola, a eficácia destes óleos no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro em mudas das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e seus efeitos sobre os eventos iniciais de germinação e infecção do patógeno in vivo por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Todos os óleos essenciais inibiram a germinação dos conídios com o aumento das concentrações. Os óleos de cravo-da-índia, canela, nim, tomilho e capim-limão inibiram o crescimento micelial de C. coffeicola. Os

  7. Two-eyed versus one-eyed salamanders: does binocularity enhance the optically evoked skin blanching reactions of Ambystoma larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, P; Schneider, C W

    1990-08-01

    A wide variety of visual functions show increases attributable to binocularity, and the question pursued here was whether a second eye enhances the visually stimulated skin blanching reaction of the larval salamander. Dermal melanin spots (produced by the aggregations of melanosomes within dermal melanophores and which contract or expand to lighten or darken the skin) were measured in eyeless (controls), one-eyed and two-eyed Ambystoma punctatum larvae after chronic adaptation of the subjects to a white background (i.e., stimulus conditions for maximum blanching). The eyeless subjects showed no blanching (thus remained dark) in white cups, and they exhibited melanin spots 7 or 8 times the size of those of the other two groups. All one-eyed or two-eyed subjects exhibited blanching reactions; planometric comparison revealed a significantly larger melanin spot area for one-eyed than for two-eyed animals; i.e., the binocular condition permitted greater contraction of the pigment spots than did the monocular condition. Analytical data compared favorably with independently ascertained pigmentation indices. The results indicate that a second eye quantitatively elevates the blanching maximum of a larval salamander.

  8. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  9. Collagen cross-linking in keratoconus in Asian eyes: visual, refractive and confocal microscopy outcomes in a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Suri, Kunal; Sehra, Sri Vatsa; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Sinha, Rajesh; Tandon, Radhika; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the treatment of keratoconus. A prospective randomized sham-controlled clinical trial was undertaken and 43 eyes with moderate to severe keratoconus were randomized into two groups that is the treatment (n = 23) and the sham (n = 20) group. CXL was performed with riboflavin (0.1 in 20 % dextran) followed by UVA radiation (365 nm, 3 mW/cm(2), 30 min). In the sham group, only riboflavin was administered without UVA radiation. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, keratometry, endothelial count, confocal microscopy were evaluated at baseline and at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months. In cases where CXL was done, UDVA improved by mean 0.11 ± 0.06 logMAR units at 6 months (P = 0.01). The refractive cylinder and spherical equivalent decreased by mean of 0.62 D (P = 0.01) and 0.5 D (P = 0.19), respectively. Ultrasonic central corneal thickness decreased by mean 22.7 ± 10.3 μm (P = 0.01). The maximum and minimum keratometry decreased by mean of 1.2 ± 0.8 D (P = 0.01) and 0.83 ± 1.2 D (P = 0.39), respectively. The specular count and intraocular pressure did not show any significant change. In the sham group, no significant change was observed in any parameter. Confocal analysis showed that the epithelial healing was complete at 1 week after crosslinking. The sub-epithelial plexus showed loss of nerve plexus at 1 month, regeneration of nerve fibers which started at 3 months and was complete at 6 months. The anterior stroma showed loss of keratocytes with honeycomb oedema and apoptotic bodies till 3 months. The regeneration of keratocytes started at 3 months and was complete at 6 months of follow-up. Collagen cross-linking is an effective procedure to halt progression in keratoconus. The confocal microscopic changes correlate with the outcomes in the treatment and the sham groups.

  10. The impact of salience and visual working memory on the monitoring and control of saccadic behavior: An eye-tracking and EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew D; Hickey, Clayton; van Zoest, Wieske

    2017-01-10

    In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task. Results showed greater likelihood of incorrect saccades when the distractor was relatively more salient than when the target was salient. Misdirected saccades to salient distractors were strongly represented in the error-monitoring system by rapid and robust error-related negativity (ERN), which predicted a significant adjustment of oculomotor behavior. Misdirected saccades to less-salient distractors, while arguably representing larger errors, were not as well detected or utilized by the error/performance-monitoring system. This system was instead better engaged in tasks requiring greater cognitive control and by individuals with higher VWM capacity. Our findings show that relative salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli can define situations where an increase in cognitive control is necessary, with individual differences in VWM capacity explaining significant variance in the degree of monitoring and control of goal-directed eye movement behavior. The present study supports a conflict-monitoring interpretation of the ERN, whereby the level of competition between different responses, and the stimuli that define these responses, was more important in the generation of an enhanced ERN than the error commission itself.

  11. HIERARCHICAL ACCESS CONTROL IN DYNAMIC PEER GROUPS USING SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIAL AND TREE BASED GROUP ELLIPTIC CURVE DIFFIE HELLMAN SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Begum Jeddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical Access Control in group communication is an active area of research which is difficult to achieve it. Its primary objective is to allow users of a higher authority group to access information or resource held by lower group users and preventing the lower group users to access information held by higher class users. Large collection of collaborative applications in organizations inherently has hierarchical structures for functioning, where providing security by efficient group key management is a big challenging issue. While preserving centralized methods for hierarchical access control, it is difficult to achieve efficiency as a single membership change will result in lot of changes which are difficult to maintain. So, using distributed key agreement techniques is more appropriate for this scenario. This study explore on novel group key agreement approach, which combines both the symmetric polynomial scheme and Tree Based Group elliptic Curve key exchange. Also, it yields a secure protocol suite that is good in fault-tolerant and simple. The efficiency of SP-TGECDH is better than many other schemes. Using TGECDH makes the scheme suitable small Low powered devices.

  12. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  13. Interaction of Polycomb-group proteins controlling flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvivattana, Yindee; Bishopp, Anthony; Schubert, Daniel; Stock, Christine; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee; Goodrich, Justin

    2004-11-01

    In Arabidopsis, the EMBYRONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), VERNALISATION2 (VRN2) and FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM2 (FIS2) genes encode related Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins. Their homologues in animals act together with other Pc-G proteins as part of a multimeric complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which functions as a histone methyltransferase. Despite similarities between the fis2 mutant phenotype and those of some other plant Pc-G members, it has remained unclear how the FIS2/EMF2/VRN2 class Pc-G genes interact with the others. We have identified a weak emf2 allele that reveals a novel phenotype with striking similarity to that of severe mutations in another Pc-G gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF), suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that EMF2 and CLF interact genetically and that this reflects interaction of their protein products through two conserved motifs, the VEFS domain and the C5 domain. We show that the full function of CLF is masked by partial redundancy with a closely related gene, SWINGER (SWN), so that null clf mutants have a much less severe phenotype than emf2 mutants. Analysis in yeast further indicates a potential for the CLF and SWN proteins to interact with the other VEFS domain proteins VRN2 and FIS2. The functions of individual Pc-G members may therefore be broader than single mutant phenotypes reveal. We suggest that plants have Pc-G protein complexes similar to the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) of animals, but the duplication and subsequent diversification of components has given rise to different complexes with partially discrete functions.

  14. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  15. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A L; Wood, G; Vine, S J; Vickers, J N; Wilson, M R

    2017-02-01

    Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching. In both immediate (R1) and delayed (R2, six weeks later) retention tests, the QET group had a significantly longer QE1 duration and an earlier and longer QE2 duration, compared to the TT group, who revealed no improvements. A performance advantage was also found for the QET compared to the TT group at both R1 and R2, revealing the relatively robust nature of the visuomotor alterations. Regression analyses suggested that only the duration of QE1 predicted variance in catch success post-training, pointing to the importance of a pre-programming visuomotor strategy for successful throw and catch performance.

  16. Effect of soft contact lens curvature on dry eye of flight attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Meng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the effect of wearing customized curvature soft corneal contact lens to dry eye degree of flight attendants.METHODS: Eighty cases(160 eyesof flight attendants from China Southern were divided into two groups: control group 40 cases(80 eyeswearing ready-made Bausch soft corneal contact lens(curvature 8.4; the experiment group 40 cases(80 eyes, wearing Bausch soft corneal contact lens with customized curvature. Tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand fluorescein(FLstaining were as dry eye evaluation index. The results was statistically analyzed.RESULTS: BUT, SⅠt average shortening value of the experimental group were less than that of the control group, there was statistical significance(PPCONCLUSION: Wearing customized curvature soft corneal contact lens can prevent the flight dry eye more effectively than fixed curvature product.

  17. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  18. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  19. Upper eyelid entropion and dry eye in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the position of the upper eyelid margin and eye surface status in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis (TS. METHODS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to evaluate the location of the upper lid mucocutaneous transition of 156 eyes of 78 patients with trichiasis and of 130 eyes of 65 control subjects. For each eye the position of the upper lid mucocutaneous junction was graded with respect to the line of meibomian gland orifices into 3 categories: a anterior, b at the line, and c posterior to the line. Ocular surface dye staining with lissamine green was performed in all eyes. All participants answered a questionnaire with queries on the presence and intensity of dry eye symptoms. RESULTS: In the eyes with trichiasis the location of the mucocutaneous transition was posterior to the meibomian gland line in 55 (35.3%, at the line in 77 (49.4% and anterior to the line in only 24 (15.4%. In the control group these figures were: 5 (3.8%; 42 (42% and 83 (63.8%. Lissamine staining and dry eye symptoms were also associated with trichiasis. CONCLUSION: Different degrees of upper lid entropion are already present in cicatricial trachoma even in the absence of trichiasis. Trichiasis is associated with lissamine green staining and dry eye symptoms. Conjunctivalization of the upper lid margin may play a role in the development of trachomatous dry eye.

  20. 普拉洛芬眼药水在青光眼手术前后炎症控制的临床评价%Clinical evaluation Pranoprofen glaucoma eye drops before and after surgery inflammation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦利军; 杨小红

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveOur retrospective study was aimed to analyze the efficacy and clinical value of using eye drops Pran-oprofen before and after glaucoma surgery.Methods Clinical data of patients received treatment at our hospital from January 2014 to December 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients included were divided into four groups according to the treat-ment: patients in group A ofusing eye drops for treatment in the postoperative TobraDex, Patients in group B using of eye drops Pranoprofen and eye drops TobraDex treatment after surgery,patients in group C one day before surgery beginning with eye drops Pranoprofen, after surgery using the combination method,patients in group D three days before the beginning of eye drops with pranoprofen, after using the combination method.Results D group were significantly lower than the other three groups in postoperative scores 1, 3 and 7 days; A group at seven days after surgery composite score was significantly higher than the other three groups; 15, 30 days after the first, scoring four groups had no significant difference. Flare value of four groups of patients after treatment showed a downward trend, and Group D after surgery 3,7,15,30 day flare values were significantly lower than in group A; A flare group after 30 days will have a value significantly higher than group B, group C; there was no big difference in efficacy between the final four groups of patients.Conclusion Glaucoma patients with eye drops Pranoprofen at the beginning, and in the post with the use of eye drops TobraDex wil be associated controled postoperative inflammation .Excelent scheme can be extended to use in clinical practice.%目的:在青光眼手术前后使用普拉洛芬眼药水并对其疗效及临床价值进行研究,探究疗效好的治疗方案。方法:选取我院2014年1月~2014年12月收治的青光眼患者98例(98眼)作为研究的对象,所有患者均接受青光眼小梁切除术治疗。将这98

  1. Helmet Mounted Eye Tracking for Virtual Panoramic Display Systems. Volume 2: Eye Tracker Specification and Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tracking will be used for eye controlled switch selection, cueing, eye-slaved aiming, and pilot state monitoring. Current eye tracking technology is...panoramic display (VPD). Eye tracker measurements will be used with prototype systems to assist in candidate display evaluation. Operationally, eye

  2. Intraoperative and Immediate Postoperative Outcomes of Cataract Surgery using Phacoemulsification in Eyes with and without Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neelam R; Dubey, Arun K; Shankar, P Ravi

    2014-12-01

    To compare the intraoperative and immediate postoperative behavior and complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome with eyes having senile cataract without PEX during cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (PKE). In this prospective study, 68 eyes of 68 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (test) comprised 34 eyes with immature senile cataract with PEX and Group 2 (control) included 34 eyes with immature senile cataract without PEX and any coexisting ocular pathology. Phacoemulsification (modern cataract surgery) was performed on both groups through stop and chop technique and comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications was made. There was no significant difference in rates of intraoperative complications between PEX (2.9%) and Control (0%) group. The mean pupil diameter was significantly smaller in Group 1 (pcontrol group compared to the group with PEX (p=0.027). Phacoemulsification can be safely performed by experienced hands in cataractous eyes with PEX. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate post-operative complications in eyes with PEX was not significantly different compared to eyes without PEX in our study. Further studies among a larger population are required.

  3. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  4. 阅读过程中适应性眼动控制的出现:理论和数据%The Emergence of Adaptive Eye-Movement Control in Reading: Theory and Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erik D. Reichle; Yanping Liu; Patryk A. Laurent

    2011-01-01

    @@ Computational models of eye-movement control during reading provide precise quantitative descriptions of the perceptual, cognitive, and motoric processing that guide readers' eyes, but are based on numerous equivocal a priori theoretical assumptions.This article describes an alternative approach to understanding eye-movement control: Using reinforcement learning to examine how complex eye- movement behaviors emerge from the requirement to identify words rapidly in the context of known psychological and physiological constraints (e.g., limited visual acuity).An example simulation is reported, as are key results from an fMRI experiment that demon- strates that structures implicated in reinforcement learning support the learning of eye-movement behavior in humans.

