WorldWideScience

Sample records for eye tracking experiments

  1. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  2. Eye tracking the user experience a practical guide to research

    CERN Document Server

    Bojko, Aga

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking is a widely used research method, but there are many questions and misconceptions about how to effectively apply it. Eye Tracking the User Experience the first how-to book about eye tracking for UX practitioners offers step-by-step advice on how to plan, prepare, and conduct eye tracking studies; how to analyze and interpret eye movement data; and how to successfully communicate eye tracking findings.

  3. Eye Tracking System for Enhanced Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, R. K.; Antoaroo, M. A.; Beeharry, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in a world where information is readily available and being able to provide the learner with the best suited situations and environment for his/her learning experiences is of utmost importance. In most learning environments, information is basically available in the form of written text. According to the eye-tracking…

  4. Eye Tracking System for Enhanced Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, R. K.; Antoaroo, M. A.; Beeharry, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in a world where information is readily available and being able to provide the learner with the best suited situations and environment for his/her learning experiences is of utmost importance. In most learning environments, information is basically available in the form of written text. According to the eye-tracking…

  5. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  6. The analysis of frequency domain characteristics of emotional images in eye-tracking experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Boqiang; Ma, Huimin; Wang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Although recently eye-tracking method has been introduced into behavioral experiments based on dot-probe paradigm, some characteristics in eye-tracking data do not draw as much attention as traditional characteristics like reaction time. It is also necessary to associate eye-tracking data to characteristics of images shown in experiments. In this research, new variables, such as fixation length, times of fixation and times of eye movement, in eye-tracking data were extracted from a behavioral experiment based on dot probe paradigm. They were analyzed and compared to traditional reaction time. After the analysis of positive and negative scenery images, parameters such as hue frequency spectrum PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) were extracted and showed difference between negative and positive images. These parameters of emotional images could discriminate scenery images according to their emotions in an SVM classifier well. Besides, it was found that images' hue frequency spectrum PAR is obviously relevant to eye-tracking statistics. When the dot was on the negative side, negative images' hue frequency spectrum PAR and horizontal eye-jumps confirmed to hyperbolic distribution, while that of positive images was linear with horizontal eye-jumps. The result could help to explain the mechanism of human's attention and boost the study in computer vision.

  7. WEB ANALYTICS COMBINED WITH EYE TRACKING FOR SUCCESSFUL USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena BORYS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analysis of participants’ behaviour during eye-tracking sessions allowed improvements of the prototype.

  8. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  9. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  10. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  11. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  12. A psychotechnological review on eye-tracking systems: towards user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Maria Laura; Federici, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to show a critical review of the international literature on eye-tracking technologies by focusing on those features that characterize them as 'psychotechnologies'. A critical literature review was conducted through the main psychology, engineering, and computer sciences databases by following specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 46 matches from 1998 to 2010 were selected for content analysis. Results have been divided into four broad thematic areas. We found that, although there is a growing attention to end-users, most of the studies reviewed in this work are far from being considered as adopting holistic human-computer interaction models that include both individual differences and needs of users. User is often considered only as a measurement object of the functioning of the technological system and not as a real alter-ego of the intrasystemic interaction. In order to fully benefit from the communicative functions of gaze, the research on eye-tracking must emphasize user experience. Eye-tracking systems would become an effective assistive technology for integration, adaptation and neutralization of the environmental barrier only when a holistic model can be applied for both design processes and assessment of the functional components of the interaction.

  13. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  14. Enhancing User Experience in Next Generation Mobile Devices Using Eye Tracking as a Biometric Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per

    place means we need ways of measuring concepts like attention. The basis for this should preferably be rooted in our understanding of the anatomically based attention networks of the brain. This thesis looks at biometric markers of cognitive and affective processes; at the overview level....... It is demonstrated that it is possible to identify components of attention and cognitive load using low cost eye tracking in conventional office settings. It is also shown that aspects of surprise, similar to negativity feedback error coding, is measurable. Behavioural patterns possibly related to time on target......, cognitive load, performance or stimuli are inferred. The existence of possibly unique individual gaze patterns related to visual stimuli or to the brain’s Default Mode Network are shown. A way of synchronizing EEG and Eye Tracking is also suggested, and in addition, a few software assets (a Python interface...

  15. Expert and Novice Approaches to Using Graphs: Evidence from Eye-Track Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K. R.; Lindgren, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Professionals and students in geology use an array of graphs to study the earth, but relatively little detail is known about how users interact with these graphs. Comprehension of graphical information in the earth sciences is further complicated by the common use of non-traditional formats (e.g., inverted axes, logarithmic scales, normalized plots, ternary diagrams). Many educators consider graph-reading skills an important outcome of general education science curricula, so it is critical that we understand both the development of graph-reading skills and the instructional practices that are most efficacious. Eye-tracking instruments provide quantitative information about eye movements and offer important insights into the development of expertise in graph use. We measured the graph reading skills and eye movements of novices (students with a variety of majors and educational attainment) and experts (faculty and staff from a variety of disciplines) while observing traditional and non-traditional graph formats. Individuals in the expert group consistently demonstrated significantly greater accuracy in responding to questions (e.g., retrieval, interpretation, prediction) about graphs. Among novices, only the number of college math and science courses correlated with response accuracy. Interestingly, novices and experts exhibited similar eye-tracks when they first encountered a new graph; they typically scanned through the title, x and y-axes, and data regions in the first 5-15 seconds. However, experts are readily distinguished from novices by a greater number of eye movements (20-35%) between the data and other graph elements (e.g., title, x-axis, y-axis) both during and after the initial orientation phase. We attribute the greater eye movements between the different graph elements an outcome of the generally better-developed self-regulation skills (goal-setting, monitoring, self-evaluation) that likely characterize individuals in our expert group.

  16. Visual Analytics for Mobile Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Seeger, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of eye tracking data often requires the annotation of areas of interest (AOIs) to derive semantic interpretations of human viewing behavior during experiments. This annotation is typically the most time-consuming step of the analysis process. Especially for data from wearable eye tracking glasses, every independently recorded video has to be annotated individually and corresponding AOIs between videos have to be identified. We provide a novel visual analytics approach to ease this annotation process by image-based, automatic clustering of eye tracking data integrated in an interactive labeling and analysis system. The annotation and analysis are tightly coupled by multiple linked views that allow for a direct interpretation of the labeled data in the context of the recorded video stimuli. The components of our analytics environment were developed with a user-centered design approach in close cooperation with an eye tracking expert. We demonstrate our approach with eye tracking data from a real experiment and compare it to an analysis of the data by manual annotation of dynamic AOIs. Furthermore, we conducted an expert user study with 6 external eye tracking researchers to collect feedback and identify analysis strategies they used while working with our application.

  17. Eye tracking for visual marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.

    2008-01-01

    We provide the theory of visual attention and eye-movements that serves as a basis for evaluating eye-tracking research and for discussing salient and emerging issues in visual marketing. Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, we

  18. Evaluating Experience-Based Geologic Field Instruction: Lessons Learned from A Large-Scale Eye-Tracking Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Walders, K.; Bono, R. K.; Pelz, J.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-12-01

    A course centered on experience-based learning in field geology has been offered ten times at the University of Rochester. The centerpiece of the course is a 10-day field excursion to California featuring a broad cross-section of the geology of the state, from the San Andreas Fault to Death Valley. Here we describe results from a large-scale eye-tracking experiment aimed at understanding how experts and novices acquire visual geologic information. One ultimate goal of the project is to determine whether expert gaze patterns can be quantified to improve the instruction of beginning geology students. Another goal is to determine if aspects of the field experience can be transferred to the classroom/laboratory. Accordingly, ultra-high resolution segmented panoramic images have been collected at key sites visited during the field excursion. We have found that strict controls are needed in the field to obtain meaningful data; this often involves behavior atypical of geologists (e.g. limiting the field of view prior to data collection and placing time limits on scene viewing). Nevertheless some general conclusions can be made from a select data set. After an initial quick search, experts tend to exhibit scanning behavior that appears to support hypothesis testing. Novice fixations appear to define a scattered search pattern and/or one distracted by geologic noise in a scene. Noise sources include modern erosion features and vegetation. One way to quantify noise is through the use of saliency maps. With the caveat that our expert data set is small, our preliminary analysis suggests that experts tend to exhibit top-down behavior (indicating hypothesis driven responses) whereas novices show bottom-up gaze patterns, influenced by more salient features in a scene. We will present examples and discuss how these observations might be used to improve instruction.

  19. 1st Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Lewis; Fisher, Brian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses research, methods, and recent developments in the interdisciplinary field that spans research in visualization, eye tracking, human-computer interaction, and psychology. It presents extended versions of papers from the First Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization (ETVIS), which was organized as a workshop of the IEEE VIS Conference 2015. Topics include visualization and visual analytics of eye-tracking data, metrics and cognitive models, eye-tracking experiments in the context of visualization interfaces, and eye tracking in 3D and immersive environments. The extended ETVIS papers are complemented by a chapter offering an overview of visualization approaches for analyzing eye-tracking data and a chapter that discusses electrooculography (EOG) as an alternative of acquiring information about eye movements. Covering scientific visualization, information visualization, and visual analytics, this book is a valuable resource for eye-tracking researchers within the visualization community.

  20. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical...... the explanatory power of eye-tracking studies can be boosted by combining eye-tracking with other methodologies (shelf simulations, choice experiments, neuroimaging techniques). The workshop will conclude with an open discussion in which participants can consult the presenters on the applicability of eye......-tracking methods in their own research....

  1. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  2. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  3. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  4. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  5. Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades, and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30°/sec (p=0.007. The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively. The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001 for both 15°/sec and 30°/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.

  6. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.; Grunert, K.G.; Juhl, H.J.; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G.; Stysko-Kunkowska, M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  7. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers’ choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers’ choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  8. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.; Grunert, K.G.; Juhl, H.J.; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G.; Stysko-Kunkowska, M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  9. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers’ choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers’ choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  10. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  11. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  12. Before your very eyes: the value and limitations of eye tracking in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ellen M; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2017-01-01

    Medicine is a highly visual discipline. Physicians from many specialties constantly use visual information in diagnosis and treatment. However, they are often unable to explain how they use this information. Consequently, it is unclear how to train medical students in this visual processing. Eye tracking is a research technique that may offer answers to these open questions, as it enables researchers to investigate such visual processes directly by measuring eye movements. This may help researchers understand the processes that support or hinder a particular learning outcome. In this article, we clarify the value and limitations of eye tracking for medical education researchers. For example, eye tracking can clarify how experience with medical images mediates diagnostic performance and how students engage with learning materials. Furthermore, eye tracking can also be used directly for training purposes by displaying eye movements of experts in medical images. Eye movements reflect cognitive processes, but cognitive processes cannot be directly inferred from eye-tracking data. In order to interpret eye-tracking data properly, theoretical models must always be the basis for designing experiments as well as for analysing and interpreting eye-tracking data. The interpretation of eye-tracking data is further supported by sound experimental design and methodological triangulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Analysis of eye-tracking experiments performed on a Tobii T60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Chris; Banks, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial eye-gaze trackers have the potential to be an important tool for quantifying the benefits of new visualization techniques. The expense of such trackers has made their use relatively infrequent in visualization studies. As such, it is difficult for researchers to compare multiple devices - obtaining several demonstration models is impractical in cost and time, and quantitative measures from real-world use are not readily available. In this paper, we present a sample protocol to determine the accuracy of a gaze-tacking device.

  14. Analysis of eye-tracking experiments performed on a Tobii T60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, David C [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial eye-gaze trackers have the potential to be an important tool for quantifying the benefits of new visualization techniques. The expense of such trackers has made their use relatively infrequent in visualization studies. As such, it is difficult for researchers to compare multiple devices obtaining several demonstration models is impractical in cost and time, and quantitative measures from real-world use are not readily available. In this paper, we present a sample protocol to determine the accuracy of a gaze-tacking device.

  15. Rotational symmetric HMD with eye-tracking capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    As an important auxiliary function of head-mounted displays (HMDs), eye tracking has an important role in the field of intelligent human-machine interaction. In this paper, an eye-tracking HMD system (ET-HMD) is designed based on the rotational symmetric system. The tracking principle in this paper is based on pupil-corneal reflection. The ET-HMD system comprises three optical paths for virtual display, infrared illumination, and eye tracking. The display optics is shared by three optical paths and consists of four spherical lenses. For the eye-tracking path, an extra imaging lens is added to match the image sensor and achieve eye tracking. The display optics provides users a 40° diagonal FOV with a ״ 0.61 OLED, the 19 mm eye clearance, and 10 mm exit pupil diameter. The eye-tracking path can capture 15 mm × 15 mm of the users' eyes. The average MTF is above 0.1 at 26 lp/mm for the display path, and exceeds 0.2 at 46 lp/mm for the eye-tracking path. Eye illumination is simulated using LightTools with an eye model and an 850 nm near-infrared LED (NIR-LED). The results of the simulation show that the illumination of the NIR-LED can cover the area of the eye model with the display optics that is sufficient for eye tracking. The integrated optical system HMDs with eye-tracking feature can help improve the HMD experience of users.

  16. Tracking Eyes using Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nielsen, Mads; Hansen, John Paulin

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. From this model, it is possible...

  17. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2017-08-04

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    . Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two......, the number of test persons and reports on the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, this study will report which other methods were applied in combination with eye tracking. Findings The number of published research utilizing eye-tracking technologies within library and information science (LIS) is still......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible...

  19. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  20. Markerless monocular tracking system for guided external eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, C; Rupérez, M J; Alcañiz, M; Mataix, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel markerless monocular tracking system aimed at guiding ophthalmologists during external eye surgery. This new tracking system performs a very accurate tracking of the eye by detecting invariant points using only textures that are present in the sclera, i.e., without using traditional features like the pupil and/or cornea reflections, which remain partially or totally occluded in most surgeries. Two known algorithms that compute invariant points and correspondences between pairs of images were implemented in our system: Scalable Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF). The results of experiments performed on phantom eyes show that, with either algorithm, the developed system tracks a sphere at a 360° rotation angle with an error that is lower than 0.5%. Some experiments have also been carried out on images of real eyes showing promising behavior of the system in the presence of blood or surgical instruments during real eye surgery.

  1. Eye tracking young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

    2012-03-27

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.

  2. Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

  3. Visuelle Analyse von Eye-Tracking-Daten

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Eye-Tracking ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten Techniken zur Analyse der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion sowie zur Untersuchung der Perzeption. Die erfassten Eye-Tracking-Daten werden meist mit Heat-Maps oder Scan-Paths analysiert, um die Usability der getesteten Anwendung zu ermitteln oder auf höhere kognitive Prozesse zu schließen. Das Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist die Entwicklung neuer Visualisierungstechniken für Eye-Tracking-Daten beziehungsweise die Entwicklung eines Studienkonzepts...

  4. An improved likelihood model for eye tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2007-01-01

    approach in such cases is to abandon the tracking routine and re-initialize eye detection. Of course this may be a difficult process due to missed data problem. Accordingly, what is needed is an efficient method of reliably tracking a person's eyes between successively produced video image frames, even...... are challenging. It proposes a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models in a particle filter-based eye tracking framework. It fuses key information from even, odd infrared fields (dark and bright-pupil) and their corresponding subtractive image into one single observation model...

  5. Visuelle Analyse von Eye-Tracking-Daten

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Eye-Tracking ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten Techniken zur Analyse der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion sowie zur Untersuchung der Perzeption. Die erfassten Eye-Tracking-Daten werden meist mit Heat-Maps oder Scan-Paths analysiert, um die Usability der getesteten Anwendung zu ermitteln oder auf höhere kognitive Prozesse zu schließen. Das Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist die Entwicklung neuer Visualisierungstechniken für Eye-Tracking-Daten beziehungsweise die Entwicklung eines Studienkonzepts...

  6. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible....... Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used...

  7. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    . Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible...

  8. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracking Eyes using Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nielsen, Mads; Hansen, John Paulin

    2002-01-01

    We propose a non-intrusive eye tracking system intended for the use of everyday gaze typing using web cameras. We argue that high precision in gaze tracking is not needed for on-screen typing due to natural language redundancy. This facilitates the use of low-cost video components for advanced...... to infer the state of the eye such as eye corners and the pupil location under scale and rotational changes. We use a Gaussian Process interpolation method for gaze determination, which facilitates stability feedback from the system. The use of a learning method for gaze estimation gives more flexibility...

  10. Real Time Eye Template Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mehta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in the field of facial expression recognition especially in the last two decades. An example of such a system is the improvement of driver carefulness and accident reduction. The driver’s face is tracked while he is driving and he is warned if there seems to be an alerting fact that can result in an accident such as sleepy eyes, or looking out of the road. Furthermore, with a facial feature tracker, it becomes possible to play a synthesized avatar so that it imitates the expressions of the performer. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI systems may also be enriched by a facial feature tracker. For a user who is incapable of using her hands, a facial expression controller may be a solution to send limited commands to a computer. Eye blinking is one of the prominent areas to solve many real world problems. The process of blink detection consists of two phases. These are eye tracking followed by detection of blink. The work that has been carried out for eye tracking only is not suitable for eye blink detection. Therefore some approaches had been proposed for eye tracking along with eyes blink detection. In this thesis, real time implementation is done to count number of eye blinks in an image sequence. At last after analyzing all these approaches some of the parameters we obtained on which better performance of eye blink detection algorithm depend. This project focuses on automatic eye blink detection in real time. The aim of this thesis is to count the number of eye blinks in a video. This project will be performed on a video database of the facial expressions.

  11. Eye tracking in early autism research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links ‘down’ to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as ‘up’ to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism. PMID:24069955

  12. Eye Tracking Technique for Product Information Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    This paper is about the study of the design of the product information provision system using eye tracking, which helps users in deciding over purchase of the product, with a system to provide product information that the user needs by tracking eye gaze of the user via Smart phone. The system provides the user with information of the product that attracts the user's eye, by means of users' eye tracking, user information confirmation using face recognition and user's preference for product. Therefore, once it is determined that the user requires a product, the server sends the product information stored in the product information database to the user's Smart phone to provide information the user requires. The customer, provided with product information in real time, can purchase the product that he/she wants efficiently, and avoid excessive consumption with accurate product information.

  13. Lost in the crowd? Using eye-tracking to investigate the effect of complexity on attribute non-attendance in discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Mortimer, Duncan

    2016-02-03

    The provision of additional information is often assumed to improve consumption decisions, allowing consumers to more accurately weigh the costs and benefits of alternatives. However, increasing the complexity of decision problems may prompt changes in information processing. This is particularly relevant for experimental methods such as discrete choice experiments (DCEs) where the researcher can manipulate the complexity of the decision problem. The primary aims of this study are (i) to test whether consumers actually process additional information in an already complex decision problem, and (ii) consider the implications of any such 'complexity-driven' changes in information processing for design and analysis of DCEs. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to simulate a complex decision problem; here, the choice between complementary and conventional medicine for different health conditions. Eye-tracking technology is used to capture the number of times and the duration that a participant looks at any part of a computer screen during completion of DCE choice sets. From this we can analyse what has become known in the DCE literature as 'attribute non-attendance' (ANA). Using data from 32 participants, we model the likelihood of ANA as a function of choice set complexity and respondent characteristics using fixed and random effects models to account for repeated choice set completion. We also model whether participants are consistent with regard to which characteristics (attributes) they consider across choice sets. We find that complexity is the strongest predictor of ANA when other possible influences, such as time pressure, ordering effects, survey specific effects and socio-demographic variables (including proxies for prior experience with the decision problem) are considered. We also find that most participants do not apply a consistent information processing strategy across choice sets. Eye-tracking technology shows promise as a way of obtaining

  14. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques.

  15. What was I thinking? Eye-tracking experiments underscore the bias that architecture exerts on nuclear grading in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bombari

    Full Text Available We previously reported that nuclear grade assignment of prostate carcinomas is subject to a cognitive bias induced by the tumor architecture. Here, we asked whether this bias is mediated by the non-conscious selection of nuclei that "match the expectation" induced by the inadvertent glance at the tumor architecture. 20 pathologists were asked to grade nuclei in high power fields of 20 prostate carcinomas displayed on a computer screen. Unknown to the pathologists, each carcinoma was shown twice, once before a background of a low grade, tubule-rich carcinoma and once before the background of a high grade, solid carcinoma. Eye tracking allowed to identify which nuclei the pathologists fixated during the 8 second projection period. For all 20 pathologists, nuclear grade assignment was significantly biased by tumor architecture. Pathologists tended to fixate on bigger, darker, and more irregular nuclei when those were projected before kigh grade, solid carcinomas than before low grade, tubule-rich carcinomas (and vice versa. However, the morphometric differences of the selected nuclei accounted for only 11% of the architecture-induced bias, suggesting that it can only to a small part be explained by the unconscious fixation on nuclei that "match the expectation". In conclusion, selection of « matching nuclei » represents an unconscious effort to vindicate the gravitation of nuclear grades towards the tumor architecture.

  16. Evaluation of the Tobii EyeX Eye tracking controller and Matlab toolkit for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Vanegas, Mauricio; Bex, Peter J; Maiello, Guido

    2016-07-11

    The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking applications. We review the characteristics of the device for its possible use in scientific research. We develop and evaluate an open source Matlab Toolkit that can be employed to interface with the EyeX device for gaze recording in behavioral experiments. The Toolkit provides calibration procedures tailored to both binocular and monocular experiments, as well as procedures to evaluate other eye tracking devices. The observed performance of the EyeX (i.e. accuracy < 0.6°, precision < 0.25°, latency < 50 ms and sampling frequency ≈55 Hz), is sufficient for some classes of research application. The device can be successfully employed to measure fixation parameters, saccadic, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. However, the relatively low sampling rate and moderate precision limit the suitability of the EyeX for monitoring micro-saccadic eye movements or for real-time gaze-contingent stimulus control. For these applications, research grade, high-cost eye tracking technology may still be necessary. Therefore, despite its limitations with respect to high-end devices, the EyeX has the potential to further the dissemination of eye tracking technology to a broad audience, and could be a valuable asset in consumer and gaming applications as well as a subset of basic and clinical research settings.

  17. Review of prospects and challenges of eye tracking in volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Antje C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    While eye tracking research in conventional radiography has flourished over the past decades, the number of eye tracking studies that looked at multislice images lags behind. A possible reason for the lack of studies in this area might be that the eye tracking methodology used in the context of conventional radiography cannot be applied one-on-one to volumetric imaging material. Challenges associated with eye tracking in volumetric imaging are particularly associated with the selection of stimulus material, the detection of events in the eye tracking data, the calculation of meaningful eye tracking parameters, and the reporting of abnormalities. However, all of these challenges can be addressed in the design of the experiment. If this is done, eye tracking studies using volumetric imaging material offer almost unlimited opportunity for perception research and are highly relevant as the number of volumetric images that are acquired and interpreted is rising.

  18. Systems and methods of eye tracking calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and systems to facilitate eye tracking control calibration are provided. One or more objects are displayed on a display of a device, where the one or more objects are associated with a function unrelated to a calculation of one or more calibration parameters. The one or more calibration...

  19. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  20. Assessing Levels of Attention Using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    apply mobile eye tracking in an in-depth study over 2 weeks with nearly 10.000 observations to assess pupil size changes, related to attentional aspects of alertness, orientation and conflict resolution. Visually presenting conflicting cues and targets we hypothesize that it’s feasible to measure...... the allocated effort when responding to confusing stimuli. Although such experiments are normally carried out in a lab, we have initial indications that we are able to differentiate between sustained alertness and complex decision making even with low cost eye tracking “in the wild”. From a quantified self...

  1. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  2. Non-intrusive eye gaze tracking under natural head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Sked, M; Ji, Q

    2004-01-01

    We propose an eye gaze tracking system under natural head movements. The system consists of one CCD camera and two mirrors. Based on geometric and linear algebra calculations, the mirrors rotate to follow head movements in order to keep the eyes within the view of the camera. Our system allows the subjects head to move 30 cm horizontally and 20 cm vertically, with spatial gaze resolutions about 6 degree and 7 degree, respectively and a frame rate about 10 Hz. We also introduce a hierarchical generalized regression neural networks (H-GRNN) scheme to map eye and mirror parameters to gaze, achieving a gaze estimation accuracy of 92% under head movements. The use of H-GRNN also eliminates the need for personal calibration for new subjects since H-GRNN can generalize. Preliminary experiments show our system is accurate and robust in gaze tracking under large head movements.

  3. Eye-tracking dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients and their relatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, P.S.; Proctor, L.R.; Levy, D.L.; Yasillo, N.J.; Meltzer, H.Y.; Hurt, S.W.

    1974-08-01

    A simple test of smooth-pursuit eye movements disclosed a striking association between deviant eye tracking and clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. A high proportion of the schizophrenic patients' first-degree relatives who were not themselves clinically schizophrenic also showed deviant eye-tracking behavior. The relationship of poor eye tracking and schizophrenia is even stronger when specific psychological test evidence of thought disorder is used operationally to classify patients. The eye-tracking dysfunction may thus represent a genetic marker that can prove highly useful for studying the transmission of a vulnerability to schizophrenia. The findings suggest proprioceptive and interoceptive involvement in schizophrenic pathology. (auth)

  4. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  5. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  6. Eye Tracking: A Brief Guide for Developmental Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking offers a powerful research tool for developmental scientists. In this brief article, the author introduces the methodology and issues associated with its applications in developmental research, beginning with an overview of eye movements and eye-tracking technologies, followed by examples of how it is used to study the developing mind…

  7. Eye Tracking: A Brief Guide for Developmental Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking offers a powerful research tool for developmental scientists. In this brief article, the author introduces the methodology and issues associated with its applications in developmental research, beginning with an overview of eye movements and eye-tracking technologies, followed by examples of how it is used to study the developing mind…

  8. Real Time Eye Template Detection and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the field of facial expression recognition especially in the last two decades. An example of such a system is the improvement of driver carefulness and accident reduction. The driver’s face is tracked while he is driving and he is warned if there seems to be an alerting fact that can result in an accident such as sleepy eyes, or looking out of the road. Furthermore, with a facial feature tracker, it becomes possible to play a synthesized avatar so that it ...

  9. Infants’ experience-dependent processing of male and female faces: Insights from eye tracking and event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    2014-04-01

    The results of the present study suggest that 7-month olds with a large amount of female face experience show a processing advantage for forming a neural representation of female faces, compared to male faces. However, the enhanced neural sensitivity to the repetition of female faces is not due to the infants’ inability to discriminate male faces. Instead, the combination of results from the two tasks suggests that the differential processing for female faces may be a signature of expert-level processing.

  10. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  11. Combining EEG and eye tracking: Identification, characterization and correction of eye movement artifacts in electroencephalographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePlöchl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Eye movements introduce large artifacts to electroencephalographic recordings (EEG and thus render data analysis difficult or even impossible. Trials contaminated by eye movement and blink artifacts have to be discarded, hence in standard EEG-paradigms subjects are required to fixate on the screen. To overcome this restriction, several correction methods including regression and blind source separation have been proposed. Yet, there is no automated standard procedure established. By simultaneously recording eye movements and 64-channel-EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, we show that eye movement artifacts consist of several components, which arise from different sources. These include corneo-retinal dipole changes, saccadic spike potentials and eyelid movements. Moreover, we demonstrate that depending on electrode site, gaze direction and choice of reference these components contribute differently to the measured signal. Therefore they cannot be removed by regression-based correction methods, as these inevitably over- or under-correct individual artifact components. Finally we propose a correction procedure based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA. This procedure uses eye tracker information to reliably and objectively identify eye-artifact related ICA-components in an automated manner. We demonstrate that this approach allows removing or substantially reducing ocular artifacts including microsaccades without affecting the signal originating from brain sources. In conclusion the proposed method does not only provide a tool for detecting and correcting eye artifacts in standard EEG-paradigms but it also permits to study EEG-activity during eye tracking experiments and thus to investigate neural mechanisms of eye movement control and visual attention under natural conditions.

  12. Gaze and eye-tracking solutions for psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Maria Laura; Federici, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Eye-tracking technology is a growing field used to detect eye movements and analyze human processing of visual information for interactive and diagnostic applications. Different domains in scientific research such as neuroscience, experimental psychology, computer science and human factors can benefit from eye-tracking methods and techniques to unobtrusively investigate the quantitative evidence underlying visual processes. In order to meet the experimental requirements concerning the variety of application fields, different gaze- and eye-tracking solutions using high-speed cameras are being developed (e.g., eye-tracking glasses, head-mounted or desk-mounted systems), which are also compatible with other analysis devices such as magnetic resonance imaging. This work presents an overview of the main application fields of eye-tracking methodology in psychological research. In particular, two innovative solutions will be shown: (1) the SMI RED-M eye-tracker, a high performance portable remote eye-tracker suitable for different settings, that requires maximum mobility and flexibility; (2) a wearable mobile gaze-tracking device--the SMI eye-tracking glasses--which is suitable for real-world and virtual environment research. For each kind of technology, the functions and different possibilities of application in experimental psychology will be described by focusing on some examples of experimental tasks (i.e., visual search, reading, natural tasks, scene viewing and other information processing) and theoretical approaches (e.g., embodied cognition).

  13. Eye tracking for skills assessment and training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Pucher, Philip H; Sodergren, Mikael H; Sriskandarajah, Kumuthan; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The development of quantitative objective tools is critical to the assessment of surgeon skill. Eye tracking is a novel tool, which has been proposed may provide suitable metrics for this task. The aim of this study was to review current evidence for the use of eye tracking in training and assessment. A systematic literature review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines. A search of EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, Maternity and Infant Care, PsycINFO, and Transport databases was conducted, till March 2013. Studies describing the use of eye tracking in the execution, training or assessment of a task, or for skill acquisition were included in the review. Initial search results returned 12,051 results. Twenty-four studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Sixteen studies were based on eye tracking in assessment and eight studies were on eye tacking in training. These demonstrated feasibility and validity in the use of eye tracking metrics and gaze tracking to differentiate between subjects of varying skill levels. Several training methods using gaze training and pattern recognition were also described. Current literature demonstrates the ability of eye tracking to provide reliable quantitative data as an objective assessment tool, with potential applications to surgical training to improve performance. Eye tracking remains a promising area of research with the possibility of future implementation into surgical skill assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eye tracking a comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Weijer, Joost van de

    2011-01-01

    We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuring these movements, with a view to understanding how we attend to and process the visual information we encounter Eye tracking as a research tool is now more accessible than ever, and is growing in popularity amongst researchers from a whole host of different disciplines. Usability analysts, sports scientists, cognitive psychologists, reading researchers, psycholinguists, neurophysiologists, electrical engineers, and others, all have a vested interest in eye tracking for different reasons. The ability to record eye-movements has helped advance our science and led to technological innovations. However, the growth of eye tracking in recent years has also presented a variety of challenges - in particular the issue of how to d...

  15. Use of eye-tracking technology in sport psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Gorovaya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the possibilities of application of eye movements tracking technology in sports psychology. Eye tracking enables highly accurate measurement and analysis of eye movements to determine the direction of the gaze of a man. The relevance of this kind of methods to sports psychology is the high degree of ecological validity, relevance of psychological research methods to content and forms of the real sports activities. We describe types and features of the technology, provide examples of practical use of eye tracking to improve performance of athletes in various sports. It is shown that eye tracking technology makes possible studies not only of complex patterns of eye movements, but also of the psychological mechanisms of concentration behind them, as well as the formation and improvement of athletes motor skills. The authors emphasize the importance of using such innovative technologies in sports.

  16. Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.

  17. Eye tracking under dichoptic viewing conditions: a practical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brascamp, Jan W; Naber, Marnix

    2017-08-01

    In several research contexts it is important to obtain eye-tracking measures while presenting visual stimuli independently to each of the two eyes (dichoptic stimulation). However, the hardware that allows dichoptic viewing, such as mirrors, often interferes with high-quality eye tracking, especially when using a video-based eye tracker. Here we detail an approach to combining mirror-based dichoptic stimulation with video-based eye tracking, centered on the fact that some mirrors, although they reflect visible light, are selectively transparent to the infrared wavelength range in which eye trackers record their signal. Although the method we propose is straightforward, affordable (on the order of US$1,000) and easy to implement, for many purposes it makes for an improvement over existing methods, which tend to require specialized equipment and often compromise on the quality of the visual stimulus and/or the eye tracking signal. The proposed method is compatible with standard display screens and eye trackers, and poses no additional limitations on the quality or nature of the stimulus presented or the data obtained. We include an evaluation of the quality of eye tracking data obtained using our method, and a practical guide to building a specific version of the setup used in our laboratories.

  18. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  19. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  20. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Schwarz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit positions in behaving animals.

  1. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Sridharan, Devarajan; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit position in behaving animals. PMID:24312023

  2. X-Eye: A reference format for eye tracking data to facilitate analyses across databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Savoy, Florian M.; Subramanian, Ramanathan

    2014-02-01

    Datasets of images annotated with eye tracking data constitute important ground truth for the development of saliency models, which have applications in many areas of electronic imaging. While comparisons and reviews of saliency models abound, similar comparisons among the eye tracking databases themselves are rare. In an earlier paper, we reviewed the content and purpose of over two dozen databases available in the public domain and discussed their commonalities and differences. A major issue is that the formats of the various datasets vary a lot owing to the nature of tools used for eye movement recordings, and often specialized code is required to use the data for further analysis. In this paper, we therefore propose a common reference format for eye tracking data, together with conversion routines for 16 existing image eye tracking databases to that format. Furthermore, we conduct a few analyses on these datasets as examples of what X-Eye facilitates.

  3. Simultaneous Eye Tracking and Blink Detection with Interactive Particle Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Trivedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a system that simultaneously tracks eyes and detects eye blinks. Two interactive particle filters are used for this purpose, one for the closed eyes and the other one for the open eyes. Each particle filter is used to track the eye locations as well as the scales of the eye subjects. The set of particles that gives higher confidence is defined as the primary set and the other one is defined as the secondary set. The eye location is estimated by the primary particle filter, and whether the eye status is open or closed is also decided by the label of the primary particle filter. When a new frame comes, the secondary particle filter is reinitialized according to the estimates from the primary particle filter. We use autoregression models for describing the state transition and a classification-based model for measuring the observation. Tensor subspace analysis is used for feature extraction which is followed by a logistic regression model to give the posterior estimation. The performance is carefully evaluated from two aspects: the blink detection rate and the tracking accuracy. The blink detection rate is evaluated using videos from varying scenarios, and the tracking accuracy is given by comparing with the benchmark data obtained using the Vicon motion capturing system. The setup for obtaining benchmark data for tracking accuracy evaluation is presented and experimental results are shown. Extensive experimental evaluations validate the capability of the algorithm.

  4. An eye tracking system for monitoring face scanning patterns reveals the enhancing effect of oxytocin on eye contact in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Manato; Shimono, Kohei; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Ogi, Yuji; Konoike, Naho; Nakamura, Katsuki; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2017-09-01

    Eye tracking systems are used to investigate eyes position and gaze patterns presumed as eye contact in humans. Eye contact is a useful biomarker of social communication and known to be deficient in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Interestingly, the same eye tracking systems have been used to directly compare face scanning patterns in some non-human primates to those in human. Thus, eye tracking is expected to be a useful translational technique for investigating not only social attention and visual interest, but also the effects of psychiatric drugs, such as oxytocin, a neuropeptide that regulates social behavior. In this study, we report on a newly established method for eye tracking in common marmosets as unique New World primates that, like humans, use eye contact as a mean of communication. Our investigation was aimed at characterizing these primates face scanning patterns and evaluating the effects of oxytocin on their eye contact behavior. We found that normal common marmosets spend more time viewing the eyes region in common marmoset's picture than the mouth region or a scrambled picture. In oxytocin experiment, the change in eyes/face ratio was significantly greater in the oxytocin group than in the vehicle group. Moreover, oxytocin-induced increase in the change in eyes/face ratio was completely blocked by the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. These results indicate that eye tracking in common marmosets may be useful for evaluating drug candidates targeting psychiatric conditions, especially ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodala, Indu P; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using "challenge integration," a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean reaction time is lower for the challenge integrated phase (RTmean = 3.65 ± 1.4s) compared to initial monotonous phase without challenge (RTmean = 4.6 ± 2.7s). Our work shows that vigilance level, as assessed by response of these vital signs, is enhanced by challenge integration.

