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Sample records for eye irritation test

  1. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  2. The status of eye irritancy testing: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, N L

    1992-01-01

    Eye irritation testing is a salient public issue and continues to escalate on the public agenda. Issues relevant to this milieu include legislative proposals to ban animal use for cosmetic testing, adequacy of the current standard (viz., the Draize Eye Irritancy Test), availability of non-animal methodologies, validation paradigm for new testing models, international harmonization of testing standards and methods, and the regulatory role in product testing and enforcement. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) feels that enactment of legislation proposed to ban animal use from testing products for safety would pose serious problems from a public health perspective. FDA encourages the development of alternative test methods and is aware that many such tests are in various stages of evolution. At this time, however, none of these tests has been accepted by the scientific community as total replacement to the Draize test. FDA's basic positions on the use of non-animal alternatives are as follows: 1) The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans, 2) The Draize eye irritancy test is currently the most valuable and reliable method for evaluating the hazard or safety of a substance introduced into or around the human eye, and 3) No non-animal tests are presently available to completely replace the Draize. FDA is actively involved with U.S. and international groups to harmonize protocols for product development, evaluate the current status of non-whole animal methodologies, and standardize testing requirements. The Agency has recently participated in several scientific symposia evaluating the status of non-whole animal methods in toxicity testing. Moreover, FDA representatives are currently scheduled to participate in international meetings and workshops planned for the immediate future addressing several issues in product safety determination.

  3. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  4. Exploration and comparison of in vitro eye irritation tests with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit test for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Hailian, Quan; Na, Yirang; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Miri; Kim, Da-Eun; Bae, SeungJin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-12-01

    In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. CON4EI: Development of serious eye damage and eye irritation testing strategies with respect to the requirements of the UN GHS/EU CLP hazard categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-06-16

    The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation). Project management decided to not include the ICE data in this project since the execution showed relevant, and not predictable, deviations from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 438 and Guidance Document 160. At this stage, the outcome of these deviations has not been fully assessed. In addition to these alternative test methods, the computational models Toxtree and Case Ultra were taken into account. This project assessed the relevance of these test methods, their applicability domains and limitations in terms of 'drivers of classification', and their strengths and weaknesses. In this way, methods were identified that fit into a tiered-testing strategy for serious eye damage/eye irritation assessment to distinguish United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) Category 1 (Cat 1) chemicals from non-Cat 1 chemicals and address the gap namely distinguish between Category 2 (Cat 2) and Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. In vitro eye irritation testing using the open source reconstructed hemicornea - a ring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Karsten R; Engelke, Maria; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Brandner, Johanna M; Petersohn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present ring trial was to test whether two new methodological approaches for the in vitro classification of eye irritating chemicals can be reliably transferred from the developers' laboratories to other sites. Both test methods are based on the well-established open source reconstructed 3D hemicornea models. In the first approach, the initial depth of injury after chemical treatment in the hemicornea model is derived from the quantitative analysis of histological sections. In the second approach, tissue viability, as a measure for corneal damage after chemical treatment, is analyzed separately for epithelium and stroma of the hemicornea model. The three independent laboratories that participated in the ring trial produced their own hemicornea models according to the test producer's instructions, thus supporting the open source concept. A total of 9 chemicals with different physicochemical and eye-irritating properties were tested to assess the between-laboratory reproducibility (BLR), the predictive performance, as well as possible limitations of the test systems. The BLR was 62.5% for the first and 100% for the second method. Both methods enabled to discriminate Cat. 1 chemicals from all non-Cat. 1 substances, which qualifies them to be used in a top-down approach. However, the selectivity between No Cat. and Cat. 2 chemicals still needs optimization.

  7. Culture of the primary corneal epithelium as a potential component of test batteries for eye irritancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladowski, D; Liberek, I; Lipski, K; Ozga, T; Olkowska-Truchanowicz, J; Szaflik, J

    2005-10-01

    One of the main goals for toxicologists working on the development of in vitro tests is to replace the animal-based eye irritation test. Inflammation is one of the mechanisms which have not been covered sufficiently by the existing in vitro ocular irritancy test systems. As there are major species differences between the human and rabbit eye inflammation mechanisms, the most relevant test system is the human eye itself. The current study focused on an evaluation of the practical availability of human corneal epithelial cells for routine eye irritancy testing. Human corneal epithelium cell cultures were used to assess the effects of lipopolysaccharide on IL-1 beta release. The findings indicated that cytokine release can be augmented by the presence of the complement system, which is normally found in tears. However, the corneal cells were found to be highly resistant to the complement system, which can be attributed to the very high expression of CD59, a powerful complement regulatory protein found in the corneal epithelium. It is estimated that discarded corneas from tissue banks could provide enough material for routine testing by this method.