  5. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Reitsma, J.B.; de Jongh, A.; Ollf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated respon

  6. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant.

  7. Effect of Tetracaine on Intraocular Pressure in Normal and Hypertensive Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Sarchahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tetracaine on intraocular pressure (IOP in normal and hypertensive rabbit eyes. Methods: The study was conducted on 12 healthy rabbits as controls and 6 healthy rabbits in which an experimental model of ocular hypertension (OHT was induced by administration of 70 mL/kg of tap water through an orogastric tube. One drop of tetracaine was instilled in the left eye while a drop of normal saline (placebo was applied to the right eye of the control group. IOP was measured before and 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes after drop administration in this group. The OHT group also received one drop of tetracaine and normal saline in the left eyes and right eyes respectively, immediately after water loading; the instillation of drops was repeated after 55 minutes. IOP was measured before and 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 55, 70, 85, 100 and 115 minutes after water loading in this group. Results: Tetracaine treated eyes in both groups (ocular hypertensive and normal controls demonstrated significant IOP reduction at time zero (immediately after drop instillation which was sustained up to 20 minutes, as compared to placebo treated eyes (P<0.05. In ocular hypertensive rabbits, repeat instillation of tetracaine significantly reduced IOP at 55 minutes up to 30 minutes thereafter. Conclusion: Topical tetracaine can reduce IOP; this fact should be considered in experiments evaluating IOP reducing agents.

  8. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  9. Efficacy of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for patients with posttraumatic-stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ren Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. METHODS: We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. RESULTS: The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g = -0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.887 to -0.436, depression (g = -0.643; 95% CI: -0.864 to -0.422, anxiety (g = -0.640; 95% CI: -0.890 to -0.390, and subjective distress (g = -0.956; 95% CI: -1.388 to -0.525 in PTSD patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms.

  10. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, and eyes with childhood glaucoma.Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH or peripapillary atrophy (PPA change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD, horizontal disc diameter (HDD, and maximum PPA width (PPW were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed.Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001. The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612. However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1% were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1% were

  11. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  12. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  16. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  19. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  1. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  2. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  3. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  4. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  5. Eye Irritation Caused by Formaldehyde as an Indoor Air Pollution——A Controlled Human Exposure Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Obejective The present study focuses on health assessment of wood based panels which are widely used in interior decoration practices over the recent years in China. Formaldehyde has been identified as chemical indicator of (IAO) and an indoor air pollutant. To test its health effects experiment was undertaken. Method A small environmental test chamber (60/L) was used as the generator of emission gas from new panels, and was operating at a temperature of 22.7±0.6℃ and a humidity of 44.4±2.5 % with an air exchange rate of 1.0±0.15h-1. On the three experimental days the values of product loading in chamber were 4, 2 and 6 m2/m3, respectively. Eight people were selected randomly from the students and employees of Wuhan Health and Anti-epidemic Station as subjects, with an average age of 21.9±5.9 years, and a gender ratio of 1:1, and two of them were smokers (one male and one female). The subjects' eyes were exposed to formaldehyde through a pair of goggles. Each goggle had its flow inlet and outlet, and connected to chamber exhaust of emission gas and to an exhaust from the room. The exposure time was very short, just 5 minutes and the formaldehyde doses were at 1.65±0.01, 2.99±0.07 and 4.31±0.02 ppm. A 60-mm linear visual analogue rating scales was used to measure the intensity of sensory eye irritation and a video tape recorder was used to record eye blinking frequency. Results The results demonstrated that tests of sensory eye irritation and eye blinking can be used for materials testing, and that a dose-effect as well as a time-variance of the effect can be measured. Conclusion The tests showed that eye irritation was perceived at all of the three levels.

  6. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  7. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  8. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  9. A microstructural study of sleep instability in drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: sleep spindles, rapid eye movements, and muscle atonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Chevrier, Elyse; Stip, Emmanuel; Godbout, Roger

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the functional stability of sleep in schizophrenia by quantifying dissociated stages of sleep (DSS), and to explore their correlation with psychopathology. The sleep of 10 first-break, drug-naive young adults with schizophrenia and 10 controls was recorded. Four basic DSS patterns were scored: 1) the transitional EEG-mixed intermediate stage (EMIS); 2) Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without rapid eye movement (RSWR); 3) REM sleep without atonia (RSWA); and 4) non-REM sleep with rapid eye movements. An intermediate sleep (IS) score was calculated by summing EMIS and RSWR scores, and the durations of intra-REM sleep periods IS (IRSPIS) and IS scored "at the expense" of REM sleep (ISERS) were determined. Patients were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at the time of recording. Proportions of each DSS variables over total sleep time and proportions of IRSPIS and ISERS over REM sleep duration were compared between patients and controls. Correlation coefficients between DSS variables and BPRS total scores were calculated. The proportion of total DSS did not differ between patients and controls. Among DSS subtypes, RSWA was significantly increased in patients while other comparisons showed no significant differences. Significant positive correlations were found between BPRS scores and proportions of DSS, IS, RSWR, IRSPIS and ISERS over total sleep and REM sleep durations. These results demonstrate the functional instability of REM sleep in first-break, drug naive young adults with schizophrenia and unveil a pattern reminiscent of REM sleep behavior disorder. The significant correlation suggests that schizophrenia and REM sleep share common neuronal control mechanisms.

  10. Decoupling eye and hand movement control: visual short-term memory influences reach planning more than saccade planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issen, Laurel A; Knill, David C

    2012-01-04

    When reaching for objects, humans make saccades to fixate the object at or near the time the hand begins to move. In order to address whether the CNS relies on a common representation of target positions to plan both saccades and hand movements, we quantified the contributions of visual short-term memory (VSTM) to hand and eye movements executed during the same coordinated actions. Subjects performed a sequential movement task in which they picked up one of two objects on the right side of a virtual display (the "weapon"), moved it to the left side of the display (to a "reloading station") and then moved it back to the right side to hit the other object (the target). On some trials, the target was perturbed by 1° of visual angle while subjects moved the weapon to the reloading station. Although subjects did not notice the change, the original position of the target, encoded in VSTM, influenced the motor plans for both the hand and the eye back to the target. Memory influenced motor plans for distant targets more than for near targets, indicating that sensorimotor planning is sensitive to the reliability of available information; however, memory had a larger influence on hand movements than on eye movements. This suggests that spatial planning for coordinated saccades and hand movements are dissociated at the level of processing at which online visual information is integrated with information in short-term memory.

  11. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  12. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  13. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-

  14. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  15. Bionic Model for Coordinated Head-eye Motion Control%头眼协调运动控制仿生模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓波; 陈铁军

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex(VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.%深入分析灵长类动物在注视点转移过程中眼球运动、头部运动及头眼协调运动的关系,将头眼协调运动的神经生理机制引入工程领域,改善机器人视觉系统的头眼协调问题.提出一种仿生型机器人头眼协调运动控制策略,将注视转移过程分为初始的快相和随后的慢相两个阶段.快相组合了高速眼球扫视运动(saccade)眼球运动和缓慢的头部运动,两者协调配合迅速切换注视点至新的目标;慢相通过前庭动眼反射(VOR),依靠头和眼的等量反向旋转运动维持目标稳定的同时,调整头部位置,使其朝向目标.建立了注视转移的仿生控制模型.仿真结果与生理学实验数据进行了对比分析,证明了所提控制策略与控制模型的可行性.

  16. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes self-care behaviors and disease control in support group attenders and nonattenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence rate and mortality rate of diabetes continue to increase annually. Complications associated with poor control of diabetes include renal dialysis, amputation, heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, and vascular disease, all of which have an impact at the individual, family, and national level. This study compares diabetes self-care behavior and disease control efficacy between attenders and nonattenders of a diabetes support group. We used a questionnaire with good validity and reliability to conduct a cross-sectional survey. Diabetes support groups have been established throughout Taiwan for around 2 years. Participants for this study were recruited randomly from a register of support group participants. Support group instructors were asked to collect questionnaires from those attending and not attending their support groups. Ten groups volunteered to participate in this study. We received 147 valid questionnaires from participants attending support groups (attenders) and 93 questionnaires from participants who did not (nonattenders). There were no statistically significant differences between support group attenders and nonattenders in terms of age, educational level, or time since diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, we assumed these two groups as adequately similar to conduct statistical comparisons. Scores for diabetes self-care behavior, disease control, and use of the diabetes passport were all significantly higher among support group attenders than their nonattender peers. Results indicate that people attending diabetes support groups are more likely to have better self-care behavior and disease control than nonattenders. Therefore, we suggest that the government actively promote policies supportive of diabetes support groups.

  18. Controllability of affine right-invariant systems on solvable Lie groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Sachkov

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some recent results on controllability of right-invariant systems on Lie groups. From the Lie-theoretical point of view, we study conditions under which subsemigroups generated by half-planes in the Lie algebra of a Lie group coincide with the whole Lie group.

  19. Impact of Glaucoma and Dry Eye on Text-Based Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle J; Rubin, Gary S; Akpek, Esen K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2017-06-01

    We determine if visual field loss from glaucoma and/or measures of dry eye severity are associated with difficulty searching, as judged by slower search times on a text-based search task. Glaucoma patients with bilateral visual field (VF) loss, patients with clinically significant dry eye, and normally-sighted controls were enrolled from the Wilmer Eye Institute clinics. Subjects searched three Yellow Pages excerpts for a specific phone number, and search time was recorded. A total of 50 glaucoma subjects, 40 dry eye subjects, and 45 controls completed study procedures. On average, glaucoma patients exhibited 57% longer search times compared to controls (95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-96%, P search times were noted among subjects with greater VF loss (P search times compared to controls, though worse Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) vision-related subscores were associated with longer search times (P Search times showed no association with OSDI symptom subscores (P = 0.20) or objective measures of dry eye (P > 0.08 for Schirmer's testing without anesthesia, corneal fluorescein staining, and tear film breakup time). Text-based visual search is slower for glaucoma patients with greater levels of VF loss and dry eye patients with greater self-reported visual difficulty, and these difficulties may contribute to decreased quality of life in these groups. Visual search is impaired in glaucoma and dry eye groups compared to controls, highlighting the need for compensatory strategies and tools to assist individuals in overcoming their deficiencies.

  20. The "hypnotic state" and eye movements: Less there than meets the eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhjem, Barbara; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness to hypnotic procedures has been related to unusual eye behaviors for centuries. Kallio and collaborators claimed recently that they had found a reliable index for "the hypnotic state" through eye-tracking methods. Whether or not hypnotic responding involves a special state of consciousness has been part of a contentious debate in the field, so the potential validity of their claim would constitute a landmark. However, their conclusion was based on 1 highly hypnotizable individual compared with 14 controls who were not measured on hypnotizability. We sought to replicate their results with a sample screened for High (n = 16) or Low (n = 13) hypnotizability. We used a factorial 2 (high vs. low hypnotizability) x 2 (hypnosis vs. resting conditions) counterbalanced order design with these eye-tracking tasks: Fixation, Saccade, Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), Smooth pursuit, and Antisaccade (the first three tasks has been used in Kallio et al.'s experiment). Highs reported being more deeply in hypnosis than Lows but only in the hypnotic condition, as expected. There were no significant main or interaction effects for the Fixation, OKN, or Smooth pursuit tasks. For the Saccade task both Highs and Lows had smaller saccades during hypnosis, and in the Antisaccade task both groups had slower Antisaccades during hypnosis. Although a couple of results suggest that a hypnotic condition may produce reduced eye motility, the lack of significant interactions (e.g., showing only Highs expressing a particular eye behavior during hypnosis) does not support the claim that eye behaviors (at least as measured with the techniques used) are an indicator of a "hypnotic state.” Our results do not preclude the possibility that in a more spontaneous or different setting the experience of being hypnotized might relate to specific eye behaviors. PMID:28846696

  1. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  2. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P control groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional bias: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Daniel, Thomas A

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. At Time 1 (T1), participants (N = 116 trauma exposed) completed self-report measures, an eye-tracking task assessing ABT, and behavioral measures assessing cognitive processes. A subsample (n = 49) completed an online follow-up assessment (T2). AC at T1 moderated the PTS-ABT relationship. Inhibitory ability appears to be driving this effect. Those with higher PTS symptoms and higher AC at T1, who spent less time attending to threat stimuli and had the lowest sympathetic response, had the highest levels of PTS symptoms at T2. Findings suggest that the habitual use of AC (especially inhibition) to shift attention from threat to neutral stimuli may alleviate distress in the short-term for those with higher PTS symptoms, but maintain, and perhaps exacerbate, PTS symptoms over longer periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye exercises enhance accuracy and letter recognition, but not reaction time, in a modified rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Di Noto

    Full Text Available Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.