  6. Priming prepositional phrase attachment: Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewyn, M.A.; Zirnstein, M.; Swaab, T.Y.; Traxler, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sente

  7. Practical Use of the Eye Camera in Pedagogical Research (Processing of Selected Data Using the Eye Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrabánková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with author’s pilot experiments using the eye tracking method for the primary school children examination. This method enables to gain a large amount of research data based on the tested people’s eye movements monitoring. In the paper, there are processed chosen research data of four gifted students’ examination in the context of their mathematical and logical intelligence.

  8. Automatic Convergence Adjustment for Stereoscopy using Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Martin; Gram, Kristoffer; Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper

    When using stereoscopic displays, decoupling between convergence and accommodation can cause eyestrain. This paper proposes an adjustment method to automatically fit convergence at user fixation depth to accommodation by using eye tracking. Two different adjustment methods are proposed: one...

  9. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical...... experimental designs will be discussed that can be recommended for eye-tracking studies in consumer science. The application potential will then be demonstrated in four case presentations, focusing on different product categories (from dairy products to alcoholic beverages), measurement contexts (laboratory...... versus point of purchase) and study goals (appearance studies, package design, identification of food choice motives). Furthermore, the presentations will discuss how different components of attention can be distinguished based on eye-tracking data (stimulus-driven versus task-driven processes) and how...

  10. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Van de Weijer, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  11. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Van de Weijer, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  12. Helmet Mounted Eye Tracking for Virtual Panoramic Display Systems. Volume 2: Eye Tracker Specification and Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tracking will be used for eye controlled switch selection, cueing, eye-slaved aiming, and pilot state monitoring. Current eye tracking technology is...panoramic display (VPD). Eye tracker measurements will be used with prototype systems to assist in candidate display evaluation. Operationally, eye

  13. An Eye Tracking Study into the Effects of Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Graphs are typically visualized as node-link diagrams. Although there is a fair amount of research focusing on crossing minimization to improve readability, little attention has been paid on how to handle crossings when they are an essential part of the final visualizations. This requires us to understand how people read graphs and how crossings affect reading performance. As an initial step to this end, a preliminary eye tracking experiment was conducted. The specific purpose of this experiment was to test the effects of crossing angles and geometric-path tendency on eye movements and performance. Sixteen subjects performed both path search and node locating tasks with six drawings. The results showed that small angles can slow down and trigger extra eye movements, causing delays for path search tasks, whereas crossings have little impact on node locating tasks. Geometric-path tendency indicates that a path between two nodes can become harder to follow when many branches of the path go toward the target node...

  14. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  15. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  16. In the twinkling of an eye: synchronization of EEG and eye tracking based on blink signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    be integrated into next generation user interfaces. In experimental lab settings EEG neuroimaging and eye tracking data are traditionally combined using external triggers to synchronize the signals. However, with biometric sensors increasingly being applied in everyday usage scenarios, there will be a need...... for solutions providing a continuous alignment of signals. In the present paper we propose using spontaneous eye blinks, as a means to achieve near real-time synchronization of EEG and eye tracking. Analyzing key parameters that define eye blink signatures across the two domains, we outline a probability...... function based algorithm to correlate the signals. Comparing the accuracy of the method against a state of the art EYE-EEG plug-in for offline analysis of EEG and eye tracking data, we propose our approach could be applied for robust synchronization of biometric sensor data collected in a mobile context....

  17. Three-Dimensional Eye Tracking in a Surgical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Rositsa; Boulanger, Pierre; Zheng, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Eye tracking has been widely used in studying the eye behavior of surgeons in the past decade. Most eye-tracking data are reported in a 2-dimensional (2D) fashion, and data for describing surgeons' behaviors on stereoperception are often missed. With the introduction of stereoscopes in laparoscopic procedures, there is an increasing need for studying the depth perception of surgeons under 3D image-guided surgery. We developed a new algorithm for the computation of convergence points in stereovision by measuring surgeons' interpupillary distance, the distance to the view target, and the difference between gaze locations of the 2 eyes. To test the feasibility of our new algorithm, we recruited 10 individuals to watch stereograms using binocular disparity and asked them to develop stereoperception using a cross-eyed viewing technique. Participants' eye motions were recorded by the Tobii eye tracker while they performed the trials. Convergence points between normal and stereo-viewing conditions were computed using the developed algorithm. All 10 participants were able to develop stereovision after a short period of training. During stereovision, participants' eye convergence points were 14 ± 1 cm in front of their eyes, which was significantly closer than the convergence points under the normal viewing condition (77 ± 20 cm). By applying our method of calculating convergence points using eye tracking, we were able to elicit the eye movement patterns of human operators between the normal and stereovision conditions. Knowledge from this study can be applied to the design of surgical visual systems, with the goal of improving surgical performance and patient safety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis D J Makin

    Full Text Available Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking.

  19. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking.

  20. Opaque Contact Lens For Tracking Motion Of Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, James L., II; Gibson, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Opaque contact lens facilitates measurements of movements of eye; particularly, torsional movements. Lens, marked with pair of indices at diameter of 0.5 mm, provides stable, high-contrast reference for measurements of angular position and velocity of eye by use of video-image-analysis techniques. Intended for use in experiments on response of eye to vestibular balance mechanism.

  1. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  2. Analysis of neonatal resuscitation using eye tracking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Brenda Hiu Yan; Cheung, Po-Yin; Wagner, Michael; van Os, Sylvia; Zheng, Bin; Schmölzer, Georg

    2017-08-19

    Visual attention (VA) is important for situation awareness and decision-making. Eye tracking can be used to analyse the VA of healthcare providers. No study has examined eye tracking during neonatal resuscitation. To test the use of eye tracking to examine VA during neonatal resuscitation. Six video recordings were obtained using eye tracking glasses worn by resuscitators during the first 5 min of neonatal resuscitation. Videos were analysed to obtain (i) areas of interest (AOIs), (ii) time spent on each AOI and (iii) frequency of saccades between AOIs. Five videos were of acceptable quality and analysed. Only 35% of VA was directed at the infant, with 33% at patient monitors and gauges. There were frequent saccades (0.45/s) and most involved patient monitors. During neonatal resuscitation, VA is often directed away from the infant towards patient monitors. Eye tracking can be used to analyse human performance during neonatal resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  4. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  5. Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

  6. EEG and eye tracking demonstrate vigilance enhancement with challenge integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Prasad Bodala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using ‘challenge integration’, a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case. Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05. Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case. From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover

  7. Investigating camera calibration for eye tracking of the physically challenged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassim Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to address a problem faced by a proportion of community - the paralysed people, and investigates a solution in calibrating a camera used for the purpose of eye detection. The eye tracking is later used to read characters from a partner-assisted keyboard. As such, this keyboard solves the problem of immobility. In order to calibrate camera for the purpose of eye detection, two approaches are implemented-Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines in context of paralysed people, and are discussed in detail in this paper. The results of both approaches are compared in order to select the best approach to be used in keyboard that operates on eye tracking.

  8. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  9. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-08-23

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  10. High-Procession Eye Tracking Using Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    Fundus images provide high optical gain for eye movement tracking, i.e. large image displacements occur as a result of small eye rotations. Subpixel registration techniques can provide resolution better than 1 arc minute using images acquired with a CCD camera. Ocular torsion may also be estimated, with a precision of approximately 0.1 degree. This talk will discuss the software algorithms used to attain this performance.

  11. Video-based eye tracking for neuropsychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Sam; Stark, David E

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a video-based eye-tracking method, ideally deployed via a mobile device or laptop-based webcam, as a tool for measuring brain function. Eye movements and pupillary motility are tightly regulated by brain circuits, are subtly perturbed by many disease states, and are measurable using video-based methods. Quantitative measurement of eye movement by readily available webcams may enable early detection and diagnosis, as well as remote/serial monitoring, of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. We successfully extracted computational and semantic features for 14 testing sessions, comprising 42 individual video blocks and approximately 17,000 image frames generated across several days of testing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of collecting video-based eye-tracking data from a standard webcam in order to assess psychomotor function. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate through systematic analysis of this data set that eye-tracking features (in particular, radial and tangential variance on a circular visual-tracking paradigm) predict performance on well-validated psychomotor tests. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, James M.; Bondy, Adrian G.; Cumming, Bruce G.; Butts, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of high-acuity visual cortical processing have been limited by the inability to track eye position with sufficient accuracy to precisely reconstruct the visual stimulus on the retina. As a result, studies on primary visual cortex (V1) have been performed almost entirely on neurons outside the high-resolution central portion of the visual field (the fovea). Here we describe a procedure for inferring eye position using multi-electrode array recordings from V1 coupled with nonlinear stimulus processing models. We show that this method can be used to infer eye position with one arc-minute accuracy – significantly better than conventional techniques. This allows for analysis of foveal stimulus processing, and provides a means to correct for eye-movement induced biases present even outside the fovea. This method could thus reveal critical insights into the role of eye movements in cortical coding, as well as their contribution to measures of cortical variability. PMID:25197783

  13. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  14. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  15. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  16. Accurate eye center location and tracking using isophote curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Gevers, T.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous application of eye tracking is precluded by the requirement of dedicated and expensive hardware, such as infrared high definition cameras. Therefore, systems based solely on appearance (i.e. not involving active infrared illumination) are being proposed in literature. However,

  17. Eye-tracking studie av vektoranalys på LTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus

    detaljerad inblick i hur studenterna tänkte medan de löste problemet. Vi använder modern eye-tracking teknik för att mäta hur LTH-studenters visuella uppmärksamhet fördelar sig mellan texter, matematiska formler och figurer när de löser problem inom vektoranalys. Genom att filma studenters ögonrörelser med...... en höghastighetskamera ger eye-tracking data information om var man tittar med väldigt hög spatial och temporal upplösning. Detta gör att man kan följa lösningsprocessen millisekund för millisekund från problempresentation till svar. Med eye-tracking kan man alltså skilja på process och produkt....... Vektoranalys är ett mycket visuellt ämne där matematiska formler ofta har en konkret grafisk tolkning. Detta gör vektoranalysen till ett speciellt lämpligt ämne att studera med eye-tracking teknologin, då försökspersonens byte av fokus mellan formler och figurer kan utvärderas. Vi kommer att presentera...

  18. Subtitles and Eye Tracking: Reading and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jan-Louis; Steyn, Faans

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study to investigate whether subtitle reading has a positive impact on academic performance. In the absence of reliable indexes of reading behavior in dynamic texts, the article first formulates and validates an index to measure the reading of text, such as subtitles on film. Eye-tracking measures (fixations…

  19. Can eye tracking boost usability evaluation of computer games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; Noergaard, Mie; Soerensen, Janus Rau

    2008-01-01

    data on players' attention during a game. This position paper discusses how eye tracking may address three core challenges faced by computer game producer IO Interactive in their on-going work to ensure games that are fun, usable, and challenging. These challenges are: (1) Persuading game designers...

  20. Eye-tracking studie av vektoranalys på LTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus

    detaljerad inblick i hur studenterna tänkte medan de löste problemet. Vi använder modern eye-tracking teknik för att mäta hur LTH-studenters visuella uppmärksamhet fördelar sig mellan texter, matematiska formler och figurer när de löser problem inom vektoranalys. Genom att filma studenters ögonrörelser med...... en höghastighetskamera ger eye-tracking data information om var man tittar med väldigt hög spatial och temporal upplösning. Detta gör att man kan följa lösningsprocessen millisekund för millisekund från problempresentation till svar. Med eye-tracking kan man alltså skilja på process och produkt....... Vektoranalys är ett mycket visuellt ämne där matematiska formler ofta har en konkret grafisk tolkning. Detta gör vektoranalysen till ett speciellt lämpligt ämne att studera med eye-tracking teknologin, då försökspersonens byte av fokus mellan formler och figurer kan utvärderas. Vi kommer att presentera...

  1. High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; LaBaw, Clayton; Michael-Morookian, John; Monacos, Steve; Serviss, Orin

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. Like prior commercial noninvasive eye-tracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Relative to the prior commercial systems, the present system operates at much higher speed and thereby offers enhanced capability for applications that involve human-computer interactions, including typing and computer command and control by handicapped individuals,and eye-based diagnosis of physiological disorders that affect gaze responses.

  2. Retinal Image-Based Eye-Tracking Using the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy Kathleen

    The tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) was designed, built and characterized for high-resolution eye-tracking, imaging, and targeted retinal stimulus delivery. Eye-tracking is done via an image-based software program that monitors the image of the retina over time while simultaneously logging the displacements of the eye. Currently, this system is the most accurate, fast and functional eye-tracking system used in a standard ophthalmic instrument. The TSLO has the ability to non-invasively track the eye at 960 Hz (with an accuracy of 0.2 arcminutes or roughly 1 micron) and present stimuli to the retina at the resolution of single cone photoreceptors (0.66 arcminutes, which is roughly 3 microns). The combination of structural imaging and functional testing allows one to begin to more thoroughly understand retinal disease progression, as well probe specific retinal locations in order to test new treatment efficacies. This level of accuracy is unprecedented in the clinic and is crucial when monitoring minute changes in eye motion, structure, and function. Additionally, the system is capable of providing external eye-tracking for other high-resolution imaging systems, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) systems through the active steering of an imaging beam. This feature allows the imaging raster or stimuli to stay on target during fixational eye motion. This dissertation steps through all of the above-mentioned uses of the TSLO and further elaborates on the optimal design and system test performance capabilities of the system.

  3. Eye-tracking study of inanimate objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ković Vanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the animate objects, where participants were consistent in their looking patterns, for inanimates it was difficult to identify both consistent areas of fixations and a consistent order of fixations. Furthermore, in comparison to animate objects, in animates received significantly shorter total looking time, shorter longest looks and a smaller number of overall fixations. However, as with animates, looking patterns did not systematically differ between the naming and non-naming conditions. These results suggested that animacy, but not labelling, impacts on looking behavior in this paradigm. In the light of feature-based accounts of semantic memory organization, one could interpret these findings as suggesting that processing of the animate objects is based on the saliency/diagnosticity of their visual features (which is then reflected through participants eye-movements towards those features, whereas processing of the inanimate objects is based more on functional features (which cannot be easily captured by looking behavior in such a paradigm.

  4. Using eye tracking to understand the effects of brand placement disclosure types in television programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the influence of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, the use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. The results showed that (1) a combination of text ("This program contains product placement") and a pr

  5. An Eye-Tracking Investigation of Written Sarcasm Comprehension: The Roles of Familiarity and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?urcan, Alexandra; Filik, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses a current theoretical debate between the standard pragmatic model, the graded salience hypothesis, and the implicit display theory, by investigating the roles of the context and of the properties of the sarcastic utterance itself in the comprehension of a sarcastic remark. Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted where we…

  6. Can Late L2 Learners Acquire New Grammatical Features? Evidence from ERPs and Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of ERP and eye-tracking experiments investigating, (a) whether English-French learners can process grammatical gender online, (b) whether cross-linguistic similarities influence this ability, and (c) whether the syntactic distance between elements affects agreement processing. To address these questions we visually presented…

  7. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  8. An Eye-Tracking Investigation of Written Sarcasm Comprehension: The Roles of Familiarity and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?urcan, Alexandra; Filik, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses a current theoretical debate between the standard pragmatic model, the graded salience hypothesis, and the implicit display theory, by investigating the roles of the context and of the properties of the sarcastic utterance itself in the comprehension of a sarcastic remark. Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted where we…

  9. Using eye tracking to understand the effects of brand placement disclosure types in television programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the influence of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, the use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. The results showed that (1) a combination of text ("This program contains product placement") and a

  10. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  11. Eye tracking as a debriefing mechanism in the simulated setting improves patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Cunningham, Helene; Fisher, Donald L; Plotkin, Karen; Nathanson, Brian H; Roche, Joan P; Marquard, Jenna L; Reilly, Cheryl A; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Human patient simulation has been widely adopted in healthcare education despite little research supporting its efficacy. The debriefing process is central to simulation education, yet alternative evaluation methods to support providing optimal feedback to students have not been well explored. Eye tracking technology is an innovative method for providing objective evaluative feedback to students after a simulation experience. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 forms of simulation-based student feedback (verbal debrief only, eye tracking only, and combined verbal debrief and eye tracking) to determine the most effective method for improving student knowledge and performance. An experimental study using a pretest-posttest design was used to compare the effectiveness of 3 types of feedback. The subjects were senior baccalaureate nursing students in their final semester enrolled at a large university in the northeast United States. Students were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 intervention groups. All groups performed better in the posttest evaluation than in the pretest. Certain safety practices improved significantly in the eye tracking-only group. These criteria were those that required an auditory and visual comparison of 2 artifacts such as "Compares patient stated name with name on ID band." Eye tracking offers a unique opportunity to provide students with objective data about their behaviors during simulation experiences, particularly related to safety practices that involve the comparison of patient stated data to an artifact such as an ID band. Despite the limitations of current eye tracking technology, there is significant potential for the use of this technology as a method for the study and evaluation of patient safety practices.

  12. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Benfatto, Mattias; Öqvist Seimyr, Gustaf; Ygge, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Rydberg, Agneta; Jacobson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9-10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties.

  13. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öqvist Seimyr, Gustaf; Ygge, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Rydberg, Agneta; Jacobson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5–10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9–10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties. PMID:27936148

  14. Eye tracking of attention in the affective disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated that affective disorders are characterized by attentional biases for emotional stimuli. However, this research relies heavily on manual reaction time (RT) measures that cannot fully delineate the time course and components of attentional bias. Eye tracking technology, which allows relatively direct and continuous measurement of overt visual attention, may provide an important supplement to RT measures. This article reviews eye tracking research on anxiety and depression, evaluating the experimental paradigms and eye movement indicators used to study attentional biases. Also included is a meta-analysis of extant eye tracking research (33 experiments; N = 1579) on both anxiety and depression. Relative to controls, anxious individuals showed increased vigilance for threat during free viewing and visual search, and showed difficulty disengaging from threat in visual search tasks, but not during free viewing. In contrast, depressed individuals were not characterized by vigilance for threat during free viewing, but were characterized by reduced orienting to positive stimuli, as well as reduced maintenance of gaze on positive stimuli and increased maintenance of gaze on dysphoric stimuli. Implications of these findings for theoretical accounts of attentional bias in anxiety and depression are discussed, and avenues for future research using eye-tracking technology are outlined. PMID:23059623

  15. ETRAN--R Extension Package for Eye Tracking Results Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhegallo, Alexander V; Marmalyuk, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    Novel open source R extension package for general-purpose eye tracking results analysis proposed. Now supported features are data loading from SMI eye trackers, different methods of fixations detection, various imaging techniques for raw data, and detected fixations (time sequence, scanpath, heatmap, and dynamic visualization). The modular structure of the package and a detailed description of each function provide a convenient way to further extend the functionality. Effective use of package requires knowledge of R programming language and environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  17. NMR Spectra through the Eyes of a Student: Eye Tracking Applied to NMR Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Topczewski, Anna M.; Tang, Hui; Kendhammer, Lisa K.; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) plays a key role in introductory organic chemistry, spanning theory, concepts, and experimentation. Therefore, it is imperative that the instruction methods for NMR are both efficient and effective. By utilizing eye tracking equipment, the researchers were able to monitor how second-semester organic…

  18. Do the Eyes Have It? Using Eye Tracking to Assess Students Cognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiforou, Efi A.; Laghos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Field dependence/independence (FD/FI) is a significant dimension of cognitive styles. The paper presents results of a study that seeks to identify individuals' level of field independence during visual stimulus tasks processing. Specifically, it examined the relationship between the Hidden Figure Test (HFT) scores and the eye tracking metrics.…

  19. Do the Eyes Have It? Using Eye Tracking to Assess Students Cognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiforou, Efi A.; Laghos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Field dependence/independence (FD/FI) is a significant dimension of cognitive styles. The paper presents results of a study that seeks to identify individuals' level of field independence during visual stimulus tasks processing. Specifically, it examined the relationship between the Hidden Figure Test (HFT) scores and the eye tracking metrics.…

  20. NMR Spectra through the Eyes of a Student: Eye Tracking Applied to NMR Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Topczewski, Anna M.; Tang, Hui; Kendhammer, Lisa K.; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) plays a key role in introductory organic chemistry, spanning theory, concepts, and experimentation. Therefore, it is imperative that the instruction methods for NMR are both efficient and effective. By utilizing eye tracking equipment, the researchers were able to monitor how second-semester organic…

  1. New Eye-Tracking Techniques May Revolutionize Mental Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    persons or animals in the scene. Repeating the analysis for individual saccades as they developed over the time spent scanning an image revealed, for both...Neuron PreviewsNew Eye-Tracking Techniques May Revolutionize Mental Health ScreeningLaurent Itti1,* 1Computer Science Department, Psychology...phar- macy. Today, many pharmacies in the United States of America provide free blood pressure monitors that you can use as a rapid health indicator

  2. Improved Likelihood Function in Particle-based IR Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satria, R.; Sorensen, J.; Hammoud, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models used in a particle filter to track the eye region in dark-bright pupil image sequences. This model fuses information from both dark and bright pupil images and their difference image into one model. Our...... performance in challenging sequences with test subjects showing large head movements and under significant light conditions....

  3. Diagnosis of Autism Using an Eye Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) are characterized by a deficitin social integration, anguage development, and restricted interests. ASD is defined as a prevalence development life disability. However, children who are early diagnosed and intervention improve long-term prognosis.This project proposes to detect autism in children at a first level (preclinical stage) using a tool "eye tracking" highly cost-effective and mbedded in a tablet. The results obtained with thissy...

  4. Reading beyond the glance: eye tracking in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Livia; Selejan, Ovidiu; Scott, Allan; Mureşanu, Dafin F; Balea, Maria; Rafila, Alexandru

    2015-05-01

    From an interdisciplinary approach, the neurosciences (NSs) represent the junction of many fields (biology, chemistry, medicine, computer science, and psychology) and aim to explore the structural and functional aspects of the nervous system. Among modern neurophysiological methods that "measure" different processes of the human brain to salience stimuli, a special place belongs to eye tracking (ET). By detecting eye position, gaze direction, sequence of eye movement and visual adaptation during cognitive activities, ET is an effective tool for experimental psychology and neurological research. It provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the gaze, which is very useful in understanding choice behavior and perceptual decision making. In the high tech era, ET has several applications related to the interaction between humans and computers. Herein, ET is used to evaluate the spatial orienting of attention, the performance in visual tasks, the reactions to information on websites, the customer response to advertising, and the emotional and cognitive impact of various spurs to the brain.

  5. Integrating Click-Through and Eye-Tracking Logs for Decision-Making Process Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan PETRUSEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In current software every click of the users is logged, therefore a wealth of click-through information exists. Besides, recent technologies have made eye-tracking affordable and an alternative to other human-computer interaction means (e.g. mouse, touchscreens. A big challenge is to make sense of all this data and convert it into useful information. This paper introduces a possible solution placed in the context of decision-making processes. We show how the decision maker's activity can be traced using two means: mouse tracing (i.e. clicks and eye-tracking (i.e. eye fixations. Then, we discuss a mining approach, based on the log, which extracts a Decision Data Model (DDM. We use the DDM to determine, post-hoc, which decision strategy was employed. The paper concludes with a validation based on a controlled experiment.

  6. Eye Tracking: A Perceptual Interface for Content Based Image Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Oyekoya, Oyekoya

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis visual search experiments are devised to explore the feasibility of an eye gaze driven search mechanism. The thesis first explores gaze behaviour on images possessing different levels of saliency. Eye behaviour was predominantly attracted by salient locations, but appears to also require frequent reference to non-salient background regions which indicated that information from scan paths might prove useful for image search. The thesis then specifically investigates the benefits...

  7. Consequences of Eye Color, Positioning, and Head Movement for Eye-Tracking Data Quality in Infant Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, Roy S.; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace T C; Nyström, Marcus; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Eye tracking has become a valuable tool for investigating infant looking behavior over the last decades. However, where eye-tracking methodology and achieving high data quality have received a much attention for adult participants, it is unclear how these results generalize to infant research. This

  8. Consequences of Eye Color, Positioning, and Head Movement for Eye-Tracking Data Quality in Infant Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, Roy S.; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace T C; Nyström, Marcus; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Eye tracking has become a valuable tool for investigating infant looking behavior over the last decades. However, where eye-tracking methodology and achieving high data quality have received a much attention for adult participants, it is unclear how these results generalize to infant research. This

  9. Real time eye tracking using Kalman extended spatio-temporal context learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Farzeen; Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Asfar; Jalil, Abdul; Jeon, Moongu

    2017-06-01

    Real time eye tracking has numerous applications in human computer interaction such as a mouse cursor control in a computer system. It is useful for persons with muscular or motion impairments. However, tracking the movement of the eye is complicated by occlusion due to blinking, head movement, screen glare, rapid eye movements, etc. In this work, we present the algorithmic and construction details of a real time eye tracking system. Our proposed system is an extension of Spatio-Temporal context learning through Kalman Filtering. Spatio-Temporal Context Learning offers state of the art accuracy in general object tracking but its performance suffers due to object occlusion. Addition of the Kalman filter allows the proposed method to model the dynamics of the motion of the eye and provide robust eye tracking in cases of occlusion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this tracking technique by controlling the computer cursor in real time by eye movements.

  10. Infant Visual Assessment: Using Eye Tracking to Measure Visual Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Burton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A technique commonly used to assess infants' visual acuity is forced-choice preferential looking, which relies on the propensity of infants to look at patterned stimuli over uniform grey. Existing tests use trained examiners to judge where an infant fixates; however, eye trackers offer the opportunity to measure eye movements quickly and automatically. In the present study infants' visual acuity was measured using a remote Tobii eye tracker (Tobii T120. Thirteen infants aged 4–8 months were seated before a screen and presented with a preferential looking task. On each trial a black and white chequerboard of variable spatial frequency was displayed on half of the screen, while uniform grey was displayed elsewhere. Eye tracking data were used to determine whether the infant fixated the chequerboard and to update the spatial frequency on subsequent trials according to a weighted up-down staircase targeting the 75% threshold. This initial study showed data in line with age norms are consistent across two testing sessions for some infants. Others yielded poor data or inconsistent performance. Future modifications will aim to make the test more engaging and to optimise its power and speed. These will provide a basis for a full assessment of the test's accuracy and reliability.

  11. Using Eye-Tracking in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Kathy; Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    With eye-tracking technology the eye is thought to give researchers a window into the mind. Importantly, eye-tracking has significant advantages over traditional online processing measures: chiefly that it allows for more "natural" processing as it does not require a secondary task, and that it provides a very rich moment-to-moment data…

  12. Using Eye-Tracking in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Kathy; Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    With eye-tracking technology the eye is thought to give researchers a window into the mind. Importantly, eye-tracking has significant advantages over traditional online processing measures: chiefly that it allows for more "natural" processing as it does not require a secondary task, and that it provides a very rich moment-to-moment data…

  13. Eye-Tracking in the Study of Visual Expertise: Methodology and Approaches in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sharon E.; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.

    2017-01-01

    Eye-tracking is the measurement of eye motions and point of gaze of a viewer. Advances in this technology have been essential to our understanding of many forms of visual learning, including the development of visual expertise. In recent years, these studies have been extended to the medical professions, where eye-tracking technology has helped us…

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  15. Inter-eye: Interactive error compensation for eye-tracking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Mariolino; Zanetti, Matteo; Fornaser, Alberto; Leuci, Malvina; Conci, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for systematic errors compensation in modern eye-tracking devices. Systematic errors, together with repeatability errors, reduce the possible use of eye trackers for several applications such as moving into an indoor environment and enabling the user to indicate precisely the target only with the support of his/her eyes. The new method relies on an interactive procedure that enables the system to accurately estimate the systematic effect in few seconds and thus compensate it in a fast and accurate way. Results show that the uncertainty can be dramatically decreased for a low-cost device on a 17 inches screen from 100 pixels to approximately 15 pixels.

  16. Storyline Visualizations of Eye Tracking of Movie Viewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, John T.; Arendt, Dustin L.; Blaha, Leslie M.

    2016-12-16

    Storyline visualizations offer an approach that promises to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of individual observers and simultaneously illustrate emerging group behaviors. We develop a visual analytics approach to parsing, aligning, and clustering fixation sequences from eye tracking data. Visualization of the results captures the similarities and differences across a group of observers performing a common task. We apply our storyline approach to visualize gaze patterns of people watching dynamic movie clips. Storylines mitigate some of the shortcomings of existent spatio-temporal visualization techniques and, importantly, continue to highlight individual observer behavioral dynamics.

  17. Like a rolling stone: naturalistic visual kinematics facilitate tracking eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, David; Kerzel, Dirk

    2013-02-06

    Newtonian physics constrains object kinematics in the real world. We asked whether eye movements towards tracked objects depend on their compliance with those constraints. In particular, the force of gravity constrains round objects to roll on the ground with a particular rotational and translational motion. We measured tracking eye movements towards rolling objects. We found that objects with rotational and translational motion that was congruent with an object rolling on the ground elicited faster tracking eye movements during pursuit initiation than incongruent stimuli. Relative to a condition without rotational component, we compared objects with this motion with a condition in which there was no rotational component, we essentially obtained benefits of congruence, and, to a lesser extent, costs from incongruence. Anticipatory pursuit responses showed no congruence effect, suggesting that the effect is based on visually-driven predictions, not on velocity storage. We suggest that the eye movement system incorporates information about object kinematics acquired by a lifetime of experience with visual stimuli obeying the laws of Newtonian physics.

  18. The socialization effect on decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkovskaya, Anastasia G; Babkina, Tatiana S; Myagkov, Mikhail G; Kulikov, Ivan A; Ekshova, Ksenia V; Harriff, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses) to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment); a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups. After each round, the respondent received information about his or her personal score in the last round and the overall winner of the game at the moment. The study proves that eye-tracking systems can be used for studying the process of decision making and forecasting. The total viewing time and the time of fixation on areas corresponding to noncooperative decisions is related to the participants' overall level of cooperation. The increase in the total viewing time and the time of fixation on the areas of noncooperative choice is due to a preference for noncooperative decisions and a decrease in the overall level of cooperation. The number of fixations on the group attributes is associated with group identity, but does not necessarily lead to cooperative behavior.

  19. PyGaze: an open-source, cross-platform toolbox for minimal-effort programming of eye-tracking experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmaijer, E.S.; Mathôt, S.; van der Stigchel, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X

    2014-01-01

    he PyGaze toolbox is an open-source software package for Python, a high-level programming language. It is designed for creating eyetracking experiments in Python syntax with the least possible effort, and it offers programming ease and script readability without constraining functionality and

  20. PyGaze: an open-source, cross-platform toolbox for minimal-effort programming of eye-tracking experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmaijer, E.S.; Mathôt, S.; van der Stigchel, S.

    2014-01-01

    he PyGaze toolbox is an open-source software package for Python, a high-level programming language. It is designed for creating eyetracking experiments in Python syntax with the least possible effort, and it offers programming ease and script readability without constraining functionality and flexib

  1. Eye movements predict recollective experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Sharot

    Full Text Available Previously encountered stimuli can bring to mind a vivid memory of the episodic context in which the stimulus was first experienced ("remembered" stimuli, or can simply seem familiar ("known" stimuli. Past studies suggest that more attentional resources are required to encode stimuli that are subsequently remembered than known. However, it is unclear if the attentional resources are distributed differently during encoding and recognition of remembered and known stimuli. Here, we record eye movements while participants encode photos, and later while indicating whether the photos are remembered, known or new. Eye fixations were more clustered during both encoding and recognition of remembered photos relative to known photos. Thus, recognition of photos that bring to mind a vivid memory for the episodic context in which they were experienced is associated with less distributed overt attention during encoding and recognition. The results suggest that remembering is related to encoding of a few distinct details of a photo rather than the photo as a whole. In turn, during recognition remembering may be trigged by enhanced memory for the salient details of the photos.

  2. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...... target groups were families with children age 6–12 years and school classes with students from 4th to 6th grade. The main purpose of the study was to understand the methodological potential and challenges mobile eye tracking comprises during the different stages of research on informal e......-learning in a science centre context utilising digital platforms to enhance informal learning and interaction. The paper presents how eye-tracking methods influence research on: 1) an interventional level: what role eye tracking and eye-tracking equipment plays in interventions; 2) a data level: what new types of data...

  3. Detecting Usability Problems with Eye Tracking in Airborne Battle Management Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10701 TITLE: Detecting Usability Problems with Eye Tracking in Airborne...problems with eye tracking in airborne battle management support Frank Ole Flemisch Reiner Onken Universitdt der Bundeswehr MiInchen Wemer-Heisenberg-Weg...by a ided factors analysis offering them a full mission replay in the simulator S ituation and analysis of behavior cannot including the eye tracking records

  4. Using Cognitive Task Analysis and Eye Tracking to Understand Imagery Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Using Cognitive Task Analysis and Eye Tracking to Understand Imagery Analysis Laura Kurland, Abigail Gertner, Tom Bartee, Michael Chisholm and...environment to capture qualitative and quantitative data by recording time-stamped eye tracking , screen capture of an Electronic Light Table...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Cognitive Task Analysis and Eye Tracking to Understand Imagery Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Learning to Detect Objects from Eye-Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P Papadopoulous

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the bottlenecks in computer vision, especially in object detection, is the need for a large amount of training data. Typically, this is acquired by manually annotating images by hand. In this study, we explore the possibility of using eye-trackers to provide training data for supervised machine learning. We have created a new large scale eye-tracking dataset, collecting fixation data for 6270 images from the Pascal VOC 2012 database. This represents 10 of the 20 classes included in the Pascal database. Each image was viewed by 5 observers, and a total of over 178k fixations have been collected. While previous attempts at using fixation data in computer vision were based on a free-viewing paradigm, we used a visual search task in order to increase the proportion of fixations on the target object. Furthermore, we divided the dataset into five pairs of semantically similar classes (cat/dog, bicycle/motorbike, horse/cow, boat/aeroplane and sofa/diningtable, with the observer having to decide which class each image belonged to. This kept the observer's task simple, while decreasing the chance of them using the scene gist to identify the target parafoveally. In order to alleviate the central bias in scene viewing, the images were presented to the observers with a random offset. The goal of our project is to use the eye-tracking information in order to detect and localise the attended objects. Our model so far, based on features representing the location of the fixations and an appearance model of the attended regions, can successfully predict the location of the target objects in over half of images.