  8. In vitro quantitative determination of ophthalmic irritancy by the chorioallantoic membrane test with trypan blue staining as alternative to eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-08-01

    The damage provoked by some substances on the chicken egg's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is used as an alternative assay to determine ocular irritation. There is good prediction of the eye irritation when compared to the in vivo Draize method. Nevertheless, this assay has some limitations, such as subjectivity. Hagino et al. developed an objective evaluation technique using the amount of trypan blue absorbed at the site of treatment as an indicator of injury to the CAM. The present work was aimed at the determination of ocular irritation of 21 substances (chemicals and cosmetics). We used the spectrophotometric quantification by trypan blue staining of the damage produced on CAM, of fertile chicken eggs. Results were compared with the values obtained by the traditional Draize assay. We observed a good correlation (r=0.835; p<0.0001) between the amount of dye absorbed by the CAM and the Draize eye irritation test score. The r values were 0.688; p<0.05 for cosmetics and 0.925; p<0.0001 for chemicals. Three chemicals turned as false positive and one cosmetic substance as false negative. The CAM-TBS assay is inexpensive, simple and provides an in vitro alternative method to predict the damage that chemical substances or cosmetics can cause to the ocular structures.

  9. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, K; Prinsen, M K; McNamee, P M; Roggeband, R

    2009-08-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken eye test (ICE). This investigation focuses on assessing the ICE as a method to determine the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products, both for product safety assurance prior to marketing and for classification and labeling decisions. The ICE involves a single application of test substances onto the cornea of isolated chicken eyes. Endpoints are corneal swelling, corneal opacity and fluorescein retention. The ICE results were compared to historic LVET data in this study due to availability of such in vivo data and the ability to correlate LVET to human experience data on the outcome of accidental exposures to household cleaning products in general. The results of this study indicate that the ICE test is a useful in vitro method for evaluating the eye irritation/corrosion potential and establishing classification and labeling for household cleaning products. For new product formulations, it is best used as part of a weight-of-evidence approach and benchmarked against data from comparable formulations with known eye irritation/corrosion profiles and market experience.

  10. Comparative study of red blood cell method in rat and calves blood as alternatives of Draize eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Vega, Y; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-06-01

    Red blood cell assay (RBC) is used to estimate potential irritation of tensioactive agents and detergents. Cell membrane lysis and cell protein denaturation are measured photometrically. This study was aimed to determine if rat blood cells can be used to predict eye potential irritation in the same way of calves blood cells in RBC assay. We evaluated 20 cosmetic formulations using rat and calves blood according to INVITOX protocol No 37. Data of media hemolysis concentration, denaturation index and the ratio of both parameters were compared with in vivo data of eye irritancy. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) between H50 value when evaluated the standard SDS with red blood cell method in rat and calves blood. According to the exact probability of Fisher taking as approach the acceptance or rejection of the substance there are no significant differences between in vitro assay with calves blood and in vivo results. Not happening the same way for the RBC assay with rat blood where significant differences were obtained (p<0.01) among the classification of in vitro and in vivo test. The RBC assay using calves blood showed better results. Several test substances were false negatives with rat blood. This high false negative rate would be correctly identified by the animal test but it may also lead to increased animal consumption. For that RBC assay with calf blood cells is preferable to the employment of rat blood as screening method with a reduction and refinement strategy.

  11. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Prinsen, M.K.; McNamee, P.M.; Roggeband, R.