  5. Eye exercises enhance accuracy and letter recognition, but not reaction time, in a modified rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, Paula; Uta, Sorin; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2013-01-01

    Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.

  6. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  7. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  8. 自主控制眼跳脑神经机制%The neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 李秀红

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary control of saccadic eye movements is a kind of saccades controlled by conscious and always used to investigate the brain areas related to saccades and ability of response inhibition and work memory.Researching the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements could provide a basis to study the advanced cognitive function of brain and facilitate to explore basic neural mechanisms of abnormal saccadic in brain disorders.As neuroimaging technologies develops,intensive studies about the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements have been made great progress.It is showed that several brain areas such as prefrontal cortex,subcortical areas and parietal cortex mainly in participate.These multiple brain regions are involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements at different stages.Antisaccades and memory-guided saccades including different brain regions because of their different characteristics of saccadic.The future direction of the research is to combine study with neural imaging technology,and to study more about the brain regions and their functional connectivity involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements.%自主控制眼跳是一种受意识控制的眼跳,可用来考察调控眼跳的大脑区域、反应抑制和空间工作记忆等能力.研究自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制可为探讨大脑的高级认知功能提供依据,对于探索一些脑功能失调疾病中异常眼跳的脑神经基础有重要意义.随着神经成像技术的发展,自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制有了较深入的研究,自主控制眼跳需要额叶皮层、皮层下区域和顶叶区域等多个脑区的共同参与,这些脑区参与了自主控制眼跳的不同阶段,而且反向眼跳和记忆导向眼跳由于各自眼跳特征不同分别涉及不同的脑区.未来的研究方向是将研究与神经成像技术相结合,更多地考察参与自主控制眼跳的大脑区域和脑区间的功能连接.

  9. Comparison of eye-tracking success in laser in situ keratomileusis after flap creation with 2 femtosecond laser models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Gimeno, Federico; Chan, Cordelia M L; Li, Lim; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2011-03-01

    To determine the efficiency of an eye tracker after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models. Tertiary referral center, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore. Randomized clinical trial. The LASIK flap was created with an IntraLase (Group A) or a VisuMax (Group B) femtosecond laser. An Advanced Control Eye Tracker was initiated 3 times to obtain iris recognition. Eye tracking was considered successful if the eye movements could be followed despite the presence or absence of an opaque bubble layer (OBL). Univariate-multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Preoperatively, the mean values (ranges) of the 87 eyes were sphere, -5.64 diopters (D) ± 2.17 (SD) (-9.75 to -0.25 D); cylinder 1.65 ± 1.63 D (-3.75 to 0.00 D); optical zone, 6.34 ± 0.20 mm (5.6 to 7.0 mm); keratometry, 43.48 ± 1.32 D (40.1 to 42.8 D); flap thickness, 109.30 + 5.21 μm (90 to 115 μm). Eye tracking was successful in 38 (90.5%) of 42 eyes in Group A and 43 (95.6%) of 45 eyes in Group B. No specific type of OBL was seen in either group. The LASIK was completed in all eyes. There was a statistically significant association between positive tracking and a smaller optical zone (P=.03). There were no statistically significant differences in eye tracking between the 2 femtosecond lasers. Eye tracking was achieved in more than 90% of cases after LASIK flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models, even in the presence of an OBL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arteriolar Diameters in Glaucomatous Eyes with Single-Hemifield Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro; Rizzoni, Damiano; Ghilardi, Nausica; Turano, Raffaele; Semeraro, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    To examine the association between retinal arteriolar caliber and lumen, retinal sensitivity (RS), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield loss. We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study of 20 eyes of 20 patients with glaucoma with visual field damage confined to a single hemifield. The control group was composed of 20 eyes of 20 normal subjects. For all the eyes, we performed optical coherence tomography to assess the RNFL and standard automated perimetry to evaluate RS. External and internal arteriolar diameters were assessed in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. The RNFL was significantly thinner in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (p < 0.001). In glaucomatous eyes, a positive correlation between sectorial RNFL thickness and the corresponding external and internal arteriolar diameters was found (r = 0.43, p = 0.05; r = 0.63, p = 0.003, respectively). The internal arteriolar diameter significantly correlated with RS in the corresponding abnormal hemifield (r = 0.44, p = 0.04). Compared with the normal hemifield, the internal arteriolar diameter, RNFL thickness, and RS were significantly reduced, whereas the external arteriolar diameter was unchanged in the abnormal hemifield. In glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage, attenuation of retinal vessels was associated with a thinner RNFL and reduced RS. Moreover, a narrower lumen with increased wall-to-lumen ratio was found in the abnormal hemifield, supporting the hypothesis that vessel narrowing is likely secondary to a lower demand for blood flow in the glaucomatous areas of the retina.

  11. Effects of constraint-induced therapy combined with eye patching on functional outcomes and movement kinematics in poststroke neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Wang, Tien-Ni; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Yi-An; Li, Hsiang-Ting; Tsai, Pei-Luen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the effect of constraint-induced therapy (CIT) plus eye patching (EP), CIT alone, and conventional treatment on functional performance, eye movement, and trunk-arm kinematics in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. METHOD. Twenty-four participants were recruited and randomly allocated to three intervention groups. All participants received intervention 2 hr/day, 5 days/wk, for 3 wk. Outcome measures included the Catherine Bergego Scale, eye movement, and trunk-arm kinematic analysis. RESULTS. The CIT + EP and CIT groups demonstrated larger improvements in functional performance than the control group. The CIT group showed better performance with left fixation points than the CIT+EP group and shorter reaction time than the control group. The CIT + EP group improved more in preplanned control and leftward trunk shift than the other two groups. CONCLUSION. CIT + EP and CIT were more effective interventions than conventional treatment of patients with neglect syndrome in daily functional performance.

  12. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  13. Effectiveness of Technolas torsional eye tracking system on visual outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaee, Hamid; Ghanavati, Siamak Zaree; Rad, Saeed Shokoohi; Omidtabrizi, Arash; Naseri, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of Technolas 217Z eye tracking system (torsional component) in corneal surface irregularity and high order aberrations (HOAs) after photorefractive keratectomy. Patients with compound myopic astigmatism among persons demanding refractive surgery in Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital with the mean age of 29 years were enrolled in this double-blind randomized interventional study. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error was -4.75 diopters(D) (range: -1.5 to -7.0), and the mean astigmatism was 3 D (range:1.0-4). Many studies were performed for each patient including: A complete eye examination, visual acuity and Monocular contrast sensitivity evaluation, and refraction. Corneal topography, Orbscan II, and wavefront aberrometry were conducted. One eye was randomly assigned for aspheric treatment and applying eye tracking system. The other eye was treated without torsional eye tracking system. The outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, corneal irregularity index in 3 mm and 5 mm optical zones in Orbscan II, and mean total HOAs at the 6-monthvisit. Fifty eyes of 25 patients were enrolled. Mean UCVA was improved significantly in both the study and control groups in the 6-month post-operative follow-up. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in UCVA and BCVA (P = 0.185 and P = 0.176, respectively). Total HOAs increased in both groups after PRK. However, they were lower in eyes treated with the eye tracking system (P eye tracker system (Bausch and Lomb Advanced) results in a more regular anterior surface of cornea. Therefore, we recommend it for surface laser refractive surgery.

  14. The Demand-Control Model: Specific demands, specific Control, and well-defined groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Dollard, M.F.; Dormann, C.; Blanc, P.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to

  15. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Which tonometry in eyes with keratoconus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaynak, H; Kocasarac, C; Dundar, H; Sayin, N; Kara, N; Bozkurt, E; Duru, N

    2016-03-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained with Goldmann applanation tonometery (GAT), dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), tonopen (TP), and ocular response analyzer (ORA), and to determine the influence of Amsler grade and central corneal thickness (CCT) on the IOP readings in eyes with keratoconus that are classified into four groups according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification. All eyes with keratoconus were separated into four groups using Amsler-Krumeich classification for keratoconus. IOP was measured in 202 eyes of 202 patients with keratoconus using GAT, DCT, TP, and ORA. The IOP differences revealed no significant difference among the Amsler degree in the DCT and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) measurements (P>0.05 for all). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of IOP differences between GAT and IOPcc (P>0.05), TP and Goldmann-correlated measure of IOP (IOPg; P>0.05) in the Amsler I, while the IOP measurements revealed significant difference among the measurements of the four different tonometers in the Amsler II, Amsler III, and Amsler IV (Pkeratoconus; no statistically significant difference was found between keratoconus stages and the control group in terms of the IOP analyzed with these two techniques. These two techniques may be the most stable in the measurement of IOP in different keratoconus stages. However, no IOP technique can be used interchangeably with other techniques in the follow-up of keratoconus patients.

  17. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  1. Management of adolescents with very poorly controlled type 1 diabetes by nurses: a parallel group randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, Behrouz; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bernoux, Delphine; Michal, Catherine; Riche, Benjamin; Ginhoux, Tiphanie; Laudy, Valérie; Terral, Daniel; Didier-Wright, Catherine; Maire, Veronique; Dumont, Catherine; Cottancin, Gilles; Plasse, Muriel; Jeannoel, Guy-Patrick; Khoury, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Fluctuation in glycemia due to hormonal changes, growth periods, physical activity, and emotions make diabetes management difficult during adolescence. Our objective was to show that a close control of patients’ self-management of diabetes by nurse-counseling could probably improve metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods We designed a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Seventy seven adolescents aged 12–17 years with A1C >8 % ...

  2. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... knowledge of the transaction and of the controlled group relationship; and (3) Press releases; Forms 10Q. If... become effective by the 30th day, Company R has the reporting obligation. (3) Merger/consolidation within...

  3. Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-05

    AD-A234 849 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9026 TITLE: SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LASER INDUCED EYE INJURIES AUTHORS: Leonard M. Hjelmeland, Maurice B. Landers...62787A 62787A878 BA JDA318205 11. TITLE (Include Secirity Classification) (U) Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 3; Lasers; Eye injury ; Surgery 09 03 06 04 19. ABSTRACT

  4. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  5. Diurnal variation in central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome without glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Keel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to ascertain if any differences exist in diurnal central corneal thickness (CCT and intra-ocular pressure (IOP between eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PXF syndrome without glaucoma and eyes with no ocular pathology. A secondary aim was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between CCT and IOP. Settings and Design: This study was a prospective design conducted within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of seven participants with bilateral PXF (14 eyes and the control group comprised of 15 participants (30 eyes. Testing included CCT and IOP measured at four different times on one given day (8.00 a.m.; 11 a.m.; 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed with the generalized linear latent mixed model. Results: PXF eyes displayed a significantly thinner overall mean CCT (520 μm compared to controls (530 μm. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CCT and IOP occurred in the PXF group from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. The mean overall IOP in PXF eyes was significantly lower than the control group. A significant association between IOP and CCT was also found in PXF eyes. Conclusions: Displaying a significantly thinner mean CCT highlights the importance of measuring CCT in an ophthalmic clinical setting as to avoid falsely underestimated IOP measurements in such a high-risk glaucoma population. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation between IOP and CCT in PXF eyes suggests that the reduction in CCT that occurred in PXF eyes between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. may be partly responsible for the reduction in IOP measurements.

  6. Interconnection between several eye biomechanical and biometric parameters in children with axial and refractive mild myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ye. Tsybulskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available to study the relationship of biometric and biomechanical indicators of corneoscleral capsule of the eye in children with axial and refractive mild myopia. Materials and methods. Axial myopia was diagnosed in 32 children (64 eyes, refractive myopia – 18 (36 eyes. The control group – 16 children without ophthalmic diseases (32 eyes. Eye examination: visometry, automated refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, determination of the axial length of the eyeball and corneal hysteresis. Results. Significant differences were determined in the indicators of dioptric power of the cornea: 42.2 dpt in patients with axial and 44.7 dpt with refractive myopia (p<0.05, and also difference between patients with refractive myopia and the control group, in which the diopter power of cornea was 42.6 (p<0.05. There are also significant differences in the indicators of the axial length of eyes between axial and refractive myopia – 24.5±0.64 mm and 23.1±0.43 mm (p<0.05. Significant difference with the control group in the axial length marked only in eyes with axial myopia 22.7±0.33 mm and 24.5±0.64 mm, respectively (p<0.05. Corneal hysteresis determined significantly reduced on eyes with both the axial and refractive myopia, which was significantly lower than in the indicators of emmetropic eyes of the control group 13.7 (p<0.05. Corneal hysteresis is inversely related to the axial length of the eyeball: in patients with axial myopia r -0.32, p<0.05; with refractive myopia r -0.36, p<0.05. Сorrelation between diopter power of cornea and axial length of the eyeball: r -0.53, р<0.05 in eyes with axial myopia and r -0.42, p<0.05 refractive myopia. Comparative analysis showed no significant differences between the corneal hysteresis, the axial length of the eye and the spherical component of myopia. Conclusions. In patients with axial and refractive mild myopia corneal hysteresis is reduced on average in 1.2 and 1.1 times, in comparison with emmetropic

  7. Resource Allocation in Divisionalized Groups : A Study of Investment Manuals and Corporate Means of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    How do corporate management in divisionalized groups control the direction of investments? There are many case-studies and postal surveys of capital budgeting procedures. This study represents a different approach, being founded on analyses of investment manuals and interviews with corporate managers of Swedish-based groups. Comparisons are made with UK and US studies throughout the book. The book shows how investment requests are handled and the means of control which corporate managers deem...