  6. Elevated intracranial pressure and reversible eye-tracking changes detected while viewing a film clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, Radek; Dammavalam, Vikalpa; Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Hubbard, Molly; Choudhry, Osamah; Reyes, Marleen; Han, ByoungJun; Wang, Tom; Papas, Paraskevi Vivian; Adem, Aylin; North, Emily; Gilbertson, David T; Kondziolka, Douglas; Huang, Jason H; Huang, Paul P; Samadani, Uzma

    2017-06-02

    OBJECTIVE The precise threshold differentiating normal and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is variable among individuals. In the context of several pathophysiological conditions, elevated ICP leads to abnormalities in global cerebral functioning and impacts the function of cranial nerves (CNs), either or both of which may contribute to ocular dysmotility. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of elevated ICP on eye-tracking performed while patients were watching a short film clip. METHODS Awake patients requiring placement of an ICP monitor for clinical purposes underwent eye tracking while watching a 220-second continuously playing video moving around the perimeter of a viewing monitor. Pupil position was recorded at 500 Hz and metrics associated with each eye individually and both eyes together were calculated. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was performed to test the association of eye-tracking metrics with changes in ICP. RESULTS Eye tracking was performed at ICP levels ranging from -3 to 30 mm Hg in 23 patients (12 women, 11 men, mean age 46.8 years) on 55 separate occasions. Eye-tracking measures correlating with CN function linearly decreased with increasing ICP (p eye-tracking metrics to discriminate between ICP eye tracking detected while patients were watching a short film clip. These results suggest that eye tracking may be used as a noninvasive, automatable means to quantitate the physiological impact of elevated ICP, which has clinical application for assessment of shunt malfunction, pseudotumor cerebri, concussion, and prevention of second-impact syndrome.

  7. Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ming Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface. The Service Design method, which is utilized for leading the combination of the quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, is used to analyze the features of three Smart TV user interface design mockups. Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance of these design mockups. The results of this research demonstrate a comprehensive methodology that can be used iteratively for redesigning, redefining and evaluating of Smart TV user interfaces. It can also help to make the design of Smart TV user interfaces relate to users' behaviors and needs. So that to improve the affordance of design. Future studies may analyse the data that are derived from eye tracking experiments to improve our understanding of the spatial relationship between designed elements in a Smart TV user interface.

  8. Fusing Eye-gaze and Speech Recognition for Tracking in an Automatic Reading Tutor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Højfeldt; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment the langu......In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment...

  9. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  10. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  11. Numerical Analysis on Color Preference and Visual Comfort from Eye Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Color preferences in engineering are very important, and there exists relationship between color preference and visual comfort. In this study, there are thirty university students who participated in the experiment, supplemented by pre- and posttest questionnaires, which lasted about an hour. The main purpose of this study is to explore the visual effects of different color assignment with subjective color preferences via eye tracking technology. Eye-movement data through a nonlinear analysis detect slight differences in color preferences and visual comfort, suggesting effective physiological indicators as extensive future research discussed. Results found that the average pupil size of eye-movement indicators can effectively reflect the differences of color preferences and visual comfort. This study more confirmed that the subjective feeling will make people have misjudgment.

  12. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Online Eye and Face-tracking Applications in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan

    Eye-tracking and face-tracking technology have been widely adopted to study viewers' attention and emotional response. In the dissertation, we apply these two technologies to investigate effective online contents that are designed to attract and direct attention and engage viewers emotional responses. In the first part of the dissertation, we conduct a series of experiments that use eye-tracking technology to explore how online models' facial cues affect users' attention on static e-commerce websites. The joint effects of two facial cues, gaze direction and facial expression on attention, are estimated by Bayesian ANOVA, allowing various distributional assumptions. We also consider the similarities and differences in the effects of facial cues among American and Chinese consumers. This study offers insights on how to attract and retain customers' attentions for advertisers that use static advertisement on various websites or ad networks. In the second part of the dissertation, we conduct a face-tracking study where we investigate the relation between experiment participants' emotional responseswhile watching comedy movie trailers and their watching intentions to the actual movies. Viewers' facial expressions are collected in real-time and converted to emo- tional responses with algorithms based on facial coding system. To analyze the data, we propose to use a joint modeling method that link viewers' longitudinal emotion measurements and their watching intentions. This research provides recommenda- tions to filmmakers on how to improve the effectiveness of movie trailers, and how to boost audiences' desire to watch the movies.

  14. The Fly's Eye project: sidereal tracking on a hexapod mount

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, Krisztián; Mészáros, László; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Oláh, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    The driving objective of the Fly's Eye Project is a high resolution, high coverage time-domain survey in multiple optical passbands: our goal is to cover the entire visible sky above the 30 deg horizontal altitude with a cadence of 3 min. Imaging is intended to perform with 19 wide-field cameras mounted on a hexapod platform. The essence of the hexapod allows us to build an instrument that does not require any kind of precise alignment and, in addition, the similar mechanics can be involved independently from the geographical location of the device. Here we summarize our early results with a single camera, focusing on the sidereal tracking as it is performed with the hexapod built by our group.

  15. Eye-tracking analysis of face observing and face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Iskra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images are one of the key elements of the content of the World Wide Web. One group of web images are also photos of people. When various institutions (universities, research organizations, companies, associations, etc. present their staff, they should include photos of people for the purpose of more informative presentation. The fact is, that there are many specifies how people see face images and how do they remember them. Several methods to investigate person’s behavior during use of web content can be performed and one of the most reliable method among them is eye tracking. It is very common technique, particularly when it comes to observing web images. Our research focused on behavior of observing face images in process of memorizing them. Test participants were presented with face images shown at different time scale. We focused on three main face elements: eyes, mouth and nose. The results of our analysis can help not only in web presentation, which are, in principle, not limited by time observation, but especially in public presentations (conferences, symposia, and meetings.

  16. Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…

  17. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye-tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...

  18. An overview of how eye tracking is used in communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Boerman, S.C.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Antona, M.; Stephanidis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Eye tracking gives communication scholars the opportunity to move beyond self-reported measures by examining more precisely how much visual attention is paid to information. However, we lack insight into how eye-tracking data is used in communication research. This literature review provides an

  19. An overview of how eye tracking is used in communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Boerman, S.C.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Antona, M.; Stephanidis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Eye tracking gives communication scholars the opportunity to move beyond self-reported measures by examining more precisely how much visual attention is paid to information. However, we lack insight into how eye-tracking data is used in communication research. This literature review provides an over

  20. Assessing the Potential Use of Eye-Tracking Triangulation for Evaluating the Usability of an Online Diabetes Exercise System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarup, Clara; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Lars Bo; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Årsand, Eirik; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The Online Diabetes Exercise System was developed to motivate people with Type 2 diabetes to do a 25 minutes low-volume high-intensity interval training program. In a previous multi-method evaluation of the system, several usability issues were identified and corrected. Despite the thorough testing, it was unclear whether all usability problems had been identified using the multi-method evaluation. Our hypothesis was that adding the eye-tracking triangulation to the multi-method evaluation would increase the accuracy and completeness when testing the usability of the system. The study design was an Eye-tracking Triangulation; conventional eye-tracking with predefined tasks followed by The Post-Experience Eye-Tracked Protocol (PEEP). Six Areas of Interests were the basis for the PEEP-session. The eye-tracking triangulation gave objective and subjective results, which are believed to be highly relevant for designing, implementing, evaluating and optimizing systems in the field of health informatics. Future work should include testing the method on a larger and more representative group of users and apply the method on different system types.

  1. Eye-tracking for clinical decision support: A method to capture automatically what physicians are viewing in the EMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Hochheiser, Harry; Visweswaran, Shyam; Clermont, Gilles; Cooper, Gregory F

    2017-01-01

    Eye-tracking is a valuable research tool that is used in laboratory and limited field environments. We take steps toward developing methods that enable widespread adoption of eye-tracking and its real-time application in clinical decision support. Eye-tracking will enhance awareness and enable intelligent views, more precise alerts, and other forms of decision support in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR). We evaluated a low-cost eye-tracking device and found the device's accuracy to be non-inferior to a more expensive device. We also developed and evaluated an automatic method for mapping eye-tracking data to interface elements in the EMR (e.g., a displayed laboratory test value). Mapping was 88% accurate across the six participants in our experiment. Finally, we piloted the use of the low-cost device and the automatic mapping method to label training data for a Learning EMR (LEMR) which is a system that highlights the EMR elements a physician is predicted to use.

  2. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.

  3. Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Braaf, Boy; Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Arathorn, David W.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2012-01-01

    Fixational eye movements remain a major cause of artifacts in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images despite the increases in acquisition speeds. One approach to eliminate the eye motion is to stabilize the ophthalmic imaging system in real-time. This paper describes and quantifies the performance of a tracking OCT system, which combines a phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system and an eye tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO). We show that active eye tracking minimizes artifacts caused by eye drift and micro saccades. The remaining tracking lock failures caused by blinks and large saccades generate a trigger signal which signals the OCT system to rescan corrupted B-scans. Residual motion artifacts in the OCT B-scans are reduced to 0.32 minutes of arc (~1.6 µm) in an in vivo human eye enabling acquisition of high quality images from the optic nerve head and lamina cribrosa pore structure. PMID:23162731

  4. A simple algorithm for the offline recalibration of eye-tracking data through best-fitting linear transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Street, Chris N H; Beesley, Tom; Shanks, David R

    2015-12-01

    Poor calibration and inaccurate drift correction can pose severe problems for eye-tracking experiments requiring high levels of accuracy and precision. We describe an algorithm for the offline correction of eye-tracking data. The algorithm conducts a linear transformation of the coordinates of fixations that minimizes the distance between each fixation and its closest stimulus. A simple implementation in MATLAB is also presented. We explore the performance of the correction algorithm under several conditions using simulated and real data, and show that it is particularly likely to improve data quality when many fixations are included in the fitting process.

  5. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy K.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone. PMID:26203370

  6. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy K; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone.

  7. Looking at vision : Eye/face/head tracking of consumers for improved marketing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.; Moutinho, L.; Bigné, E.; Manrai (eds.), A.K.

    Against the backdrop of the rapid growth of the use eye tracking and facial recognition methodology, this chapter discusses the measurement of eye movements, facial expression of emotions, pupil dilation, eye blinks and head movements. After discussing some of the main research findings in the

  8. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  9. Eye-tracking Post-editing Behaviour in an Interactive Translation Prediction Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2013-01-01

    challenges faced by translators. This paper reports on a preliminary pilot test within the CasMaCat project. Based in user activity data (key-logging and eye-tracking), this project aims at defining the functionalities of a new translator's workbench focusing on post-editing and advanced computer...... each ITP modality. Eye-tracking data was used to correlate participant's satisfaction with ITP and the post-editing behaviour revealed by the eye-tracker....

  10. Evaluating ANN efficiency in recognizing EEG and Eye-Tracking Evoked Potentials in Visual-Game-Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2017-01-01

    EEG and Eye-tracking signals have customarily been analyzed and inspected visually in order to be correlated to the controlled stimuli. This pro-cess has proven to yield valid results as long as the stimuli of the experiment are under complete control (e.g.: the order of presentation). In this st...

  11. Individual Differences in Spatial Orientation Performances: An Eye Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacide Güzin Mazman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes two studies. In study 1, the computerized version of Spatial Orientation Test (Kozhevnikov & Hegarty, 2001 was standardized for determining the norm values for Turkish undergraduate students as well as demonstrating the reliability and validity of the test. In Study 1, 101 undergraduate students from two different departments were recruited and the data were collected with computerized spatial orientation test together with a demographic information form. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test and one way ANOVA were used in data analysis. Statistical analyses revealed out that gender and years of computer experience have significant effect on spatial orientation ability scores. Test-retest reliability coefficient was found for total accuracy score as r= .778 and r=.634 for total reaction time. As a result of discriminant validity study, the correlation between the spatial orientation and mental rotation test scores was found to be very low and not significant. In study 2, individual differences between low and high spatial orientation ability groups during performing “Spatial Orientation Test” were examined through eye movements. Five high and five low spatial orientation ability level students were asked to participate in the second study. While performing Spatial Orientation Test, their eye movements were recorded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in eye movements between different spatial orientation ability levels in terms of fixation duration. Furthermore it was found that high and low level spatial orientation level groups solved problems with different solution patterns.

  12. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  13. Gıda Etiketlerine Yönelik Dikkat ve Algı: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi'nde Uygulanan Göz Hareketleri İzleme Deneyi Sonuçları (Awareness and Perception of Food Labels: Results of an Eye Tracking Experiment in Dokuz Eylül University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedef AKGÜNGÖR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available European Union is funding a 7th Framework Program Project named Food Labeling to Advance Better Education for Life (FLABEL in 27 European countries and Turkey for the years 2008-2011. The second work package of this project entails consumer perception and evaluation of information on food labels. For this work package, an experiment was pursued in Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Business, Turkey. The respondents were shown food labels that they have seen before or have never seen before which are frequently used in different European countries. The study uses experiment and questionnaire methods. For the collection and storage of experimental work, an eye-tracker device connected to a special computer and relevant computer programs were used. The results of the study in Turkey demonstrate that respondents do not have sufficient information and experience in the perception and evaluation of nutrition values on food labels. There is no previous study on food labels and healthy nutrition in Turkey using eye-tracking devices. This study is a first attempt in applying the eye tracking experiment to explore consumers’ choice for healthy food.

  14. Kinematic property of target motion conditions gaze behavior and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated how frequency demand and motion feedback influenced composite ocular movements and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking. Fourteen volunteers conducted slow and fast force-tracking in which targets were displayed in either line-mode or wave-mode to guide manual tracking with target movement of direct position or velocity nature. The results showed that eye-hand synergy was a selective response of spatiotemporal coupling conditional on target rate and feedback mode. Slow and line-mode tracking exhibited stronger eye-hand coupling than fast and wave-mode tracking. Both eye movement and manual action led the target signal during fast-tracking, while the latency of ocular navigation during slow-tracking depended on the feedback mode. Slow-tracking resulted in more saccadic responses and larger pursuit gains than fast-tracking. Line-mode tracking led to larger pursuit gains but fewer and shorter gaze fixations than wave-mode tracking. During slow-tracking, incidences of saccade and gaze fixation fluctuated across a target cycle, peaking at velocity maximum and the maximal curvature of target displacement, respectively. For line-mode tracking, the incidence of smooth pursuit was phase-dependent, peaking at velocity maximum as well. Manual behavior of slow or line-mode tracking was better predicted by composite eye movements than that of fast or wave-mode tracking. In conclusion, manual tracking relied on versatile visual strategies to perceive target movements of different kinematic properties, which suggested a flexible coordinative control for the ocular and manual sensorimotor systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Eye-Hand Synergy and Intermittent Behaviors during Target-Directed Tracking with Visual and Non-visual Information

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Visual feedback and non-visual information play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visual information in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinem...

  16. Capturing learning effects on eye movements in repeated measures experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Martin; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Fiedler, Susann

    We propose and illustrate that repeated exposure to stimuli sets increases the size of the saccade amplitudes. Saccadic amplitudes are closely related to the perceptual span and therefore used as a measure for the information intake in an experiment. Studies on expertise have shown that experts...... experiment in which 68 participants made choices between four alternatives with three different between subject conditions varying in presentation format (verbal matrix, a pictorial matrix, and a realistic product representation). The results consistently demonstrate an increase of the saccade amplitude over...... the course of the experiment independent of condition. We conclude by discussing our results in the light of the possible increase of the perceptual span and its implications for the research procedure in eye-tracking experiments with a repeated measurement design....

  17. Development of an eye-tracking method to assess mental set switching in people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sabine; Pinke, Melissa Lu

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility contribute to impaired functional communication in people with aphasia. Understanding the relationship between functional communication and cognitive flexibility in people with neurologic communication disorders is important. However, traditional methods to assess mental set switching pose significant linguistic, cognitive and motoric response confounds. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address these challenges. The goal of this study was to develop and validate an eye-tracking method to index mental set switching in individuals without neurological impairment based upon performance on a nonlinguistic switching task. Eye movements of 20 adults without communication disorders were recorded as they completed a switching task, requiring participants to match stimuli to one or two search criteria (colour or shape) in single- and mixed-task conditions. Differences between single and mixed conditions were assessed with eye-tracking measures. Performance on the eye-tracking task was compared to standardized measures of cognitive flexibility. Eye-tracking measures indexed significant differences between nonswitch and switch trials within and between single- and mixed-task condition. Some standardized assessment measures correlated significantly with the eye movement measures. Results support the construct validity of the novel eye-tracking method for assessing cognitive switching in language-normal adults. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  18. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ranney, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. Methods We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Results Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Conclusions Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics. PMID:27668270

  19. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics.

  20. What makes a dog adoptable? An eye-tracking investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgate, Sara; Couchman, Justin J

    2017-09-21

    Humans readily attribute personality and behavioral traits to dogs, and these attributions influence decisions about adoption. This study focused on how these attributions could be influenced by breed and pose by using pictures of four breeds (Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever, pit bull, and Rottweiler) in 4 poses (dog sitting alone, sitting with a human, standing alone, and walking on a leash with a human). Participants rated each picture on friendliness, aggressiveness, and adoptability. Eye-tracking technology identified which specific features were represented in each picture to determine whether they had any effect on the judgments. Although the Golden Retriever was seen as most adoptable, pose differences had many significant effects that could be useful for increasing the adoptability of all breeds. Data also revealed facial areas that attracted more attention (e.g., faster time to first fixation and longer fixation duration), particularly when the dog was alone. Focus on these areas could help to optimize photographs to present dogs in the friendliest, least aggressive, and most adoptable way.

  1. Gaze Stripes: Image-Based Visualization of Eye Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Heimerl, Florian; Burch, Michael; Ertl, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a new visualization approach for displaying eye tracking data from multiple participants. We aim to show the spatio-temporal data of the gaze points in the context of the underlying image or video stimulus without occlusion. Our technique, denoted as gaze stripes, does not require the explicit definition of areas of interest but directly uses the image data around the gaze points, similar to thumbnails for images. A gaze stripe consists of a sequence of such gaze point images, oriented along a horizontal timeline. By displaying multiple aligned gaze stripes, it is possible to analyze and compare the viewing behavior of the participants over time. Since the analysis is carried out directly on the image data, expensive post-processing or manual annotation are not required. Therefore, not only patterns and outliers in the participants' scanpaths can be detected, but the context of the stimulus is available as well. Furthermore, our approach is especially well suited for dynamic stimuli due to the non-aggregated temporal mapping. Complementary views, i.e., markers, notes, screenshots, histograms, and results from automatic clustering, can be added to the visualization to display analysis results. We illustrate the usefulness of our technique on static and dynamic stimuli. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and scalability of our approach in comparison to established visualization techniques.

  2. Eye movements in chameleons are not truly independent - evidence from simultaneous monocular tracking of two targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Hadas Ketter; Lustig, Avichai; Lev-Ari, Tidhar; Nov, Yuval; Rivlin, Ehud; Katzir, Gadi

    2015-07-01

    Chameleons perform large-amplitude eye movements that are frequently referred to as independent, or disconjugate. When prey (an insect) is detected, the chameleon's eyes converge to view it binocularly and 'lock' in their sockets so that subsequent visual tracking is by head movements. However, the extent of the eyes' independence is unclear. For example, can a chameleon visually track two small targets simultaneously and monocularly, i.e. one with each eye? This is of special interest because eye movements in ectotherms and birds are frequently independent, with optic nerves that are fully decussated and intertectal connections that are not as developed as in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that chameleons presented with two small targets moving in opposite directions can perform simultaneous, smooth, monocular, visual tracking. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of such a capacity. The fine patterns of the eye movements in monocular tracking were composed of alternating, longer, 'smooth' phases and abrupt 'step' events, similar to smooth pursuits and saccades. Monocular tracking differed significantly from binocular tracking with respect to both 'smooth' phases and 'step' events. We suggest that in chameleons, eye movements are not simply 'independent'. Rather, at the gross level, eye movements are (i) disconjugate during scanning, (ii) conjugate during binocular tracking and (iii) disconjugate, but coordinated, during monocular tracking. At the fine level, eye movements are disconjugate in all cases. These results support the view that in vertebrates, basic monocular control is under a higher level of regulation that dictates the eyes' level of coordination according to context. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Algorithms for High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Lambert, James

    2010-01-01

    Two image-data-processing algorithms are essential to the successful operation of a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. The system was described in High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System (NPO-30700) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 51. To recapitulate from the cited article: Like prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Most of the prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems rely on standard video cameras, which operate at frame rates of about 30 Hz. Such systems are limited to slow, full-frame operation. The video camera in the present system includes a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector plus electronic circuitry capable of implementing an advanced control scheme that effects readout from a small region of interest (ROI), or subwindow, of the full image. Inasmuch as the image features of interest (the cornea and pupil) typically occupy a small part of the camera frame, this ROI capability can be exploited to determine the direction of gaze at a high frame rate by reading out from the ROI that contains the cornea and pupil (but not from the rest of the image) repeatedly. One of the present algorithms exploits the ROI capability. The algorithm takes horizontal row slices and takes advantage of the symmetry of the pupil and cornea circles and of the gray-scale contrasts of the pupil and cornea with respect to other parts of the eye. The algorithm determines which horizontal image slices contain the pupil and cornea, and, on each valid slice, the end coordinates of the pupil and cornea

  4. Image processing for improved eye-tracking accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, J. B.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Video cameras provide a simple, noninvasive method for monitoring a subject's eye movements. An important concept is that of the resolution of the system, which is the smallest eye movement that can be reliably detected. While hardware systems are available that estimate direction of gaze in real-time from a video image of the pupil, such systems must limit image processing to attain real-time performance and are limited to a resolution of about 10 arc minutes. Two ways to improve resolution are discussed. The first is to improve the image processing algorithms that are used to derive an estimate. Off-line analysis of the data can improve resolution by at least one order of magnitude for images of the pupil. A second avenue by which to improve resolution is to increase the optical gain of the imaging setup (i.e., the amount of image motion produced by a given eye rotation). Ophthalmoscopic imaging of retinal blood vessels provides increased optical gain and improved immunity to small head movements but requires a highly sensitive camera. The large number of images involved in a typical experiment imposes great demands on the storage, handling, and processing of data. A major bottleneck had been the real-time digitization and storage of large amounts of video imagery, but recent developments in video compression hardware have made this problem tractable at a reasonable cost. Images of both the retina and the pupil can be analyzed successfully using a basic toolbox of image-processing routines (filtering, correlation, thresholding, etc.), which are, for the most part, well suited to implementation on vectorizing supercomputers.

  5. Image processing for improved eye-tracking accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, J. B.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Video cameras provide a simple, noninvasive method for monitoring a subject's eye movements. An important concept is that of the resolution of the system, which is the smallest eye movement that can be reliably detected. While hardware systems are available that estimate direction of gaze in real-time from a video image of the pupil, such systems must limit image processing to attain real-time performance and are limited to a resolution of about 10 arc minutes. Two ways to improve resolution are discussed. The first is to improve the image processing algorithms that are used to derive an estimate. Off-line analysis of the data can improve resolution by at least one order of magnitude for images of the pupil. A second avenue by which to improve resolution is to increase the optical gain of the imaging setup (i.e., the amount of image motion produced by a given eye rotation). Ophthalmoscopic imaging of retinal blood vessels provides increased optical gain and improved immunity to small head movements but requires a highly sensitive camera. The large number of images involved in a typical experiment imposes great demands on the storage, handling, and processing of data. A major bottleneck had been the real-time digitization and storage of large amounts of video imagery, but recent developments in video compression hardware have made this problem tractable at a reasonable cost. Images of both the retina and the pupil can be analyzed successfully using a basic toolbox of image-processing routines (filtering, correlation, thresholding, etc.), which are, for the most part, well suited to implementation on vectorizing supercomputers.

  6. A Photogate Design for Air Track Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a photogate arrangement using a photo-reflective sensor for air track experiments. Reports that the sensitivity to sunlight can be eliminated and a mechanically more convenient package produced. Shows the mounting, circuit, and usage of the photogate. (YP)

  7. Global track finder for Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusov, Viktor; Feindt, Michael; Heck, Martin; Kuhr, Thomas; Goldenzweig, Pablo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.

  8. Experimental pain induces attentional bias that is modified by enhanced motivation: An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z-K; Wang, J-Y; Luo, F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of prior pain experience and motivation on attentional bias towards pain-related information were investigated within two visual-probe tasks via eye movement behaviours. It is hypothesized that pain experience would induce stronger attentional bias and such bias could be suppressed by the motivation to avoid impeding pain. All participants took part in visual-probe tasks with pictures and words as stimuli that are typically used in studies of attentional bias. They were allocated to three groups: no-pain (NP) group, performing tasks without experiencing pain; pain-experience (PE) group, performing the same tasks following painful stimuli; and pain-experience-with-motivation (PEM) group, undergoing the same procedure as PE group with additional instructions about avoiding impeding pain. Eye movements were recorded during the tasks. The eye movement data showed that: (1) participants in the PE group exhibited stronger attention bias towards painful pictures than those in the NP group; (2) the attentional bias towards painful pictures was significantly reduced in the PEM group as compared to the PE group. By contrast, the verbal task failed to find these effects using sensory pain words as stimuli. This study was the first that revealed the impact of acute experimental pain on attentional bias towards pain-related information in healthy individuals through eye tracking. It may provide a possible solution to reduce hypervigilance towards pain-related information by altering the motivational relevance. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: (1) This study revealed the impact of experimental pain on attentional bias in healthy individuals; (2) This study may provide a possible approach of altering motivational relevance to control the pain-induced attentional bias towards pain-related information. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodala, Indu P.; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V.; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using “challenge integration,” a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean reaction time is lower for the challenge integrated phase (RTmean = 3.65 ± 1.4s) compared to initial monotonous phase without challenge (RTmean = 4.6 ± 2.7s). Our work shows that vigilance level, as assessed by response of these vital signs, is enhanced by challenge integration. PMID:27375464

  10. Flight Deck Interval Management Avionics: Eye-Tracking Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Harden, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is one NexGen method for achieving airspace efficiencies. In order to initiate IM procedures, Air Traffic Control provides an IM clearance to the IM aircraft's pilots that indicates an intended spacing from another aircraft (the target to follow - or TTF) and the point at which this should be achieved. Pilots enter the clearance in the flight deck IM (FIM) system; and once the TTF's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast signal is available, the FIM algorithm generates target speeds to meet that IM goal. This study examined four Avionics Conditions (defined by the instrumentation and location presenting FIM information) and three Notification Methods (defined by the visual and aural alerts that notified pilots to IM-related events). Current commercial pilots flew descents into Dallas/Fort-Worth in a high-fidelity commercial flight deck simulation environment with realistic traffic and communications. All 12 crews experienced each Avionics Condition, where order was counterbalanced over crews. Each crew used only one of the three Notification Methods. This paper presents results from eye tracking data collected from both pilots, including: normalized number of samples falling within FIM displays, normalized heads-up time, noticing time, dwell time on first FIM display look after a new speed, a workload-related metric, and a measure comparing the scan paths of pilot flying and pilot monitoring; and discusses these in the context of other objective (vertical and speed profile deviations, response time to dial in commanded speeds, out-of-speed-conformance and reminder indications) and subjective measures (workload, situation awareness, usability, and operational acceptability).

  11. Beter Leren van Hypertext door Aandachtsturing binnen Grafische Overzichten - een Eye Tracking Onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 9 Juni). Beter Leren van Hypertext door Aandachtsturing binnen Grafische Overzichten - een Eye Tracking Onderzoek. Poster gepresenteerd tijdens de Onderwijs Research Dagen, Maastricht, Nederland.

  12. SacLab: A toolbox for saccade analysis to increase usability of eye tracking systems in clinical ophthalmology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercenelli, Laura; Tiberi, Guido; Corazza, Ivan; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Marcelli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice. SacLab consists of four processing modules that enable the user to easily create visual stimuli tests (Test Designer), record saccadic eye movements (Data Recorder), analyze the recorded data to automatically extract saccadic parameters of clinical interest (Data Analyzer) and provide an aggregate analysis from multiple eye movements recordings (Saccade Analyzer), without requiring any programming effort by the user. A demo application of SacLab to carry out eye tracking tests for the analysis of horizontal saccades was reported. We tested the usability of SacLab toolbox with three ophthalmologists who had no programming experience; the ophthalmologists were briefly trained in the use of SacLab GUIs and were asked to perform the demo application. The toolbox gained an enthusiastic feedback from all the clinicians in terms of intuitiveness, ease of use and flexibility. Test creation and data processing were accomplished in 52±21s and 46±19s, respectively, using the SacLab GUIs. SacLab may represent a useful tool to ease the application of the ViewPoint EyeTracker system in clinical routine in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of helmet-mounted display targeting symbology based on eye tracking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijing; Wen, Fuzhen; Ma, Caixin; Zhao, Shengchu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the Target Locator Lines (TLLs) which perform best by contrasting and comparing experiment based on three kinds of TTLs of fighter HMD. 10 university students, male, with an average age of 21-23, corrected visual acuity 1.5, participated in the experiment. In the experiment, head movement data was obtained by TrackIR. The geometric relationship between the coordinates of the real world and coordinates of the visual display was obtained by calculating the distance from viewpoint to midpoint of both eyes and the head movement data. Virtual helmet system simulation experiment environment was created by drawing TLLs of fighter HMD in the flight simulator visual scene. In the experiment, eye tracker was used to record the time and saccade trajectory. The results were evaluated by the duration of the time and saccade trajectory. The results showed that the symbol"locator line with digital vector length indication" cost most time and had the longest length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most ineffective and most unacceptable way. "Locator line with extending head vector length symbol" cost less time and had less length of the saccade trajectory. It is effective and acceptable;"Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" cost the least time and had the least length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most effective and most acceptable way. "Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" performs best. The results will provide reference value for the research of TTLs in future.

  14. Eye Tracking Meets the Process of Process Modeling: a Visual Analytic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea; Kaiser, M.; Neurauter, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Research on the process of process modeling (PPM) studies how process models are created. It typically uses the logs of the interactions with the modeling tool to assess the modeler’s behavior. In this paper we suggest to introduce an additional stream of data (i.e., eye tracking) to improve...... diagram, heat maps, fixations distributions) both static and dynamic (i.e., movies with the evolution of the model and eye tracking data on top)....

  15. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  16. Clutter in electronic medical records: examining its performance and attentional costs using eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacdieh, Nadine; Sarter, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to use eye tracking to trace the underlying changes in attention allocation associated with the performance effects of clutter, stress, and task difficulty in visual search and noticing tasks. Clutter can degrade performance in complex domains, yet more needs to be known about the associated changes in attention allocation, particularly in the presence of stress and for different tasks. Frequently used and relatively simple eye tracking metrics do not effectively capture the various effects of clutter, which is critical for comprehensively analyzing clutter and developing targeted, real-time countermeasures. Electronic medical records (EMRs) were chosen as the application domain for this research. Clutter, stress, and task difficulty were manipulated, and physicians' performance on search and noticing tasks was recorded. Several eye tracking metrics were used to trace attention allocation throughout those tasks, and subjective data were gathered via a debriefing questionnaire. Clutter degraded performance in terms of response time and noticing accuracy. These decrements were largely accentuated by high stress and task difficulty. Eye tracking revealed the underlying attentional mechanisms, and several display-independent metrics were shown to be significant indicators of the effects of clutter. Eye tracking provides a promising means to understand in detail (offline) and prevent (in real time) major performance breakdowns due to clutter. Display designers need to be aware of the risks of clutter in EMRs and other complex displays and can use the identified eye tracking metrics to evaluate and/or adjust their display. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Comparing eye tracking with electrooculography for measuring individual sentence comprehension duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Jana Annina; Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstr...... in recent studies analyzing eye tracking data. The results of the growth curve analysis were compared with the results of the bootstrap procedure. Both analysis methods show similar processing durations....

  18. When art moves the eyes: a behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception.

  19. When art moves the eyes: a behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Massaro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism (bottom-up processes. Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task (top-down processes. Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception.

  20. Route planning with transportation network maps: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Elise; Gyselinck, Valérie; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Wiener, Jan Malte

    2017-09-01

    Planning routes using transportation network maps is a common task that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we present a novel eye-tracking paradigm to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms involved in such a route planning. In the experiment, participants were first presented with an origin and destination pair before we presented them with fictitious public transportation maps. Their task was to find the connecting route that required the minimum number of transfers. Based on participants' gaze behaviour, each trial was split into two phases: (1) the search for origin and destination phase, i.e., the initial phase of the trial until participants gazed at both origin and destination at least once and (2) the route planning and selection phase. Comparisons of other eye-tracking measures between these phases and the time to complete them, which depended on the complexity of the planning task, suggest that these two phases are indeed distinct and supported by different cognitive processes. For example, participants spent more time attending the centre of the map during the initial search phase, before directing their attention to connecting stations, where transitions between lines were possible. Our results provide novel insights into the psychological processes involved in route planning from maps. The findings are discussed in relation to the current theories of route planning.

  1. Prior Knowledge and Online Inquiry-Based Science Reading: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yeh; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study employed eye-tracking technology to examine how students with different levels of prior knowledge process text and data diagrams when reading a web-based scientific report. Students' visual behaviors were tracked and recorded when they read a report demonstrating the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global climate…

  2. Prior Knowledge and Online Inquiry-Based Science Reading: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yeh; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study employed eye-tracking technology to examine how students with different levels of prior knowledge process text and data diagrams when reading a web-based scientific report. Students' visual behaviors were tracked and recorded when they read a report demonstrating the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global climate…

  3. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  4. Low Cost vs. High-End Eye Tracking for Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy of an open source remote eye tracking system and a state-of-the-art commercial eye tracker was measured 4 times during a usability test. Results from 9 participants showed both devices to be fairly stable over time, but the commercial tracker was more accurate with a mean error of 31...... pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas...

  5. Low Cost vs. High-End Eye Tracking for Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy of an open source remote eye tracking system and a state-of-the-art commercial eye tracker was measured 4 times during a usability test. Results from 9 participants showed both devices to be fairly stable over time, but the commercial tracker was more accurate with a mean error of 31...... pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas...

  6. The use and limits of eye-tracking in high-fidelity clinical scenarios: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Sparkes, Louise; Bogossian, Fiona; Williams, Brett; O'Meara, Peter; Ross, Linda; Munro, Graham; Black, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    To explore the potential of mobile eye-tracking to identify healthcare students' area of visual interest and its relationship to performance ratings. Eye-tracking identifies an individual's visual attention focus, and has been used as a training technique in medicine and in nursing. In this study participants wore a point of view (PoV) camera within a spectacle frame during simulation education experiences. Thirty-nine final year nursing and paramedicine students individually participated in three 8 minute clinical simulations with debriefing using videoed eye-tracking recordings. Coloured dots on the video depicted the participant's pupil fixation on five targeted areas. Data extracted from the video camera were collated to report time spent on each target (their 'gaze'). The mean total gaze of expert designated targets in the environment for three 8 minute scenarios was 40-77%. Of 35 participants' focus on three main areas of interest, their priority was the patient's head (34%), the patient's trunk (24%) and their clinical assistant (5%), with significant differences between nursing and paramedic disciplines (P < 0.05). Objectively rated clinical performance improved significantly by the third scenario (P ≤ 0.001). Participants were positive regarding use of eye tracking during debriefing. Eye tracking has the potential to enhance debriefing and educational outcomes, although there are limitations to gaze capture in high fidelity environments and resource cost is high. Further study is warranted to enable better understanding of how expert clinicians achieve high levels of performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of Technolas torsional eye tracking system on visual outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaee, Hamid; Ghanavati, Siamak Zaree; Rad, Saeed Shokoohi; Omidtabrizi, Arash; Naseri, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of Technolas 217Z eye tracking system (torsional component) in corneal surface irregularity and high order aberrations (HOAs) after photorefractive keratectomy. Patients with compound myopic astigmatism among persons demanding refractive surgery in Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital with the mean age of 29 years were enrolled in this double-blind randomized interventional study. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error was -4.75 diopters(D) (range: -1.5 to -7.0), and the mean astigmatism was 3 D (range:1.0-4). Many studies were performed for each patient including: A complete eye examination, visual acuity and Monocular contrast sensitivity evaluation, and refraction. Corneal topography, Orbscan II, and wavefront aberrometry were conducted. One eye was randomly assigned for aspheric treatment and applying eye tracking system. The other eye was treated without torsional eye tracking system. The outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, corneal irregularity index in 3 mm and 5 mm optical zones in Orbscan II, and mean total HOAs at the 6-monthvisit. Fifty eyes of 25 patients were enrolled. Mean UCVA was improved significantly in both the study and control groups in the 6-month post-operative follow-up. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in UCVA and BCVA (P = 0.185 and P = 0.176, respectively). Total HOAs increased in both groups after PRK. However, they were lower in eyes treated with the eye tracking system (P eye tracker system (Bausch and Lomb Advanced) results in a more regular anterior surface of cornea. Therefore, we recommend it for surface laser refractive surgery.