    2009-01-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken

  12. A proposed eye irritation testing strategy to reduce and replace in vivo studies using Bottom-Up and Top-Down approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, L.; Eskes, C.; Hoffmann, S.; Adriaens, E.; Alepée, N.; Bufo, M.; Clothier, R.; Facchini, D.; Faller, C.; Guest, R.; Harbell, J.; Hartung, T.; Kamp, H.; Varlet, B.L.; Meloni, M.; McNamee, P.; Osborne, R.; Pape, W.; Pfannenbecker, U.; Prinsen, M.; Seaman, C.; Spielmann, H.; Stokes, W.; Trouba, K.; Berghe, C.V.d.; Goethem, F.V.; Vassallo, M.; Vinardell, P.; Zuang, V.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of over 20 years of effort, no single in vitro assay has been developed and validated as a full regulatory replacement for the Draize Eye Irritation test. However, companies have been using in vitro methods to screen new formulations and in some cases as their primary assessment of eye

  13. [Sub-chronic toxicity and test of eye irritability of leaf aqueous extract from Plantago major (plantaginaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Mildred; Coto Morales, Teresita; Soto Rodríguez, Gerardo A; Pazos, Liliana

    2003-01-01

    For the sub-chronic toxicity an aqueous preparation of Plantago major leaves was tested in 20 male NGP mice, with an average weight of 20.15 g and separated in two groups of ten individuals each. The dose used was 2000 mg/kg and the control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water. The extract administration was done daily during five days at week for a total period of 40 days. Signs of sub-chronic toxicity were observed in the days two and 12 of treatment. No significant change in corporal weight was observed. The ocular irritation was tested in five New Zeland male rabbits, with an average weight of 3.640 kg. The dose used was a 200 microliters the preparation (100 mg/ml) of Plantago major leaves, instill into the right eye and the control was used the left eye instill 200 microliters of distilled water. The administration was done daily during five days. The extract shows no significant irritation during the observation period.

  14. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  15. Development of the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals in response to the requirements of the EU cosmetics directive and REACH legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Kubilus, Joseph; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-09-01

    The recently implemented 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH legislation have heightened the need for in vitro ocular test methods. To address this need, the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test (EpiOcular-EIT), which utilises the normal (non-transformed) human cell-based EpiOcular tissue model, has been developed. The EpiOcular-EIT prediction model is based on an initial training set of 39 liquid and 21 solid test substances and uses a single exposure period and a single cut-off in tissue viability, as determined by the MTT assay. A chemical is classified as an irritant (GHS Category 1 or 2), if the tissue viability is ≤ 60%, and as a non-irritant (GHS unclassified), if the viability is > 60%. EpiOcular-EIT results for the training set, along with results for an additional 52 substances, which included a range of alcohols, hydrocarbons, amines, esters, and ketones, discriminated between ocular irritants and non-irritants with 98.1% sensitivity, 72.9% specificity, and 84.8% accuracy. To ensure the long-term commercial viability of the assay, EpiOcular tissues produced by using three alternative cell culture inserts were evaluated in the EpiOcular-EIT with 94 chemicals. The assay results obtained with the initial insert and the three alternative inserts were very similar, as judged by correlation coefficients (r²) that ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. The EpiOcular-EIT was pre-validated in 2007/2008, and is currently involved in a formal, multi-laboratory validation study sponsored by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) under the auspices of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The EpiOcular-EIT, together with EpiOcular's long history of reproducibility and proven utility for ultra-mildness testing, make EpiOcular a useful model for addressing current legislation related to animal use in the testing of potential ocular irritants. 2011 FRAME.

  16. Predictive performance and inter-laboratory reproducibility in assessing eye irritation potential of water- and oil-soluble mixtures using the Short Time Exposure test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Takayuki; Hilberer, Allison; Behle-Wagner, Christine; Watanabe, Mika; Cameron, David; Kirst, Annette; Nukada, Yuko; Yuki, Takuo; Araki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-04

    The Short Time Exposure (STE) test method is an alternative method for assessing eye irritation potential using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cells and has been adopted as test guideline 491 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Its good predictive performance in identifying the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) No Category (NC) or Irritant Category has been demonstrated in evaluations of water-soluble substances, oil-soluble substances, and water-soluble mixtures. However, the predictive performance for oil-soluble mixtures was not evaluated. Twenty-four oil-soluble mixtures were evaluated using the STE test method. The GHS NC or Irritant Category of 22 oil-soluble mixtures were consistent with that of a Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was then confirmed using 20 water- and oil-soluble mixtures blind-coded. The concordance in GHS NC or Irritant Category among four laboratories was 90%-100%. In conclusion, the concordance in comparison with the results of RhCE test method using 24 oil-soluble mixtures and inter-laboratory reproducibility using 20 water- and oil-soluble mixtures blind-coded were good, indicating that the STE test method is a suitable alternative for predicting the eye irritation potential of both substances and mixtures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  18. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Eye irritation and chemical eye burns. Review of experimental and clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, A K; Frentz, M; Schrage, N F