  8. The Arabidopsis thaliana MEDEA Polycomb group protein controls expression of PHERES1 by parental imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Claudia; Page, Damian R; Gagliardini, Valeria; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    The maternally expressed Arabidopsis thaliana Polycomb group protein MEDEA (MEA) controls expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1). Here, we show that PHE1 is mainly paternally expressed but maternally repressed and that this maternal repression of PHE1 breaks down in seeds lacking maternal MEA activity. Because Polycomb group proteins control parental imprinting in mammals as well, the independent recruitment of similar protein machineries for the imprinting of genes is a notable example of convergent evolution.

  9. Blink Animation Software to Improve Blinking and Dry Eye Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosch, Daniela S; Foppa, Curdin; Tóth, Mike; Joos, Roland E

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if the animation "blink blink" increases blink rate and improves dry eye symptoms during prolonged computer use. Study part A: Blink rate was recorded at baseline and during computer work of normal subjects without symptoms of dry eye. Half of the subjects used "blink blink," instructed to blink on animation appearance; the other half used a placebo version for 1 week during computer use. Thereafter, blink rate was recorded again with the use of "blink blink." Study part B: Blink rate was recorded during computer work with dry eye symptoms (modified Ocular Surface Disease Index > 15.0). Subjects used the test and placebo version of "blink blink" each for 1 week (1 week washout; crossover) and were instructed to blink twice on presentation of the animation. Blink rate and dry eye symptoms were assessed after each phase and compared with baseline. Study part A: Ten subjects participated (mean [± SD] age, 38.3 [± 16.0] years; 5 women). A greater increase in blink rate was observed in the test group (5.62 blinks/min for the test group and 0.96 blinks/min for the control group). Study part B: Twenty-four subjects participated (mean [± SD] age, 39.3 [± 19.1] years; 11 women). Dry eye symptoms improved during both phases (with test and placebo) to a statistically significant degree (each, p animation allowed a decrease in number of presentations and improved acceptance of "blink blink."

  10. Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Moe; Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-10-20

    A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm.

  11. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  12. [Evaluation of tear film and meibomian gland function in dry eye patients using Keratograph 5M].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kexuan; Xie, Wenjia; Ying, Jinglu; Yao, Yufeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To assess the application of Keratograph 5M in evaluating tear film and meibomian gland function in patients with dry eye. Methods: A total of 144 eyes were recruited in the study, in which 72 eyes were from patients diagnosed with dry eye and 72 eyes were from healthy subjects. All subjects finished following tests or examinations:ocular surface disease index (OSDI) to evaluate eye symptoms; Keratograph 5M examination to obtain tear meniscus height (TMH), noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) including first NIBUT (NIBUT-Fir) and average NIBUT (NIBUT-Ave), and infrared meibography; and fluorescein sodium staining to obtain fluorescein tearbreak-up time (FBUT). Results: Dry eye group had higher OSDI score than healthy control group, but its TMH, NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave were lower than those in healthy control group (all P0.05). The NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave showed a significant correlation with FBUT (r=0.833 and 0.727, Pfilm and meibomian gland, and the new meibography scoring system can evaluate the function of meibomian gland objectively and succinctly.

  13. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M. Walser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting quasi-experiments in school-based outcome evaluation. A cohort is a successive group that goes through some experience together, such as a grade level or a training program. A historical cohort comparison group is a cohort group selected from pre-treatment archival data and matched to a subsequent cohort currently receiving a treatment. Although prone to the same threats to study validity as any quasi-experiment, issues related to selection, history, and maturation can be particularly challenging. However, use of a historical cohort control group can reduce noncomparability of treatment and control conditions through local, focal matching. In addition, a historical cohort control group design can alleviate concerns about denying program access to students in order to form a control group, minimize resource requirements and disruption to school routines, and make use of archival data schools and school districts collect and find meaningful.

  14. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  15. Improving Student Confidence in Using Group Work Standards: A Controlled Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wong, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This is a replication of a study that examined the effects of teaching foundation competencies in group work to social work students and assessed their self-confidence in applying these skills. This study improves on the first by utilizing a controlled design. Method: Twenty-six master of social work students were taught group work…

  16. Control of individual daily growth in group housed pigs using feeding stations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two experim

  17. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  18. Presence of foveal bulge in optical coherence tomographic images in eyes with macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Taiji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ogata, Nahoko

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether a significant correlation exists between the presence of a bulge in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had a complete resolution of macular edema and had an intact IS/OS line in the central fovea in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SDOCT) images. Thirty-one eyes with macular edema associated with BRVO (BRVO group) and 31 unaffected fellow eyes (control group) of 31 patients were evaluated. In normal eyes, the intact IS/OS line determined by SDOCT has a bulge at the central fovea, called the foveal bulge. The eyes in the BRVO group were classified by the presence or absence of foveal bulge, and the characteristics of the 2 groups were compared. A foveal bulge was present in 7 of 31 eyes in the BRVO group. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly lower in the BRVO group (22.6%) than in the control group (100%; P < .0001). All 7 eyes with foveal bulge had a decimal BCVA of ≥1.0 at the final visit. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly higher in eyes with BCVA of ≥1.0 (77.8%) than in the eyes with BCVA of <1.0 (0%; P < .0001). The foveal bulge is a good marker of the functional properties of the fovea in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with BRVO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  20. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  2. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  5. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  7. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  8. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  9. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working... Positioning Systems Directorate will be hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for...

  10. Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  11. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  12. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua

    2008-01-01

    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  13. Retinal layer location of increased retinal thickness in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the retinal layer predominantly affected in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2. METHODS: A cohort of 194 type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20/35) were examined with Cirrus spectral......-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the baseline visit (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers of the eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema was compared with a sample of 31 eyes from diabetic patients with normal OCT and an age......-matched control group of 58 healthy eyes. RESULTS: From the 194 eyes in the study, 62 had subclinical macular edema and 12 had clinical macular edema. The highest increases in retinal thickness (RT) were found in the inner nuclear layer (INL; 33.6% in subclinical macular edema and 81.8% in clinical macular edema...

  14. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  15. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; choice of control group and related issues in clinical trials; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "E10 Choice of Control Group and Related Issues in Clinical Trials." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance sets forth general principles that are relevant to all controlled trials and are especially pertinent to the major clinical trials intended to demonstrate drug (including biological drug) efficacy. The guidance describes the principal types of control groups and discusses their appropriateness in particular situations. The guidance is intended to assist sponsors and investigators in the choice of control groups for clinical trials.

  17. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  18. Clinical observation of Esculin and Digitalisglycosides eye drops and acupoint massage on patients with video display terminal asthenopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Esculin and Digitalisglycosides eye drops and acupoint massage alone or combination of both on video display terminal(VDTasthenopia.METHODS: Totally, 224 patients with VDT asthenopia were randomly divided into eye drops group(n=56received the intervention by Esculin and Digitalisglycosides eye drops, acupoint massage group(n=56received the intervention by acupoint massage around the eyes, and combination group(n=56received the intervention by combination of both and control group received the intervention by ocular hygiene instruction. The effect was evaluated after 4wk. The symptoms curative effect index, tear film break-up time(BUT, Schirmer I test(SItand corneal fluorescein staining score were as the indexes of evaluation.RESULTS: The symptoms curative effect index of combination group(78.96±5.29% was higher than that of eye drops group(69.55±6.23% and acupoint massage group(71.15±6.41%, which of after both groups was higher than that of control group(33.01±4.26%(PPPCONCLUSION: Esculin and Digitalisglycosides eye drops and acupoint massage could improve symptoms and ocular physiology in patient with VDT asthenopia, and the effects of the combinative use of both are synergistic.

  19. Morphological features in eyes with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Fuchs, Helle Josefine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the ocular damage that occurs in eyes with postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery (PE) based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal scans of PE eyes and histological specimens of eyes removed due to PE. METHODS: Case-control study and case series. Fifty......-one patients who had previously developed PE were clinically examined with OCT scans of the retina of both eyes. Histological specimens of 10 removed PE eyes were studied. RESULTS: The OCT scans showed that PE eyes had a statistically significantly higher frequency of hyperdense elements on the internal...... limiting membrane (ILM) of the retina (14 eyes versus 3 eyes, p = 0.015) and a higher degree of retinal atrophy temporal to the fovea (13 eyes versus 1 eye, p = 0.013) compared to fellow eyes. The histopathological analyses showed the formation of epiretinal membranes, derangement of all retinal layers...

  20. Laughter yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Mahvash; Mojtahed, Ali; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Shafiabady, Abdollah; Delavar, Ali; Honari, Habib

    2011-03-01

    Laughter Yoga founded by M. Kataria is a combination of unconditioned laughter and yogic breathing. Its effect on mental and physical aspects of healthy individuals was shown to be beneficial. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Kataria's Laughter Yoga and group exercise therapy in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction in older adult women of a cultural community of Tehran, Iran. Seventy depressed old women who were members of a cultural community of Tehran were chosen by Geriatric depression scale (score>10). After completion of Life Satisfaction Scale pre-test and demographic questionnaire, subjects were randomized into three groups of laughter therapy, exercise therapy, and control. Subsequently, depression post-test and life satisfaction post-test were done for all three groups. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and Bonferroni's correction. Sixty subjects completed the study. The analysis revealed a significant difference in decrease in depression scores of both Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy group in comparison to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference between Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy groups. The increase in life satisfaction of Laughter Yoga group showed a significant difference in comparison with control group (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between exercise therapy and either control or Laughter Yoga group. Our findings showed that Laughter Yoga is at least as effective as group exercise program in improvement of depression and life satisfaction of elderly depressed women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fraudsters operate and officialdom turns a blind eye: a proposal for controlling stem cell therapy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Dong, Bing He

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell tourism-the flow of patients from home countries to destination countries to obtain stem cell treatment-is a growing business in China. Many concerns have been raised regarding fraudsters that operate unsafe stem cell therapies and an officialdom that turns a blind eye to the questionable technology. The Chinese regulatory approach to stem cell research is based on Guidelines and Administrative Measures, rather than legislation, and may have no binding force on certain institutions, such as military hospitals. There is no liability and traceability system and no visible set of penalties for non-compliance in the stem cell legal framework. In addition to the lack of safety and efficacy systems in the regulations, no specific expert authority has been established to monitor stem cell therapy to date. Recognizing the global nature of stem cell tourism, this article argues that resolving stem cell tourism issues may require not only the Chinese government but also an international mechanism for transparency and ethical oversight. A stringent set of international regulations that govern stem cell therapies can encourage China to improve stem cell regulation and enforcement to fulfill its obligations. Through an international consensus, a minimum standard for clinical stem cell research and a central enforcement system will be provided. As a result, rogue clinics that conduct unauthorized stem cell therapies can be penalized, and countries that are reluctant to implement the reconciled regulations should be sanctioned.

  2. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor Trap-Eye for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: six-month results of the phase 3 COPERNICUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, David; Heier, Jeffrey; Brown, David M; Clark, W Lloyd; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Groetzbach, Georg; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Zhu, Xiaoping; Beckmann, Karola; Haller, Julia A

    2012-05-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap-Eye in eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled trial. One hundred eighty-nine eyes with macular edema secondary to CRVO. Eyes were randomized 3:2 to receive VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg or sham injection monthly for 6 months. The proportion of eyes with a ≥15-letter gain or more in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 24 (primary efficacy end point), mean changes in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT), and proportion of eyes progressing to neovascularization of the anterior segment, optic disc, or elsewhere in the retina. At week 24, 56.1% of VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained 15 letters or more from baseline versus 12.3% of sham-treated eyes (P<0.001). The VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained a mean of 17.3 letters versus sham-treated eyes, which lost 4.0 letters (P<0.001). Central retinal thickness decreased by 457.2 μm in eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye versus 144.8 μm in sham-treated eyes (P<0.001), and progression to any neovascularization occurred in 0 and 5 (6.8%) of eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye and sham-treated eyes, respectively (P = 0.006). Conjunctival hemorrhage, reduced visual acuity, and eye pain were the most common adverse events (AEs). Serious ocular AEs were reported by 3.5% of VEGF Trap-Eye patients and 13.5% of sham patients. Incidences of nonocular serious AEs generally were well balanced between both groups. At 24 weeks, monthly intravitreal injection of VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg in eyes with macular edema resulting from CRVO improved visual acuity and CRT, eliminated progression resulting from neovascularization, and was associated with a low rate of ocular AEs related to treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  5. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  6. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p  0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p segment coordination during turning. As such, eye movements may be an important addition to training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and potentially reducing the risk of falls.