  8. PENGENDALI POINTER DENGAN GAZE TRACKING MENGGUNAKAN METODE HAAR CLASSIFIER SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PRESENTASI (EYE POINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Satriyanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application that builded in this research is a pointer controller using eye movement (eye pointer. This application is one of image processing applications, where the users just have to move their eye to control the computer pointer. This eye pointer is expected able to assist the usage of manual pointer during the presentation. Since the title of this research is using gaze tracking that follow the eye movement, so that is important to detect the center of the pupil. To track the gaze, it is necessary to detect the center of the pupil if the eye image is from the input camera. The gaze tracking is detected using the three-step hierarchy system. First, motion detection, object (eye detection, and then pupil detection. For motion detection, the used method is identify the movement by dynamic compare the pixel ago by current pixel at t time. The eye region is detected using the Haar-Like Feature Classifier, where the sistem must be trained first to get the cascade classifier that allow the sistem to detect the object in each frame that captured by camera. The center of pupil is detect using integral projection.The final step is mapping the position of center of pupil to the screen of monitor using comparison scale between eye resolution with screen resolution. When detecting the eye gaze on the screen, the information (the distance and angle between eyes and a screen is necessary to compute pointing coordinates on the screen. In this research, the accuracy of this application is equal to 80% at eye movement with speed 1-2 second. And the optimum mean value is between 5 and 10. The optimum distance of user and the webcam is 40 cm from webcam.

  9. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient’s worse eye (most VF damage when compared to their better eye (least VF damage. Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P<0.001 in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8 dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.

  10. Application of eye tracking in medicine: A survey, research issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harezlak, Katarzyna; Kasprowski, Pawel

    2017-05-30

    The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direction and targets of a person's gaze are well in line with the nature of the topic. By providing methods for capturing and processing images of the eye it has become possible not only to reveal abnormalities in eye functioning but also to conduct cognitive studies focused on learning about peoples' emotions and intentions. The usefulness of the application of eye tracking technology in medicine was proved in many research studies. The aim of this paper is to give an insight into those studies and the way they utilize eye imaging in medical applications. These studies were differentiated taking their purpose and experimental paradigms into account. Additionally, methods for eye movement visualization and metrics for its quantifying were presented. Apart from presenting the state of the art, the aim of the paper was also to point out possible applications of eye tracking in medicine that have not been exhaustively investigated yet, and are going to be a perspective long-term direction of research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eye Tracking Research and Technology: Towards Objective Measurement of Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-03-01

    Two methods for objectively measuring eye tracking data quality are explored. The first method works by tricking the eye tracker to detect an abrupt change in the gaze position of an artificial eye that in actuality does not move. Such a device, referred to as an artificial saccade generator, is shown to be extremely useful for measuring the temporal accuracy and precision of eye tracking systems and for validating the latency to display change in gaze contingent display paradigms. The second method involves an artificial pupil that is mounted on a computer controlled moving platform. This device is designed to be able to provide the eye tracker with motion sequences that closely resemble biological eye movements. The main advantage of using artificial motion for testing eye tracking data quality is the fact that the spatiotemporal signal is fully specified in a manner independent of the eye tracker that is being evaluated and that nearly identical motion sequence can be reproduced multiple times with great precision. The results of the present study demonstrate that the equipment described has the potential to become an important tool in the comprehensive evaluation of data quality.

  12. A pilot study of eye-tracking devices in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, Jonah; Casey, Kelly; Cole, Therese Kling; Regensburg, Angela; McElroy, Colleen; Schneider, Eric; Efron, David; Chi, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Eye-tracking devices have been suggested as a means of improving communication and psychosocial status among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study was undertaken to explore the psychosocial impact and communication effects of eye-tracking devices in the ICU. A convenience sample of patients in the medical ICU, surgical ICU, and neurosciences critical care unit were enrolled prospectively. Patients participated in 5 guided sessions of 45 minutes each with the eye-tracking computer. After completion of the sessions, the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) was used to evaluate the device from the patient's perspective. All patients who participated in the study were able to communicate basic needs to nursing staff and family. Delirium as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit was present in 4 patients at recruitment and none after training. The device's overall psychosocial impact ranged from neutral (-0.29) to strongly positive (2.76). Compared with the absence of intervention (0 = no change), patients exposed to eye-tracking computers demonstrated a positive mean overall impact score (PIADS = 1.30; P = .004). This finding was present in mean scores for each PIADS domain: competence = 1.26, adaptability = 1.60, and self-esteem = 1.02 (all P eye-tracking devices. These 3 outcomes are intertwined with ICU patient outcomes and indirectly suggest that eye-tracking devices might improve outcomes. A more in-depth exploration of the population to be targeted, the device's limitations, and the benefits of eye-tracking devices in the ICU is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Keeping an eye on pain: investigating visual attention biases in individuals with chronic pain using eye-tracking methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Attentional biases to painful stimuli are evident in individuals with chronic pain, although the directional tendency of these biases (ie, toward or away from threat-related stimuli) remains unclear. This study used eye-tracking technology, a measure of visual attention, to evaluate the attentional patterns of individuals with and without chronic pain during exposure to injury-related and neutral pictures. Individuals with (N=51) and without chronic pain (N=62) completed a dot-probe task using injury-related and neutral pictures while their eye movements were recorded. Mixed-design analysis of variance evaluated the interaction between group (chronic pain, pain-free) and picture type (injury-related, neutral). Reaction time results showed that regardless of chronic pain status, participants responded faster to trials with neutral stimuli in comparison to trials that included injury-related pictures. Eye-tracking measures showed within-group differences whereby injury-related pictures received more frequent fixations and visits, as well as longer average visit durations. Between-group differences showed that individuals with chronic pain had fewer fixations and shorter average visit durations for all stimuli. An examination of how biases change over the time-course of stimulus presentation showed that during the late phase of attention, individuals with chronic pain had longer average gaze durations on injury pictures relative to pain-free individuals. The results show the advantage of incorporating eye-tracking methodology when examining attentional biases, and suggest future avenues of research.

  14. Quick-Eye: Examination of Human Performance Characteristics Using Eye Tracking and Manual-Based Control Systems for Monitoring Multiple Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    integration effort to combine eye - tracking technology into a multiple display information system, validation of the resulting system, and results of...studies conducted to determine the performance impact to response time, accuracy, and user workload by using eye - tracking input instead of manual controls to switch control among multiple displays.

  15. Eye-hand synergy and intermittent behaviors during target-directed tracking with visual and non-visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2012-01-01

    Visual feedback and non-visual information play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visual information in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visual information is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visual information adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking.

  16. Eye-Hand Synergy and Intermittent Behaviors during Target-Directed Tracking with Visual and Non-visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2012-01-01

    Visual feedback and non-visual information play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visual information in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visual information is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visual information adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking. PMID:23236498

  17. Video-Based Eye Tracking in Sex Research: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Frederike; Briken, Peer; Dekker, Arne

    2015-12-21

    Although eye tracking has been used for decades, it has gained popularity in the area of sex research only recently. The aim of this article is to examine the potential merits of eye tracking for this field. We present a systematic review of the current use of video-based eye-tracking technology in this area, evaluate the findings, and identify future research opportunities. A total of 34 relevant studies published between 2006 and 2014 were identified for inclusion by means of online databases and other methods. We grouped them into three main areas of research: body perception and attractiveness, forensic research, and sexual orientation. Despite the methodological and theoretical differences across the studies, eye tracking has been shown to be a promising tool for sex research. The article suggests there is much potential for further studies to employ this technique because it is noninvasive and yet still allows for the assessment of both conscious and unconscious perceptional processes. Furthermore, eye tracking can be implemented in investigations of various theoretical backgrounds, ranging from biology to the social sciences.

  18. Eye tracking research to answer questions about augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Mitchell, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual's gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. Based on the sampling of the orientation of the individual's eyes, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking research technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods, and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures.

  19. Assessing for Unilateral Spatial Neglect Using Eye-Tracking Glasses: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortman, Brenton; Nicholls, Kate

    2016-08-05

    The aim of this feasibility study was to identify whether eye-tracking glasses could sensitively differentiate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) among a sample of participants who had a stroke, and to determine whether a larger study was viable. A sample of 13 inpatients (N = 7 with neglect, N = 6 without neglect) aged 50-78 years undertook a task while wearing Tobii eye-tracking glasses. The kitchen environment and the task of making a cup of coffee were standardized. Two commonly reported tests for USN, the Bells Test and the Line Crossing Test, were also used as a reference standard for the eye-tracking data. Participants with USN spent significantly more time searching on the right-hand side (p = .006) for items during the task than those without neglect. There was a moderate correlation between eye-tracking data and the Bells Test (r = .622, p = .04). Overall, this study supported the feasibility of using a real-life task with eye-tracking to detect neglect.

  20. Minimization of influence by the drooping eyelid in extracting pupil center tor eye tracking systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng Wei; Dongsheng Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Boxiang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Precise pupil center detection is an important factor for gaze tracking in video-oculography(VOG)systems.Existing methods per-form well to extract the features when the area of pupil in eye image is clear,whereas,interferences,such as eyelashes,corneal reflection etc.,will lead to a low SUCCESS rate.One main reason is the closure of eyelids.In this paper,a systemic 3D transformation algorithm is proposed to accurately ascertain the pupil center,in spite of the complicating factors mentioned above.Experiments show the good per-formance of our method.And the pupil center could be extracted accurately,even though only 25%of the pupil is visible.

  1. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  2. Accessibility of Referent Information Influences Sentence Planning: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Chen, Yiya

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The accessibility of the agent (Experiment 1) and patient (Experiment 2) was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where the agent or patient was mentioned explicitly (fly, frog). In the Associative condition, the agent or patient was not mentioned but was primed by the story (via semantically or associatively related words such as insect, small, black, wings). In the No Mention condition, the stories did not explicitly mention or prime either character. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (SVO sentences: The frog catches the fly). The results showed that participants generally looked first at the agent, before speech onset, regardless of condition, and then at the patient around and after speech onset. Analyses of eye movements in time window associated with linguistic planning showed that formulation was sensitive mainly to whether the agent was literally mentioned in the context or not and to lesser extent to conceptual accessibility (Experiment 1). Furthermore, accessibility of the patient (be it literal mention of its name or only availability of the concept) showed no effect on the time-course of utterance planning (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that linguistic planning before speech onset was influenced only by the accessibility of the first character name in the sentence, providing further evidence for highly incremental planning in sentence production. PMID:28293201

  3. Accessibility of Referent Information Influences Sentence Planning: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Konopka, Agnieszka E; Chen, Yiya

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The accessibility of the agent (Experiment 1) and patient (Experiment 2) was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where the agent or patient was mentioned explicitly (fly, frog). In the Associative condition, the agent or patient was not mentioned but was primed by the story (via semantically or associatively related words such as insect, small, black, wings). In the No Mention condition, the stories did not explicitly mention or prime either character. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (SVO sentences: The frog catches the fly). The results showed that participants generally looked first at the agent, before speech onset, regardless of condition, and then at the patient around and after speech onset. Analyses of eye movements in time window associated with linguistic planning showed that formulation was sensitive mainly to whether the agent was literally mentioned in the context or not and to lesser extent to conceptual accessibility (Experiment 1). Furthermore, accessibility of the patient (be it literal mention of its name or only availability of the concept) showed no effect on the time-course of utterance planning (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that linguistic planning before speech onset was influenced only by the accessibility of the first character name in the sentence, providing further evidence for highly incremental planning in sentence production.

  4. Remote Control of an Autonomous Robotic Platform Based on Eye Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASARICA, A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking devices are currently used for improving communication and psychosocial status among patients with neuro-motor disabilities. This paper presents the experimental implementation of a control system for a robotic platform using eye tracking technology. The main system is based on an eye tracking subsystem that uses the circular Hough transform algorithm. A central processing unit performs the data transmission between the user and the robotic platform. Experimental tests were conducted to determine the device's performances and usability for patients with neuro-motor disabilities. Moreover, the test results were used to determine the control system learning curve. We created a data base containing information on the robotic platform processing time and precision of movement for improving the platform's performances.

  5. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Andrew Quested,1 Simon Cooper21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Berwick, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events.Keywords: eye-tracking, paramedic, situational awareness, medical error, pre hospital

  6. Child attention to pain and pain tolerance are dependent upon anxiety and attention control: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, L C; Lau, J Y F; Mueller, S C; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Bosmans, M; Vervoort, T

    2017-02-01

    Pain is common and can be debilitating in childhood. Theoretical models propose that attention to pain plays a key role in pain outcomes, however, very little research has investigated this in youth. This study examined how anxiety-related variables and attention control interacted to predict children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking methodology, and their pain tolerance on the cold pressor test (CPT). Children aged 8-17 years had their eye-gaze tracked whilst they viewed photographs of other children displaying painful facial expressions during the CPT, before completing the CPT themselves. Children also completed self-report measures of anxiety and attention control. Findings indicated that anxiety and attention control did not impact children's initial fixations on pain or neutral faces, but did impact how long they dwelled on pain versus neutral faces. For children reporting low levels of attention control, higher anxiety was associated with less dwell time on pain faces as opposed to neutral faces, and the opposite pattern was observed for children with high attention control. Anxiety and attention control also interacted to predict pain outcomes. For children with low attention control, increasing anxiety was associated with anticipating more pain and tolerating pain for less time. This is the first study to examine children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking technology in the context of a salient painful experience. Data suggest that attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on multiple outcomes relevant to young people's pain experiences. This study uses eye tracking to study attention to pain cues in children. Attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on attention bias to pain and tolerance of cold pressor pain in youth. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. Improvement of design of a surgical interface using an eye tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Barkana, Duygun; Açık, Alper; Duru, Dilek Goksel; Duru, Adil Deniz

    2014-05-07

    Surgical interfaces are used for helping surgeons in interpretation and quantification of the patient information, and for the presentation of an integrated workflow where all available data are combined to enable optimal treatments. Human factors research provides a systematic approach to design user interfaces with safety, accuracy, satisfaction and comfort. One of the human factors research called user-centered design approach is used to develop a surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation. An eye tracking device is used to obtain the best configuration of the developed surgical interface. Surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation has been developed considering the four phases of user-centered design approach, which are analysis, design, implementation and deployment. Possible configurations of the surgical interface, which comprise various combinations of menu-based command controls, visual display of multi-modal medical images, 2D and 3D models of the surgical environment, graphical or tabulated information, visual alerts, etc., has been developed. Experiments of a simulated cryoablation of a tumor task have been performed with surgeons to evaluate the proposed surgical interface. Fixation durations and number of fixations at informative regions of the surgical interface have been analyzed, and these data are used to modify the surgical interface. Eye movement data has shown that participants concentrated their attention on informative regions more when the number of displayed Computer Tomography (CT) images has been reduced. Additionally, the time required to complete the kidney tumor cryoablation task by the participants had been decreased with the reduced number of CT images. Furthermore, the fixation durations obtained after the revision of the surgical interface are very close to what is observed in visual search and natural scene perception studies suggesting more efficient and comfortable interaction with the surgical interface. The

  8. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengli; Luo, Jun; Wu, Peng; Xie, Shaorong; Li, Hengyu

    2015-01-01

    A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  9. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Riboldi, Marco; Ciocca, Mario; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2015-05-01

    External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring during ocular radiotherapy treatments. The

  10. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Via, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.via@polimi.it; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Ciocca, Mario [CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy and CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100, Italy and European Institute of Oncology, Milano 20141 (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Methods: Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Results: Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. Conclusions: A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring

  11. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs, as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively. In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control, and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  12. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  13. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Rezeika, Aya; Volosyak, Ivan

    2017-04-05

    Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs), as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system) with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs) were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively). In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control), and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  14. Designing Visual Decision Making Support with the Help of Eye-tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Gulden, Jens; Burattin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Data visualizations are helpful tools to cognitively access large amounts of data and make complex relationships in data understandable. This paper shows how results from neuro-physiological measurements, more specifically eye-tracking, can support justified design decisions about improving...... of representative analytical questions from the domain of process model behavior analysis. We present initial findings on one out of three visualization types we have examined, which is the Rhythm-Eye visualization...

  15. EVALUATION OF COLOR SETTINGS IN AERIAL IMAGES WITH THE USE OF EYE-TRACKING USER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mirijovsky

    2016-06-01

    Respondents’ answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the grid and the sequences of gaze movements were analyzed. Sequence chart was used for visualization and eye-tracking metrics were statistically tested. The presented paper shows the differences in the perception and preferences of aerial images with different color settings.

  16. THE USE OF EYE TRACKING TO ASSESS THE USABILITY OF UNIVERSITY WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terézia Kvasnicová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Websites, nowadays, are used not only as a sales method and information tool, but also as a communication tool. Almost every company has a website. Universities and colleges understand their strength, too. In this article, we describe theory of usability of university website and one of the usability testing methods—eye tracking. We use eye tracking to assess the usability of University of Žilina website. We present and use different analysis: Scan Path and Focus map. We identify many usability problems whose removal will help to create new pages and, thus, increasing their effectiveness.

  17. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Quested, Andrew; Cooper, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one’s surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events. PMID:27147870

  18. Exploring responses to art in adolescence: a behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception.

  19. Exploring responses to art in adolescence: a behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Savazzi

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception.

  20. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC) operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs) interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance. PMID:27725830

  1. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziho Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1 participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2 visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1 developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2 introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3 finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance.

  2. Assessing Levels of Attention Using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of mobile eye trackers embedded in next generation smartphones or VR displays will make it possible to trace not only what objects we look at but also the level of attention in a given situation. Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, w...... perspective of individual behavioural adaptation, the correlations between the pupil size and the task dependent reaction time and error rates may longer term provide a foundation for modifying smartphone content and interaction to the users perceived level of attention.......The emergence of mobile eye trackers embedded in next generation smartphones or VR displays will make it possible to trace not only what objects we look at but also the level of attention in a given situation. Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, we...

  3. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  4. Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Pinto, Frank M [ORNL; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

  5. The social distraction of facial paralysis: Objective measurement of social attention using eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa; Dey, Jacob; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick J; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-02-01

    To measure the attentional distraction to the facial paralysis deformity using eye-tracking, and to distinguish between attention paid to the upper and lower facial divisions in patients with complete paralysis. We hypothesized that features affected by the paralysis deformity would distract the casual observer, leading to an altered pattern of facial attention as compared to normals. Randomized controlled experiment. Sixty casual observers viewed images of paralyzed faces (House-Brackmann [HB] IV-VI) and normal faces smiling and in repose. The SMI iView X RED (SensoMotoric, Inc., Boston, MA) eye-gaze tracker recorded eye movements of observers gazing on the faces. Fixation durations for predefined areas of interest were analyzed using three separate multivariate analyses. Casual observers gazing on both paralyzed and normal faces directed the majority of their attention to the central triangle (CT) region. Significant differences occurred in the distribution of attention among individual features in the CT and to individual sides of the face. Observers directed more attention to the mouth of paralyzed faces, smiling (analysis of variance [ANOVA] > F 0.0001) and in repose (ANOVA > F 0.0000). Attention was asymmetrically distributed between the two halves of paralyzed faces (paralyzed smiling minus normal smiling P > |z| 0.000). Casual observers directed attention in a measurably different way when gazing on paralyzed faces as compared to normal faces, a finding exacerbated with smiling. These findings help explain society's perceptions of attractiveness and affect display that differ for paralyzed and normal faces and can be used to direct our reconstructive efforts. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Computer vision enhances mobile eye-tracking to expose expert cognition in natural-scene visual-search tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Tommy P.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Tarduno, John A.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2014-02-01

    Mobile eye-tracking provides the fairly unique opportunity to record and elucidate cognition in action. In our research, we are searching for patterns in, and distinctions between, the visual-search performance of experts and novices in the geo-sciences. Traveling to regions resultant from various geological processes as part of an introductory field studies course in geology, we record the prima facie gaze patterns of experts and novices when they are asked to determine the modes of geological activity that have formed the scene-view presented to them. Recording eye video and scene video in natural settings generates complex imagery that requires advanced applications of computer vision research to generate registrations and mappings between the views of separate observers. By developing such mappings, we could then place many observers into a single mathematical space where we can spatio-temporally analyze inter- and intra-subject fixations, saccades, and head motions. While working towards perfecting these mappings, we developed an updated experiment setup that allowed us to statistically analyze intra-subject eye-movement events without the need for a common domain. Through such analyses we are finding statistical differences between novices and experts in these visual-search tasks. In the course of this research we have developed a unified, open-source, software framework for processing, visualization, and interaction of mobile eye-tracking and high-resolution panoramic imagery.

  7. Eye Tracking: A Novel Approach for Evaluating and Improving the Safety of Healthcare Processes in the Simulated Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Marquard, Jenna L; Fisher, Donald L; Gawlinski, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Eye tracking, used to evaluate a clinician's eye movements, is an example of an existing technology being used in novel ways by patient safety researchers in the simulated setting. The use of eye-tracking technology has the potential to augment current teaching, evaluation, and research methods in simulated settings by using this quantitative, objective data to better understand why an individual performed as he or she did on a simulated or naturalistic task. Selected literature was reviewed with the purpose of explicating how eye tracking can be used by researchers and educators to evaluate error-prone processes. The literature reviewed was obtained by querying the databases PubMed, CINHAL, and Google Scholar using the key words eye tracking, patient safety, and medical errors from 2005 through 2015.An introduction to the use of eye tracking, including both theoretical underpinnings and technological considerations, is presented. In addition, examples of how eye tracking has been used in research studies conducted in both simulated and naturalistic settings are provided. The use of eye-tracking technology to capture the eye movements of novice and expert clinicians has provided new insight into behaviors associated with the identification of medical errors. The study of novices' and experts' eye movements provides data about clinician performance not possible with existing evaluation methods such as direct observation, verbal reports, and thinking out loud. The use of eye tracking to capture the behaviors of experts can lead to the development of training protocols to guide the education of students and novice practitioners. Eye-tracking technology clearly has the potential to transform the way clinical simulation is used to improve patient safety practices.

  8. Mobile Eye Tracking Methodology in Informal E-Learning in Social Groups in Technology-Enhanced Science Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita; Larsen, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health…

  9. How are learning strategies reflected in the eyes? Combining results from self-reports and eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2017-08-29

    Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures. This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Twenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards. Eye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models. The results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies. This study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alex A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior. PMID:28293433

  11. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior.

  12. Basic Number Processing Deficits in Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, K.; Neuburger, S.; Kaufmann, L.; Landerl, K.; Nuerk, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that developmental dyscalculia is associated with a subitizing deficit (i.e., the inability to quickly enumerate small sets of up to 3 objects). However, the nature of this deficit has not previously been investigated. In the present study the eye-tracking methodology was employed to clarify whether (a) the subitizing…

  13. Data from Eye-Tracking Corpora as Evidence for Theories of Syntactic Processing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberg, Vera; Keller, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the predictions of two theories of syntactic processing complexity, dependency locality theory (DLT) and surprisal, against the Dundee Corpus, which contains the eye-tracking record of 10 participants reading 51,000 words of newspaper text. Our results show that DLT integration cost is not a significant predictor of reading times for…

  14. Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., "carrot-parrot") and cohort (e.g., "beaker-beetle") competitors. Broca's aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A re-analysis of previously reported data (Yee,…

  15. Morphosyntactic Development in a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study on the Role of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Bernard Ibrahim, II

    2015-01-01

    One common claim in second language (L2) acquisition research is that attention is crucial for development to occur. Although previous empirical research supports this claim, methodological approaches have not been able to directly measure attention. This thesis utilized eye-tracking to directly measure attention and thus provide converging…

  16. Unique Contributions of Eye-Tracking Research to the Study of Learning with Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and practical contributions of the six studies in this special issue on eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. The design of learning environments involving graphics should be consistent with a research-based theory of how people learn and evidence-based…

  17. Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Responses of Learners to Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of morphological instruction in an eye-tracking English vocabulary recognition task. Sixty-eight freshmen enrolled in an English course and received either traditional or morphological instruction for learning English vocabulary. The experimental part of the study was conducted over two-hour class periods for…

  18. Towards a Classification of Translation Styles based on Eye-tracking and Keylogging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to formulate translator profiles based on process data from keylogging and eye-tracking, while at the same time identifying features which are shared by all translators in a sample consisting of both students and professionals. Data have been collected from 12 professional...

  19. Reading in Spanish as a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth; Nicol, Janet; Brooks, Zachary; Zavaleta, Kaitlyn Leigh

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we examine sentence reading in low-proficiency Spanish learners using an eye-tracking methodology. This method reveals the real-time, uninterrupted process of reading comprehension, and can therefore shed light on L2 learners' functional proficiency. We created sentence pairs that were identical except for one word. The…

  20. Seeing what teachers see: Exploring the use of eye tracking in teacher expertise studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Charlotte; Van 'T Zelfde, Hans; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Wolff, C., Van ’T Zelfde, H., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, August). Seeing what teachers see: Exploring the use of eye tracking in teacher expertise studies. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG Learning and Professional Development, Antwerp, Belgium.

  1. Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

  2. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of attention and…

  3. Automated measurement of resolution acuity in infants using remote eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pete R; Kalwarowsky, Sarah; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver J; Nardini, Marko

    2014-10-28

    To validate a novel, automated test of infant resolution acuity based on remote eye-tracking. Infants aged 2 to 12 months were tested binocularly using a new adaptive computerized test of infant vision using eye tracking (ACTIVE), and Keeler infant acuity cards (KIAC). The ACTIVE test ran automatically, using remote eye-tracking to assess whether the infant fixated a black-and-white grating of variable spatial frequency. Test-retest reliability was assessed by performing each test twice. Accuracy was assessed by comparing acuity measures across tests and with established age-norms, and by comparing low-contrast acuity estimates in adults with data reported previously. All infants completed the ACTIVE test at least once. Median test duration was 101 seconds. Measured visual acuity increased with age (P 0.183). An adaptive computerized test of infant vision using eye-tracking provides a rapid, automated measure of resolution acuity in preverbal infants. The ACTIVE performed comparably to the current clinical gold standard (acuity cards) in terms of testability, reliability, and accuracy, and its principles can be extended to measure other visual functions. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Eye-Tracking Analysis of the Figures of Anti-Smoking Health Promoting Periodical's Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maródi, Ágnes; Devosa, Iván; Steklács, János; Fáyné-Dombi, Alice; Buzas, Zsuzsanna; Vanya, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays new education technologies and e-communication devices give new measuring and assessing tools for researchers. Eye-tracking is one of these new methods in education. In our study we assessed 4 figures from the anti-smoking heath issues of National Institute for Health Development. In the study 22 students were included from a 7th grade…

  5. An Eye Tracking Investigation of Attentional Biases towards Affect in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jessica L.; Barry-Anwar, Ryan A.; Rivera, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral,…

  6. Prospects and Pitfalls in Combining Eye-Tracking Data and Verbal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Laura

    2017-01-01

    It is intuitively appealing to try to combine eye-tracking data and verbal reports when investigating medical image interpretation. However, before collecting such data, important decisions must be made, including exactly when and how to collect the verbal reports. The purpose of this methodological article is to reflect on the pros and cons of…

  7. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van’t Noordende, Jaccoline E.; van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Schot, Willemijn D.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  8. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369862422; van Hoogmoed, Anne H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839496; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241607949

    INTRODUCTION: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  9. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E; van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number lin

  10. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van’t Noordende, Jaccoline E.; van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Schot, Willemijn D.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number lin

  11. Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control training; An eye-tracking approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., De Bock, J. J. P. R., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed Learning Skills in Air-traffic Control Training; An Eye-tracking Approach. Paper presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology, Budapest.

  12. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  13. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  14. Eye-tracking with nonhuman primates is now more accessible than ever before

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates rely almost exclusively on vision for social communication. Therefore, tracking eye-movements and examining visual scan paths can provide a wealth of information about many aspects of primate social information processing. While eye-tracking techniques have been utilized with humans for some time, similar studies in nonhuman primates have been less frequent over recent decades. This has largely been due to the need for invasive manipulations, such as the surgical implantation of devices to limit head movement, which may not be possible in some laboratories or at some universities, or may not be congruent with some experimental aims (i.e., longitudinal studies). It is important for all nonhuman primate researchers interested in visual information processing or operant behavior to realize that such invasive procedures are no longer necessary. Here we briefly describe new methods for fully noninvasive video eye-tracking with adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We also describe training protocols that require only ~30 days to accomplish and quality control measures that promote reliable data collection. It is our hope that this brief overview will reacquaint nonhuman primate researchers with the benefits of eye-tracking and promote expanded use of this powerful methodology. PMID:21319204

  15. Unique Contributions of Eye-Tracking Research to the Study of Learning with Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and practical contributions of the six studies in this special issue on eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. The design of learning environments involving graphics should be consistent with a research-based theory of how people learn and evidence-based…

  16. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

  17. Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Responses of Learners to Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of morphological instruction in an eye-tracking English vocabulary recognition task. Sixty-eight freshmen enrolled in an English course and received either traditional or morphological instruction for learning English vocabulary. The experimental part of the study was conducted over two-hour class periods for…

  18. Hidden Communicative Competence: Case Study Evidence Using Eye-Tracking and Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy…

  19. Concepts of Interface Usability and the Enhancement of Design through Eye Tracking and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    interface evaluation using eye movements: methods and constructs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 24, 631-645. Goldberg, J., Kotval...combined measure based on physiological indices during a dual task of tracking and mental arithmetic. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 35

  20. Seeing what teachers see: Exploring the use of eye tracking in teacher expertise studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Charlotte; Van 'T Zelfde, Hans; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Wolff, C., Van ’T Zelfde, H., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, August). Seeing what teachers see: Exploring the use of eye tracking in teacher expertise studies. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG Learning and Professional Development, Antwerp, Belgium.

  1. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  2. Eye-Tracking as a Tool in Process-Oriented Reading Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Oddny Judith; Uppstad, Per Henning

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations…

  3. Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

  4. Track reconstruction for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyukin, Alexey [JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the future MESA accelerator in Mainz will measure elastically scattered electrons from a hydrogen or lead target in order to determine the parity violating asymmetry for different beam polarisations, which is created due to the weak charge of the target. The asymmetry can provide access to the Weinberg angle and the neutron skin of heavy nuclei. These quantities depend heavily on the momentum transfer Q{sup 2}, thus a reconstruction of single electron tracks in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is necessary. For this, the P2 detector will have four tracking planes of thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). The scattered electrons propagate through a magnetic field and hit all four planes. In order to fit the hit positions the General Broken Lines method is used. As a fast propagator, a variation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied, which solves the equation of motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field numerically, such that the final state momentum and scattering angle can be reconstructed. The initial momentum and incident angle can vary strongly due to the thickness of the target, limiting the reconstruction quality. The average single track Q{sup 2} value of 0.006 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} can be reconstructed with about 4 % uncertainty in a first analysis of the Geant4 simulation, leading to a high total precision due to large electron numbers in the experiment.

  5. Two dimensional eye tracking: Sampling rate of forcing function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, J. P.; Monk, D. L.; Porterfield, J. L.; Mcmurry, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the minimum update rate of a forcing function display required for the operator to approximate the tracking performance obtained on a continuous display. In this study, frequency analysis was used to determine whether there was an associated change in the transfer function characteristics of the operator. It was expected that as the forcing function display update rate was reduced, from 120 to 15 samples per second, the operator's response to the high frequency components of the forcing function would show a decrease in gain, an increase in phase lag, and a decrease in coherence.

  6. Online Learners' Reading Ability Detection Based on Eye-Tracking Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zehui; Zhang, Lei; Mei, Hu; Fong, Patrick S W

    2016-09-10

    The detection of university online learners' reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners' pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint. The model presents good generalization ability with an error of only 4.9% when randomly running 100 times. It has obvious advantages in saving time and improving precision, with only 20 min of testing required for prediction of an individual learner's reading ability.

  7. Online Learners’ Reading Ability Detection Based on Eye-Tracking Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zehui; Zhang, Lei; Mei, Hu; Fong, Patrick S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of university online learners’ reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners’ pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint. The model presents good generalization ability with an error of only 4.9% when randomly running 100 times. It has obvious advantages in saving time and improving precision, with only 20 min of testing required for prediction of an individual learner’s reading ability. PMID:27626418

  8. Gazepath: An eye-tracking analysis tool that accounts for individual differences and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renswoude, Daan R; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Koornneef, Arnout; Johnson, Scott P; Hunnius, Sabine; Visser, Ingmar

    2017-06-07

    Eye-trackers are a popular tool for studying cognitive, emotional, and attentional processes in different populations (e.g., clinical and typically developing) and participants of all ages, ranging from infants to the elderly. This broad range of processes and populations implies that there are many inter- and intra-individual differences that need to be taken into account when analyzing eye-tracking data. Standard parsing algorithms supplied by the eye-tracker manufacturers are typically optimized for adults and do not account for these individual differences. This paper presents gazepath, an easy-to-use R-package that comes with a graphical user interface (GUI) implemented in Shiny (RStudio Inc 2015). The gazepath R-package combines solutions from the adult and infant literature to provide an eye-tracking parsing method that accounts for individual differences and differences in data quality. We illustrate the usefulness of gazepath with three examples of different data sets. The first example shows how gazepath performs on free-viewing data of infants and adults, compared to standard EyeLink parsing. We show that gazepath controls for spurious correlations between fixation durations and data quality in infant data. The second example shows that gazepath performs well in high-quality reading data of adults. The third and last example shows that gazepath can also be used on noisy infant data collected with a Tobii eye-tracker and low (60 Hz) sampling rate.

  9. Eye-tracking-based assessment of cognitive function in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Matchado, Andrew; Kortekangas, Emma; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-04-01

    Early development of neurocognitive functions in infants can be compromised by poverty, malnutrition and lack of adequate stimulation. Optimal management of neurodevelopmental problems in infants requires assessment tools that can be used early in life, and are objective and applicable across economic, cultural and educational settings. The present study examined the feasibility of infrared eye tracking as a novel and highly automated technique for assessing visual-orienting and sequence-learning abilities as well as attention to facial expressions in young (9-month-old) infants. Techniques piloted in a high-resource laboratory setting in Finland (N=39) were subsequently field-tested in a community health centre in rural Malawi (N=40). Parents' perception of the acceptability of the method (Finland 95%, Malawi 92%) and percentages of infants completing the whole eye-tracking test (Finland 95%, Malawi 90%) were high, and percentages of valid test trials (Finland 69-85%, Malawi 68-73%) satisfactory at both sites. Test completion rates were slightly higher for eye tracking (90%) than traditional observational tests (87%) in Malawi. The predicted response pattern indicative of specific cognitive function was replicated in Malawi, but Malawian infants exhibited lower response rates and slower processing speed across tasks. High test completion rates and the replication of the predicted test patterns in a novel environment in Malawi support the feasibility of eye tracking as a technique for assessing infant development in low-resource setting. Further research is needed to the test-retest stability and predictive validity of the eye-tracking scores in low-income settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Frequency analysis of gaze points with CT colonography interpretation using eye gaze tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Shoko; Tamashiro, Wataru; Sato, Mitsuru; Okajima, Mika; Ogura, Toshihiro; Doi, Kunio

    2017-03-01

    It is important to investigate eye tracking gaze points of experts, in order to assist trainees in understanding of image interpretation process. We investigated gaze points of CT colonography (CTC) interpretation process, and analyzed the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees. In this study, we attempted to understand how trainees can be improved to a level achieved by experts in viewing of CTC. We used an eye gaze point sensing system, Gazefineder (JVCKENWOOD Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), which can detect pupil point and corneal reflection point by the dark pupil eye tracking. This system can provide gaze points images and excel file data. The subjects are radiological technologists who are experienced, and inexperienced in reading CTC. We performed observer studies in reading virtual pathology images and examined observer's image interpretation process using gaze points data. Furthermore, we examined eye tracking frequency analysis by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We were able to understand the difference in gaze points between experts and trainees by use of the frequency analysis. The result of the trainee had a large amount of both high-frequency components and low-frequency components. In contrast, both components by the expert were relatively low. Regarding the amount of eye movement in every 0.02 second we found that the expert tended to interpret images slowly and calmly. On the other hand, the trainee was moving eyes quickly and also looking for wide areas. We can assess the difference in the gaze points on CTC between experts and trainees by use of the eye gaze point sensing system and based on the frequency analysis. The potential improvements in CTC interpretation for trainees can be evaluated by using gaze points data.