    2011-10-01

    Chemical burns of the eye are becoming rare due to improvements in occupational protection. Effective decontamination is the foundation for good clinical results of this ophthalmological emergency. The toxicological aspect focuses on classifying the specific toxicity of a chemical substance by evaluating the degree of eye irritation and eye burns. Chemical substances are classified into defined risk levels by specific tests. The traditional ophthalmological approach is based on the clinical presentation of eye burns as a result of contact with a specific toxic substance. In an integral approach it is shown that substance-specific characteristics, such as concentration and specific reactivity as well as individual features, such as mode and duration of exposition have an influence on the clinical appearance of the tissue damage. The decontamination is dependent on the mode of action and the effectiveness of the decontamination solution. Amphoteric substances have the best effectiveness for decontamination of the eye due to their specific characteristics.

  20. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives.

  1. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lacking applicability of in vitro eye irritation methods to identify seriously eye irritating agrochemical formulations: Results of bovine cornea opacity and permeability assay, isolated chicken eye test and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 method to classify according to UN GHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In vitro methods have gained regulatory acceptance for the prediction of serious eye damage (UN GHS Cat 1). However, the majority of in vitro methods do not state whether they are applicable to agrochemical formulations. This manuscript presents a study of up to 27 agrochemical formulations tested in three in vitro assays (three versions of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP, OECD TG 437) assay, the isolated chicken eye test (ICE, OECD TG 438) and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 assay). The results were compared with already-available in vivo data. In the BCOP only one of the four, one of five in the ICE and six of eleven tested formulations in the EpiOcular™ ET-50 Neat Protocol resulted in the correct UN GHS Cat 1 prediction. Overpredictions occurred in all assays. These data indicate a lack of applicability of the three in vitro methods to reliably predict UN GHS Cat 1 of agrochemical formulations. In order to ensure animal-free identification of seriously eye damaging agrochemical formulations testing protocols and/or prediction models need to be modified or classification rules should be tailored to in vitro testing rather than using in vivo Draize data as a standard. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Experimental study on preclinical quality control, urgent poison and irritation of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, a class I new drug against diabetic cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yan-Qun; Yang, Qiao-Hong; Su, Jun-Fang; Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Chen, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2013-04-01

    To establish a quality control method of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, in order to evaluate acute toxicity, irritation and irritability and lay a foundation for its development and utilization in the future. The content of gigantol and SA in D. aurantiacum eye drops were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The linear ranges of gigantol and SA were 0.040 8-1.530 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9) and 0.100 8-0.504 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9), with the average recoveries being 100.8%, 99.84%, and RSD being 1.4%, 1.8% (n = 9) respectively. The sample solution was stable at room temperature within 72 h. The acute toxicity test showed no toxic reaction of D. aurantiacum eye drops in mice. The irritating test for single-dose and multiple-dose administrations of D. aurantiacum eye drops and physiological saline in rabbit eyes and skin, as well as the allergic test in guinea pigs showed no eye irritation and skin irritation and irritability. These findings indicated that D. aurantiacum eye drops are safe and stable, with a good druggability.

  4. Skin irritation testing of antimicrobial conjugated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Kristin N; Nguyen, Phuong A H; Whitten, David G; Canavan, Heather E

    2017-04-20

    Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity. However, before the PPE and OPE can be used with humans, skin irritation tests are required to ensure their safety. In this work, in vitro skin assays are used to predict in vivo irritation. Tissues were conditioned for 24 h, exposed to test substances for 1 h, and then tested for viability using colorimetric and cytokine assays. Concentrations up to 50 μg/ml were tested. Viability assays and cytokine (IL-1α) assays demonstrated that the two polymers, three symmetric oligomers, and three "end only" oligomers were nonirritants. In addition, electrospun mats consisting of several promising compounds, including poly(caprolactone), were evaluated. Therefore, all test substances are conservatively classified as nonirritants after a 1 h exposure time period.

  5. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2017-02-01

    /or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Most important, the DRD is an invaluable tool for any future activity involving the selection of reference chemicals.