  7. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  8. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  9. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  10. Eye movements during visual search in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma has been shown to lead to disability in many daily tasks including visual search. This study aims to determine whether the saccadic eye movements of people with glaucoma differ from those of people with normal vision, and to investigate the association between eye movements and impaired visual search. Methods Forty patients (mean age: 67 [SD: 9] years with a range of glaucomatous visual field (VF defects in both eyes (mean best eye mean deviation [MD]: –5.9 (SD: 5.4 dB and 40 age-related people with normal vision (mean age: 66 [SD: 10] years were timed as they searched for a series of target objects in computer displayed photographs of real world scenes. Eye movements were simultaneously recorded using an eye tracker. Average number of saccades per second, average saccade amplitude and average search duration across trials were recorded. These response variables were compared with measurements of VF and contrast sensitivity. Results The average rate of saccades made by the patient group was significantly smaller than the number made by controls during the visual search task (P = 0.02; mean reduction of 5.6% (95% CI: 0.1 to 10.4%. There was no difference in average saccade amplitude between the patients and the controls (P = 0.09. Average number of saccades was weakly correlated with aspects of visual function, with patients with worse contrast sensitivity (PR logCS; Spearman’s rho: 0.42; P = 0.006 and more severe VF defects (best eye MD; Spearman’s rho: 0.34; P = 0.037 tending to make less eye movements during the task. Average detection time in the search task was associated with the average rate of saccades in the patient group (Spearman’s rho = −0.65; P  Conclusions The average rate of saccades made during visual search by this group of patients was fewer than those made by people with normal vision of a similar average age. There was wide variability in saccade rate in the patients

  11. Scanning laser polarimetry in eyes with exfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Antonios T; Katsanos, Andreas; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Giannopoulos, Theodoros; Empeslidis, Theodoros; Teus, Miguel A; Holló, Gábor; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2013-01-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of normotensive eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and healthy eyes.
 Sixty-four consecutive individuals with XFS and normal office-time intraocular pressure (IOP) and 72 consecutive healthy controls were prospectively enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis in this hospital-based observational study. The GDx-VCC parameters (temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal [TSNIT] average, superior average, inferior average, TSNIT standard deviation (SD), and nerve fiber indicator [NFI]) were compared between groups. Correlation between various clinical parameters and RNFLT parameters was investigated with Spearman coefficient. 
 The NFI, although within normal limits for both groups, was significantly greater in the XFS group compared to controls: the respective median and interquartile range (IQR) values were 25.1 (22.0-29.0) vs 15.0 (12.0-20.0), ppolarimetry-determined RNFLT was lower in XFS eyes with normal IOP. Therefore, close monitoring of RNFLT may facilitate early identification of those XFS eyes that convert to exfoliative glaucoma.

  12. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Lower Tear Meniscus in Dry Eye after Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on quality of life. Acupuncture was found to be effective to treat dry eye. However, little was known about the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of tear meniscus assessment by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of acupuncture treatment response in dry eye patients and to explore the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye compared with artificial tear treatment. A total of 108 dry eye patients were randomized into acupuncture or artificial tear group. Each group was divided into three subgroups including lipid tear deficiency (LTD, Sjögren syndrome dry eye (SSDE, and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye (Non-SSDE for data analysis. After 4-week treatment, the low tear meniscus parameters including tear meniscus height (TMH, tear meniscus depth (TMD, and tear meniscus area (TMA in the acupuncture group increased significantly for the LTD and Non-SSDE subgroups compared with both the baseline and the control groups (all P values < 0.05, but not for the SSDE. Acupuncture provided a measurable improvement of the tear meniscus dimensions for the Non-SSDE and LTD patients, but not for the SSDE patients.

  13. Visual evoked potentials, reaction times and eye dominance in cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N G; Harden, L M; Rogers, G G

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have examined the physiology of cricket, including the difference in ability between batsmen to make controlled contact with a ball bowled at high speed. We therefore measured visual evoked potentials and choice reaction times with dominant eyes, non-dominant eyes, and both eyes together, in 15 elite batsmen and 10 elite bowlers (aged 20.9 SD 1.9 years) and 9 control subjects (aged 20.2 SD 1.5 years). The latency and amplitude of waves N70, P100 and N145 were determined for each visual evoked potential (VEP). In addition interpeak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes were measured. The subjects also completed a choice reaction test to a visual stimulus. We found that cricketers were not more likely to have crossed dominance (dominant eye contralateral to dominant hand) than controls. Cricketers had a faster latency for VEP wave N70 than controls (p=0.03). However reaction time was not different between cricketers and the control group. Across all subjects, in comparison to monocular testing, binocular testing led to a faster choice reaction time (p=0.02) and larger amplitudes of VEP wave N70 (p=0.01). Visual processing during the first 100(-1)50 ms of the balls flight together with binocular vision facilitates retinal activation in talented cricketers.

  14. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomized control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    but surprisingly significantly higher than the follow-up robbery group. The results are discussed in relation to existing research and the effect of other factors such as prior traumatic exposure. In conclusion bank robberies are a traumatizing event for the employees, especially when disregarding avoidance...... of bank employees exposed to robbery (response rate: 73.6 %). Several related factors were also investigated including prior traumatic exposure, anxiety, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to robbery (N= 303......). The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41), and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). Both prevalence rates were limited by the avoidance diagnostic criteria. Preliminary results indicated that the control group scored significantly lower than the acute robbery group on general traumatization and anxiety...

  15. Differences in the visual perception of symmetric patterns in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and two human cultural groups: a comparative eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eMühlenbeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric structures are of importance in relation to aesthetic preference. To investigate whether the preference for symmetric patterns is unique to humans, independent of their cultural background, we compared two human populations with distinct cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German town dwellers with one species of non-human great apes (orangutans in their viewing behavior regarding symmetric and asymmetric patterns in two levels of complexity. In addition, the human participants were asked to give their aesthetic evaluation of a subset of the presented patterns. The results showed that humans of both cultural groups fixated on symmetric patterns for a longer period of time, regardless of the pattern’s complexity. On the contrary, orangutans did not clearly differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric patterns, but were much faster in processing the presented stimuli and scanned the complete screen, while both human groups rested on the symmetric pattern after a short scanning time. The aesthetic evaluation test revealed that the fixation preference for symmetric patterns did not match with the aesthetic evaluation in the Hai//om group, whereas in the German group aesthetic evaluation was in accordance with the fixation preference in 60 percent of the cases. It can be concluded that humans prefer well-ordered structures in visual processing tasks, most likely because of a positive processing bias for symmetry, which orangutans did not show in this task, and that, in humans, an aesthetic preference does not necessarily accompany the fixation preference.

  16. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stordal Kirsten I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129 participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152 acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1, and three months post intervention (T2. Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5 assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, β = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38, P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, β = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33, P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5 over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school

  17. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  18. Comparison of group motor control training versus individual training for people suffering from back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Heike; Mätzold, Franz; Hamilton, Christine; Wagner, Petra

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of "motor-control training" (MCT) using the model of deficits in the activation of transversus abdominis (TrA) in people with recurrent back pain. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether MCT - implemented within a new group intervention (experimental group) - is able to produce results similar to those of a conventional intervention applied individually (control group) to people suffering from back pain. Using the form of an experimental pre-post-test design, the study consisted of an experimental group (N = 18, mean age M = 45.2; SD = 18.4; 9 ♂, 9 ♀) and a comparison group (N = 13; age = 56.6; SD = 18.5; 6 ♂, 7 ♀). The training covered a period of six weeks, with two training sessions per week. The amount of training was the same in both groups. Aside from the same extent of training, the participants in the experimental group completed training content in the group interventions identical to that completed by the comparison group in the individual treatments. To clarify: The difference between the two groups was that the participants in the individual-therapy control group received individual feedback on their exercise performance and correction notes from the instructor. This degree of individual attention was not given within the group therapy. The selective activation of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was the main focus of the intervention, with the intent of improving its stabilising corset function, especially within the lumbar region, via increased tension of the thoracolumbar fascia. To record the progress of both groups, the anterolateral abdominal muscle recruitment of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured as a main influencing factor for anterolateral stabilisation of the spine. For measurements of muscle recruitment, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (M-Turbo™ SonoSite(®) Erlangen in B-Mode) according to Whittaker (2007) was used. Furthermore, the relationship between pain

  19. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  20. Subliminal gait initiation deficits in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: A harbinger of freezing of gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibiglou, Laila; Videnovic, Aleksandar; Planetta, Peggy J; Vaillancourt, David E; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2016-11-01

    Muscle activity during rapid eye movement sleep is markedly increased in people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait. This study examined whether individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder who do not have a diagnosis of PD show abnormalities in gait initiation that resemble the impairments observed in PD and whether there is a relationship between these deficits and the level of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia. Gait initiation and polysomnography studies were conducted in 4 groups of 10 participants: rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, PD with and without freezing of gait, and controls. Significant reductions were seen in the posterior shift of the center of pressure during the propulsive phase of gait initiation in the groups with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and PD with freezing of gait when compared with controls and PD nonfreezers. These reductions negatively correlated with the amount of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia. The duration of the initial dorsiflexor muscle burst during gait initiation was significantly reduced in both PD groups and the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder cohort. These results provide evidence that people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, prior to a diagnosis of a degenerative neurologic disorder, show alterations in the coupling of posture and gait similar to those seen in PD. The correlation between increased rapid eye movement sleep without atonia and deficits in forward propulsion during the push-off phase of gait initiation suggests that abnormities in the regulation of muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep may be related to the pathogenesis of freezing of gait. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.

  2. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  4. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Conjunctivitis) Eyes Corneal Abrasions Styes Activity: Eyes ...

  5. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  6. Output Feedback Control for Couple-Group Consensus of Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the couple-group consensus problem for multiagent systems via output feedback control. Both continuous- and discrete-time cases are considered. The consensus problems are converted into the stability problem of the error systems by the system transformation. We obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of couple-group consensus in different forms for each case. Two different algorithms are used to design the control gains for continuous- and discrete-time case, respectively. Finally, simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  7. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  8. Polycomb-group (Pc-G) Proteins Control Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue Wang; Li-Geng Ma

    2007-01-01

    Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins repress their target gene expression by assemble complexes in Drosophila and mammals. Three groups of Pc-G genes, controlling seed development, flower development and vernalization response, have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). MEDEA (MEA), FERTIL IZA TION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) are Pc-G genes in Arabidopsis. Their functions in seed development have been extensively explored. The advanced findings of molecular mechanism on how MEA, FIS2 and FIE control seed development in Arabidopsis are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  10. Eye rubbing-induced changes in intraocular pressure and corneal thickness measured at five locations, in subjects with ocular allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchechukwu; L.Osuagwu; Saud; A.Alanazi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of eye rubbing on corneal thickness(CT) and intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements obtained 0-30 min after habitual eye rubbing in symptomatic patients.METHODS: Measurements of IOP and CT were obtained at five locations(central, temporal, superior,nasal and inferior) before, and every 5min for 30 min interval after 30 s of eye rubbing, for 25 randomly selected eyes of 14 subjects with ocular allergy and 11age-matched normals. Differences in measurements were calculated in each group [Baseline measurements minus measurements recorded at each time interval after eye rubbing(for IOP), and for each corneal location(for CT)]and comparison were then made between groups(allergic versus control) for differences in any observed effects.RESULTS: Within groups, baseline mean IOPs in the allergic patient-group(14.2 ±3.0 mm Hg) and in the control group(13.1±1.9 mm Hg) were similar at all times,after eye rubbing(P >0.05, for all). The maximum reduction in IOP was 0.8 mm Hg in the control subjects and the maximum increase was also 0.8 mm Hg in the allergic subjects. Between groups(allergic versus control), the changes in IOP remained under 1 mm Hg at all times(P =0.2) after 30 min of eye rubbing. Between 0and 30 min of CT measurements after eye rubbing, the mean central CT(CCT), inferior CT(ICT), superior CT(SCT), temporal CT(TCT) and nasal CT(NCT) did not vary significantly from baseline values in the control and allergic-subject groups(P >0.05, for both). Between both groups, changes in CT were similar at all locations(P >0.05)except for the TC which was minimally thinner by about4.4 μm(P =0.001) in the allergic subjects than in the control subjects, 30 min following 30 s of eye rubbing.CONCLUSION: IOP measured in allergic subjects after30 s of habitual eye rubbing was comparable with that obtained in normal subjects at all times between 0 and30 min. Although, CT in the allergic subjects were similar to those of the control subjects at all times, it

  11. Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...... analysis and the design of inversion primitives and composition methods. We illustrate the algorithms on an underactuated planar rigid body and on a satellite with two thrusters....