  11. Does Web Design Matter? Examining Older Adults’ Attention to Cognitive and Affective Illustrations on Cancer-Related Websites through Eye Tracking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N; Bergstrom, J.C.R.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, Eugène; Strohl, J.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how adults pay attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on a cancer-related webpage and explores age-related differences in the attention to these cognitive and affective webpages. Results of an eye-tracking experiment (n = 20) showed that adults spent more time attendi

  12. Does web design matter? Examining older adults’ attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on cancer-related websites through eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, E.F.; Strohl, J.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Stephanidis, C.; Antona, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how adults pay attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on a cancer-related webpage and explores age-related differences in the attention to these cognitive and affective webpages. Results of an eye-tracking experiment (n = 20) showed that adults spent more time attendi

  13. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., "John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…"), or nominal control (e.g., "John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…"). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  14. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  15. Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-11-01

    In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning.

  16. Bilingual Language Processing and Interference in Bilinguals: Evidence from Eye Tracking and Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2007-01-01

    Recognition and interference of a nontarget language (Russian) during production in a target language (English) were tested in Russian-English bilinguals using eye movements and picture naming. In Experiment 1, Russian words drew more eye movements and delayed English naming to a greater extent than control nonwords and English translation…

  17. 桌面式眼动跟踪系统研究%Eye Tracking Technology Research Based on Desktop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董大洼; 董兰芳; 余家奎; 王建富

    2014-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has witnessed a tremendous growth in the past decade, as a new means of HCI, eye tracking technology has been more and more popular, some company have already released eye tracking system, but most of them are expensive, invasive and not user-friendly. This paper implements a simple eye tracking system based on the desktop, its hardware structure is simple, and no direct contact with people, uses the iris center coordinates to estimate the user's gaze. The experiments show that when the distance error is less than 40 pixels, the method used to calculate the human eye gaze has an accuracy of more than 80%.%眼动跟踪技术作为一种新的人机交互方式,已受到越来越多人的关注,现有的眼动跟踪系统大都是头戴式的,它的硬件设备复杂,对人干扰较大,而且价格昂贵。文章实现了一个简单的基于桌面的眼动跟踪系统,本系统硬件构成简单,而且不与人直接接触,使用虹膜中心坐标来估计用户的注视点。实验表明,当误差距离不超过40个像素时,系统估计的人眼注视点准确率超过80%。

  18. Eye-tracking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A longitudinal study of saccadic and cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Menke, Ricarda A L; Sharma, Rakesh; Berna, Claire M; Hicks, Stephen L; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A relative preservation of eye movements is notable in ALS, but saccadic functions have not been studied longitudinally. ALS overlaps with FTD, typically involving executive dysfunction, and eye-tracking offers additional potential for the assessment of extramotor pathology where writing and speaking are both impaired. Eye-tracking measures (including anti-saccade, trail-making and visual search tasks) were assessed at six-monthly intervals for up to two years in a group of ALS (n = 61) and primary lateral sclerosis (n = 7) patients, compared to healthy age-matched controls (n = 39) assessed on a single occasion. Task performance was explored speculatively in relation to resting-state functional MRI (R-FMRI) network connectivity. Results showed that ALS patients were impaired on executive and visual search tasks despite normal basic saccadic function, and impairments in the PLS patients were unexpectedly often more severe. No significant progression was detected longitudinally in either group. No changes in R-FMRI network connectivity were identified in relation to patient performance. In conclusion, eye-tracking offers an objective means to assess extramotor cerebral involvement in ALS. The relative resistance of pure oculomotor function is confirmed, and higher-level executive impairments do not follow the same rate of decline as physical disability. PLS patients may have more cortical dysfunction than has been previously appreciated.

  19. Objective method for evaluating orthodontic treatment from the lay perspective: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Bin; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Le; Liu, Runzhong; Long, Xiaojing; Wang, Weicai; Gao, Dingguo; Bao, Baicheng

    2016-10-01

    Currently, few methods are available to measure orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective. The objective of this study was to explore the function of an eye-tracking method to evaluate orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective as a novel and objective way when compared with traditional assessments. The scanpaths of 88 laypersons observing the repose and smiling photographs of normal subjects and pretreatment and posttreatment malocclusion patients were recorded by an eye-tracking device. The total fixation time and the first fixation time on the areas of interest (eyes, nose, and mouth) for each group of faces were compared and analyzed using mixed-effects linear regression and a support vector machine. The aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need was used to categorize treatment need and outcome levels to determine the accuracy of the support vector machine in identifying these variables. Significant deviations in the scanpaths of laypersons viewing pretreatment smiling faces were noted, with less fixation time (P eye-tracking device was able to objectively quantify the effect of malocclusion on facial perception and the impact of orthodontic treatment on malocclusion from the lay perspective. The support vector machine for classification of selected features achieved high accuracy of judging treatment need and treatment outcome. This approach may represent a new method for objectively evaluating orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the perspective of laypersons. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Ju

    2016-12-27

    This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB) and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F₁ score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms.

  1. Smooth pursuit detection in binocular eye-tracking data with automatic video-based performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Linnéa; Nyström, Marcus; Ardö, Håkan; Åström, Kalle; Stridh, Martin

    2016-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers record binocular eye-tracking signals from participants viewing moving stimuli, but the majority of event-detection algorithms are monocular and do not consider smooth pursuit movements. The purposes of the present study are to develop an algorithm that discriminates between fixations and smooth pursuit movements in binocular eye-tracking signals and to evaluate its performance using an automated video-based strategy. The proposed algorithm uses a clustering approach that takes both spatial and temporal aspects of the binocular eye-tracking signal into account, and is evaluated using a novel video-based evaluation strategy based on automatically detected moving objects in the video stimuli. The binocular algorithm detects 98% of fixations in image stimuli compared to 95% when only one eye is used, while for video stimuli, both the binocular and monocular algorithms detect around 40% of smooth pursuit movements. The present article shows that using binocular information for discrimination of fixations and smooth pursuit movements is advantageous in static stimuli, without impairing the algorithm's ability to detect smooth pursuit movements in video and moving-dot stimuli. With an automated evaluation strategy, time-consuming manual annotations are avoided and a larger amount of data can be used in the evaluation process.

  2. Applying the decision moving window to risky choice: Comparison of eye-tracking and mousetracing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Franco-Watkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a disparity exists between the process-level models decision researchers use to describe and predict decision behavior and the methods implemented and metrics collected to test these models. The current work seeks to remedy this disparity by combining the advantages of work in decision research (mouse-tracing paradigms with contingent information display and cognitive psychology (eye-tracking paradigms from reading and scene perception. In particular, we introduce a new decision moving-window paradigm that presents stimulus information contingent on eye fixations. We provide data from the first application of this method to risky decision making, and show how it compares to basic eye-tracking and mouse-tracing methods. We also enumerate the practical, theoretical, and analytic advantages this method offers above and beyond both mouse-tracing with occlusion and basic eye tracking of information without occlusion. We include the use of new metrics that offer more precision than those typically calculated on mouse-tracing data as well as those not possible or feasible within the mouse-tracing paradigm.

  3. Web Camera Based Eye Tracking to Assess Visual Memory on a Visual Paired Comparison Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Nicholas T; Lange, Alex; Rentz, Dorene; Buffalo, Elizabeth; Clopton, Paul; Zola, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive "window on the brain," and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research. Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC) decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS)] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS). Methods: This was an observational study of 54 clinically normal older adults.Subjects completed three in-clinic visits with simultaneous recording of eye movements on a VPC decision task by a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in laptop-based web camera. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Siegel and Castellan's kappa formula. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the correlation between VPC performance using a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in web camera. Results: Strong associations were observed on VPC mean novelty preference score between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS built-in web camera at each of the three visits (r = 0.88-0.92). Inter-rater agreement of web camera scoring at each time point was high (κ = 0.81-0.88). There were strong relationships on VPC mean novelty preference score between 10, 5, and 3 FPS training sets (r = 0.88-0.94). Significantly fewer data quality issues were encountered using the built-in web camera. Conclusions: Human scoring of a VPC decisional task using a built-in laptop web camera correlated strongly with automated scoring of the same task using a standard high frame rate eye tracker camera.While this method is not suitable for eye tracking paradigms requiring the collection and analysis of fine-grained metrics, such as fixation points, built

  4. Tracking the eye non-invasively: Simultaneous comparison of the scleral search coil and optical tracking techniques in themacaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Kimmel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From human perception to primate neurophysiology, monitoring eye position is critical to the study of vision, attention, oculomotor control, and behavior. Two principal techniques for the precise measurement of eye position—the long-standing sclera-embedded search coil and more recent optical tracking techniques—are in use in various laboratories, but no published study compares the performance of the two methods simultaneously in the same primates. Here we compare two popular systems—a sclera-embedded search coil from C-N-C Engineering and the EyeLink 1000 optical system from SR Research—by recording simultaneously from the same eye in the macaque monkey while the animal performed a simple oculomotor task. We found broad agreement between the two systems, particularly in positional accuracy during fixation, measurement of saccade amplitude, detection of fixational saccades, and sensitivity to subtle changes in eye position from trial to trial. Nonetheless, certain discrepancies persist, particularly elevated saccade peak velocities, post-saccadic ringing, influence of luminance change on reported position, and greater sample-to-sample variation in the optical system. Our study shows that optical performance now rivals that of the search coil, rendering optical systems appropriate for many if not most applications. This finding is consequential, especially for animal subjects, because the optical systems do not require invasive surgery for implantation and repair of search coils around the eye. Our data also allow laboratories using the optical system in human subjects to assess the strengths and limitations of the technique for their own applications.

  5. Eye tracking a self-moved target with complex hand-target dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landelle, Caroline; Montagnini, Anna; Madelain, Laurent; Danion, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the ability to track with the eye a moving target is substantially improved when the target is self-moved by the subject's hand compared with when being externally moved. Here, we explored a situation in which the mapping between hand movement and target motion was perturbed by simulating an elastic relationship between the hand and target. Our objective was to determine whether the predictive mechanisms driving eye-hand coordination could be updated to accommodate this complex hand-target dynamics. To fully appreciate the behavioral effects of this perturbation, we compared eye tracking performance when self-moving a target with a rigid mapping (simple) and a spring mapping as well as when the subject tracked target trajectories that he/she had previously generated when using the rigid or spring mapping. Concerning the rigid mapping, our results confirmed that smooth pursuit was more accurate when the target was self-moved than externally moved. In contrast, with the spring mapping, eye tracking had initially similar low spatial accuracy (though shorter temporal lag) in the self versus externally moved conditions. However, within ∼5 min of practice, smooth pursuit improved in the self-moved spring condition, up to a level similar to the self-moved rigid condition. Subsequently, when the mapping unexpectedly switched from spring to rigid, the eye initially followed the expected target trajectory and not the real one, thereby suggesting that subjects used an internal representation of the new hand-target dynamics. Overall, these results emphasize the stunning adaptability of smooth pursuit when self-maneuvering objects with complex dynamics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Online webcam-based eye tracking in cognitive science: A first look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmelmann, Kilian; Weigelt, Sarah

    2017-06-07

    Online experimentation is emerging in many areas of cognitive psychology as a viable alternative or supplement to classical in-lab experimentation. While performance- and reaction-time-based paradigms are covered in recent studies, one instrument of cognitive psychology has not received much attention up to now: eye tracking. In this study, we used JavaScript-based eye tracking algorithms recently made available by Papoutsaki et al. (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2016) together with consumer-grade webcams to investigate the potential of online eye tracking to benefit from the common advantages of online data conduction. We compared three in-lab conducted tasks (fixation, pursuit, and free viewing) with online-acquired data to analyze the spatial precision in the first two, and replicability of well-known gazing patterns in the third task. Our results indicate that in-lab data exhibit an offset of about 172 px (15% of screen size, 3.94° visual angle) in the fixation task, while online data is slightly less accurate (18% of screen size, 207 px), and shows higher variance. The same results were found for the pursuit task with a constant offset during the stimulus movement (211 px in-lab, 216 px online). In the free-viewing task, we were able to replicate the high attention attribution to eyes (28.25%) compared to other key regions like the nose (9.71%) and mouth (4.00%). Overall, we found web technology-based eye tracking to be suitable for all three tasks and are confident that the required hard- and software will be improved continuously for even more sophisticated experimental paradigms in all of cognitive psychology.

  7. Preserved implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia despite poor explicit performance: evidence from eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Paul; Smith, Pauline; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterized by an impaired mentalizing. It has been suggested that distinguishing implicit from explicit processes is crucial in social cognition, and only the latter might be affected in schizophrenia. Two other questions remain open: (1) Is schizophrenia characterized by an hypo- or hyper attribution of intentions? (2) Is it characterized by a deficit in the attribution of intention or of contingency? To test these three questions, spontaneous mentalizing was tested in 29 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 control subjects using the Frith-Happé animations, while eye movements were recorded. Explicit mentalizing was measured from participants’ verbal descriptions and was contrasted with implicit mentalizing measured through eye tracking. As a group, patients made less accurate and less intentional descriptions of the goal-directed and theory of mind animations. No group differences were found in the attribution of contingency. Eye tracking results revealed that patients and controls showed a similar modulation of eye movements in response to the mental states displayed in the Frith-Happé animations. To conclude, in this paradigm, participants with schizophrenia showed a dissociation between explicit and implicit mentalizing, with a decrease in the explicit attribution of intentions, whereas their eye movements suggested a preserved implicit perception of intentions. PMID:27703225

  8. Electron track reconstruction in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tadel, Matevž; Clark, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Before entering the hardware production phase of a HEP experiment, the detector elements that have been chosen during the planning process need to be thoroughly tested. At the LHC, silicon detectors will operate in a high-rate environment which requires low-noise electronics with a shaping time of $25 s$. A prototype silicon-strip half-module equipped with the analogue read-out chip SCTA128-HC was put in a $200GeV$ pion beam. An analysis of the collected data is presented. The tested module was found to conform to the SCT-modules specification for the ATLAS experiment. Electron reconstruction in the ATLAS detector is compromised by the large amount of material in the tracking volume, which leads to frequent emissions of hard bremsstrahlung photons. This affects the measurement of the transverse projections of track parameters in the inner detector as well as the measurement of energy and azimuthal angle in the EM calorimeter for $p_T<20GeV$. Reconstruction and electron identification efficiencies are...

  9. Contribution of malocclusion and female facial attractiveness to smile esthetics evaluated by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael R; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Walther, Dirk B; Rosenstiel, Stephen; Sacksteder, James M

    2015-04-01

    There is disagreement in the literature concerning the importance of the mouth in overall facial attractiveness. Eye tracking provides an objective method to evaluate what people see. The objective of this study was to determine whether dental and facial attractiveness alters viewers' visual attention in terms of which area of the face (eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, or other) is viewed first, viewed the greatest number of times, and viewed for the greatest total time (duration) using eye tracking. Seventy-six viewers underwent 1 eye tracking session. Of these, 53 were white (49% female, 51% male). Their ages ranged from 18 to 29 years, with a mean of 19.8 years, and none were dental professionals. After being positioned and calibrated, they were shown 24 unique female composite images, each image shown twice for reliability. These images reflected a repaired unilateral cleft lip or 3 grades of dental attractiveness similar to those of grades 1 (near ideal), 7 (borderline treatment need), and 10 (definite treatment need) as assessed in the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN). The images were then embedded in faces of 3 levels of attractiveness: attractive, average, and unattractive. During viewing, data were collected for the first location, frequency, and duration of each viewer's gaze. Observer reliability ranged from 0.58 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficients) but was less than 0.07 (interrater) for the chin, which was eliminated from the study. Likewise, reliability for the area of first fixation was kappa less than 0.10 for both intrarater and interrater reliabilities; the area of first fixation was also removed from the data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant effect (P eyes overwhelmingly were most salient, with the mouth receiving the second most visual attention. At times, the mouth and the eyes were statistically indistinguishable in viewers' gazes of fixation and duration. As

  10. Incrementality in Planning of Speech During Speaking and Reading Aloud: Evidence from Eye-Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Chen, Yiya

    2016-01-01

    Speaking is an incremental process where planning and articulation interleave. While incrementality has been studied in reading and online speech production separately, it has not been directly compared within one investigation. This study set out to compare the extent of planning incrementality in online sentence formulation versus reading aloud and how discourse context may constrain the planning scope of utterance preparation differently in these two modes of speech planning. Two eye-tracking experiments are reported: participants either described pictures of transitive events (Experiment 1) or read aloud the written descriptions of those events (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the information status of an object character was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture or sentence. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where object character was literally mentioned (e.g., fly). In the No Mention condition, stories did not literally mention nor prime the object character depicted on the picture or written in the sentence. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (The frog catches the fly). During naming, the results showed shorter speech onset latencies in the Literal condition than in the No Mention condition. However, no significant differences in gaze durations were found. In contrast, during reading, there were no significant differences in speech onset latencies but there were significantly longer gaze durations to the target picture/word in the Literal than in the No Mention condition. Our results shot that planning is more incremental during reading than during naming and that discourse context can be helpful during speaker but may hinder during reading aloud. Taken together our results suggest that on-line planning of response is affected by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors.

  11. Bridging the gap between eye tracking and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Pierre; Mäki, Toni; Skodras, Evangelos; Hupont, Isabelle; Hirth, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Visual attention constitutes a very important feature of the human visual system (HVS). Every day when watching videos, images or browsing the Internet, people are confronted with more information than they are able to process, and analyze only part of the information in front of them. In parallel, crowdsourcing has become a particularly hot topic, enabling to scale subjective experiments to a large crowd with diversity in terms of nationalities, social background, age, etc. This paper describes a novel framework with the aim to bridge these two fields, by providing a new way of measurements of user's experience in a subjective crowdsourcing experiment. This study goes beyond self-reported methods, and provide a new kind of information for the context of crowdsourcing: visual attention. The results show that it is possible to estimate visual attention, in a non-intrusive manner and without using self-reported methods or specialized equipment, with a precision as high as 14.1% in the horizontal axis and 17.9% in the vertical axis. This accuracy is sufficient for many kinds of measurements that can be efficiently executed only in non-controlled environments..

  12. Structure modulates similarity-based interference in sluicing: An eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines, as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don’t know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity of retrieval cues.

  13. Large Radius Tracking at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Margaret Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Many exotics and SUSY models include particles which are long lived resulting in decays which are highly displaced from the proton-proton interaction point (IP). The standard track reconstruction algorithm used by the ATLAS collaboration is optimized for tracks from “primary” particles, which originate close to the IP. Thus, tight restrictions on the transverse and longitudinal impact parameters, as well as on several other tracking variables, are applied to improve the track reconstruction performance and to reduce the fake rate. This track reconstruction is very efficient for primary particles, but not for the non-prompt particles mentioned above.  In order to reconstruct tracks with large impact parameters due to displaced decays, a tracking algorithm has been optimized to re-run with loosened requirements over the hits left over after standard track reconstruction has finished. Enabling this “retracking” has significantly increased the efficiency of reconstructing tracks from displaced decays, wh...

  14. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  15. Evaluation of the readability of road signs and roadside elements using Mobile Eye tracking device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mazzotta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical signs shall be located on the road according to a proper signalling plan, capable of providing relevant information to drivers in a harmonious, integrated and effective way. To achieve these targets, it is essential to investigate how road users look and perceive vertical signs while driving. For this purpose, an experimental research project was carried out onsite which involved 22 road users, driving on a road stretch comprising different types of vertical signs. By the use of an innovative eye-tracking device, capable of tracking human eye and its movements, it was possible to continuously record the glance aiming point of each road user, obtaining a detailed analysis of driver/ vertical signs interaction.

  16. Hidden communicative competence: case study evidence using eye-tracking and video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy skills. The resulting data were subjected to a variety of analyses aimed at describing the relationship between the FC user's looking and pointing behaviours, in order to make inferences about the complex question of 'authorship'. The eye-tracking data present a challenge to traditional 'facilitator influence' accounts of authorship, and are consistent with the proposition that this FC user does indeed author the sophisticated texts that are attributed to him; he looks for longer at to-be-typed letters before typing them, and looks ahead to subsequent letters of words before the next letter of the word is typed.

  17. Multimodality with Eye tracking and Haptics: A New Horizon for Serious Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to illustrate the emerging use of multimodal virtual reality that can benefit learning-based games. The review begins with an introduction to multimodal virtual reality in serious games and we provide a brief discussion of why cognitive processes involved in learning and training are enhanced under immersive virtual environments. We initially outline studies that have used eye tracking and haptic feedback independently in serious games, and then review some innovative applications that have already combined eye tracking and haptic devices in order to provide applicable multimodal frameworks for learning-based games. Finally, some general conclusions are identified and clarified in order to advance current understanding in multimodal serious game production as well as exploring possible areas for new applications.

  18. Cue Recognition and Integration - Eye Tracking Evidence of Processing Differences in Sentence Comprehension in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Schumacher

    Full Text Available We aimed at further elucidating whether aphasic patients' difficulties in understanding non-canonical sentence structures, such as Passive or Object-Verb-Subject sentences, can be attributed to impaired morphosyntactic cue recognition, and to problems in integrating competing interpretations.A sentence-picture matching task with canonical and non-canonical spoken sentences was performed using concurrent eye tracking. Accuracy, reaction time, and eye tracking data (fixations of 50 healthy subjects and 12 aphasic patients were analysed.Patients showed increased error rates and reaction times, as well as delayed fixation preferences for target pictures in non-canonical sentences. Patients' fixation patterns differed from healthy controls and revealed deficits in recognizing and immediately integrating morphosyntactic cues.Our study corroborates the notion that difficulties in understanding syntactically complex sentences are attributable to a processing deficit encompassing delayed and therefore impaired recognition and integration of cues, as well as increased competition between interpretations.

  19. Eye-tracking as a tool in process-oriented reading test validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddny Judith SOLHEIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations are highlighted and special significance is placed on the importance of studying the first reading of a text as well as reading while answering questions about it. This point of view expands the traditional scope of eye-tracking methodology in reading research. We conducted a small-scale study in which 18 12-year olds read and answered questions about a multimodal text. In this study comprehension scores were related to allocation of visual attention in two conditions: (i reading a text passage for the first time; and (ii rereading of the text passage while answering questions about it.

  20. An Eye-tracking Study of Notational, Informational, and Emotional Aspects of Learning Analytics Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an eye-tracking study of notational, informational, and emotional aspects of nine different notational systems (Skill Meters, Smilies, Traffic Lights, Topic Boxes, Collective Histograms, Word Clouds, Textual Descriptors, Table, and Matrix) and three different information state...... of learning analytics representations and discourse environments are discussed....... (Weak, Average, & Strong) used to represent student's learning. Findings from the eye-tracking study show that higher emotional activation was observed for the metaphorical notations of traffic lights and smilies and collective representations. Mean view time was higher for representations...... of the "average" informational learning state. Qualitative data analysis of the think-aloud comments and post-study interview show that student participants reflected on the meaning-making opportunities and action-taking possibilities afforded by the representations. Implications for the design and evaluation...

  1. Can't Look Away: An Eye-Tracking Based Attentional Disengagement Training for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gina R A; Möbius, Martin; van Opdorp, Amras; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns. Results showed that higher depression levels were associated with slower disengagement from negative stimuli at baseline. As expected, the PT induced longer fixations on positive pictures and faster disengagement from negative pictures. The NT showed no changes in attentional processes. The groups did not differ in mood reactivity and recovery from a stressor. Advantages of using eye-tracking in ABM and potential applications of the training are discussed.

  2. Eye-tracking deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrmeyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing pattern...

  3. Evaluating the usefulness of Eye Tracking in Game-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Kiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of educational game design is to develop solutions that please as many players as possible, but are still educationally effective. How learning happens in games is methodologically very challenging to point out and thus it is usually avoided. In this paper we tackle this challenge with eye tracking method. The aim of this research is to study the meaning of cognitive feedback in educational games and evaluate the usefulness of eye tracking method in game based learning research and game design. Based on perceptual data we evaluated the playing behavior of 43 Finnish and Austrian children aged from 7 to 16. Four different games were used as test-beds. The results indicated that players’ perception patterns varied a lot and some players even missed relevant information during playing. The results showed that extraneous elements should be eliminated from the game world in order to avoid incidental processing in crucial moments. Animated content easily grasps player’s attention, which may disturb learning activities. Especially low performers and inattentive players have difficulties in distinguishing important and irrelevant content and tend to stick to salient elements no matter of their importance for a task. However, it is not reasonable to exclude all extraneous elements because it decreases engagement and immersion. Thus, balancing of extraneous and crucial elements is essential. Overall, the results showed that eye tracking can provide important information from game based learning process and game designs. However, we have to be careful when interpreting the perceptual data, because we cannot be sure if the player understands everything that he or she is paying attention to. Thus, eye tracking should be complemented with offline methods like retrospective interview that was successfully used in this research.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and attentional bias: An eye-tracking methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Maria C; Hanna, Donncha; Wilson, Paul; Scott, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive models suggest that attentional biases are integral in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). Such biases have been established experimentally in anxiety disorders; however, the evidence is unclear in Obsessive Compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study, an eye-tracking methodology was employed to explore attentional biases in relation to OCS. A convenience sample of 85 community volunteers was assessed on OCS using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-self report. Participants completed an eye-tracking paradigm where they were exposed to OCD, Aversive and Neutral visual stimuli. Indices of attentional bias were derived from the eye-tracking data. Simple linear regressions were performed with OCS severity as the predictor and eye-tracking measures of the different attentional biases for each of the three stimuli types were the criterion variables. Findings revealed that OCS severity moderately predicted greater frequency and duration of fixations on OCD stimuli, which reflect the maintenance attentional bias. No significant results were found in support of other biases. Interpretations based on a non-clinical sample limit the generalisability of the conclusions, although use of such samples in OCD research has been found to be comparable to clinical populations. Future research would include both clinical and sub-clinical participants. Results provide some support for the theory of maintained attention in OCD attentional biases, as opposed to vigilance theory. Individuals with greater OCS do not orient to OCD stimuli any faster than individuals with lower OCS, but once a threat is identified, these individuals allocate more attention to OCS-relevant stimuli.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  6. Combining user logging with eye tracking for interactive and dynamic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Kristien; Coltekin, Arzu; De Maeyer, Philippe; Dupont, Lien; Fabrikant, Sara; Incoul, Annelies; Kuhn, Matthias; Slabbinck, Hendrik; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van der Haegen, Lise

    2015-12-01

    User evaluations of interactive and dynamic applications face various challenges related to the active nature of these displays. For example, users can often zoom and pan on digital products, and these interactions cause changes in the extent and/or level of detail of the stimulus. Therefore, in eye tracking studies, when a user's gaze is at a particular screen position (gaze position) over a period of time, the information contained in this particular position may have changed. Such digital activities are commonplace in modern life, yet it has been difficult to automatically compare the changing information at the viewed position, especially across many participants. Existing solutions typically involve tedious and time-consuming manual work. In this article, we propose a methodology that can overcome this problem. By combining eye tracking with user logging (mouse and keyboard actions) with cartographic products, we are able to accurately reference screen coordinates to geographic coordinates. This referencing approach allows researchers to know which geographic object (location or attribute) corresponds to the gaze coordinates at all times. We tested the proposed approach through two case studies, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the applied methodology. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed approach is discussed with respect to other fields of research that use eye tracking-namely, marketing, sports and movement sciences, and experimental psychology. From these case studies and discussions, we conclude that combining eye tracking and user-logging data is an essential step forward in efficiently studying user behavior with interactive and static stimuli in multiple research fields.

  7. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face.

  8. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  9. Eye tracking reveals a crucial role for facial motion in recognition of faces by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-06-01

    Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was tested with static face images. Eye-tracking methodology was used to record eye movements during the familiarization and test phases. The results showed a developmental change in eye movement patterns, but only for the moving faces. In addition, the more infants shifted their fixations across facial regions, the better their face recognition was, but only for the moving faces. The results suggest that facial movement influences the way faces are encoded from early in development.

  10. Age- and fatigue-related markers of human faces: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Tu; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Rubin, Peter A D

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the facial cues that are used when making judgments about how old or tired a face appears. Experimental study. Forty-seven subjects: 15 male and 32 female participants, ranging from age 18 to 30 years. Forty-eight full-face digital images of "normal-appearing" patients were collected and uploaded to an eye-tracking system. We used an Applied Science Laboratories (Bedford, MA) Eye Tracker device associated with gaze-tracking software to record and calculate the gaze and fixation of the participants' left eye as they viewed images on a computer screen. After seeing each picture, participants were asked to assess the age of the face in the picture by making a selection on a rating scale divided into 5-year intervals; for fatigue judgments we used a rating scale from 1 (not tired) to 7 (most tired). The main outcome measure was gaze fixation, as assessed by tracking the eye movements of participants as they viewed full-face digital pictures. For fatigue judgments, participants spent the most time looking at the eye region (31.81%), then the forehead and the nose regions (14.99% and 14.12%, respectively); in the eye region, participants looked most at the brows (13.1%) and lower lids (9.4%). Participants spent more time looking at the cheeks on faces they rated as least tired than they did on those they rated as most tired (t = 2.079, Peye region (27.22%) and then the forehead (15.71%) and the nose (14.30%) had the highest frequencies of interest; in the eye region, the brows and lower lids also had the highest frequencies of interest (11.40% and 8.90%, respectively). Participants looked more at the brows (t = -2.63, Peye region. Consequently, these results suggest that aesthetic or functional surgery to the eye region may be one of the most effective interventions in enhancing the appearance of an individual. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  11. Measuring social attention and motivation in autism spectrum disorder using eye-tracking: Stimulus type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Parish-Morris, Julia; McVey, Alana; Rump, Keiran M; Sasson, Noah J; Herrington, John D; Schultz, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments that have been related to deficits in social attention, including diminished gaze to faces. Eye-tracking studies are commonly used to examine social attention and social motivation in ASD, but they vary in sensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that the ecological nature of the social stimuli would affect participants' social attention, with gaze behavior during more naturalistic scenes being most predictive of ASD vs. typical development. Eighty-one children with and without ASD participated in three eye-tracking tasks that differed in the ecological relevance of the social stimuli. In the "Static Visual Exploration" task, static images of objects and people were presented; in the "Dynamic Visual Exploration" task, video clips of individual faces and objects were presented side-by-side; in the "Interactive Visual Exploration" task, video clips of children playing with objects in a naturalistic context were presented. Our analyses uncovered a three-way interaction between Task, Social vs. Object Stimuli, and Diagnosis. This interaction was driven by group differences on one task only-the Interactive task. Bayesian analyses confirmed that the other two tasks were insensitive to group membership. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that, unlike the other two tasks, the Interactive task had significant classification power. The ecological relevance of social stimuli is an important factor to consider for eye-tracking studies aiming to measure social attention and motivation in ASD.

  12. Quantifying naturalistic social gaze in fragile X syndrome using a novel eye tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S; Frank, Michael C; Pusiol, Guido T; Farzin, Faraz; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the propensity for individuals with the syndrome to exhibit significant impairments in social gaze during interactions with others. However, previous studies employing eye tracking methodology to investigate this phenomenon have been limited to presenting static photographs or videos of social interactions rather than employing a real-life social partner. To improve upon previous studies, we used a customized eye tracking configuration to quantify the social gaze of 51 individuals with FXS and 19 controls, aged 14-28 years, while they engaged in a naturalistic face-to-face social interaction with a female experimenter. Importantly, our control group was matched to the FXS group on age, developmental functioning, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Results showed that participants with FXS spent significantly less time looking at the face and had shorter episodes (and longer inter-episodes) of social gaze than controls. Regression analyses indicated that communication ability predicted higher levels of social gaze in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. Conversely, degree of autistic symptoms predicted lower levels of social gaze in controls, but not in individuals with FXS. Taken together, these data indicate that naturalistic social gaze in FXS can be measured objectively using existing eye tracking technology during face-to-face social interactions. Given that impairments in social gaze were specific to FXS, this paradigm could be employed as an objective and ecologically valid outcome measure in ongoing Phase II/Phase III clinical trials of FXS-specific interventions.

  13. Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems.

  14. Feasibility of eye-tracking technology to quantify expertise in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T Kyle; Kim, T Edward; Kou, Alex; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R; Howard, Steven K

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) requires an advanced procedural skill set that incorporates both sonographic knowledge of relevant anatomy as well as technical proficiency in needle manipulation in order to achieve a successful outcome. Understanding how to differentiate a novice from an expert in UGRA using a quantifiable tool may be useful for comparing educational interventions that could improve the rate at which one develops expertise. Exploring the gaze pattern of individuals performing a task has been used to evaluate expertise in many different disciplines, including medicine. However, the use of eye-tracking technology has not been previously applied to UGRA. The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish the feasibility of applying such technology as a measurement tool for comparing procedural expertise in UGRA. eye-tracking data were collected from one expert and one novice utilizing Tobii Glasses 2 while performing a simulated ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in a gel phantom model. Area of interest fixations were recorded and heat maps of gaze fixations were created. Results suggest a potential application of eye-tracking technology in the assessment of UGRA learning and performance.

  15. Eye Tracking and Head Movement Detection: A State-of-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Eye-gaze detection and tracking have been an active research field in the past years as it adds convenience to a variety of applications. It is considered a significant untraditional method of human computer interaction. Head movement detection has also received researchers' attention and interest as it has been found to be a simple and effective interaction method. Both technologies are considered the easiest alternative interface methods. They serve a wide range of severely disabled people who are left with minimal motor abilities. For both eye tracking and head movement detection, several different approaches have been proposed and used to implement different algorithms for these technologies. Despite the amount of research done on both technologies, researchers are still trying to find robust methods to use effectively in various applications. This paper presents a state-of-art survey for eye tracking and head movement detection methods proposed in the literature. Examples of different fields of applications for both technologies, such as human-computer interaction, driving assistance systems, and assistive technologies are also investigated. PMID:27170851

  16. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Wendt

    Full Text Available An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  17. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-05-01

    Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number line estimation tasks. The current study extends these findings to a larger group of children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). A group of 9-11-year-old children with MLD (N = 14) was compared to a control group of children without math difficulties (N = 14). Number line estimation was measured using a 0-100 and a 0-1000 number-to-position task. A Tobii T60 eye tracker was used to measure the children's eye movements during task performance. The behavioral data showed that the children with MLD had higher error scores on both number lines than the children in the control group. The eye tracking data showed that the groups also differed in their estimation strategies. The children with MLD showed less adaptation of their estimation strategies to the number to be estimated. This study shows that children with MLD attend to different features of the number line than children without math difficulties. Children with math difficulties are less capable of adapting their estimation strategies to the numbers to be estimated and of effectively using reference points on the number line.