  6. In vitro assessment of eye irritancy using the Reconstructed Human Corneal Epithelial SkinEthic HCE model: application to 435 substances from consumer products industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovio, José; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Lelièvre, Damien; Bremond, Christelle; Amsellem, Carolle; Maloug, Saber; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Lee, Aline Van Der; Minondo, Anne-Marie; Capallere, Christophe; Bertino, Béatrice; Alépée, Nathalie; Tinois-Tessonneaud, Estelle; de Fraissinette, Anne De Brugerolle; Meunier, Jean-Roch; Leclaire, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The 7th amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive led to the ban of eye irritation testing for cosmetic ingredients in animals, effective from March 11th 2009. Over the last 20years, many efforts have been made to find reliable and relevant alternative methods. The SkinEthic HCE model was used to evaluate the in vitro eye irritancy potential of substances from a cosmetic industry portfolio. An optimized protocol based on a specific 1-h treatment and a 16-h post-treatment incubation period was first assessed on a set of 102 substances. The prediction model (PM) based on a 50% viability cut-off, allowed to draw up two classes (Irritants and Non-Irritants), with good associated sensitivity (86.2%) and specificity (83.5%). To check the robustness of the method, the evaluated set was expanded up to 435 substances. Final performances maintained a high level and were characterized by an overall accuracy value > 82% when using EU or GHS classification rules. Results showed that the SkinEthic HCE test method is a promising in vitro tool for the prediction of eye irritancy. Optimization datasets were shared with the COLIPA Eye Irritation Project Team and ECVAM experts, and reviewed as part of an ongoing progression to enter an ECVAM prospective validation study for eye irritation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  8. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...

  9. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  10. The Isolated Chicken Eye test to replace the Draize test in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Menk K; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Krul, Cyrille A M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2017-04-01

    In 1944, Draize et al., published a paper entitled "Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes". The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development published their first guideline on eye irritation in 1981, using rabbits. In the early eighties the development of alternative non-animal tests to replace the Draize eye test started. The first attempts to validate alternative tests for eye irritation were considered to be relatively simple by comparing in vitro and in vivo irritation index scores. In the early nineteen-eighties, we introduced the use of isolated eyes as an alternative test for the Draize eye irritation test. What was expected to be a process of several years, however, turned out to be a decades spanning process still not fully completed. For a large part, this can be attributed to the nature of the in vivo test in rabbits, which is more complicated and compromised than originally believed. This paper describes, most chronologically, the development, performance, validation and application of the Isolated Eye Test and, in broader perspective, the international validation and acceptance of this alternative test by regulatory authorities and agencies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating eye irritation potential of diverse chemicals in rabbit for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2016-06-01

    Experimental determination of the eye irritation potential (EIP) of chemicals is not only tedious, time and resource intensive, it involves cruelty to test animals. In this study, we have established a three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating the EIP of chemicals for the use of pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Accordingly, a qualitative (binary classification: irritating, non-irritating), semi-quantitative (four-category classification), and quantitative (regression) QSAR models employing the SDT, DTF, and DTB methods were developed for predicting the EIP of chemicals in accordance with the OECD guidelines. Structural features of chemicals responsible for eye irritation were extracted and used in QSAR analysis. The external predictive power of the developed QSAR models were evaluated through the internal and external validation procedures recommended in QSAR literature. In test data, the two and four category classification QSAR models (DTF, DTB) rendered accuracy of >93%, while the regression QSAR models (DTF, DTB) yielded correlation (R(2)) of >0.92 between the measured and predicted EIPs. Values of various statistical validation coefficients derived for the test data were above their respective threshold limits (except rm(2) in DTF), thus put a high confidence in this analysis. The applicability domain of the constructed QSAR models were defined using the descriptors range and leverage approaches. The QSAR models in this study performed better than any of the previous studies. The results suggest that the developed QSAR models can reliably predict the EIP of diverse chemicals and can be useful tools for screening of candidate molecules in the drug development process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  13. Evaluation of ocular irritancy of coal-tar dyes used in cosmetics employing reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium and short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miri; Nam, Ki Taek; Kim, Jungah; Lim, Song E; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Buhyun; Lee, Joo Young; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-10-01