  12. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-03-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. PMID:28272523

  14. A comparison of the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in primary phronic angle closure glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma and normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihota Ramanjit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP in primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, and normal eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed patients of POAG (60 eyes, PCACG following laser iridotomy (75 eyes, and age and sex matched normal controls (75 eyes. All subjects underwent applanation tonometry at 7 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., 7 p.m., and 10 p.m. by a masked observer. Circadian rhythms were classified based upon the timing and presence of peak pressure. Results: Age and gender in all three groups were comparable. Diurnal IOP fluctuations were significantly higher in PCACG (7.69 + 3.03 mmHg and POAG (8.31 + 2.58 mmHg groups compared to normal controls (4.83 + 2.46 mmHg. PCACG eyes and controls had similarly timed circadian rhythms, with PCACG eyes having a consistently higher IOP. At 7 and 10 a.m., IOP peaked more often in POAG eyes compared to PCACG eyes. A plateau type of circadian rhythm was most common in normal eyes. The timing of peak IOP could be significantly correlated with the type of primary glaucoma examined. Conclusion: Afternoon peaks were more common in postiridotomy PCACG eyes, similar to the rhythm in normal eyes. Morning peaks were more frequent in POAG eyes. Diurnal fluctuation > 6 mmHg, associated with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more was never seen in a normal eye.

  15. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  16. 眼睛理疗仪智能控制器设计%Design of intelligent controller for eye physiotherapy instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明

    2016-01-01

    眼睛理疗仪智能控制器主要由主控制中心、人机交互系统(包括形状触摸控制、触屏控制、语音控制)、电机驱动模块、红外理疗模块、电磁理疗模块、音乐模块组成。主控中心通过压力传感器、温度传感器、加速度传感器实时监测各项参数。理疗仪具有多种理疗方式:振动按摩、穴位定点按摩、硅胶体滑动按摩、红外理疗、电磁理疗,以及上述方式的任意组合。通过合理的软件算法,实现控制方式的智能化、人性化,实现理疗效果的最佳化。%System composition of intelligent controller of eye physiotherapy instrument is main controller center, human-computer interaction system,which includes shape touch control,touch screen control,speech control, motor driver module,infrared physiotherapy module,electromagnetic physiotherapy module and music player module. Main control center realtime monitor each parameter through pressure,temperature,acceleration sensors,it has variety of physical therapy mode,such as,Vibration massage,acupoint fixed point massage,sliding massage by silicone gel,infrared therapy,electromagnetic therapy,and any combination of above modes. Through reasonable software algorithm,realize intelligentize,humanization of control mode,and realize optimization of physical therapy effect.

  17. Cursive writing with smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenceau, Jean

    2012-08-21

    The eyes never cease to move: ballistic saccades quickly turn the gaze toward peripheral targets, whereas smooth pursuit maintains moving targets on the fovea where visual acuity is best. Despite the oculomotor system being endowed with exquisite motor abilities, any attempt to generate smooth eye movements against a static background results in saccadic eye movements. Although exceptions to this rule have been reported, volitional control over smooth eye movements is at best rudimentary. Here, I introduce a novel, temporally modulated visual display, which, although static, sustains smooth eye movements in arbitrary directions. After brief training, participants gain volitional control over smooth pursuit eye movements and can generate digits, letters, words, or drawings at will. For persons deprived of limb movement, this offers a fast, creative, and personal means of linguistic and emotional expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical aberrations in pseudophakic eyes after 2.5-mm Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casprini, Fabrizio; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Tosi, Gian Marco; Lazzarotto, Marco; Malandrini, Alex; Lepri, Francesca; Martone, Gianluca; Caporossi, Tomaso; Caporossi, Aldo

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate aberrometric outcomes in eyes with posterior capsule opacification after 2.5-mm Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy compared to pseudophakic eyes without posterior capsule opacification. Photographic image analysis of posterior capsule opacification was performed on 36 eyes that showed advanced posterior capsule opacification (case group) and on 36 eyes which showed absence of posterior capsule opacification (control group). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and wavefront analysis were performed in the control group and in the case group after 2.5-mm capsulotomy. Mean BSCVA in the case group after treatment was significantly higher than before treatment (P .1). Aberrometric analysis was performed on the control group, but light scattering prevented the analysis in posterior capsule opacification before capsulotomy, which was then performed after the intervention in 18 (50%) eyes. Mean total high order aberrations and 3rd order aberrations were significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P .06). Our wavefront results can detect a deterioration of visual quality in patients that underwent a 2.5-mm Nd:YAG capsulotomy compared to pseudophakic patients not affected by posterior capsule opacification. This difference cannot be detected by standard visual acuity examination. Further study is needed to clarify whether our high order aberration findings were related to small, 2.5-mm capsulotomies and whether aberrometry may be indicative for mild to moderate posterior capsule opacification.

  19. The Control Attitudes Scale-Revised: psychometric evaluation in three groups of patients with cardiac illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Debra K; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn V; Meischke, Hendrika; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A; Dracup, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control is a construct with important theoretical and clinical implications for healthcare providers, yet practical application of the construct in research and clinical practice awaits development of an easily administered instrument to measure perceived control with evidence of reliability and validity. To test the psychometric properties of the Control Attitudes Scale-Revised (CAS-R) using a sample of 3,396 individuals with coronary heart disease, 513 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 146 patients with heart failure. Analyses were done separately in each patient group. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha to determine internal consistency, and item homogeneity was assessed using item-total and interitem correlations. Validity was examined using principal component analysis and testing hypotheses about known associations. Cronbach's alpha values for the CAS-R in patients with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure were all greater than .70. Item-total and interitem correlation coefficients for all items were acceptable in the groups. In factor analyses, the same single factor was extracted in all groups, and all items were loaded moderately or strongly to the factor in each group. As hypothesized in the final construct validity test, in all groups, patients with higher levels of perceived control had less depression and less anxiety compared with those of patients who had lower levels of perceived control. This study provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the 8-item CAS-R as a measure of perceived control in patients with cardiac illness and provides important insight into a key patient construct.

  20. Comparison of keratometric and pachymetric parameters with Scheimpflug imaging in normal and keratoconic Asian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim HB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hou-Boon Lim,1 Gavin Tan,1 Li Lim,1 Hla Myint Htoon2 1Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore Purpose: To evaluate the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of keratoconic corneas of Asian eyes with the Scheimpflug imaging camera. Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 22 eyes with Amsler-Krumeich stage 1 keratoconus and 48 eyes from normal subjects conducted in a tertiary eye hospital. A rotating Scheimpflug imaging system, the Pentacam, was used to evaluate all eyes for tomographic parameters, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI and Ambrósio relational thickness (ART. Results: All PPI and ART parameter values were significantly different between study and control groups. Cornea minimum radius of curvature, absolute distance from corneal apex to thinnest location, as well as the distance from corneal apex to thinnest location in Y-axis also demonstrated statistically significant differences. The mean ART values for keratoconus eyes were 241 µm (ART-maximum and 352 µm (ART-average, falling within previously reported best cutoff values for detecting keratoconus. On receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under the curve values were highest for PPI and ART parameters. Conclusion: There are significant differences in tomographic parameters between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Asian eyes. Pachymetric indices such as the PPI and the ART index can serve as additional tools in differentiating keratoconic from normal eyes. The findings validate the usefulness of the ART in identifying keratoconic eyes in Asians. Keywords: keratoconus, pentacam, corneal tomography, Ambrósio relational thickness

  1. Effect of Intracameral Lidocaine Anesthesia on the Anterior Segment of Rabbit Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yang; Danying Zheng; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intracameral anesthesia on the anterior segment ofrabbit eyes using chinese-made lidocaine.Method: The study comprised eight eyes of four white rabbits which were divided intothree groups according to the concentration of the lidocaine given. They are 0.5%, 1%,2% lidocaine groups and balanced salt solution(BSS)control group. Each groupcontained two eyes.After 0.5 ml of the anesthetic agent was injected into the anteriorchamber and retainedthere for ten minutes, the rabbits were executed and the eye balls wereenucleated. Pathological examinations of the anterior segment, including cornea, iris andcilliary body, were carried out immediately.Result:The pathological study revealed no abnormal findings in lidocaine 0. 5% and 1%groups compared with the control group, where as in the lidocaine 2% group, muchabnormal pathological change was found, including the shrinkage of corneal endothelium,stroma edema of iris and cilliary body.Conclusion: Using intracameral anesthesia of high concentration of chinese-made lidocainewould run a risk of damaging the anterior segment of rabbit eye. But at the low concentrationusually usedin cataract surgery, no adverse effect was found.

  2. A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-05-01

    Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life.

  3. Group memory rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sara E; das Nair, Roshan; Schwartz, Annette F; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2014-06-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a group memory rehabilitation programme combining compensation and restitution strategies. Randomized controlled trial. Community. People with multiple sclerosis who reported memory difficulties were recruited. A group memory rehabilitation programme, comprising ten 1.5-hour sessions, was compared with a waiting list control. The primary outcome was the Everyday Memory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included the General Health Questionnaire 28 and MS Impact Scale administered four and eight months after randomization. In addition, those in the intervention group gave feedback about the intervention. Forty-eight participants were recruited. They were aged 34-72 years (mean 54.3, SD 11.0) and 33 (69%) were women. There were no significant differences between the two groups on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire or MS Impact Scale (P > 0.05) at four or eight months after randomization. However, the intervention group reported significantly better mood than controls on the GHQ-28 at eight months (P = 0.04). Participants showed minimal benefit from the memory rehabilitation programme on quantitative measures but the intervention was well received, as indicated by positive feedback at the end of the intervention. There was no significant effect of the intervention on memory but there was a significant effect on mood. The results suggest a larger scale study is justified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  5. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space h

  6. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  7. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  8. 基于极小值原理的最优眼动控制模型%A Research on Optimal Control Model for Eye Movement Based on the Minimum Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 温宝琴

    2014-01-01

    In eye movement mechanism , retinal fovea area is perturbed by the noise , which makes the movement duration and accuracy fail to reach optimization at the same time .Aiming to obtain the optimal eye movement trajectory , considering weight of duration and accuracy , and from the perspective of minimal cost of eye movement , an optimal control model of eye movement based on optimal control theory and the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed in this study .Meanwhile , the relationship of eye movement main sequence is used to analyze this model .The result shows that there is a unique optimal duration for a given amplitude which makes eye movement to minimize the total cost , and the eye movement trajectory is optimal .The model is meaningful to optimize eye movement strategy and eye movement trajectory for the pilot, controller and other staff .%在眼动系统中,由于视网膜中央凹区域受到噪声的干扰,使得眼跳时间和准确度不能同时达到最优化。为了得到最优眼动轨迹,在权衡眼跳时间和准确度的基础上,从眼动消耗最小入手,应用最优控制理论和Pontryagin极小值原理,提出了最优眼动控制模型;并利用眼动主序关系对此模型进行了分析;结果表明,任何给定的眼跳幅度条件下,都有唯一的最优眼跳时间使眼动总消耗达到最小,并且此时的眼动轨迹为最优眼动轨迹。该模型对优化飞行员、管制员等工作人员的眼动策略和眼动轨迹具有一定意义。

  9. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  10. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  11. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  12. The sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in common carotid arteries: Rheumatoid arthritis patients Versus control group

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    Rahmani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: High Resolution sonography of common carotid artery is a safe method for rapid diagnosis of atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The purpose of this study was to compare sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients and control group and comparing the prevalence of atheromatous plaques and Intima- media thickness in arteries of the groups. "nMethods: Fifty RA patients and fifty non-RA persons were evaluated in a cross- sectional, Descriptive study. The sonographic findings of common carotid artery of these two groups were compared."n "nResults: After analysis of the sonographic findings of common carotid arteries of 100 females in our study (50 patients with the mean age of 48.1y/o [23-61] and 50 control group with the mean age of 47y/o [23-61], the prevalence of RA patients with atheromatous plaques was 32% and in control group was 6%. [OR=7.4, 95%CI=2-27.3, p=0.001]. The mean (SD of the Intima- Media Thickness (IMT in RA patients was 7.76 mm (1, 04 while in control group was 6.10 mm (0.95. From 38 RA patients with less or equal 5 joints involvement in hand radiography, 13.2% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 7.6 (±1.1 mm. From 12 patients with more than 5 joints involvement in radiography, 91.7% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 8.4 (±0.7 mm. [p=0.012]."n "nConclusions: Regarding higher prevalence of vascular problems in RA patients, screening and early diagnosis of vascular pathologies could be of value in reducing morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  13. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting

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    Miguel Ángel Cervantes Cuesta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, the body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. Methods: A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m². The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG. Results: The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003, met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005 and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002 than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p < 0.05. Conclusions: PGT patients achieved a significant improvement in HbA1C, BMI and CVRF, and outperformed the conventional diabetes education group in achieving the optimal diabetes control objectives. Structural changes in the assistance programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care.

  14. Decentralized control algorithms of a group of vehicles in 2D space

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    Pshikhopov, V. K.; Medvedev, M. Y.; Fedorenko, R. V.; Gurenko, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of decentralized control of group of robots, described by kinematic and dynamic equations of motion in the plane, is considered. Group performs predetermined rectangular area passing at a fixed speed, keeping the line and a uniform distribution. The environment may contain a priori unknown moving or stationary obstacles. Decentralized control algorithms, based on the formation of repellers in the state space of robots, are proposed. These repellers form repulsive forces generated by dynamic subsystems that extend the state space of robots. These repulsive forces are dynamic functions of distances and velocities of robots in the area of operation of the group. The process of formation of repellers allows to take into account the dynamic properties of robots, such as the maximum speed and acceleration. The robots local control law formulas are derived based on positionally-trajectory control method, which allows to operate with non-linear models. Lyapunov function in the form of a quadratic function of the state variables is constructed to obtain a nonlinear closed-loop control system. Due to the fact that a closed system is decomposed into two independent subsystems Lyapunov function is also constructed as two independent functions. Numerical simulation of the motion of a group of five robots is presented. In this simulation obstacles are presented by the boundaries of working area and a movable object of a given radius, moving rectilinear and uniform. Obstacle speed is comparable to the speeds of the robots in a group. The advantage of the proposed method is ensuring the stability of the trajectories and consideration of the limitations on the speed and acceleration at the trajectory planning stage. Proposed approach can be used for more general robots' models, including robots in the three-dimensional environment.