  18. Eye-Tracking Control to Assess Cognitive Functions in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Schneider, Erich; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-10-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment. The requirements, in terms of oculomotor parameters that have to be met for sufficient eye-tracking in ALS patients are presented. The properties of stimuli, including type of neuropsychological tests and style of presentation, best suited to successfully assess cognitive functioning, are also described. Furthermore, recommendations regarding procedural requirements are provided. Overall, this methodology provides a reliable, easy to administer and fast approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS. The only confounding factor might be deficits in voluntary eye movement control in a subset of ALS patients.

  19. Evaluating Silent Reading Performance with an Eye Tracking System in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Noriaki; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between silent reading performance and visual field defects in patients with glaucoma using an eye tracking system. Methods Fifty glaucoma patients (Group G; mean age, 52.2 years, standard deviation: 11.4 years) and 20 normal controls (Group N; mean age, 46.9 years; standard deviation: 17.2 years) were included in the study. All participants in Group G had early to advanced glaucomatous visual field defects but better than 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. Participants silently read Japanese articles written horizontally while the eye tracking system monitored and calculated reading duration per 100 characters, number of fixations per 100 characters, and mean fixation duration, which were compared with mean deviation and visual field index values from Humphrey visual field testing (24–2 and 10–2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard) of the right versus left eye and the better versus worse eye. Results There was a statistically significant difference between Groups G and N in mean fixation duration (G, 233.4 msec; N, 215.7 msec; P = 0.010). Within Group G, significant correlations were observed between reading duration and 24–2 right mean deviation (rs = -0.280, P = 0.049), 24–2 right visual field index (rs = -0.306, P = 0.030), 24–2 worse visual field index (rs = -0.304, P = 0.032), and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.326, P = 0.025). Significant correlations were observed between mean fixation duration and 10–2 left mean deviation (rs = -0.294, P = 0.045) and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.306, P = 0.037), respectively. Conclusions The severity of visual field defects may influence some aspects of reading performance. At least concerning silent reading, the visual field of the worse eye is an essential element of smoothness of reading. PMID:28095478

  20. Comparison of eye-tracking success in laser in situ keratomileusis after flap creation with 2 femtosecond laser models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Gimeno, Federico; Chan, Cordelia M L; Li, Lim; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2011-03-01

    To determine the efficiency of an eye tracker after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models. Tertiary referral center, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore. Randomized clinical trial. The LASIK flap was created with an IntraLase (Group A) or a VisuMax (Group B) femtosecond laser. An Advanced Control Eye Tracker was initiated 3 times to obtain iris recognition. Eye tracking was considered successful if the eye movements could be followed despite the presence or absence of an opaque bubble layer (OBL). Univariate-multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Preoperatively, the mean values (ranges) of the 87 eyes were sphere, -5.64 diopters (D) ± 2.17 (SD) (-9.75 to -0.25 D); cylinder 1.65 ± 1.63 D (-3.75 to 0.00 D); optical zone, 6.34 ± 0.20 mm (5.6 to 7.0 mm); keratometry, 43.48 ± 1.32 D (40.1 to 42.8 D); flap thickness, 109.30 + 5.21 μm (90 to 115 μm). Eye tracking was successful in 38 (90.5%) of 42 eyes in Group A and 43 (95.6%) of 45 eyes in Group B. No specific type of OBL was seen in either group. The LASIK was completed in all eyes. There was a statistically significant association between positive tracking and a smaller optical zone (P=.03). There were no statistically significant differences in eye tracking between the 2 femtosecond lasers. Eye tracking was achieved in more than 90% of cases after LASIK flap creation with 1 of 2 femtosecond laser models, even in the presence of an OBL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eyes wide shut: amygdala mediates eyes-closed effect on emotional experience with music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Lerner

    Full Text Available The perceived emotional value of stimuli and, as a consequence the subjective emotional experience with them, can be affected by context-dependent styles of processing. Therefore, the investigation of the neural correlates of emotional experience requires accounting for such a variable, a matter of an experimental challenge. Closing the eyes affects the style of attending to auditory stimuli by modifying the perceptual relationship with the environment without changing the stimulus itself. In the current study, we used fMRI to characterize the neural mediators of such modification on the experience of emotionality in music. We assumed that closed eyes position will reveal interplay between different levels of neural processing of emotions. More specifically, we focused on the amygdala as a central node of the limbic system and on its co-activation with the Locus Ceruleus (LC and Ventral Prefrontal Cortex (VPFC; regions involved in processing of, respectively, 'low', visceral-, and 'high', cognitive-related, values of emotional stimuli. Fifteen healthy subjects listened to negative and neutral music excerpts with eyes closed or open. As expected, behavioral results showed that closing the eyes while listening to emotional music resulted in enhanced rating of emotionality, specifically of negative music. In correspondence, fMRI results showed greater activation in the amygdala when subjects listened to the emotional music with eyes closed relative to eyes open. More so, by using voxel-based correlation and a dynamic causal model analyses we demonstrated that increased amygdala activation to negative music with eyes closed led to increased activations in the LC and VPFC. This finding supports a system-based model of perceived emotionality in which the amygdala has a central role in mediating the effect of context-based processing style by recruiting neural operations involved in both visceral (i.e. 'low' and cognitive (i.e. 'high' related processes

  2. Automated tracking and grasping of a moving object with a robotic hand-eye system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P.K.; Timcenko, A.; Yoshimi, B.; Michelman, P. (Columbia Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1993-04-01

    Most robotic grasping tasks assume a stationary or fixed object. In this paper, the authors explore the requirements for tracking and grasping a moving object. The focus of the work is to achieve a high level of interaction between a real-time vision system capable of tracking moving objects in 3-D and a robot arm with gripper that can be used to pick up a moving object. There is an interest in exploring the interplay of hand--eye coordination for dynamic grasping takes such as grasping of parts on a moving conveyor system, assembly of articulated parts, or for grasping from a mobile robotic system. Coordination between an organisms sensing modalities and motor control system is a hallmark of intelligent behavior, and they are pursuing the goal of building an integrated sensing and actuation system that can operate in dynamic as opposed to static environments. The system they have built addresses three distinct problems in robotic hand--eye coordination for grasping moving objects: fast computation of 3-D motion parameters from vision, predictive control of a moving robotic arm to track a moving object, and interception and grasping. The system is able to operate at approximately human arm movement rates, and experimental results in which a moving model train is tracked is presented, stably grasped, and picked up by the system. The algorithms they have developed that relate sensing to actuation are quite general and applicable to a variety of complex robotic tasks that require visual feedback for arm and hand control.

  3. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M

    2017-02-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.

  4. Configural processing in body posture recognition: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weidong; Sun, Hongjin

    2013-11-13

    The body inversion effect is the finding that inverted body posture pictures are more difficult to recognize than upright body posture pictures are. The present study reinvestigated the body inversion effect in human observers using behavioral and eye movement measures to explore whether the body inversion effect correlates with specific eye movement features. Results showed that body postures elicited a robust and stable body inversion effect in reaction time throughout the experimental sessions. Eye-tracking data showed that the body inversion effect was robust only in the first fixation duration, but not in the second fixation duration. The analysis of the regions of interest showed that most fixations were located in the upper body for both the upright and the inverted body postures. Compared with inverted body postures, the upright postures led to a shorter reaction time and a shorter first fixation duration, but a larger portion of time to fixate on the head region, suggesting that participants tended to use head as a reference point to process upright body postures. For both the behavioral and the eye movement measures, the body inversion effect was robust for biomechanically possible body postures. However, for biomechanically impossible body postures (with angular manipulation of two joints), the effect was mixed. Although the error rate failed to show the body inversion effect, the reaction time measure and most eye movement measures, however, showed a body inversion effect. Overall, these results suggested that upright body postures are processed in expertise recognition and are processed configurally by human observers.

  5. Application of eye-tracking in the testing of drivers: A review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitaniak, Bronisław; Walczak, Marta; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Jóźwiak, Zbigniew; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation). Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator) and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet - or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD) camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. De-warping of images and improved eye tracking for the scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A limitation of scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is that eye movements during the capture of each frame distort the retinal image. Various sophisticated strategies have been devised to ensure that each acquired frame can be mapped quickly and accurately onto a chosen reference frame, but such methods are blind to distortions in the reference frame itself. Here we explore a method to address this limitation in software, and demonstrate its accuracy. We used high-speed (200 fps), high-resolution (~1 μm), flood-based imaging of the human retina with adaptive optics to obtain "ground truth" information on the retinal image and motion of the eye. This information was used to simulate SLO video sequences at 20 fps, allowing us to compare various methods for eye-motion recovery and subsequent minimization of intra-frame distortion. We show that a) a single frame can be near-perfectly recovered with perfect knowledge of intra-frame eye motion; b) eye motion at a given time point within a frame can be accurately recovered by tracking the same strip of tissue across many frames, due to the stochastic symmetry of fixational eye movements. This approach is similar to, and easily adapted from, previously suggested strip-registration approaches; c) quality of frame recovery decreases with amplitude of eye movements, however, the proposed method is affected less by this than other state-of-the-art methods and so offers even greater advantages when fixation is poor. The new method could easily be integrated into existing image processing software, and we provide an example implementation written in Matlab.

  7. Head movement compensation and multi-modal event detection in eye-tracking data for unconstrained head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Linnéa; Schwaller, Andrea; Nyström, Marcus; Stridh, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of analyzing eye-tracking signals increases as eye-trackers become more mobile. The signals from a mobile eye-tracker are recorded in relation to the head coordinate system and when the head and body move, the recorded eye-tracking signal is influenced by these movements, which render the subsequent event detection difficult. The purpose of the present paper is to develop a method that performs robust event detection in signals recorded using a mobile eye-tracker. The proposed method performs compensation of head movements recorded using an inertial measurement unit and employs a multi-modal event detection algorithm. The event detection algorithm is based on the head compensated eye-tracking signal combined with information about detected objects extracted from the scene camera of the mobile eye-tracker. The method is evaluated when participants are seated 2.6m in front of a big screen, and is therefore only valid for distant targets. The proposed method for head compensation decreases the standard deviation during intervals of fixations from 8° to 3.3° for eye-tracking signals recorded during large head movements. The multi-modal event detection algorithm outperforms both an existing algorithm (I-VDT) and the built-in-algorithm of the mobile eye-tracker with an average balanced accuracy, calculated over all types of eye movements, of 0.90, compared to 0.85 and 0.75, respectively for the compared algorithms. The proposed event detector that combines head movement compensation and information regarding detected objects in the scene video enables for improved classification of events in mobile eye-tracking data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Added Value of Eye-tracking in Diagnosing Dyscalculia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske eVan Viersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared eye movements and performance of a nine-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD children (n = 10, in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2 and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to approximately 10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  9. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  10. Summary on Clinical Experience of Acupuncture Treating Dry Eye Syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓芃; 杨玲; 莫文权; 施征; 赵粹英

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dry eye syndromes(DES)refer to discomfort in the eye region,visual disturbance,poor stability of lacrimal film,inflammation of eve surface and its potential iniury due to many factors of abnonnal lacrimation[1].Patients with this condition can experience a dry sensation in the eyes,foreign body sensation,burning and itching sensation in the eyes,and blurred vision.The lingering pathological change can lead to decreased transparency of the cornea and hypopsia,affecting the work,study and life,and even resulting in blindness.With popularization of computers,and change in lifestyles,the incidence of DES rises gradually and tends to occur in young age.

  11. Using Eye-Tracking Technology as an Indirect Instruction Tool to Improve Text and Picture Processing and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2016-01-01

    This study used an eye-movement modelling example (EMME) in the school context to corroborate and extend recent findings about the educational potential of eye-tracking technology for supporting strategic processing and learning from an illustrated text. Sixty-four seventh graders were randomly assigned to the modelling and non-modelling…

  12. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different

  13. Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

  14. Eye tracking reveals the cost of switching between self and other perspectives in a visual perspective-taking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Heather J; Apperly, Ian; Cane, James E

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that while people can rapidly and accurately compute their own and other people's visual perspectives, they experience difficulty ignoring the irrelevant perspective when the two perspectives differ. We used the "avatar" perspective-taking task to examine the mechanisms that underlie these egocentric (i.e., interference from their own perspective) and altercentric (i.e., interference from the other person's perspective) tendencies. Participants were eye-tracked as they verified the number of discs in a visual scene according to either their own or an on-screen avatar's perspective. Crucially in some trials the two perspectives were inconsistent (i.e., each saw a different number of discs), while in others they were consistent. To examine the effect of perspective switching, performance was compared for trials that were preceded with the same versus a different perspective cue. We found that altercentric interference can be reduced or eliminated when participants stick with their own perspective across consecutive trials. Our eye-tracking analyses revealed distinct fixation patterns for self and other perspective taking, suggesting that consistency effects in this paradigm are driven by implicit mentalizing of what others can see, and not automatic directional cues from the avatar.

  15. "Eye-tracking" for assessment of image perception in gastrointestinal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging compared with white-light endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meining, A; Atasoy, S; Chung, A; Navab, N; Yang, G Z

    2010-08-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a new imaging methodology for improving the detection rate of gastrointestinal lesions. We aimed to evaluate perception of images by NBI and corresponding standard white-light-endoscopy (WLE) using a computer-guided eye-tracking system. A total of 23 NBI images of various lesions with the 23 corresponding WLE images were assessed in random order by 18 subjects with various endoscopy experience. Before evaluation, a teaching set of three NBI and corresponding WLE images was shown to highlight the characteristics of lesions. An eye-tracking system (Tobii X series with integrated 17-inch monitor) was used to record the eye movements of the subjects while they examined respective images. The following parameters were measured: total time spent on image, time until first fixation of lesion, total number of fixations per image and per lesion, and number of fixations until finding the lesion. In total, 828 experiments were conducted. Lesions could not be detected in 6.5 % (NBI) and 4.1 % (WLE) of images ( P = NS). The total number of fixations and total time spent on respective figures as a whole were significantly greater for NBI images compared with WLE images ( P 0.1). This is the first study using eye tracking to evaluate image perception in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Significant differences in the interpretation of NBI and WLE images were observed, which may be relevant for the detection and characterization of lesions during endoscopy. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  16. Analysis of Gnostic Actions Using Eye Tracking as a Method of Studying Insight in Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirov I.Yu.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TThe paper focuses on the issue of research methods in studying insight. Since the process of insight is quite difficult to verbalize, researchers are presented with the methodological challenge of its objectifica- tion. One of the possible methods is the analysis of gnostic actions as components of a single integrated system of perceptive and thinking activity aimed at problem solving. The paper analyzes past and present periods in the explorations of insight with this method and suggests that eye tracking in problem solving is the most perspective technology. It reviews the studies of G. Knoblich, J. Ellis, E, Grant and M. Spivey, L. Thomas and A. Lleras, D. Kahneman, J.T. Wang and others. The paper compares various characteristics of eye movements and their content and discusses perspectives for the study on insight using the method of eye movement tracking, that is, testing the theoretical assumptions concerning the mechanisms of insight in problem solving and revealing the processes underlying insight.

  17. Designing a high accuracy 3D auto stereoscopic eye tracking display, using a common LCD monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Reza; Kia, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design and building of a low cost and practical stereoscopic display that does not need to wear special glasses, and uses eye tracking to give a large degree of freedom to viewer (or viewer's) movement while displaying the minimum amount of information. The parallax barrier technique is employed to turn a LCD into an auto-stereoscopic display. The stereo image pair is screened on the usual liquid crystal display simultaneously but in different columns of pixels. Controlling of the display in red-green-blue sub pixels increases the accuracy of light projecting direction to less than 2 degrees without losing too much LCD's resolution and an eye-tracking system determines the correct angle to project the images along the viewer's eye pupils and an image processing system puts the 3D images data in correct R-G-B sub pixels. 1.6 degree of light direction controlling achieved in practice. The 3D monitor is just made by applying some simple optical materials on a usual LCD display with normal resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Eye-tracking of visual attention in web-based assessment using the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Chen, Li; Fu, Zhao; Fritchman, Joseph; Bao, Lei

    2017-07-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to investigate students’ visual attention while taking the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) in a web-based interface. Eighty nine university students were randomly selected into a pre-test group and a post-test group. Students took the 30-question FCI on a computer equipped with an eye-tracker. There were seven weeks of instruction between the pre- and post-test data collection. Students’ performance on the FCI improved significantly from pre-test to post-test. Meanwhile, the eye-tracking results reveal that the time students spent on taking the FCI test was not affected by student performance and did not change from pre-test to post-test. Analysis of students’ attention to answer choices shows that on the pre-test students primarily focused on the naïve choices and ignored the expert choices. On the post-test, although students had shifted their primary attention to the expert choices, they still kept a high level of attention to the naïve choices, indicating significant conceptual mixing and competition during problem solving. Outcomes of this study provide new insights on students’ conceptual development in learning physics.

  19. Eye-Tracking Evidence of a Maintenance Bias in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Catarina; Silva, Susana; Pires, Joana; Reis, Alexandra; Ros, Antónia Jimenez; Janeiro, Luís; Faísca, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa

    2017-06-22

    The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias. Participants with high vs low social anxiety and different personality structures viewed pairs of faces (free-viewing eye-tracking task) representing different emotions (anger, happiness and neutrality). Their eye movements were registered and analysed for both whole-trial (static) and time-dependent (dynamic) measures. Comparisons between participants with high and low social anxiety levels did not yield evidence of differences in eye-tracking measures for the whole trial (latency of first fixation, first fixation direction, total dwell time), but the two groups differed in the time course of overt attention during the trial (dwell time across three successive time segments): participants with high social anxiety were slower in disengaging their attention from happy faces. Similar results were obtained using a full-sample, regression-based analysis. Our results speak in favour of a maintenance bias in social anxiety. Preliminary results indicated that personality structure may not affect the maintenance (dynamic) bias of socially anxious individuals, although depressive personality structures may favour manifestations of a (static) hypervigilance bias.

  20. Visual social attention in autism spectrum disorder: insights from eye tracking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Quentin; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Baduel, Sophie; Rogé, Bernadette

    2014-05-01

    We review different aspects of visual social attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from infancy to adulthood in light of the eye-tracking literature. We first assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate a deficit in social orienting together with decreased attention to socially relevant stimuli such as faces compared to TD individuals. Results show that social orienting is actually not qualitatively impaired and that decreased attention to faces does not generalized across contexts. We also assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate excess mouth and diminished eye gaze compared to TD individuals. We find that this assumption receives little support across ages and discuss some factors that might have initially lead to this conjecture. We report that the assessment of the ability to follow the direction of another person's gaze needs to be further examined and that eye-tracking studies add to the evidence that individuals with ASD demonstrate difficulties in interpreting gaze cues. Finally, we highlight innovative data acquisition and analyses that are increasingly shedding light on the more subtle nature of the profound social difficulties experienced by individuals with ASD.

  1. Eye tracking and gating system for proton therapy of orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dongho; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Moon, Sung Ho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: A new motion-based gated proton therapy for the treatment of orbital tumors using real-time eye-tracking system was designed and evaluated. Methods: We developed our system by image-pattern matching, using a normalized cross-correlation technique with LabVIEW 8.6 and Vision Assistant 8.6 (National Instruments, Austin, TX). To measure the pixel spacing of an image consistently, four different calibration modes such as the point-detection, the edge-detection, the line-measurement, and the manual measurement mode were suggested and used. After these methods were applied to proton therapy, gating was performed, and radiation dose distributions were evaluated. Results: Moving phantom verification measurements resulted in errors of less than 0.1 mm for given ranges of translation. Dosimetric evaluation of the beam-gating system versus nongated treatment delivery with a moving phantom shows that while there was only 0.83 mm growth in lateral penumbra for gated radiotherapy, there was 4.95 mm growth in lateral penumbra in case of nongated exposure. The analysis from clinical results suggests that the average of eye movements depends distinctively on each patient by showing 0.44 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.86 mm for three patients, respectively. Conclusions: The developed automatic eye-tracking based beam-gating system enabled us to perform high-precision proton radiotherapy of orbital tumors.

  2. Rainband Feature Tracking for Wind Speeds around Typhoon Eye Using Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Liu, A. A. K.; Yu, C. K.; He, Z.; Yang, J.; Zheng, G.; Chen, Y.

    2016-02-01

    No direct measurements of surface winds are available now except that by aircraft at a high cost, thus tracking and monitoring ocean features which have short coherent time periods from sequential satellite images is a good option to estimate extreme wind speeds associated with typhoons. In this study, five typhoon cases observed by quasi-concurrent satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and one of the cases also by ground-based Doppler radar observations have been studied. The rainband features around typhoon eyes are first delineated using wavelet analysis, and then the wind speeds are estimated by feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. The resulting wind speeds are reasonable compared with the maximum wind speed reported from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). In a special case, with the aid of the Doppler radar near the coast, the wind speed estimates based on the multi-sensor also show consistent results. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that a reasonable wind speed around typhoon eyes can be derived from the rainband feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. This technique may offer useful wind information for typhoon simulations and forecasts.

  3. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye gaze tracking for endoscopic camera positioning: an application of a hardware/software interface developed to automate Aesop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S M; Reisner, L A; King, B; Cao, A; Auner, G; Klein, M; Pandya, A K

    2008-01-01

    A redesigned motion control system for the medical robot Aesop allows automating and programming its movements. An IR eye tracking system has been integrated with this control interface to implement an intelligent, autonomous eye gaze-based laparoscopic positioning system. A laparoscopic camera held by Aesop can be moved based on the data from the eye tracking interface to keep the user's gaze point region at the center of a video feedback monitor. This system setup provides autonomous camera control that works around the surgeon, providing an optimal robotic camera platform.

  5. Combined eye tracking and fMRI reveals neural basis of linguistic predictions during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Fiebach, Christian J

    2015-07-01

    It is widely agreed upon that linguistic predictions are an integral part of language comprehension. Yet, experimental proof of their existence remains challenging. Here, we introduce a new predictive eye gaze reading task combining eye tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that allows us to infer the existence and timing of linguistic predictions via anticipatory eye-movements. Participants read different types of word sequences (i.e., regular sentences, meaningless jabberwocky sentences, non-word lists) up to the pre-final word. The final target word was displayed with a temporal delay and its screen position was dependent on the syntactic word category (nouns vs verbs). During the delay, anticipatory eye-movements into the correct target word area were indicative of linguistic predictions. For fMRI analysis, the predictive sentence conditions were contrasted to the non-word condition, with the anticipatory eye-movements specifying differences in timing across conditions. A conjunction analysis of both sentence conditions revealed the neural substrate of word category prediction, namely a distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain regions including language systems, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Direct contrasts between the regular sentence condition and the jabberwocky condition indicate that prediction of word category in meaningless jabberwocky sentences relies on classical left-hemispheric language systems involving Brodman's area 44/45 in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal areas, and the dorsal caudate nucleus. Regular sentences, in contrast, allowed for the prediction of specific words. Word-specific predictions were specifically associated with more widely distributed temporal and parietal cortical systems, most prominently in the right hemisphere. Our results support the presence of linguistic predictions during sentence processing and demonstrate the validity of the predictive eye gaze

  6. A Novel Eye Gaze Tracking Method Based on Saliency Maps%一种新的基于显著图的视线跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄生辉; 宋鸿陟; 吴广发; 司国东; 彭红星

    2015-01-01

    针对现有视线跟踪系统设备复杂、标定过程繁琐等方面的不足,提出了一种新的基于显著图的视线跟踪方法。通过红外光源设备在人眼角膜上产生的光斑中心与瞳孔中心建立瞳孔-角膜反射向量,然后将该向量作为视觉特征重构了基于显著图的视线跟踪算法。实验结果证明,提出的方法不仅缓解了视线跟踪系统标定过程繁琐的问题,而且对提高系统的精度和健壮性有一定的促进作用,这为面向人机交互的视线跟踪研究提供了可行的低成本解决方案。%For the deficiencies that existing eye gaze tracking devices are complex and calibration procedures are tedious, a novel eye gaze tracking method using saliency maps is proposed. With pupil center and reflection center on corneal generated by IR light device, a pupil-corneal reflection vector is constructed, which then acts as a kind of vision feature to reconstruct the eye gaze tracking algorithm based on saliency maps. The experiment result demonstrates that the proposed method not only can alleviate the tedious calibration of eye gaze tracking, but also has a little improvement in system accuracy and robustness, which provides a feasible low-cost eye gaze tracking research for human computer interaction.

  7. "Doctor my eyes": A natural experiment on the demand for eye care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, H; Ikenwilo, D; Norwood, P; Watson, V; Zangelidis, A

    2016-02-01

    Preventive health care is promoted by many organisations from the World Health Organisation (WHO) to regional and national governments. The degree of cost-sharing between individuals and the health care service affects preventive service use. For instance, out-of-pocket fees that are paid by individuals for curative services reduce preventive care demand. We examine the impact of subsidised preventive care on demand. We motivate our analysis with a theoretical model of inter-temporal substitution in which individuals decide whether to have a health examination in period one and consequently whether to be treated if required in period two. We derive four testable hypotheses. We test these using the subsidised eye care policy introduced in Scotland in 2006. This provides a natural experiment that allows us to identify the effect of the policy on the demand for eye examinations. We also explore socio-economic differences in the response to the policy. The analysis is based on a sample from the British Household Panel Survey of 52,613 observations of people, aged between 16 and 59 years, living in England and Scotland for the period 2001-2008. Using the difference-in-difference methodology, we find that on average the policy did not affect demand for eye examinations. We find that demand for eye examinations only increased among high income households, and consequently, inequalities in eye-care services demand have widened in Scotland since the introduction of the policy.

  8. Registration of clinical volumes to beams-eye-view images for real-time tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jonathan H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Lewis, John H.; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross I., E-mail: rberbeco@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors combine the registration of 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) images and 3D planning computed tomography (CT) images, with relative, markerless tumor tracking to provide automatic absolute tracking of physician defined volumes such as the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: During treatment of lung SBRT cases, BEV images were continuously acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) operating in cine mode. For absolute registration of physician-defined volumes, an intensity based 2D/3D registration to the planning CT was performed using the end-of-exhale (EoE) phase of the four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). The volume was converted from Hounsfield units into electron density by a calibration curve and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for each beam geometry. Using normalized cross correlation between the DRR and an EoE BEV image, the best in-plane rigid transformation was found. The transformation was applied to physician-defined contours in the planning CT, mapping them into the EPID image domain. A robust multiregion method of relative markerless lung tumor tracking quantified deviations from the EoE position. Results: The success of 2D/3D registration was demonstrated at the EoE breathing phase. By registering at this phase and then employing a separate technique for relative tracking, the authors are able to successfully track target volumes in the BEV images throughout the entire treatment delivery. Conclusions: Through the combination of EPID/4DCT registration and relative tracking, a necessary step toward the clinical implementation of BEV tracking has been completed. The knowledge of tumor volumes relative to the treatment field is important for future applications like real-time motion management, adaptive radiotherapy, and delivered dose calculations.

  9. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  10. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Versional eye tracking in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): effects of oculomotor training (OMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Preethi; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a range of objective measures of versional eye movements before and after oculomotor training (OMT) in individuals with mTBI. The results were compared with placebo (P) training. Twelve individuals with mTBI (mean age = 29 ± 3 years) having oculomotor-based near-vision symptoms participated in the study. Versional eye movements were recorded objectively before and after OMT (fixation, predictable saccades, simulated reading) and P training (6 weeks each, two sessions/week, 45 minutes/session). Following OMT, there was a significant (p OMT had a significant, positive effect on most aspects of versional tracking. These findings are suggestive of improved rhythmicity, accuracy and sequencing of saccades following OMT in mTBI as a result of oculomotor learning.

  12. Development of an Objective Autism Risk Index Using Remote Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W; Klingemier, Eric W; Beukemann, Mary; Speer, Leslie; Markowitz, Leslie; Parikh, Sumit; Wexberg, Steven; Giuliano, Kimberly; Schulte, Elaine; Delahunty, Carol; Ahuja, Veena; Eng, Charis; Manos, Michael J; Hardan, Antonio Y; Youngstrom, Eric A; Strauss, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal eye gaze is a hallmark characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and numerous studies have identified abnormal attention patterns in ASD. The primary aim of the present study was to create an objective, eye tracking-based autism risk index. In initial and replication studies, children were recruited after referral for comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation of ASD and subsequently grouped by clinical consensus diagnosis (ASD n = 25/15, non-ASD n = 20/19 for initial/replication samples). Remote eye tracking was blinded to diagnosis and included multiple stimuli. Dwell times were recorded to each a priori-defined region of interest (ROI) and averaged across ROIs to create an autism risk index. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses examined classification accuracy. Correlations with clinical measures evaluated whether the autism risk index was associated with autism symptom severity independent of language ability. In both samples, the autism risk index had high diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91 and 0.85, 95% CIs = 0.81-0.98 and 0.71-0.96), was strongly associated with Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) severity scores (r = 0.58 and 0.59, p  .095). The autism risk index may be a useful quantitative and objective measure of risk for autism in at-risk settings. Future research in larger samples is needed to cross-validate these findings. If validated and scaled for clinical use, this measure could inform clinical judgment regarding ASD diagnosis and track symptom improvements. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attentional biases in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): Eye-tracking using the emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Lin; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. This study aimed to examine attentional biases in BDD via the emotional Stroop task with two modifications: i) incorporating an eye-tracking paradigm, and ii) employing an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) control group. Twenty-one BDD, 19 OCD and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched, were included. A card version of the emotional Stroop task was employed based on seven 10-word lists: (i) BDD-positive, (ii) BDD-negative, (iii) OCD-checking, (iv) OCD-washing, (v) general positive, (vi) general threat, and (vii) neutral (as baseline). Participants were asked to read aloud words and word colours consecutively, thereby yielding accuracy and latency scores. Eye-tracking parameters were also measured. Participants with BDD exhibited significant Stroop interference for BDD-negative words relative to HC participants, as shown by extended colour-naming latencies. In contrast, the OCD group did not exhibit Stroop interference for OCD-related nor general threat words. Only mild eye-tracking anomalies were uncovered in clinical groups. Inspection of individual scanning styles and fixation heat maps however revealed that viewing strategies adopted by clinical groups were generally disorganised, with avoidance of certain disorder-relevant words and considerable visual attention devoted to non-salient card regions. The operation of attentional biases to negative disorder-specific words was corroborated in BDD. Future replication studies using other paradigms are vital, given potential ambiguities inherent in emotional Stroop task interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic Eye Tracking Based Metrics for Infant Gaze Patterns in the Face-Distractor Competition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtola, Eero; Stjerna, Susanna; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Nelson, Charles A.; Leppänen, Jukka M.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants’ gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm. Method Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45), as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22) in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants’ initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability) and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus). Results The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants. Conclusion The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants’ cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals. Significance Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development. PMID:24845102

  15. Dynamic eye tracking based metrics for infant gaze patterns in the face-distractor competition paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahtola

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants' gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm. METHOD: Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45, as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22 in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants' initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus. RESULTS: The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants' cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals. SIGNIFICANCE: Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development.

  16. EEG and Eye Tracking Signatures of Target Encoding during Structured Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A; Oudejans, Bob; Ries, Anthony J; Touryan, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    EEG and eye tracking variables are potential sources of information about the underlying processes of target detection and storage during visual search. Fixation duration, pupil size and event related potentials (ERPs) locked to the onset of fixation or saccade (saccade-related potentials, SRPs) have been reported to differ dependent on whether a target or a non-target is currently fixated. Here we focus on the question of whether these variables also differ between targets that are subsequently reported (hits) and targets that are not (misses). Observers were asked to scan 15 locations that were consecutively highlighted for 1 s in pseudo-random order. Highlighted locations displayed either a target or a non-target stimulus with two, three or four targets per trial. After scanning, participants indicated which locations had displayed a target. To induce memory encoding failures, participants concurrently performed an aurally presented math task (high load condition). In a low load condition, participants ignored the math task. As expected, more targets were missed in the high compared with the low load condition. For both conditions, eye tracking features distinguished better between hits and misses than between targets and non-targets (with larger pupil size and shorter fixations for missed compared with correctly encoded targets). In contrast, SRP features distinguished better between targets and non-targets than between hits and misses (with average SRPs showing larger P300 waveforms for targets than for non-targets). Single trial classification results were consistent with these averages. This work suggests complementary contributions of eye and EEG measures in potential applications to support search and detect tasks. SRPs may be useful to monitor what objects are relevant to an observer, and eye variables may indicate whether the observer should be reminded of them later.

  17. Towards a Classification of Translation Styles based on Eye-tracking and Keylogging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to formulate translator profiles based on process data from keylogging and eye-tracking, while at the same time identifying features which are shared by all translators in a sample consisting of both students and professionals. Data have been collected from 12 professional......, supporting our hypothesis that translator profiles can be observed which are independent of the difficulty of the translation task. The analysis of the data also indicated that translators could be grouped into broad categories of locally-oriented and globally-oriented translation styles, which are partly...

  18. Tracking the Evil Eye: Trait Anger and Selective Attention within Ambiguously Hostile Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Robert D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has shown that trait anger is associated with biases in attention and interpretation, but the temporal relation between these two types of biases remains unresolved. Indeed, two very different models can be derived from the literature. One model proposes that interpretation biases emerge from earlier biases in attention, whereas the other model proposes that hostile interpretations occur quickly, even prior to the allocation of attention to specific cues. Within the context of integrated visual scenes of ambiguously intended harm, the two models make opposite predictions that can be examined using an eye-tracking methodology. The present study (N = 45) therefore tracked participants' allocation of attention to hostile and non-hostile cues in ambiguous visual scenes, and found support for the idea that high anger individuals make early hostile interpretations prior to encoding hostile and non-hostiles cues. The data are important in understanding associations between trait anger and cognitive biases.

  19. Eye/head tracking technology to improve HCI with iPad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Basterretxea, Asier; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-01-22

    In order to improve human computer interaction (HCI) for people with special needs, this paper presents an alternative form of interaction, which uses the iPad's front camera and eye/head tracking technology. With this functional nature/capability operating in the background, the user can control already developed or new applications for the iPad by moving their eyes and/or head. There are many techniques, which are currently used to detect facial features, such as eyes or even the face itself. Open source bookstores exist for such purpose, such as OpenCV, which enable very reliable and accurate detection algorithms to be applied, such as Haar Cascade using very high-level programming. All processing is undertaken in real time, and it is therefore important to pay close attention to the use of limited resources (processing capacity) of devices, such as the iPad. The system was validated in tests involving 22 users of different ages and characteristics (people with dark and light-colored eyes and with/without glasses). These tests are performed to assess user/device interaction and to ascertain whether it works properly. The system obtained an accuracy of between 60% and 100% in the three test exercises taken into consideration. The results showed that the Haar Cascade had a significant effect by detecting faces in 100% of cases, unlike eyes and the pupil where interference (light and shade) evidenced less effectiveness. In addition to ascertaining the effectiveness of the system via these exercises, the demo application has also helped to show that user constraints need not affect the enjoyment and use of a particular type of technology. In short, the results obtained are encouraging and these systems may continue to be developed if extended and updated in the future.

  20. Eye/Head Tracking Technology to Improve HCI with iPad Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Lopez-Basterretxea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve human computer interaction (HCI for people with special needs, this paper presents an alternative form of interaction, which uses the iPad’s front camera and eye/head tracking technology. With this functional nature/capability operating in the background, the user can control already developed or new applications for the iPad by moving their eyes and/or head. There are many techniques, which are currently used to detect facial features, such as eyes or even the face itself. Open source bookstores exist for such purpose, such as OpenCV, which enable very reliable and accurate detection algorithms to be applied, such as Haar Cascade using very high-level programming. All processing is undertaken in real time, and it is therefore important to pay close attention to the use of limited resources (processing capacity of devices, such as the iPad. The system was validated in tests involving 22 users of different ages and characteristics (people with dark and light-colored eyes and with/without glasses. These tests are performed to assess user/device interaction and to ascertain whether it works properly. The system obtained an accuracy of between 60% and 100% in the three test exercises taken into consideration. The results showed that the Haar Cascade had a significant effect by detecting faces in 100% of cases, unlike eyes and the pupil where interference (light and shade evidenced less effectiveness. In addition to ascertaining the effectiveness of the system via these exercises, the demo application has also helped to show that user constraints need not affect the enjoyment and use of a particular type of technology. In short, the results obtained are encouraging and these systems may continue to be developed if extended and updated in the future.

  1. An Eye for Words: Gauging the Role of Attention in Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition by Means of Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Boers, Frank; Housen, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This eye-tracking study tests the hypothesis that more attention leads to more learning, following claims that attention to new language elements in the input results in their initial representation in long-term memory (i.e., intake; Robinson, 2003; Schmidt, 1990, 2001). Twenty-eight advanced learners of English read English texts that contained…

  2. An Eye for Words: Gauging the Role of Attention in Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition by Means of Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Boers, Frank; Housen, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This eye-tracking study tests the hypothesis that more attention leads to more learning, following claims that attention to new language elements in the input results in their initial representation in long-term memory (i.e., intake; Robinson, 2003; Schmidt, 1990, 2001). Twenty-eight advanced learners of English read English texts that contained…

  3. Detection of differential viewing patterns to erotic and non-erotic stimuli using eye-tracking methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Meana, Marta; Kambe, Gretchen

    2006-10-01

    As a first step in the investigation of the role of visual attention in the processing of erotic stimuli, eye-tracking methodology was employed to measure eye movements during erotic scene presentation. Because eye-tracking is a novel methodology in sexuality research, we attempted to determine whether the eye-tracker could detect differences (should they exist) in visual attention to erotic and non-erotic scenes. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with a series of erotic and non-erotic images and tracked their eye movements during image presentation. Comparisons between erotic and non-erotic image groups showed significant differences on two of three dependent measures of visual attention (number of fixations and total time) in both men and women. As hypothesized, there was a significant Stimulus x Scene Region interaction, indicating that participants visually attended to the body more in the erotic stimuli than in the non-erotic stimuli, as evidenced by a greater number of fixations and longer total time devoted to that region. These findings provide support for the application of eye-tracking methodology as a measure of visual attentional capture in sexuality research. Future applications of this methodology to expand our knowledge of the role of cognition in sexuality are suggested.

  4. Applicability of standard eye-tracking technique in people with intellectual disability: methodological conclusions from a series of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákvári, Judit; Gyori, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable amount of evidence suggest that info-communication technologies have important potential to promote higher level of adaptive functioning and more efficient learning in people with intellectual disability (ID), very little is known about how people with ID scan visually the visual user interfaces of digital tools. Eye-tracking technique is widely used to study visual scanning processes and is used more and more extensively in assistive and educational technologies, too. Therefore, it is important to explore and understand the limitations and potentials of applying eye-tracking technique in people with ID. The present paper aims this by analyzing data from 4 studies (n=38/38 and n=15/30), via contrasting data from people with ID with data from neurotypical (NT) control subjects along 3 variables, indicative of the applicability of eye-tracking technique. Results strongly suggest that there are specific difficulties in using eye-tracking in people with ID, showing considerable individual variability but depending also on the nature of the actual task. Consequentially, using eye-tracking in this group expectedly requires special considerations and specific solutions.

  5. Eye-tracking controlled cognitive function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a controlled proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Horn, Hannah T; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. There is a need to establish an eye movement-based method of neuropsychological assessment suitable for severely physically impaired patients with ALS. Forty-eight ALS patients and thirty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex and education performed a hand and speech motor-free version of the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM) and the D2-test which had been especially adapted for eye-tracking control. Data were compared to a classical motor-dependent paper-pencil version. The association of parameters of the eye-tracking and the paper-pencil version of the tests and the differences between and within groups were studied. Subjects presented similar results in the eye-tracking and the corresponding paper-pencil versions of the CPM and D2-test: a correlation between performance accuracy for the CPM was observed for ALS patients (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001) and in the D2-test for controls (p = 0.048), whereas this correlation did not reach statistical significance for ALS patients (p = 0.096). ALS patients performed worse in the CPM than controls in the eye-tracking (p = 0.053) and the paper-pencil version (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eye-tracking versions of the CPM (p < 0.001) and the D2-test (p = 0.024) reliably distinguished between more and less cognitively impaired patients. Eye-tracking-based neuropsychological testing is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS.

  6. Social attention in ASD: A review and meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia

    2016-01-01

    Determining whether social attention is reduced in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and what factors influence social attention is important to our theoretical understanding of developmental trajectories of ASD and to designing targeted interventions for ASD. This meta-analysis examines data from 38 articles that used eye-tracking methods to compare individuals with ASD and TD controls. In this paper, the impact of eight factors on the size of the effect for the difference in social attention between these two groups are evaluated: age, non-verbal IQ matching, verbal IQ matching, motion, social content, ecological validity, audio input and attention bids. Results show that individuals with ASD spend less time attending to social stimuli than typically developing (TD) controls, with a mean effect size of 0.55. Social attention in ASD was most impacted when stimuli had a high social content (showed more than one person). This meta-analysis provides an opportunity to survey the eye-tracking research on social attention in ASD and to outline potential future research directions, more specifically research of social attention in the context of stimuli with high social content.

  7. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p60 This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  8. Rainband, Feature Tracking for Wind Speeds Around Typhoon Eyes Using Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Liu, A. K.; Yu, C.-K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, five typhoon cases observed by quasi-concurrent satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and one of the cases also by ground-based Doppler radar observations have been studied. The rainband features around typhoon eyes are first delineated using wavelet analysis, and then the wind speeds are estimated by feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images.It was found that the resulting wind speeds are reasonable compared with the maximum wind speed reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), which accounts for the radial dependence of wind speed using the Rankine combined vortex approximation. In a specific case, with the aid of Doppler radar near the coast, wind speed estimation based on the multi-sensor also shows consistent results. This study demonstrates that the local wind distribution of cyclonic winds around typhoon eyes at different radial distances from the typhoon centers may be derived from rainband feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. This technique may offer useful wind information for typhoon simulations and forecasting.

  9. Neural mechanisms of attention become more specialised during infancy: Insights from combined eye tracking and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulke, Louisa; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    The Fixation Shift Paradigm (FSP) measures infants' ability to shift gaze from a central fixation stimulus to a peripheral target (e.g. Hood & Atkinson, 1993: Infant Behavior and Development, 16(4), 405-422). Cortical maturation has been suggested as crucial for the developing ability to shift attention. This study investigated the development of neural mechanisms by combining EEG with simultaneous eye tracking during FSP testing, in typically developing infants aged between 1 and 8 months. The most prominent neural response was a frontal positivity which occurred only in the hemisphere contralateral to the target in the youngest infants but became more ipsilateral with age. This changing lateralisation was associated with improving ability to shift attention (decreasing saccade latencies and fewer 'sticky fixations'-failures to disengage attention from the central target). These findings suggest that the lateralisation of neural responses develops during infancy, possibly due to developing intracortical connections, allowing infants to shift attention more efficiently. Successful use of combined simultaneous remote eye tracking and EEG to measure infant attention shifts. Neural responses involved in attention shifts change in the first year of life. The lateralisation of EEG responses changes with age in the first year of life. Frontal cortex is involved in attention shifts from around 2 months of age. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Automatic Detection of Attention Shifts in Infancy: Eye Tracking in the Fixation Shift Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulke, Louisa; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This study measured changes in switches of attention between 1 and 9 months of age in 67 typically developing infants. Remote eye-tracking (Tobii X120) was used to measure saccadic latencies, related to switches of fixation, as a measure of shifts of attention, from a central stimulus to a peripheral visual target, measured in the Fixation Shift Paradigm. Fixation shifts occur later if the central fixation stimulus stays visible when the peripheral target appears (competition condition), than if the central stimulus disappears as the peripheral target appears (non-competition condition). This difference decreases with age. Our results show significantly faster disengagement in infants over 4 months than in the younger group, and provide more precise measures of fixation shifts, than behavioural observation with the same paradigm. Reduced saccadic latencies in the course of a test session indicate a novel learning effect. The Fixation Shift Paradigm combined with remote eye-tracking measures showed improved temporal and spatial accuracy compared to direct observation by a trained observer, and allowed an increased number of trials in a short testing time. This makes it an infant-friendly non-invasive procedure, involving minimal observational training, suitable for use in future studies of clinical populations to detect early attentional abnormalities in the first few months of life.

  11. Automatic Detection of Attention Shifts in Infancy: Eye Tracking in the Fixation Shift Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Kulke

    Full Text Available This study measured changes in switches of attention between 1 and 9 months of age in 67 typically developing infants. Remote eye-tracking (Tobii X120 was used to measure saccadic latencies, related to switches of fixation, as a measure of shifts of attention, from a central stimulus to a peripheral visual target, measured in the Fixation Shift Paradigm. Fixation shifts occur later if the central fixation stimulus stays visible when the peripheral target appears (competition condition, than if the central stimulus disappears as the peripheral target appears (non-competition condition. This difference decreases with age. Our results show significantly faster disengagement in infants over 4 months than in the younger group, and provide more precise measures of fixation shifts, than behavioural observation with the same paradigm. Reduced saccadic latencies in the course of a test session indicate a novel learning effect. The Fixation Shift Paradigm combined with remote eye-tracking measures showed improved temporal and spatial accuracy compared to direct observation by a trained observer, and allowed an increased number of trials in a short testing time. This makes it an infant-friendly non-invasive procedure, involving minimal observational training, suitable for use in future studies of clinical populations to detect early attentional abnormalities in the first few months of life.

  12. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  13. 基于SVM的眼动轨迹解读思维状态的研究%Study of decoding mental state based on eye tracks using SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊杰; 严会霞; 相洁

    2011-01-01

    It is a hot topic in applied psychology that interpreting people's thinking from eye tracks.In this paper,research material is 4*4 sudoku.The Tobii eye tracker records subjects' eye tracks while solving 4*4 sudouk.And then this paper uses feature values, the weighted value of the composite indicators, such as the duration, regression time of each AOI, to train SVM classifier.The experiments of three different classification tasks show that the classification accuracy is very high, and the ability of generalization is strong.SVM can be used for the classification of eye tracks.So this paper can interpret different problem-solving strategies according to the results of classification of eye tracks.%从人们的眼动轨迹来解读人的思维状态已成为应用心理学的研究热点.以四方趣题为研究材料,通过Tobii眼动仪记录被试解题时的眼动轨迹,以眼动轨迹数据中各个AOI的注视持续时间和回视等综合指标的加权值作为特征值训练SVM分类器.经过三种不同的分类任务的实验验证,SVM分类的准确率很高,泛化能力很强,可以作为眼动轨迹分析的分类方法,从而可根据眼动轨迹解读被试解题时的不同策略.

  14. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports.

  15. Noncontact binocular eye-gaze tracking for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Craig; Lawrence, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Binocular eye-gaze tracking can be used to estimate the point-of-gaze (POG) of a subject in real-world 3-D space using the vergence of the eyes. In this paper, a novel noncontact model-based technique for 3-D POG estimation is presented. The noncontact system allows people to select real-world objects in 3-D physical space using their eyes, without the need for head-mounted equipment. Remote 3-D POG estimation may be especially useful for persons with quadriplegia or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. It would also enable a user to select 3-D points in space generated by 3-D volumetric displays, with potential applications to medical imaging and telesurgery. Using a model-based POG estimation algorithm allows for free head motion and a single stage of calibration. It is shown that an average accuracy of 3.93 cm was achieved over a workspace volume of 30 x 23 x 25 cm (W x H x D) with a maximum latency of 1.5 s due to the digital filtering employed. The users were free to naturally move and reorient their heads while operating the system, within an allowable headspace of 3 cm x 9 cm x 14 cm.

  16. Assessing Visual Attention Using Eye Tracking Sensors in Intelligent Cognitive Therapies Based on Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Frutos-Pascual

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of eye tracking sensors as a means to identify children’s behavior in attention-enhancement therapies. For this purpose, a set of data collected from 32 children with different attention skills is analyzed during their interaction with a set of puzzle games. The authors of this study hypothesize that participants with better performance may have quantifiably different eye-movement patterns from users with poorer results. The use of eye trackers outside the research community may help to extend their potential with available intelligent therapies, bringing state-of-the-art technologies to users. The use of gaze data constitutes a new information source in intelligent therapies that may help to build new approaches that are fully-customized to final users’ needs. This may be achieved by implementing machine learning algorithms for classification. The initial study of the dataset has proven a 0.88 (±0.11 classification accuracy with a random forest classifier, using cross-validation and hierarchical tree-based feature selection. Further approaches need to be examined in order to establish more detailed attention behaviors and patterns among children with and without attention problems.

  17. Rett syndrome: basic features of visual processing-a pilot study of eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Aleksandra; Valicenti McDermott, Maria; Mavrommatis, Kathleen; Martins, Cristina L

    2012-07-01

    Consistently observed "strong eye gaze" has not been validated as a means of communication in girls with Rett syndrome, ubiquitously affected by apraxia, unable to reply either verbally or manually to questions during formal psychologic assessment. We examined nonverbal cognitive abilities and basic features of visual processing (visual discrimination attention/memory) by analyzing patterns of visual fixation in 44 girls with Rett syndrome, compared with typical control subjects. To determine features of visual fixation patterns, multiple pictures (with the location of the salient and presence/absence of novel stimuli as variables) were presented on the screen of a TS120 eye-tracker. Of the 44, 35 (80%) calibrated and exhibited meaningful patterns of visual fixation. They looked longer at salient stimuli (cartoon, 2.8 ± 2 seconds S.D., vs shape, 0.9 ± 1.2 seconds S.D.; P = 0.02), regardless of their position on the screen. They recognized novel stimuli, decreasing the fixation time on the central image when another image appeared on the periphery of the slide (2.7 ± 1 seconds S.D. vs 1.8 ± 1 seconds S.D., P = 0.002). Eye-tracking provides a feasible method for cognitive assessment and new insights into the "hidden" abilities of individuals with Rett syndrome.

  18. Assessing visual attention using eye tracking sensors in intelligent cognitive therapies based on serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos-Pascual, Maite; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2015-05-12

    This study examines the use of eye tracking sensors as a means to identify children's behavior in attention-enhancement therapies. For this purpose, a set of data collected from 32 children with different attention skills is analyzed during their interaction with a set of puzzle games. The authors of this study hypothesize that participants with better performance may have quantifiably different eye-movement patterns from users with poorer results. The use of eye trackers outside the research community may help to extend their potential with available intelligent therapies, bringing state-of-the-art technologies to users. The use of gaze data constitutes a new information source in intelligent therapies that may help to build new approaches that are fully-customized to final users' needs. This may be achieved by implementing machine learning algorithms for classification. The initial study of the dataset has proven a 0.88 (±0.11) classification accuracy with a random forest classifier, using cross-validation and hierarchical tree-based feature selection. Further approaches need to be examined in order to establish more detailed attention behaviors and patterns among children with and without attention problems.

  19. The disengagement of visual attention in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Trevor J.; Devereaux, Alex; Higham, Steve; Kelly, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Eye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly control participants who were assessed at the start of the study and followed up 12-months later. Methods: Eye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target. Results: Overall patients with Alzheimer's disease had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12-months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12-months. Conclusions: These findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control. PMID:26157388

  20. Joint attention difficulties in autistic adults: An interactive eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Brock, Jon; Woolgar, Alexandra; Kloth, Nadine; Palermo, Romina; McArthur, Genevieve

    2017-04-01

    Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar. Compared to control participants, autistic adults completed fewer trials successfully. They were also slower to respond to joint attention bids in the first block of testing but performed as well as controls in the second block. There were no group differences in responding to spatial cues on a non-social task with similar attention and oculomotor demands. These experimental results were mirrored in the subjective reports given by participants, with some commenting that they initially found it challenging to communicate using eye gaze, but were able to develop strategies that allowed them to achieve joint attention. Our study indicates that for many autistic individuals, subtle difficulties using eye-gaze information persist well into adulthood.

  1. The disengagement of visual attention in people with Alzheimer's Disease: A longitudinal eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J Crawford

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with dementia and elderly control participants who were assessed at start of the study and followed up 12 months later.MethodsEye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target.ResultsOverall patients with dementia had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12 months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12 months.ConclusionsThese findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control.

  2. Development of online use of theory of mind during adolescence: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Chow, Wing-Yee; Breheny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the development of theory of mind use through eye-tracking in children (9-13years old, n=14), adolescents (14-17.9years old, n=28), and adults (19-29years old, n=23). Participants performed a computerized task in which a director instructed them to move objects placed on a set of shelves. Some of the objects were blocked off from the director's point of view; therefore, participants needed to take into consideration the director's ignorance of these objects when following the director's instructions. In a control condition, participants performed the same task in the absence of the director and were told that the instructions would refer only to items in slots without a back panel, controlling for general cognitive demands of the task. Participants also performed two inhibitory control tasks. We replicated previous findings, namely that in the director-present condition, but not in the control condition, children and adolescents made more errors than adults, suggesting that theory of mind use improves between adolescence and adulthood. Inhibitory control partly accounted for errors on the director task, indicating that it is a factor of developmental change in perspective taking. Eye-tracking data revealed early eye gaze differences between trials where the director's perspective was taken into account and those where it was not. Once differences in accuracy rates were considered, all age groups engaged in the same kind of online processing during perspective taking but differed in how often they engaged in perspective taking. When perspective is correctly taken, all age groups' gaze data point to an early influence of perspective information.

  3. Location, Location, Location: Eye-Tracking Evidence that Consumers Preferentially View Prominently Positioned Nutrition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutrition Facts labels can keep consumers better informed about their diets' nutritional composition, however, consumers currently do not understand these labels well or use them often. Thus, modifying existing labels may benefit public health. Objective The present study tracked the visual attention of individuals making simulated food-purchasing decisions to assess Nutrition Facts label viewing. Primary research questions were how self-reported viewing of Nutrition Facts labels and their components relates to measured viewing and whether locations of labels and specific label components relate to viewing. Design The study involved a simulated grocery shopping exercise conducted on a computer equipped with an eye-tracking camera. A post-task survey assessed self-reported nutrition information viewing, health behaviors, and demographics. Subjects/setting Individuals 18 years old and older and capable of reading English words on a computer (n=203) completed the 1-hour protocol at the University of Minnesota during Spring 2010. Statistical analyses Primary analyses included χ2, analysis of variance, and t tests comparing self-reported and measured viewing of label components in different presentation configurations. Results Self-reported viewing of Nutrition Facts label components was higher than objectively measured viewing. Label components at the top of the label were viewed more than those at the bottom, and labels positioned in the center of the screen were viewed more than those located on the sides. Conclusions Nutrition Facts label position within a viewing area and position of specific components on a label relate to viewing. Eye tracking is a valuable technology for evaluating consumers' attention to nutrition information, informing nutrition labeling policy (eg, front-of-pack labels), and designing labels that best support healthy dietary decisions. PMID:22027053

  4. A comparison study of visually stimulated brain-computer and eye-tracking interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suefusa, Kaori; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye-tracking or eye-tracking interfaces (ETIs). The two types of interface have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on a comprehensive comparison between these two types of interface has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform. Specifically, our study is focused on two major paradigms of BCI and ETI: steady-state visual evoked potential-based BCIs and dwelling-based ETIs. Approach. Recognition accuracy and the information transfer rate were measured by giving subjects the task of selecting one of four targets by gazing at it. The targets were displayed in three different sizes (with sides 20, 40 and 60 mm long) to evaluate performance with respect to the target size. Main results. The experimental results showed that the BCI was comparable to the ETI in terms of accuracy and the information transfer rate. In particular, when the size of a target was relatively small, the BCI had significantly better performance than the ETI. Significance. The results on which of the two interfaces works better in different situations would not only enable us to improve the design of the interfaces but would also allow for the appropriate choice of interface based on the situation. Specifically, one can choose an interface based on the size of the screen that displays the targets.

  5. Factor Structure of Attention Capacities Measured With Eye-Tracking Tasks in 18-Month-Old Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T C; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2016-03-01

    Attention capacities are critical for adaptive functioning and development. Reliable assessment measures are needed for the study of attention capacities in early childhood. In the current study, we investigated the factor structure of the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers Using Eye-tracking (UTATE) test battery that assesses attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers with eye-tracking techniques. The factor structure of 13 measures of attention capacities, based on four eye-tracking tasks, was investigated in a sample of 95 healthy toddlers (18 months of age) using confirmatory factor analysis. Results showed that a three-factor model best fitted the data. The latent constructs reflected an orienting, alerting, and executive attention system. This study showed support for a three-factor model of attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers. Further study is needed to investigate whether the model can also be used with children at risk of attention problems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Measuring attentional bias in children with prominent ears: A prospective eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Rebecca; Sobey, Stephanie; Chorney, Jill M; Bezuhly, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2015-12-01

    When observing new faces, most people focus their attention on the central triangle of the face containing the eyes, nose and mouth. When viewing faces with prominent ears, observers may divert their attention from the central triangle. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an objective attentional bias to prominent ears in comparison to non-prominent ears. A total of 24 naïve participants (13 female; mean age 22.88 years) viewed 15 photographs of children with bilateral prominent ears, unilateral prominent ears and non-prominent ears. Both pre- and post-otoplasty photographs of two patients were included. The eye movements of participants were recorded using the EyeLink 1000, a table-mounted eye-tracking device. Overall, the participants spent more time looking at the ear regions for faces with prominent ears in comparison to faces without prominent ears (p = 0.007, Z = -2.688). The attentional bias to the ear region of the patient who underwent bilateral otoplasty was significantly reduced in the post-operative photograph (p = 0.011, Z = -2.534). The patient who underwent unilateral otoplasty had no significant change in fixation times towards the ear region (p = 0.594, Z = -0.533). This study presents objective data to support the notion that observers show attentional bias to the ear region when viewing faces of children with prominent ears. The scope of this finding requires further research in both extent and impact. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Driving experience and special skills reflected in eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Atvars, Aigars

    2011-10-01

    When driving a vehicle, people use the central vision both to plan ahead and monitor their performance feedback (research by Donges, 1978 [1], and after). Discussion is ongoing if making eye movements do more than gathering information. Moving eyes may also prepare the following body movements like steering. Different paradigms exist to explore vision in driving. Our perspective was to quantify eye movements and fixation patterns of different proficiency individuals, a driving learner, a novice, an experienced driver and a European level car racer. Thus for safety reasons we started by asking them to follow a video tour through a known city, remote from an infrared eye tracker sampling at 250 Hz. We report that gaze strategy of an experienced driver differs qualitatively from that of an automobile sports master. Quantitative differences only were found between the latter and a driving learner or a novice driver. Experience in a motor action provides skills different from sports training. We are aiming at testing this finding in real world driving.

  8. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  9. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D

    2004-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  10. Implementation of Eye Movement Tracking System Based on Camshift Algorithm%基于Camshift算法的眼动跟踪系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春瑞; 吕学全; 赵冀; 任秋实; 柴新禹

    2009-01-01

    介绍了的眼动跟踪系统分为硬件检测、数据提取和综合分析三个步骤.其算法基础为基于Camshift目标跟踪算法的改进算法,加入了眼动跟踪计算模块,以VC++6.0为开发语言实现.该系统在基于假体视觉的模拟光幻视点定位实验中可有效地进行眼动跟踪.%In this article, the implementation of eye movement tracking system includes three procedures: hardware acquisition, data extraction and overall analysis.The system is based on Camshift algorithm with an eye tracking module added, developed on VC++ 6.0.The system can track the eye movement effectively in simulated phosphene evaluation experiment based on prosthetic vision.

  11. The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngbin; Payne, John W; Cohen, Andrew L; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making - despite adolescents' competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative, loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models. Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions, adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively, these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental transition in economic decision making: adolescents' decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models, while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate heuristics.

  12. Stochastic anomaly detection in eye-tracking data for quantification of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Daniel; Medvedev, Alexander; Axelson, Hans; Nyholm, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for distinguishing between healthy controls and patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease by means of recorded smooth pursuit eye movements are presented and evaluated. Both methods are based on the principles of stochastic anomaly detection and make use of orthogonal series approximation for probability distribution estimation. The first method relies on the identification of a Wiener model of the smooth pursuit system and attempts to find statistically significant differences between the estimated parameters in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The second method applies the same statistical method to distinguish between the gaze trajectories of healthy and Parkinson subjects tracking visual stimuli. Both methods show promising results, where healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease are effectively separated in terms of the considered metric. The results are preliminary because of the small number of participating test subjects, but they are indicative of the potential of the presented methods as diagnosing or staging tools for Parkinson's disease.

  13. Eye-tracking Information Processing in Choice-based Conjoint Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Decker, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Choice models are a common tool in market research for quantifying the influence of product attributes on consumer decisions. Process tracing techniques, on the other hand, try to answer the question of how people process information and make decisions in choice tasks. This paper suggests...... a combination of both approaches for in-depth investigations of consumer decision processes in preference measurement by means of choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis. We discuss different process tracing techniques and propose an attribute-specific strategy measure for the analysis of CBC results. In our...... empirical study we eyetrack respondents evaluating CBC choice tasks for single-cup coffee brewers. On the basis of several hypotheses we illustrate the benefits of simultaneously recording eye-tracking information for market research....

  14. An Eye-Tracking Version of the Trail-Making Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen L.; Sharma, Rakesh; Khan, Amad N.; Berna, Claire M.; Waldecker, Andrea; Talbot, Kevin; Kennard, Chris; Turner, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may render patients unable to speak or write, so that objective assessment of cognitive impairment, which is commonly of a dysexecutive nature, is challenging. There is therefore a need to develop other methods of assessment that utilize other relatively unaffected motor systems. In this proof-of-principle study a novel eye-tracking version of the trail-making test was compared with performance on the standard written version in a group of healthy volunteers. There was good correlation for speed between both versions of Part B (R2=0.73), suggesting that this is a viable method to objectively assess cognitive impairment in disorders where patients are unable to speak or write. PMID:24367626

  15. An eye-tracking version of the trail-making test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may render patients unable to speak or write, so that objective assessment of cognitive impairment, which is commonly of a dysexecutive nature, is challenging. There is therefore a need to develop other methods of assessment that utilize other relatively unaffected motor systems. In this proof-of-principle study a novel eye-tracking version of the trail-making test was compared with performance on the standard written version in a group of healthy volunteers. There was good correlation for speed between both versions of Part B (R(2=0.73, suggesting that this is a viable method to objectively assess cognitive impairment in disorders where patients are unable to speak or write.

  16. Stochastic anomaly detection in eye-tracking data for quantification of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Daniel; Medvedev, Alexander; Axelson, Hans; Nyholm, Dag

    2013-10-01

    Two methods for distinguishing between healthy controls and patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease by means of recorded smooth pursuit eye movements are presented and evaluated. Both methods are based on the principles of stochastic anomaly detection and make use of orthogonal series approximation for probability distribution estimation. The first method relies on the identification of a Wiener-type model of the smooth pursuit system and attempts to find statistically significant differences between the estimated parameters in healthy controls and patientts with Parkinson's disease. The second method applies the same statistical method to distinguish between the gaze trajectories of healthy and Parkinson subjects attempting to track visual stimuli. Both methods show promising results, where healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease are effectively separated in terms of the considered metric. The results are preliminary because of the small number of participating test subjects, but they are indicative of the potential of the presented methods as diagnosing or staging tools for Parkinson's disease.

  17. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan

    2016-06-01

    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  18. High Numerates Count Icons and Low Numerates Process Large Areas in Pictographs: Results of an Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzmair, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the influence of numeracy on individuals' information processing of pictographs depending on numeracy via an eye-tracker. In two conditions, participants from the general population were presented with a scenario depicting the risk of having cancer and were asked to indicate their perceived risk. The risk level was high (63%) in experiment 1 (N = 70) and low (6%) in experiment 2 (N = 69). In the default condition, participants were free to use their default strategy for information processing. In the guiding-toward-the-number condition, they were prompted to count icons in the pictograph by answering with an explicit number. We used eye-tracking parameters related to the distance between sequential fixations to analyze participants' strategies for processing numerical information. In the default condition, the higher the numeracy was, the shorter the distances traversed in the pictograph were, indicating that participants counted the icons. People lower in numeracy performed increased large-area processing by comparing highlighted and nonhighlighted parts of the pictograph. In the guiding-toward-the-number condition, participants used short distances regardless of their numeracy, supporting the notion that short distances represent counting. Despite the different default processing strategies, participants processed the pictograph with a similar depth and derived similar risk perceptions. The results show that pictographs are beneficial for communicating medical risk. Pictographs make the gist salient by making the part-to-whole relationship visually available, and they facilitate low numerates' non-numeric processing of numerical information. Contemporaneously, pictographs allow high numerates to numerically process and rely on the number depicted in the pictograph.

  19. Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunjung; Wiseheart, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs. Axes and legends were labelled either with words (mixed-modality graphs) or icons (orthography-free graphs). Students also answered informationally equivalent questions presented in sentences (orthography-only condition). Response times were slower in the dyslexic group only for processing sentences. However, eye tracking data revealed group differences for processing mixed-modality graphs, whereas no group differences were found for the orthography-free graphs. When processing bar graphs, students with dyslexia differ from their able reading peers only when graphs contain orthographic features. Implications for processing informational text are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Eye tracking communication devices in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: impact on disability and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligari, Marco; Godi, Marco; Guglielmetti, Simone; Franchignoni, Franco; Nardone, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (PwALS) show progressive loss of voluntary muscle strength. In advanced disease, motor and phonatory impairments seriously hinder the patient's interpersonal communication. High-tech devices such as eye tracking communication devices (ETCDs) are used to aid communication in the later stages of ALS. We sought to evaluate the effect of ETCDs on patient disability, quality of life (QoL), and user satisfaction, in a group of 35 regular ETCD users in late-stage ALS with tetraplegia and anarthria. The following scales were administered: 1) the Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment (IPPA) scale, in three conditions: without device, with ETCD and, when applicable, with an Eye Transfer (ETRAN) board; 2) the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS); and 3) the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0). With ETRAN, IPPA showed an increase in communicative abilities with respect to the condition without device, but ETCD produced a further significant increase. PIADS evidenced a large increase of QoL, and QUEST 2.0 showed high user satisfaction with ETCD use. In conclusion, ETCDs should be considered in late-stage ALS with tetraplegia and anarthria, since in these patients they can reduce communication disability and improve QoL.

  1. Cue strength in second-language processing: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Alba; Warren, Tessa; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking and grammaticality judgement measures to examine how second-language (L2) learners process syntactic violations in English. Participants were native Arabic and native Mandarin Chinese speakers studying English as an L2, and monolingual English-speaking controls. The violations involved incorrect word order and differed in two ways predicted to be important by the unified competition model [UCM; MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 49-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.]. First, one violation had more and stronger cues to ungrammaticality than the other. Second, the grammaticality of these word orders varied in Arabic and Mandarin Chinese. Sensitivity to violations was relatively quick overall, across all groups. Sensitivity also was related to the number and strength of cues to ungrammaticality regardless of native language, which is consistent with the general principles of the UCM. However, there was little evidence of cross-language transfer effects in either eye movements or grammaticality judgements.

  2. Eye Tracking to Explore the Impacts of Photorealistic 3d Representations in Pedstrian Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihua; Liao, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D) maps, photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of cities (e.g., Google Earth) have gained much attention by scientists and public users as another option. However, there is no consistent evidence on the influences of 3D photorealism on pedestrian navigation. Whether 3D photorealism can communicate cartographic information for navigation with higher effectiveness and efficiency and lower cognitive workload compared to the traditional symbolic 2D maps remains unknown. This study aims to explore whether the photorealistic 3D representation can facilitate processes of map reading and navigation in digital environments using a lab-based eye tracking approach. Here we show the differences of symbolic 2D maps versus photorealistic 3D representations depending on users' eye-movement and navigation behaviour data. We found that the participants using the 3D representation were less effective, less efficient and were required higher cognitive workload than using the 2D map for map reading. However, participants using the 3D representation performed more efficiently in self-localization and orientation at the complex decision points. The empirical results can be helpful to improve the usability of pedestrian navigation maps in future designs.

  3. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  4. 自由立体显示系统中的人眼跟踪定位方法%Eye tracking and locating method in autostereo display system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑

    2015-01-01

    Eye Tracking and locating is very important in autostereo display.When the system get the precise location of the double eyes and adjust the according parameters,the viewer can have the true feeling of stereo scene.The article uses a general to specific way to track the face and then locate the eye precisely.The red eye effect can help choose the candidates of eye regions. We use Adaboost to detect face and eye.In the face tracking part,we use the Adaboost cascade result to generate the likelihood model in particle filtering.And last the projection method is used to find the location of the pupil.The experiment shows that this method has greatly improved the speed of eye tracking and locating to 100f/s and well satisfied the requirements of the system.%人眼跟踪定位是自由立体显示系统的重要组成部分,系统通过获取两眼的精确位置可以使观看者无辅助观看设备情况下获得清晰的三维图像。采用由粗到精的方法,在对人脸区域进行跟踪的基础上进行人眼初检测和瞳孔精确定位。红眼效应可有效筛选眼部区域候选点,利用脸部 Adaboost 级联分类器检测结果构造似然函数用于粒子滤波实时人脸跟踪,在此基础上进行基于 Adaboost 方法的人眼初定位和基于投影方法的瞳孔精定位。实验表明,该算法使人眼跟踪与精确定位速度之和达到100帧/s,满足系统实时精确的要求。

  5. 一种基于眼动轨迹的语义提取方法研究%Study on Method of Semantic Extraction Based on Eye Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2013-01-01

    利用眼动轨迹包含的参数来预测顾客是否喜欢某些商品,对于电子商务的推荐系统具有重要意义.通过采集顾客观察某物品的眼动参数,借鉴Find-s算法概念学习的思想,提出眼动轨迹语义提取算法,该算法首先学习先验知识,然后通过让样例正反例距离最大实现确定眼动参数包括注视时间、瞳孔大小、眨眼次数以及回视次数的权重,利用SEBET(Semantic extraction based eye tracking)算法,通过di=∑√m'=k1,i'=k2,i=λ∑m'=1,i'=1,i=0(xNm'(i)-x0i'(i))2w(i)/k1×k2计算样例正反例之间的距离,依照距离的远近来判断顾客是否喜欢某商品,从而实现从眼动轨迹进行语义提取.实验中,记录被试观察水果图片的眼动参数,分析出被试的喜好,与被试实际喜好进行了比较,发现样本与正例的距离为0.91,与反例的距离为3.01,与实际情况相符.%It is important for recommendation system of E-business to predicate consumer's habits by eyes gaze tracking. We explore algorithms to identify people's enjoyment by referencing Finds algorithm, it includes getting the weight of eyes parameters by getting the distance of object examples and negative examples, eyes parameters include the eye gazing time, the pupil size, the blink times and the looking back times. We use SEBET (Semantic Extraction Based Eye Tracking) algorithm to calculate the distance of object examples and negative examples, so we can decide whether consumers enjoy the goods or not from the distance, we extract the emotion semantic from eye tracking successfully. Experiments show the efficiency of our algorithm.

  6. Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cues in females: an eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerine M A Lodder

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias, but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1, at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression (Task 2, at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3, and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4. In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1, and social images (T3. Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2 in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4. No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals.