  15. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

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    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  16. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

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    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  17. Prevalence of eye disease in Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis

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    Fernanda B. F. de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the type and frequency of ocular manifestations in Brazilian psoriatic arthritis patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The test group included 40 patients who had psoriatic arthritis according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis. A control group of 40 individuals was matched for age and gender. All of the patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation, which included best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp and fundus examinations, and dry eye diagnostic tests (Schirmer I, tear breakup time and rose bengal. Demographic parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9±13.1 years; the mean disease duration was 8±10.5 years. Most of the patients were women (60%, and the majority had polyarticular disease (57.5%. Several ocular abnormalities were found, including punctate keratitis, pinguecula, blepharitis, pterygium, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and retinal microvascular abnormalities. There were no significant differences in the rates of these abnormalities compared with the control group, however. The Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry eye diagnostic tests were more often positive in the patients with psoriatic arthritis than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was the most common ocular finding related to psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, we recommend early ophthalmologic evaluations for all psoriatic arthritis patients who complain of eye symptoms.

  18. Inspection time as mental speed in mildly mentally retarded adults: analysis of eye gaze, eye movement, and orientation.

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    Nettelbeck, T; Robson, L; Walwyn, T; Downing, A; Jones, N

    1986-07-01

    The effect of eye movements away from a target on accuracy of visual discrimination was examined. In Experiment I inspection time was measured for 10 mildly mentally retarded and 10 nonretarded adults under two conditions, with each trial initiated by the subject or under experimental control. Retarded subjects did not gain any advantage from controlling trial onset. Video records of eye movements revealed that retarded subjects glanced off-target more than did nonretarded controls, but this was not sufficient to explain appreciably slower inspection time of the retarded group. Experiment 2 supported this conclusion; the same subjects completed a letter-discrimination task with direction of gaze monitored automatically. Although retarded subjects' eye gaze was more scattered early during a trial, gaze was appropriately directed by the time that the target appeared. Results from both experiments supported the hypothesis that speed of central, perceptual processing is slower among retarded persons, over and above the influence of distractibility. Results from three experiments in Part II were consistent with this interpretation. Experiment 3 was designed to eradicate trials among retarded subjects in which gaze was not properly directed, but results showed that too few such events occurred to influence accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the preparatory procedure in the previous studies resulted in efficient eye gaze among retarded subjects. Experiment 5 confirmed that lower discriminative accuracy among 10 retarded adults (compared with 10 nonretarded controls) was not due to less-efficient orientation prior to discrimination.

  19. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  20. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

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    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  1. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

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    Seyed Mahmood Mirzamani Ph.D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran .Methods: The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test.Results: The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001. Discussion: This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes .

  2. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

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    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  3. Eye dominance in children: a longitudinal study.

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    Dellatolas, G; Curt, F; Dargent-Paré, C; De Agostini, M

    1998-05-01

    In a sample of 807 normal preschool children aged from 3 to 6, examined eye dominance was not associated with the declared eye dominance of their parents. Forty percent of the children showed left-eyedness. Eyedness was associated with handedness and not significantly related to age group or sex. A strong relationship between the answers of the two parents concerning eye preference was observed. Two hundred forty-four children were followed-up for 2 years. The examinations were carried out once every 6 months. Two thirds of the children showed perfect stability in eye dominance. There was some evidence that stability in eye use tends to increase with age and to be lower in left-handed children with left-handed parents. There is, at present, very little evidence of a positive association between eye dominance in parents and that in their children.

  4. Flying Eyes and Hidden Controllers: A Qualitative Study of People’s Privacy Perceptions of Civilian Drones in The US

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    Wang Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drones are unmanned aircraft controlled remotely or operated autonomously. While the extant literature suggests that drones can in principle invade people’s privacy, little is known about how people actually think about drones. Drawing from a series of in-depth interviews conducted in the United States, we provide a novel and rich account of people’s privacy perceptions of drones for civilian uses both in general and under specific usage scenarios. Our informants raised both physical and information privacy issues against government, organization and individual use of drones. Informants’ reasoning about the acceptance of drone use was in part based on whether the drone is operating in a public or private space. However, our informants differed significantly in their definitions of public and private spaces. While our informants’ privacy concerns such as surveillance, data collection and sharing have been raised for other tracking technologies such as camera phones and closed-circuit television (CCTV, our interviews highlight two heightened issues of drones: (1 powerful yet inconspicuous data collection, (2 hidden and inaccessible drone controllers. These two aspects of drones render some of people’s existing privacy practices futile (e.g., notice recording and ask controllers to stop or delete the recording. Some informants demanded notifications of drones near them and expected drone controllers asking for their explicit permissions before recording. We discuss implications for future privacy-enhancing drone designs.

  5. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

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    Maciej ePerdziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  6. Effect of glaucoma on eye movement patterns and laboratory-based hazard detection ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the elevated crash rates of older drivers with glaucoma are poorly understood. A key driving skill is timely detection of hazards; however, the hazard detection ability of drivers with glaucoma has been largely unexplored. This study assessed the eye movement patterns and visual predictors of performance on a laboratory-based hazard detection task in older drivers with glaucoma. Participants included 30 older drivers with glaucoma (71±7 years; average better-eye mean deviation (MD) = -3.1±3.2 dB; average worse-eye MD = -11.9±6.2 dB) and 25 age-matched controls (72±7 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, useful field of view (UFoV; processing speeds), and motion sensitivity were assessed. Participants completed a computerised Hazard Perception Test (HPT) while their eye movements were recorded using a desk-mounted Tobii TX300 eye-tracking system. The HPT comprises a series of real-world traffic videos recorded from the driver's perspective; participants responded to road hazards appearing in the videos, and hazard response times were determined. Participants with glaucoma exhibited an average of 0.42 seconds delay in hazard response time (p = 0.001), smaller saccades (p = 0.010), and delayed first fixation on hazards (p<0.001) compared to controls. Importantly, larger saccades were associated with faster hazard responses in the glaucoma group (p = 0.004), but not in the control group (p = 0.19). Across both groups, significant visual predictors of hazard response times included motion sensitivity, UFoV, and worse-eye MD (p<0.05). Older drivers with glaucoma had delayed hazard response times compared to controls, with associated changes in eye movement patterns. The association between larger saccades and faster hazard response time in the glaucoma group may represent a compensatory behaviour to facilitate improved performance.

  7. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

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    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  8. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

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    Simon Bate

    Full Text Available Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups.

  9. Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

  10. [Evaluation of an educational group intervention in the control of patients with cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Girbau, M Núria; Lladó-Blanch, M Magdalena; Seco-Salcedo, M Carmen; Gómez-Saldaña, Ana; Medina-Peralta, Manuel; Riera-Torres, Roser; Pera, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    To compare an educational group intervention with individual care to improve clinical and management variables among patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) in community health care (PC). A randomised controlled experimental study was developed in 7 PC centres of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 2,127 patients included in the chronic diseases protocol of the centres were selected. The intervention group (IG) attended four educative workshops led by their nurses during one year. Clinical and management variables (number of visits, pharmaceutical expenditure, nurse time consumption) were measured at baseline and 3 months after the intervention in the IG and in the control group (CG). Pre-post-intervention and IG vs. CG differences were analysed. Among the 672 patients belonging to the IG, 144 were lost due to failing to attend the workshops. CG (n=824) had no withdrawals. At the end of follow-up there were no significant differences between their clinical variables. The number of visits and pharmaceutical expenditure increased in the IG. However, the annual dedication of nurses per patient per year was 39.59 minutes in the IG and 60 minutes in the CG. Nurse group control of patients with CVR in PC saves nurse-time compared with the usual individual visits. However, further studies are needed to better define what type of patient that is more susceptible to follow cardiovascular control through group workshops and whether this time-saving is related to the use of other health resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of an intermittent and continuous forearm muscles fatigue protocol with motorcycle riders and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M; Torrado, P; Busquets, A; Ríos, J G; Angulo-Barroso, R

    2013-02-01

    Motorcycle races' long duration justify the study of forearm muscles fatigue, especially knowing the frequently associated forearm discomfort pathology. Moreover, while continuous fatigue protocols yield unequivocal results, EMG outcomes from an intermittent protocol are quite controversial. This study examined the forearm muscle fatigue patterns produced during these two protocols, comparing riders with a control group, and relating maximal voluntary contraction with EMG parameters (amplitude - NRMS and median frequency - NMF) of both protocols to the forearm discomfort among motorcycle riders. Twenty riders and 39 controls performed in separate days both protocols simulating the braking gesture and posture of a rider. EMG of flexor digitorum superficialis (FS) and carpi radialis (CR) were monitored. CR revealed more differences among protocols and groups compared to FS. The greater CR activation in riders could be interpreted as a neuromotor strategy to improve braking precision. When FS fatigue increased, the control group progressively shift toward a bigger CR activation, adopting an intermuscular activation pattern closer to riders. Despite the absence of NMF decrement throughout the intermittent protocol, which suggest that we should have shorten the recovery times from the actual 1 min, the superior number of rounds performed by the riders proved that this protocol discriminates better riders against controls and is more related to forearm discomfort.

  12. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

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    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  13. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous...

  14. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  15. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  16. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  17. A group randomized controlled trial integrating obesity prevention and control for postpartum adolescents in a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra L; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Peskoe, Sarah B; Budd, Elizabeth L; Brownson, Ross C; Joshu, Corinne E

    2015-06-26

    Adolescence represents a critical period for the development of overweight that tracks into adulthood. This risk is significantly heightened for adolescents that become pregnant, many of whom experience postpartum weight retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate Balance Adolescent Lifestyle Activities and Nutrition Choices for Energy (BALANCE), a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention targeting postpartum adolescents participating in a national home visiting child development-parent education program. A group randomized, nested cohort design was used with 1325 adolescents, 694 intervention and 490 control, (mean age = 17.8 years, 52 % underrepresented minorities) located across 30 states. Participatory methods were used to integrate lifestyle behavior change strategies within standard parent education practice. Content targeted replacement of high-risk obesogenic patterns (e.g. sweetened drink and high fat snack consumption, sedentary activity) with positive behaviors (e.g. water intake, fruit and vegetables, increased walking). Parent educators delivered BALANCE through home visits, school based classroom-group meetings, and website activities. Control adolescents received standard child development information. Phase I included baseline to posttest (12 months); Phase II included baseline to follow-up (24 months). When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents who were ≥12 weeks postpartum were 89 % more likely (p = 0.02) to maintain a normal BMI or improve an overweight/obese BMI by 12 months; this change was not sustained at 24 months. When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents significantly improved fruit and vegetable intake (p = .03). In stratified analyses, water intake improved among younger BALANCE teens (p = .001) and overweight/obese BALANCE teens (p = .05) when compared to control counterparts. There were no significant differences between groups in sweetened drink and snack consumption

  18. Clinical research of loratadine and diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate clinical efficacy of loratadine and diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis and to improve the outcomes of patients with allergic conjunctivitis.METHODS: The selected 154 patients(158 eyeswith allergic conjunctivitis were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 77 patients(79 eyes in each group. Patients in control group were treated with loratadine. Patients in observation group were treated with diclofenac sodium eye drops besides loratadine. Scores on symptoms and physical signs of two groups were compared and clinical efficacy of two group was evaluated and compared. RESULTS: Before treatments, the scores on symptoms and physical signs of two groups were not significantly different(P>0.05. After treatments,the scores of observation group on eye itching, tearing, photophobia, burning sensation and foreign body sensation were respectively 1.03±0.10, 0.83±0.10, 0.62±0.06, 0.80±0.05 and 1.10±0.09score. The scores on conjunctival congestion and edema, secretions, nipple-like follicular on palpebral conjunctiva, limbus change, corneal epithelial changes as well as eyelid and periocular edema of observation group were respectively 0.95±0.08,0.63±0.05,1.32±0.13,0.67±0.06,0.72±0.06, 0.55±0.04score.All the aspects mentioned above were lower in observation group than in control group and the differences were statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Systemic treatment of loratadine combined with local treatment of diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis can relieve the clinical signs and symptoms better, make the treatment more effective with easy drug administration, which is an effective treatment.

  19. Flying Eyes and Hidden Controllers: A Qualitative Study of People’s Privacy Perceptions of Civilian Drones in The US

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yang; Xia Huichuan; Yao Yaxing; Huang Yun

    2016-01-01

    Drones are unmanned aircraft controlled remotely or operated autonomously. While the extant literature suggests that drones can in principle invade people’s privacy, little is known about how people actually think about drones. Drawing from a series of in-depth interviews conducted in the United States, we provide a novel and rich account of people’s privacy perceptions of drones for civilian uses both in general and under specific usage scenarios. Our informants raised both physical and info...

  20. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  1. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Diane L; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P; Way, David P

    2015-11-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another's emotional state combined with an ability to modify one's own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI's are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact on EM residents six months after the

  2. Meibomian gland dysfunction determines the severity of the dry eye conditions in visual display terminal workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huping Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT workers. METHODOLOGY: Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤ 4 hour per day served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score, and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore using Keratograph 5 M. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (P<0.0001. When 52 eyes with Schirmer <10 mm and 54 eyes with Schirmer ≥ 10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (P<0.0001 and fluorescein scores (P<0.0001, inversely correlated with BUT (P<0.05, but not correlated with Schirmer tear volumes in the VDT workers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a malfunction of meibomian glands is associated with dry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume.

  3. An Eye to a Kill: Using Predatory Bacteria to Control Gram-Negative Pathogens Associated with Ocular Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Q Shanks

    Full Text Available Ocular infections are a leading cause of vision loss. It has been previously suggested that predatory prokaryotes might be used as live antibiotics to control infections. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens ocular isolates were exposed to the predatory bacteria Micavibrio aeruginosavorus and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. All tested S. marcescens isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100. Seven of the 10 P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus 109J with 80% being attacked by M. aeruginosavorus. All of the 19 tested isolates were found to be sensitive to at least one predator. To further investigate the effect of the predators on eukaryotic cells, human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE cells were exposed to high concentrations of the predators. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that predatory bacteria do not damage ocular surface cells in vitro whereas the P. aeruginosa used as a positive control was highly toxic. Furthermore, no increase in the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha was measured in HCLE cells after exposure to the predators. Finally, injection of high concentration of predatory bacteria into the hemocoel of Galleria mellonella, an established model system used to study microbial pathogenesis, did not result in any measurable negative effect to the host. Our results suggest that predatory bacteria could be considered in the near future as a safe topical bio-control agent to treat ocular infections.

  4. Topographic profile of choroid in eyes after acute primary angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinbo; Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Jiawei; Du, Shaolin; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-10-01

    To characterize and compare the topographic profile of choroid in eyes after acute primary angle-closure (APAC) and in normal controls. A prospective observational study was conducted. Forty-four consecutive patients who had experienced unilateral APAC that was resolved by treatment were recruited. Seventy age- and sex-matched normal individuals were recruited as controls. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was used to measure choroidal thickness (CT) in 9 diffuse locations of macular region. The average CT was compared among each location in the APAC and control groups and between the same locations in the 2 groups. Variants of CT at different macular locations were found in both groups; it was greatest at subfoveal locations and spread thinner around them, to reach a significant decrease (all p ≤ 0.05) 3 mm away in all directions from the fovea except for the superior direction in normal controls (p = 0.472). Among the 4 directions, the superior had the thickest CT in both groups, followed by the temporal, inferior, and nasal directions in both groups, whereas the APAC had a thicker choroid profile at each location (all p choroidal thickness (SFCT) (all p choroid than normal eyes in the macular region, and the increase in CT in APAC eyes follows topographic distribution as in normal control eyes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mentalization and Life Stories among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and a Control Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Bøye, Rikke; Heinskou, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    been examined in patients with BPD and this was the aim of our ongoing study. 30 patients with BPD and 30 controls will participate in the study. Mentalization is assessed using both self-report and performance measures (Empathic Quotient, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Mayer, Salovey, Caruso...... Emotional Intelligence Test). Life stories are assessed by having participants describe up to 10 chapters and rate causal coherence of these chapters. We expect that patients with BPD will show poorer mentalization and less causally coherent life stories compared to the control group. Furthermore, we expect...

  6. Revisiting Executive Pay in Family-Controlled Firms: Family Premium in Large Business Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Juyoung; Kim, Woochan

    2014-01-01

    According to the prior literature, family executives of family-controlled firms receive lower compensation than non-family executives. One of the key driving forces behind this is the existence of family members who are not involved in management, but own significant fraction of shares and closely monitor and/or discipline those involved in management. In this paper, we show that this assumption falls apart if family-controlled firm is part of a large business group, where most of the family ...

  7. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects.

  8. Consumption of Cisatracurium in different age groups, using a closed loop computer controlled system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joomye, Shehzaad; Yan, Donglai; Wang, Haiyun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Wang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    We devised this study to quantify the effect of age on the consumption of cisatracurium under general anaesthesia, using a computer controlled closed loop infusion system. We further investigated this effect on, sufentanil and propofol consumption. 74 patients of physical status I and II, requiring general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery, were assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1 were aged from 20 to 45, group 2 were from 46 to 64, and group 3 above 65 years old. General Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and muscle paralysis was maintained using a closed-loop computer controlled infusion of cisatracurium. For analgesia, intermittent bolus of sufentanil 10 μg was given. Cisatracurium consumption in group 1, 2 and 3 were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 μg/kg/min respectively. There was significant difference of cisatracurium consumption between group 1 and 3 (P = 0.002), and the consumption of cisatracurium in group 3 was less as compared with group 2 (P = 0.04). The average recovery index of patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 8.8 ± 2.6, 11.5 ± 2.9 and 12.7 ± 2.5 minutes respectively. There were difference between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.02). As compared with group 1, the recovery index was still longer in group 3 (P = 0.001). Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 consumed an average sufentanil 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μg/kg/hr, respectively. There were statistical significant between group 1 and 3 (P < 0.0001), and the same trend was found between group 2 and 3 (P = 0.03). The Consumption of propofol in group 1, 2 and 3 were 5.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mg/kg/hr. The difference in the propofol consumption was found statistically significant when comparing between any two groups. We concluded that the sensitivity of anesthetic agents increased with age. Less medication was required to achieve a desirable effect in older patients specially those

  9. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  10. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  11. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  12. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Bakhtiari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P=0.46 or Rh (P=0.76 between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease.

  13. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).

  14. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    % had anti-striated muscle antibodies. None of the control subjects had any muscle antibodies. There was no significant difference in frequency of the remaining autoantibodies between the groups investigated. The present study indicates autoimmune responses in PFS against antigens of the diseased tissue...... itself, a finding which may be secondary to the disease or have relevance to the still obscure pathogenesis of the syndrome....

  15. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties with regard to their specific diagnoses. According to diagnostic consensus criteria, specific diagnoses include neuropathy and muscular- and connective-tissue disorders (MCDs). There is a need for valid objective...... diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...

  16. Different Effects of Topical Prazosin and Pilocarpine on Uveoscleral Outflow in Rabbit Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming Wang; Yanping Song; Baichao Ren; Naixue Sun; Yinggui Yu; Haitao Hu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of topical prazosin and pilocarpine on uveoscleral outflow(Fu) in rabbits.Methods: Sixteen rabbits were randomly divided into the control group (5 rabbits, only topical application of normal saline in the right eye of each rabbit), Prazosin (PZ) treated group (6 rabbits, only 0.1% Prazosin eyedrop 0.1% in the right eye of each one) and Pilocarpine (PC) treated group (5 rabbits, 1% Pilocarpine eye drop in each right eye).Intraocular pressure (IOP)of bilateral eyes of each rabbit was measured before and 1 h after topical application of the eye drop.And the bilateral eyes were perfused with Fluorescein-isothiocyanate bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) as the tracer into the anterior chamber of each rabbit for 30 min at 90 min after topical treatment. Then the rabbits were killed for Fu measurement.Results: IOP of PZ-treated eyes decreased [ (0.71 +0.07)kPa ] in 1 hour after PZ application.IOP of PC-treated eyes decreased [(0.70+0.08)kPa] in 1 hour after PC application. The average value of Fu was (0.176+0.048)μl/min in control eyes. The average value of Fu in PZ-treated eyes was (0.339+0.018)μl/min. The average value of Fu in PC-treated eye was(0.123+0.022) μl/min.Conclusion: Both of PZ and PC can decrease IOP in rabbits following topical application.Topical PZ can increase Fu in rabbits and this is one of the mechanisms of PZ-induced IOP decrease.Topical PC can prevent Fu. PC decreases IOP not through uveoscleral pathway.This study demonstrates that uveoscleral pathway plays an important role in aqueous humor drainage. PZ may be a novel drug for decreasing IOP. FITC-BSA is an effective tracer for studying uveoscleral pathway.

  17. A Simple Approach for Synthesis of TAPO-11 Molecular Sieve with Controllable Space Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming LIU; Huan Yan ZHANG; Hai Jiao ZHANG; Hai Hong WU; Peng WU; Ming Yuan HE

    2006-01-01

    A TAPO-11 molecular sieve with the space group Icm2 was synthesized successfully.The samples with different space group were controlled simply only by adjusting the crystallization temperature (CT) in the hydrothermal system. In the system of gel with a molar composition of 0.7R: xTiO2: P2O5: Al2O3: 30H2O, where x is 0.01-0.10 and the R is a mixture of di-n-propylamine and diisopropylamine as templates. When CT was between 150-160℃, the calcined sample showed the space group of Icm2, while it showed Pna21 at CTlarger than 190℃.The characterizations of UV-Vis and FT-IR confirmed that Ti was incorporated into the AEL framework successfully.

  18. Tunneling induced transparency and controllable group velocity in triple and multiple quantum-dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of a triple quantum dot molecules controlled by the tunneling coupling instead of coupling laser. A general analytic expression for the steady-state linear susceptibility for a probe-laser field is obtained and we show that the system can exhibit two transparency windows. The group velocity of the probe-laser pulse is also analyzed. By changing the tunneling couplings, two laser pulses with different central frequency can propagate with the same group velocity. And the group velocity can be as low as 300 m/s in our system. We extend our analysis to the case of multiple quantum dot molecules (the number of the quantum dots is N) and show that the system can exhibit at most N-1 transparency windows. And at most N-1 laser pulses with different central frequencies can be slowed down.

  19. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids. Normally, our eyes constantly make tears ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  4. TUBERCULOSIS AND THE EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Mycobacteria; Tuberculosis; Eye ... of tuberculous eye disease or ocular tuberculosis has also been raised. Ocular ... patients with ocular complaints, compiled in an area ..... tuberculomas are usually solitary and may measure up.

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  8. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  9. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  10. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Sedighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group.This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city, Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex.The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249.The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls.

  11. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  12. DIVERSIFICATION AND FAMILY CONTROL AS DETERMINANTS OF PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF LISTED BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Trasobares, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the individual and joint impact of family control and diversification on the perfor-mance of major Spanish corporations, considering the nature of the ltimate owner of non-family groups.The study uses a sample of ninety-nine Spanish corporations, each comprising a parent company listed onthe stock exchange and a set of subsidiaries. Heckman’s two-step correction is used to eliminate selectionbias and the endogeneity of family ownership. Different models are contemplated in which we alysethe impact of both diversification and the family nature of a business on performance, established asTobin’s q-value. The results show how family control has a egative impact on Tobin’s q-value, and thatdifferences are greater between family groups and non-family groups controlled by banks and/or foreignagents. They also show ow diversification does not affect the creation of value either individually orconsidering the possible moderating effect of family ownership.

  13. Retinal vessel density from optical coherence tomography angiography to differentiate early glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma and normal eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Handan; Huang, Alex S.; Francis, Brian A.; Sadda, Sirinivas R.; Chopra, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate optic nerve vascular density using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with early primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), pre-perimetric glaucoma and normal eyes. Methods This is a prospective, observational study including 56 eyes in total and divided into 3 groups; 20 eyes with mild POAG, 20 pre-perimetric glaucoma eyes, and 16 age-matched normal eyes as controls. The optic disc region was imaged by a 1050-nm-wavelength swept-source OCT system (DRI OCT Triton, TOPCON). Vessel density was assessed as the ratio of the area occupied by the vessels in 3 distinct regions: 1) within the optic nerve head; 2) in the 3 mm papillary region around the optic disc; and 3) in the peripapillary region, defined as a 700-μm-wide elliptical annulus around the disc. The potential associations between vessel density and structural, functional measures were analyzed. Results There was a statistically significant difference for the peripapillary vessel density, optic nerve head vessel density, and papillary vessel density among all the groups (pglaucoma eyes for peripapillary, optic nerve head and papillary vessel density values (p values from 0.001 to 0.007). The optic nerve head vessel density, superior and inferior papillary area vessel density (Pearson r = 0.512, 0.436, 0.523 respectively) were highly correlated with mean overall, superior and inferior RNFL thickness in POAG eyes (p = 0.04, p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis of POAG group showed that optic nerve head vessel density in POAG group was more strongly linked to RNFL thickness than to any other variables. Conclusions Eyes with mild POAG could be differentiated from pre-perimetric glaucoma eyes, which also could be differentiated from normal eyes using OCTA-derived retinal vessel density measurements. PMID:28152070

  14. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  15. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  16. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  17. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-15

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  18. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  19. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...