  7. Loneliness and Hypervigilance to Social Cues in Females: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Clemens, Ivar A. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656

  8. Inner Detector Track Reconstruction and Alignment at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Danninger, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is responsible for reconstructing the trajectories of charged particles (‘tracks’) with high efficiency and accuracy. It consists of three subdetectors, each using a different technology to provide measurements points. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking will be summarised. Of crucial importance for optimal tracking performance is precise knowledge of the relative positions of the detector elements. ATLAS uses a sophisticated, highly granular software alignment procedure to determine and correct for the positions of the sensors, including time-dependent effects appearing within single data runs. This alignment procedure will be discussed in detail, and its effect on Inner Detector tracking for LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data highlighted.

  9. Eye tracking and climate change: How is climate literacy information processed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. C.; McNeal, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    The population of the Southeastern United States is perceived to be resistant to information regarding global climate change. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project was formed to provide a resource for climate science information. As part of this project, we are evaluating the way that education materials influence the interpretation of climate change related information. At Mississippi State University, a study is being conducted examining how individuals from the Southeastern United States process climate change information and whether or not the interaction with such information impacts the interpretation of subsequent climate change related information. By observing the patterns both before and after an educational intervention, we are able to evaluate the effectiveness of the climate change information on an individual's interpretation of related information. Participants in this study view figures describing various types of climate change related information (CO2 emissions, sea levels, etc.) while their eye movements are tracked to determine a baseline for the way that they process this type of graphical data. Specifically, we are examining time spent viewing and number of fixations on critical portions of the figures prior to exposure to an educational document on climate change. Following the baseline period, we provide participants with portions of a computerized version of Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences that the participants read at their own pace while their eye movements are monitored. Participants are told that they will be given a test on the material after reading the resource. After reading the excerpt, participants are presented with a new set of climate change related figures to interpret (with eye tracking) along with a series of questions regarding information contained in the resource. We plan to evaluate changes that occur in the way that climate change related information is

  10. How visual search relates to visual diagnostic performance : a narrative systematic review of eye-tracking research in radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, A; Ravesloot, C J; Jarodzka, H; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; van Schaik, J P J; ten Cate, Olle

    Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review

  11. Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

  12. Eye-Tracking Verification of the Strategy Used to Analyse Algorithms Expressed in a Flowchart and Pseudocode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, Magdalena; Stolinska, Anna; Blasiak, Wladyslaw; Peczkowski, Pawel; Rosiek, Roman; Rozek, Bozena; Sajka, Miroslawa; Wcislo, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The results of qualitative and quantitative investigations conducted with individuals who learned algorithms in school are presented in this article. In these investigations, eye-tracking technology was used to follow the process of solving algorithmic problems. The algorithmic problems were presented in two comparable variants: in a pseudocode…

  13. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  14. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  15. Reconceptualizing Reactivity of Think-Alouds and Eye Tracking: Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Spino, Le Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study extends previous reactivity research on the cognitive effects of think-alouds to include eye-tracking methodology. Unlike previous studies, we supplemented traditional superiority tests with equivalence tests, because only the latter are conceptually appropriate for demonstrating nonreactivity. Advanced learners of English read short…

  16. Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  18. Eye-Tracking Verification of the Strategy Used to Analyse Algorithms Expressed in a Flowchart and Pseudocode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, Magdalena; Stolinska, Anna; Blasiak, Wladyslaw; Peczkowski, Pawel; Rosiek, Roman; Rozek, Bozena; Sajka, Miroslawa; Wcislo, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The results of qualitative and quantitative investigations conducted with individuals who learned algorithms in school are presented in this article. In these investigations, eye-tracking technology was used to follow the process of solving algorithmic problems. The algorithmic problems were presented in two comparable variants: in a pseudocode…

  19. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults Is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data…

  20. Reconceptualizing Reactivity of Think-Alouds and Eye Tracking: Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Spino, Le Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study extends previous reactivity research on the cognitive effects of think-alouds to include eye-tracking methodology. Unlike previous studies, we supplemented traditional superiority tests with equivalence tests, because only the latter are conceptually appropriate for demonstrating nonreactivity. Advanced learners of English read short…

  1. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  2. Preferential inspection of recent real-world events over future events: evidence from eye tracking during spoken sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eKnoeferle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking findings suggest people prefer to ground their spoken language comprehension by focusing on recently-seen events more than anticipating future events: When the verb in NP1-VERB-ADV-NP2 sentences was referentially ambiguous between a recently depicted and an equally plausible future clipart action, listeners fixated the target of the recent action more often at the verb than the object that hadn't yet been acted upon. We examined whether this inspection preference generalizes to real-world events, and whether it is (vs. isn't modulated by how often people see recent and future events acted out. In a first eye-tracking study, the experimenter performed an action (e.g., sugaring pancakes, and then a spoken sentence either referred to that action or to an equally plausible future action (e.g., sugaring strawberries. At the verb, people more often inspected the pancakes (the recent target than the strawberries (the future target, thus replicating the recent-event preference with these real-world actions. Adverb tense, indicating a future versus past event, had no effect on participants' visual attention. In a second study we increased the frequency of future actions such that participants saw 50/50 future and recent actions. During the verb people mostly inspected the recent action target, but subsequently they began to rely on tense, and anticipated the future target more often for future than past tense adverbs. A corpus study showed that the verbs and adverbs indicating past versus future actions were equally frequent, suggesting long-term frequency biases did not cause the recent-event preference. Thus, (a recent real-world actions can rapidly influence comprehension (as indexed by eye gaze to objects, and (b people prefer to first inspect a recent action target (vs. an object that will soon be acted upon, even when past and future actions occur with equal frequency. A simple frequency-of-experience account cannot accommodate these

  3. TYPHOON TRACK PREDICTION EXPERIMENTS USING T106L19

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻素红; 万丰; 陈德辉; 王诗文

    2003-01-01

    A series of 96-h typhoon track prediction experiments were carried outusing medium range forecasting system of NMC by adding BOGUS typhoon (simplified as B-TC) into the first guess field or the analysis field in order to provide longer time typhoon track forecast. The results show that T106L19 could provide a better forecast to typhoon tracks when the B-TC was added, especially when thetyphoon vortex is even weaker. The sensitive experiments on where to add the B-TC show that the results from adding the B-TC into the first guess field are better. The results also show that the initialization smoothes the B-TC a lot and this will affect the typhoon track prediction.

  4. Relay Mirror Experiment overview: a GBL pointing and tracking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Jeffrey S.; Ross, Susan E.; Brodsky, Aaron; Kervin, Paul W.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) has successfully demonstrated long-range, low-jitter tracking and pointing capabilities appropriate for ground-based laser (GBL) propagation. The RME program includes (1) a passively maneuverable, free-flying low-orbit spacecraft with a laser diode beacon and spoiled retroreflectors as acquisition aids; (2) a payload experiment package (PEP) consisting of sensors, optics, steerable mirrors, and control electronics. This subsystem accomplishes GBL tracking and pointing and the associated positioning of a space-based relay mirror sufficiently to relay an infrared beam between two ground sites. Design considerations for the control system included base motion disturbance and calibration; (3) two GBL sites each a tracking and pointing exercise in itself, using a combination of sensors and acquisition and tracking capabilities. One site includes a beam relay scoring capability.

  5. What interests them in the pictures?--differences in eye-tracking between rhesus monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Zhou; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Ci-Rong; Wang, Jian-Hong; Yu, Cheng-Yang; Carlson, Synnöve; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Rizak, Joshua D; Tian, Xiao-Guang; Tan, Hen; Chen, Zhu-Yue; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Studies estimating eye movements have demonstrated that non-human primates have fixation patterns similar to humans at the first sight of a picture. In the current study, three sets of pictures containing monkeys, humans or both were presented to rhesus monkeys and humans. The eye movements on these pictures by the two species were recorded using a Tobii eye-tracking system. We found that monkeys paid more attention to the head and body in pictures containing monkeys, whereas both monkeys and humans paid more attention to the head in pictures containing humans. The humans always concentrated on the eyes and head in all the pictures, indicating the social role of facial cues in society. Although humans paid more attention to the hands than monkeys, both monkeys and humans were interested in the hands and what was being done with them in the pictures. This may suggest the importance and necessity of hands for survival. Finally, monkeys scored lower in eye-tracking when fixating on the pictures, as if they were less interested in looking at the screen than humans. The locations of fixation in monkeys may provide insight into the role of eye movements in an evolutionary context.

  6. Tracking Students' Eye-Movements When Reading Learning Objects on Mobile Phones: A Discourse Analysis of Luganda Language Teacher-Trainees' Reflective Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabugo, David; Muyinda, Paul B.; Masagazi, Fred. M.; Mugagga, Anthony M.; Mulumba, Mathias B.

    2016-01-01

    Although eye-tracking technologies such as Tobii-T120/TX and Eye-Tribe are steadily becoming ubiquitous, and while their appropriation in education can aid teachers to collect robust information on how students move their eyes when reading and engaging with different learning objects, many teachers of Luganda language are yet to gain experiences…

  7. Eye Tracking of Occluded Self-Moved Targets: Role of Haptic Feedback and Hand-Target Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Mathew, James; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on smooth pursuit eye movements have shown that humans can continue to track the position of their hand, or a target controlled by the hand, after it is occluded, thereby demonstrating that arm motor commands contribute to the prediction of target motion driving pursuit eye movements. Here, we investigated this predictive mechanism by manipulating both the complexity of the hand-target mapping and the provision of haptic feedback. Two hand-target mappings were used, either a rigid (simple) one in which hand and target motion matched perfectly or a nonrigid (complex) one in which the target behaved as a mass attached to the hand by means of a spring. Target animation was obtained by asking participants to oscillate a lightweight robotic device that provided (or not) haptic feedback consistent with the target dynamics. Results showed that as long as 7 s after target occlusion, smooth pursuit continued to be the main contributor to total eye displacement (∼60%). However, the accuracy of eye-tracking varied substantially across experimental conditions. In general, eye-tracking was less accurate under the nonrigid mapping, as reflected by higher positional and velocity errors. Interestingly, haptic feedback helped to reduce the detrimental effects of target occlusion when participants used the nonrigid mapping, but not when they used the rigid one. Overall, we conclude that the ability to maintain smooth pursuit in the absence of visual information can extend to complex hand-target mappings, but the provision of haptic feedback is critical for the maintenance of accurate eye-tracking performance.

  8. Testing theories of irony processing using eye-tracking and ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Wallington, Katie; Page, Jemma

    2014-05-01

    Not much is known about how people comprehend ironic utterances, and to date, most studies have simply compared processing of ironic versus non-ironic statements. A key aspect of the graded salience hypothesis, distinguishing it from other accounts (such as the standard pragmatic view and direct access view), is that it predicts differences between processing of familiar and unfamiliar ironies. Specifically, if an ironic utterance is familiar, then the ironic interpretation should be available without the need for extra inferential processes, whereas for unfamiliar ironies, the literal interpretation would be computed first, and a mismatch with context would lead to a re-interpretation of the statement as being ironic. We recorded participants' eye movements while they were reading (Experiment 1), and electrical brain activity while they were listening to (Experiment 2), familiar and unfamiliar ironies compared to non-ironic controls. Results show disruption to eye movements and an N400-like effect for unfamiliar ironies only, supporting the predictions of the graded salience hypothesis. In addition, in Experiment 2, a late positivity was found for both familiar and unfamiliar ironic materials, compared to non-ironic controls. We interpret this positivity as reflecting ongoing conflict between the literal and ironic interpretations of the utterance.

  9. Ion tracking simulations for the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Baczyk, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    The WITCH experiment (standing for Weak Interation Trap for CHarged particles) is dedicated to high-precision measurements of fundamental properties of electroweak interaction. Its first goal is to indirectly determine the electron-neutrino correlation coefficient in $\\beta$ decay by measuring the energy spectrum of the recoiling nuclei. For this, a set-up consisting of two Penning traps, a retardation spectrometer and an MCP (Microchannel Plate) detector was designed and coupled to REXTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN.

  10. Experiments with Underwater Robot Localization and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Corke, Peter; Detwiler, Carrick; Dunbabin, Matthew; Hamilton, Michael; Rus, Daniela; Vasilescu, Iuliu

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel experiment in which two very different methods of underwater robot localization are compared. The first method is based on a geometric approach in which a mobile node moves within a field of static nodes, and all nodes are capable of estimating the range to their neighbours acoustically. The second method uses visual odometry, from stereo cameras, by integrating scaled optical flow. The fundamental algorithmic principles of each localization technique is described...

  11. A free geometry model-independent neural eye-gaze tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gneo Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eye Gaze Tracking Systems (EGTSs estimate the Point Of Gaze (POG of a user. In diagnostic applications EGTSs are used to study oculomotor characteristics and abnormalities, whereas in interactive applications EGTSs are proposed as input devices for human computer interfaces (HCI, e.g. to move a cursor on the screen when mouse control is not possible, such as in the case of assistive devices for people suffering from locked-in syndrome. If the user’s head remains still and the cornea rotates around its fixed centre, the pupil follows the eye in the images captured from one or more cameras, whereas the outer corneal reflection generated by an IR light source, i.e. glint, can be assumed as a fixed reference point. According to the so-called pupil centre corneal reflection method (PCCR, the POG can be thus estimated from the pupil-glint vector. Methods A new model-independent EGTS based on the PCCR is proposed. The mapping function based on artificial neural networks allows to avoid any specific model assumption and approximation either for the user’s eye physiology or for the system initial setup admitting a free geometry positioning for the user and the system components. The robustness of the proposed EGTS is proven by assessing its accuracy when tested on real data coming from: i different healthy users; ii different geometric settings of the camera and the light sources; iii different protocols based on the observation of points on a calibration grid and halfway points of a test grid. Results The achieved accuracy is approximately 0.49°, 0.41°, and 0.62° for respectively the horizontal, vertical and radial error of the POG. Conclusions The results prove the validity of the proposed approach as the proposed system performs better than EGTSs designed for HCI which, even if equipped with superior hardware, show accuracy values in the range 0.6°-1°.

  12. Mouse cursor movement and eye tracking data as an indicator of pathologists′ attention when viewing digital whole slide images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Raghunath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Digital pathology has the potential to dramatically alter the way pathologists work, yet little is known about pathologists′ viewing behavior while interpreting digital whole slide images. While tracking pathologist eye movements when viewing digital slides may be the most direct method of capturing pathologists′ viewing strategies, this technique is cumbersome and technically challenging to use in remote settings. Tracking pathologist mouse cursor movements may serve as a practical method of studying digital slide interpretation, and mouse cursor data may illuminate pathologists′ viewing strategies and time expenditures in their interpretive workflow. Aims: To evaluate the utility of mouse cursor movement data, in addition to eye-tracking data, in studying pathologists′ attention and viewing behavior. Settings and Design: Pathologists (N = 7 viewed 10 digital whole slide images of breast tissue that were selected using a random stratified sampling technique to include a range of breast pathology diagnoses (benign/atypia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive breast cancer. A panel of three expert breast pathologists established a consensus diagnosis for each case using a modified Delphi approach. Materials and Methods: Participants′ foveal vision was tracked using SensoMotoric Instruments RED 60 Hz eye-tracking system. Mouse cursor movement was tracked using a custom MATLAB script. Statistical Analysis Used: Data on eye-gaze and mouse cursor position were gathered at fixed intervals and analyzed using distance comparisons and regression analyses by slide diagnosis and pathologist expertise. Pathologists′ accuracy (defined as percent agreement with the expert consensus diagnoses and efficiency (accuracy and speed were also analyzed. Results: Mean viewing time per slide was 75.2 seconds (SD = 38.42. Accuracy (percent agreement with expert consensus by diagnosis type was: 83% (benign/atypia; 48% (carcinoma in situ; and 93% (invasive

  13. Usability Testing of Web Based Educational Multimedia by Eye Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet BAYRAM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Usability is one of the factors that can affect the success of students where learning processes are supported by internet and web technologies. In this study, usability factors for effective design and usage of web based multimedia packages created for educational purposes are evaluated. The research, experiments and analysis are done in the Human–Computer Interaction Laboratory that resides in Computer Education and Instructional Technologies Department of Marmara University. Data for the experiment are collected by using screen records which contain eye and mouse motions. For the analysis of data, fixation count, sequence and dwell time values in gridded area of interest; fixation count, heat map and scanpath values in whole are considered. The results obtained from this study can be used for design and validation of computer-based materials like virtual class applications, learning objects, educational applications, training applications and educational games.

  14. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii [Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the new MESA accelerator in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. To achieve an unprecedented precision an order of 10{sup 11} scattered electrons per second have to be acquired. %within the acceptance. Whereas the tracking system is not required to operate at such high rates, every attempt is made to achieve as high rate capability as possible. The P2 tracking system will consist of four planes of high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). With the present preliminary design one expects about 150 signal electron tracks and 20000 background hits (from bremsstrahlung photons) per plane in every 50 ns readout frame at the full rate. In order to cope with this extreme combinatorial background in on-line mode, a parameterization-based tracking is considered as a possible solution. The idea is to transform the hit positions into a set of weakly correlated quantities, and to find simple (e.g. polynomial) functions of these quantities, that would give the required characteristics of the track (e.g. momentum). The parameters of the functions are determined from a sample of high-quality tracks, taken either from a simulation, or reconstructed in a conventional way from a sample of low-rate data.

  15. Defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Yoon, Seon Kyu; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-12-01

    We studied defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking. Specifically, we examined the impact of parallax barrier (PB) angular orientation on their image quality. The 3D display system required fine adjustment of PB angular orientation with respect to a display panel. This was critical for both image color balancing and minimizing image resolution mismatch between horizontal and vertical directions. For evaluating uniformity of image brightness, we applied optical ray tracing simulations. The simulations took effects of PB orientation misalignment into account. The simulation results were then compared with recorded experimental data. Our optimal simulated system produced significantly enhanced image uniformity at around sweet spots in viewing zones. However this was contradicted by real experimental results. We offer quantitative treatment of illuminance uniformity of view images to estimate misalignment of PB orientation, which could account for brightness non-uniformity observed experimentally. Our study also shows that slight imperfection in the adjustment of PB orientation due to practical restrictions of adjustment accuracy can induce substantial non-uniformity of view images' brightness. We find that image brightness non-uniformity critically depends on misalignment of PB angular orientation, for example, as slight as ≤ 0.01 ° in our system. This reveals that reducing misalignment of PB angular orientation from the order of 10-2 to 10-3 degrees can greatly improve the brightness uniformity.

  16. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  17. Remote eye-gaze tracking method robust to the device rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Choi, Kang-A.; Shin, Yong-Goo; Kang, Mun-Cheon; Ko, Sung-Jea

    2016-08-01

    A remote eye-gaze tracking (REGT) method is presented, which compensates for the error caused by device rotation. The proposed method is based on the state-of-the-art homography normalization (HN) method. Conventional REGT methods, including the HN method, suffer from a large estimation error in the presence of device rotation. However, little effort has been made to clarify the relation between the device rotation and its subsequent error. This paper introduces two factors inducing device rotation error, the discrepancy between the optical and visual axis, called angle kappa, and the change in camera location. On the basis of these factors, an efficient method for compensating for the REGT error is proposed. While the device undergoes a 360-deg rotation, a series of erroneous points of gaze (POGs) are obtained on the screen and modeled as an ellipse, and then the center of the ellipse is exploited to estimate the rotation-invariant POG. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed REGT method can estimate the POG accurately in spite of the rotational movement of the device.

  18. Visual attention to plain and ornamented human bodies: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, Silke; Fink, Bernhard; Pyritz, Lennart W; Rahlfs, Moritz; Kappeler, Peter M

    2007-06-01

    Signaling mate quality through visual adornments is a common phenomenon in animals and humans. However, humans are probably the only species who applies artificial ornaments. Such deliberate alterations of the skin, e.g., tattoos and scarring patterns, have been discussed by researchers as potential handicap signals, but there is still very little information about a potential biological signaling value of body modification. In this study eye-tracking was employed to investigate the signaling value of tattoos and other body modification. Measurement of gaze duration of 50 individuals while watching plain, scarred, accessorized, and tattooed bodies of artificial human images indicated that participants looked significantly longer at tattooed than at scarred, accessorized, and plain bodies. Generally, male participants paid more attention to tattooed stimuli of both sexes. More detailed analyses showed that particularly female tattooed stimuli were looked at longer. These findings are discussed within an evolutionary framework by suggesting that tattoos might have some signaling value which influences the perception of both male and female conspecifics and may hence also affect mating decisions.

  19. Using Eye Tracking to Explore Consumers' Visual Behavior According to Their Shopping Motivation in Mobile Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoon Min; Lee, Kun Chang

    2017-07-01

    Despite a strong shift to mobile shopping trends, many in-depth questions about mobile shoppers' visual behaviors in mobile shopping environments remain unaddressed. This study aims to answer two challenging research questions (RQs): (a) how much does shopping motivation like goal orientation and recreation influence mobile shoppers' visual behavior toward displays of shopping information on a mobile shopping screen and (b) how much of mobile shoppers' visual behavior influences their purchase intention for the products displayed on a mobile shopping screen? An eye-tracking approach is adopted to answer the RQs empirically. The experimental results showed that goal-oriented shoppers paid closer attention to products' information areas to meet their shopping goals. Their purchase intention was positively influenced by their visual attention to the two areas of interest such as product information and consumer opinions. In contrast, recreational shoppers tended to visually fixate on the promotion area, which positively influences their purchase intention. The results contribute to understanding mobile shoppers' visual behaviors and shopping intentions from the perspective of mindset theory.

  20. Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Ingmar; Baldofski, Sabrina; Lüthold, Patrick; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-08-19

    Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED.

  1. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  2. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  3. 视线跟踪系统中眼睛睁闭检测算法研究%Eye state detection algorithm of eye tracking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宏平; 李斌; 姚鹏; 吴伟; 王建宇; 庄镇泉

    2012-01-01

    眼睛睁闭检测在视线跟踪系统中具有重要意义.为提高检测的准确性,提出了一种基于Harris算子的检测方法.该方法首先利用Harris算子计算图像的角点量,然后搜索图像中角点量最大的位置,以该位置为中心,设置一个区域,统计该区域内角点量总和占整幅图像角点量总和的比例,通过将该比例与阈值相比较来确定眼睛的状态.实验结果表明,本算法具有较高的鲁棒性和准确率,并能满足实时性要求.%Eye state detection is important in eye tracking system. In order to improve the correctness, a Harris operator based new algorithm is proposed. First, Harris operator is used to calculate the cornerness of eye image. Then, the position of maximum cornerness is set as center of a region. The proportion of total cornerness in the region and all images are used to detect eye state. Experimental results definitely verify the robustness and accuracy of the new algorithm. Especially, this new algorithm is suitable for real-time applications.

  4. Eye-catching?! Using eye tracking to examine the effect of health literacy on the attention-recall relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.; Bol, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how health literacy influences attention to text and illustrations in online health information, and whether such attention is related to recall of information. Sixty-one participants were exposed to either text-only or text-illustrated information. Using eye

  5. Eye-catching?! Using eye tracking to examine the effect of health literacy on the attention-recall relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.; Bol, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how health literacy influences attention to text and illustrations in online health information, and whether such attention is related to recall of information. Sixty-one participants were exposed to either text-only or text-illustrated information. Using eye

  6. Eye Tracking in the Cockpit: a Review of the Relationships between Eye Movements and the Aviators Cognitive State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    frequency. In particular, Spady (1978) examined eye movements during simulated landing approach under instrument flight rules ( IFR ). Simulated turbulence...al. (2007) found that NNI varied across phases of simulated IFR flight, showing the least random (most clustered) distribution of fixations during...decreased for visually demanding flight segments ( IFR vs. VFR, landing vs. cruise). This general pattern has been replicated across several studies

  7. How visual search relates to visual diagnostic performance: a narrative systematic review of eye-tracking research in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, A; Ravesloot, C J; Jarodzka, H; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J

    2017-08-01

    Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review of eye-tracking literature in the radiology domain aims to identify visual search patterns associated with high perceptual performance. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using 'visual perception' OR 'eye tracking' AND 'radiology' and synonyms. Two authors independently screened search results and included eye tracking studies concerning visual skills in radiology published between January 1, 1994 and July 31, 2015. Two authors independently assessed study quality with the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument, and extracted study data with respect to design, participant and task characteristics, and variables. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract and arrange study results, and a textual narrative synthesis was applied for data integration and interpretation. The search resulted in 22 relevant full-text articles. Thematic analysis resulted in six themes that informed the relation between visual search and level of expertise: (1) time on task, (2) eye movement characteristics of experts, (3) differences in visual attention, (4) visual search patterns, (5) search patterns in cross sectional stack imaging, and (6) teaching visual search strategies. Expert search was found to be characterized by a global-focal search pattern, which represents an initial global impression, followed by a detailed, focal search-to-find mode. Specific task-related search patterns, like drilling through CT scans and systematic search in chest X-rays, were found to be related to high expert levels. One study investigated teaching of visual search strategies, and did not find a significant effect on perceptual performance. Eye

  8. How Distinct are Intuition and Deliberation? An Eye-Tracking Analysis of Instruction-Induced Decision Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Horstmann; Andrea Ahlgrimm; Andreas Gloeckner

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies comparing intuition and deliberation have been published. However, until now relatively little is known about the cognitive processes underlying the two decision modes. Therefore, we analyzed processes of information search and integration using eye-tracking technology. We tested hypotheses derived from dual-process models which postulate that intuition and deliberation are completely distinct processes against predictions of interventionist models. The latte...

  9. Apply Web-based Analytic Tool and Eye Tracking to Study The Consumer Preferences of DSLR Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Jih-Syongh Lin; Shih-Yen Huang

    2013-01-01

    Consumer’s preferences and purchase motivation of products often lie in the purchasing behaviors generated by the synthetic evaluation of form features, color, function, and price of products. If an enterprise can bring these criteria under control, they can grasp the opportunities in the market place. In this study, the product form, brand, and prices of five DSLR digital cameras of Nikon, Lumix, Pentax, Sony, and Olympus were investigated from the image evaluation and eye tracking. The web-...

  10. Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Mehdi EHRANI-DOOST; MAHMOODI-GHARAIE, Javad; Anahita KHORRAMI; Saeid Reza RAHMDAR

    2015-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Pishyareh E, Tehrani-doost M, Mahmoodi-gharaie J, Khorrami A, Rahmdar SR. A Comparative Study of SustainedAttentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1):64-70.AbstractObjectiveADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluate...

  11. Researching the cognitive validity of GEPT High-Intermediate and Advanced Reading: an eye tracking and stimulated recall study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is important for any language test to establish its cognitive validity in order to ensure that the test elicits from test takers those cognitive processes which correspond to the processes which they would normally employ in the target real-life context (Weir 2005). This study investigates the cognitive validity of the GEPT Reading Test at two levels. High-intermediate (CEFR B2) and Advanced (CEFR C1), using innovative eye-tracking technology and detailed stimulated recall interviews and s...

  12. Tracking Students' Cognitive Processes during Program Debugging--An Eye-Movement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Wu, Cheng-Chih; Hou, Ting-Yun; Lin, Yu-Chih; Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chia-Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study explores students' cognitive processes while debugging programs by using an eye tracker. Students' eye movements during debugging were recorded by an eye tracker to investigate whether and how high- and low-performance students act differently during debugging. Thirty-eight computer science undergraduates were asked to debug two C…

  13. TH-E-17A-10: Markerless Lung Tumor Tracking Based On Beams Eye View EPID Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T; Kearney, V; Liu, H; Jiang, L; Foster, R; Mao, W [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Rozario, T; Bereg, S [University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas (United States); Klash, S [Premier Cancer Centers, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic tumor tracking or motion compensation techniques have proposed to modify beam delivery following lung tumor motion on the flight. Conventional treatment plan QA could be performed in advance since every delivery may be different. Markerless lung tumor tracking using beams eye view EPID images provides a best treatment evaluation mechanism. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of the online markerless lung tumor motion tracking method. Methods: The lung tumor could be located on every frame of MV images during radiation therapy treatment by comparing with corresponding digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR). A kV-MV CT corresponding curve is applied on planning kV CT to generate MV CT images for patients in order to enhance the similarity between DRRs and MV treatment images. This kV-MV CT corresponding curve was obtained by scanning a same CT electron density phantom by a kV CT scanner and MV scanner (Tomotherapy) or MV CBCT. Two sets of MV DRRs were then generated for tumor and anatomy without tumor as the references to tracking the tumor on beams eye view EPID images. Results: Phantom studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam linac. MV treatment images were acquired continuously during each treatment beam delivery at 12 gantry angles by iTools. Markerless tumor tracking was applied with DRRs generated from simulated MVCT. Tumors were tracked on every frame of images and compared with expected positions based on programed phantom motion. It was found that the average tracking error were 2.3 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting lung tumors at complicated environment without implanting markers. It should be noted that the CT data has a slice thickness of 3 mm. This shows the statistical accuracy is better than the spatial accuracy. This project has been supported by a Varian Research Grant.

  14. 4D fast tracking for experiments at high luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, N.; Cardini, A.; Calabrese, R.; Fiorini, M.; Luppi, E.; Marconi, U.; Petruzzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of the high luminosity LHC is a big challenge that requires new instrumentation and innovative solutions. We present here a conceptual design and simulation studies of a fast timing pixel detector with embedded real-time tracking capabilities. The system is conceived to operate at 40 MHz event rate and to reconstruct tracks in real-time, using precise space and time 4D information of the hit, for fast trigger decisions. This work is part of an R&D project aimed at building an innovative tracking detector with superior time (10 ps) and position (10 μm) resolutions to be used in very harsh radiation environments, for the ultimate flavour physics experiment at the high luminosity phase of the LHC.

  15. 一种快速的非侵入式眼动跟踪方法%Rapid and Non-Intrusive Eye-Tracking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪飚; 陈灵坚; 吴暾华

    2012-01-01

    针对眼控人机交互系统对实时性要求较高的特点,提出了一种快速、非侵入式的眼动跟踪方法.首先融合CamShift跟踪算法和AdaBoost型目标检测方法快速地分割出眼睛所在矩形区域;然后在第一帧视频图像中精确定位虹膜并建立虹膜模板;最后通过放大或缩小虹膜模板自适应地在后续各帧视频图像中搜索匹配以预测虹膜位置.虹膜中心相对眼角或鼻孔的位移可用于控制鼠标指针在屏幕上移动.在分辨率为640×480的视频上,取得了32帧/秒的跟踪速度,正确率达到95.5%.实验结果表明方法是有效的,可直接应用于眼控人机交互系统.%To meet the real-time requirement of eye-controlled human-computer interaction systems, a fast and non-intrusive eye-tracking method was proposed. Firstly, CamShift algorithm and AdaBoost algorithm were combined to extract eye regions. Secondly, iris was located from the eye region in the first video frame. And the iris region was used as a template. Finally, the iris template was scaled according to new size of eye region in the subsequent video frames. Then the scaled template was used for matching in the eye region. The relative displacement between iris center and canthus or nostril can be used to control the movement of mouse pointer on computer screen. The experiments on a video of resolution at 640*480 result a tracking speed of 32 frames per second, and the correct rate is 95.5%. Results prove the effectiveness and efficiency of this method. So, this method can be directly applied to eye-controlled human-computer interaction systems.

  16. An eye-tracking assistive device improves the quality of life for ALS patients and reduces the caregivers' burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Shin; Weng, Ho-Hsiu; Wang, Li-Fen; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Chang, Hao-Teng

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease. In some cases, patients with ALS retain a normal level of consciousness but disease progression eventually results in generalized paralysis, which first impedes and then prevents oral communication. This communication obstacle can generate a great deal of stress for the patient, family, and caregiver. Here the authors ask whether the use of an eye-tracking assistive device can improve quality of life for ALS patients and relieves burden of their primary caregivers. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on whether they used (n = 10) or did not use (n = 10) an eye-tracking assistive device. The authors assessed patients' quality of life and severity of depression using the ALS Specific Quality of Life Instrument-Revised and the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, respectively. The Caregiver Burden Scale was used to assess the burden on caregivers. Our study shows that the eye-tracking assistive device significantly improved patients' quality of life, as compared with patients in the nonuser group (p improvement of patient's autonomy and more effective communication between patient and caregiver.

  17. Analyzing Eye-Tracking Information in Visualization and Data Space: From Where on the Screen to What on the Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sayeed Safayet; Jianu, Radu

    2017-05-01

    Eye-tracking data is currently analyzed in the image space that gaze-coordinates were recorded in, generally with the help of overlays such as heatmaps or scanpaths, or with the help of manually defined areas of interest (AOI). Such analyses, which focus predominantly on where on the screen users are looking, require significant manual input and are not feasible for studies involving many subjects, long sessions, and heavily interactive visual stimuli. Alternatively, we show that it is feasible to collect and analyze eye-tracking information in data space. Specifically, the visual layout of visualizations with open source code that can be instrumented is known at rendering time, and thus can be used to relate gaze-coordinates to visualization and data objects that users view, in real time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that data collected using this methodology from nine users working with an interactive visualization, was well aligned with the tasks that those users were asked to solve, and similar to annotation data produced by five human coders. Moreover, we introduce an algorithm that, given our instrumented visualization, could translate gaze-coordinates into viewed objects with greater accuracy than simply binning gazes into dynamically defined AOIs. Finally, we discuss the challenges, opportunities, and benefits of analyzing eye-tracking in visualization and data space.

  18. Benchmark three-dimensional eye-tracking dataset for visual saliency prediction on stereoscopic three-dimensional video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention models (VAMs) predict the location of image or video regions that are most likely to attract human attention. Although saliency detection is well explored for two-dimensional (2-D) image and video content, there have been only a few attempts made to design three-dimensional (3-D) saliency prediction models. Newly proposed 3-D VAMs have to be validated over large-scale video saliency prediction datasets, which also contain results of eye-tracking information. There are several publicly available eye-tracking datasets for 2-D image and video content. In the case of 3-D, however, there is still a need for large-scale video saliency datasets for the research community for validating different 3-D VAMs. We introduce a large-scale dataset containing eye-tracking data collected from 61 stereoscopic 3-D videos (and also 2-D versions of those), and 24 subjects participated in a free-viewing test. We evaluate the performance of the existing saliency detection methods over the proposed dataset. In addition, we created an online benchmark for validating the performance of the existing 2-D and 3-D VAMs and facilitating the addition of new VAMs to the benchmark. Our benchmark currently contains 50 different VAMs.

  19. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child's language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child's language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child's language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development.

  20. Internal reliability of the alcohol-related visual probe task is increased by utilising personalised stimuli and eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Mansfield, Rosie; Duckworth, Jay; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we investigated whether the internal reliability of the visual probe task measure of attentional bias for substance-related cues could be improved by incorporating eye-tracking methods and personalised stimuli. Sixty social drinkers completed two visual probe tasks: one with a broad range of different alcohol pictures, the other containing only images of the participants' preferred drink. Attentional bias was inferred from manual reaction times to probes replacing the pictures, and from the duration of eye movement fixations towards the pictures (gaze dwell time). Internal reliability was highest for personalised (versus general) alcohol stimuli, and for eye-tracking (versus manual reaction time) measures of attentional bias. The internal reliability of both reaction time (α=.73) and gaze dwell time measures (α=.76) of attentional bias for personalised alcohol stimuli was acceptable. Internal reliability of indices of attentional bias for general alcohol stimuli was inferior, although better for the gaze dwell time (α=.51) compared to the reaction time measure (α=.19). Attentional bias towards personalised stimuli was larger than bias to general stimuli, but only for the reaction time measure. There were no statistically significant associations between measures of attentional bias and alcohol consumption or craving. Adopting personalised stimuli and eye movement monitoring significantly improves the internal reliability of the alcohol-related visual probe task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.