    Coal-tar dyes in cosmetics may elicit adverse effects in the skin and eyes. Countries, like the US, have banned the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics for the eye area due to the potential for ocular irritation. We evaluated the eye irritation potential of 15 coal-tar dyes permitted as cosmetic ingredients in reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCEs [EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™]) tests and the short time exposure (STE) test. Eosin YS, phloxine B, tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein, and tetrabromofluorescein were identified as irritants in RhCEs; dibromofluorescein and uranine yielded discrepant results. STE enabled further classification in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, as follows: eosin YS as Cat 2; phloxine B, Cat 1; and tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein and tetrabromofluorescein, Cat 1/2. STE indicated dibromofluorescein (irritant in EpiOcular™) and uranine (irritant in MCTT HCE™) as No Cat, resulting in the classification of "No prediction can be made." based on bottom-up approach with each model. These results demonstrated that in vitro eye irritation tests can be utilized to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of cosmetic ingredients and provide significant evidence with which to determine whether precautions should be given for the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics or other substances applied to the eye area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  15. Get Your Eyes Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blurry or distorted at all distances Presbyopia (“prez-bee-OH-pee-uh”) – a condition that older adults ... sections Take Action! Take Action: Schedule Your Exam Protect your vision. Get regular eye exams so you ...

  16. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 75 workers employed in a tobacco factory producing cheroots we measured cellular contents of tear fluid, redness of eyes, discomfort, total (0–5.7 mg/m3) and respirable dust in the breathing zone and total ambient dust by stationary sampling (0.08–1.0 mg/m3). A matched group of 50 o...

  18. Tiered application of the neutral red release and EpiOcular™ assays for evaluating the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Corvaro, Marco; Visconti, Nicolo R; Kan, Lynn; Carney, Edward W; Boverhof, Darrell R; Gehen, Sean C

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemical formulations have been underrepresented in validation efforts for implementing alternative eye irritation approaches but represent a significant opportunity to reduce animal testing. This study assesses the utility of the neutral red release assay (NRR) and EpiOcular™ assay (EO) for predicting the eye irritation potential of 64 agrochemical formulations relative to Draize data. In the NRR, formulations with an NRR50 value ≤ 50 mg/mL were categorized as UN GHS Cat 1 and those >250 mg/mL were classified as UN GHS Non Classified (NC). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 78, 85 and 76% and 73, 85 and 61% for identifying UN GHS 1 and NC formulations, respectively. Specificity was poor for formulations with NRR50 > 50 to ≤250 mg/mL. The EO (ET-40 method) was explored to differentiate formulations that were UN GHS 1/2 and UN GHS NC. The EO resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 65%, 58% and 75% for identifying UN GHS NC formulations. To improve the overall performance, the assays were implemented using a tiered-approach where the NRR was run as a first-tier followed by the EO. The tiered-approach resulted in improved accuracy (75%) and balanced sensitivity (73%) and specificity (77%) for distinguishing between irritating and non-irritating agrochemical formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  20. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  1. Development of a standardized testing procedure for assessing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter; Seyfarth, Florian; Antonov, Dimitar; John, Swen Malte; Diepgen, Thomas; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Frequent skin cleaning fulfils the definition of occupational 'wet work'. Standardized methods are required to assess the irritation potential of workplace cleansers. To develop a standardized procedure for testing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers. In this single-blind, single-centre trial in 25 healthy volunteers, the irritation potential of five generic reference cleansers was tested by three-times-daily washing with an automated skin cleaning device for 4 days, and quantification of cumulative skin barrier damage was performed by visual scoring, chromametry, transepidermal water loss TEWL, and corneometry. For two cleansers, reproducibility of the irritancy assessment was assessed. Furthermore, the irritation induced by four commercial workplace skin cleansers was studied. Whereas no significant changes were observed for any of the tested cleansers by either visual scoring or chromametry, significant increases in TEWL and significant decreases in stratum corneum hydration were found for all cleansers. Cleansers differed significantly in their irritation potential. On retesting of two cleansers, the first results were confirmed. Among the four commercial cleansers, one that was claimed to be mild was found to be disproportionally irritant. The presented model for testing cleansing preparations allows a highly controlled, practically relevant and reproducible irritancy assessment of occupational skin cleansers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Testing a biobehavioral model of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, P.P.J. van der; Dusseldorp, E.; Rood, Y.R. van; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is probably multifactorial with dysfunction at different levels of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing biobehavioral model of IBS symptom generation in a large group of patients. Material and Methods: In

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...

  4. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  5. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool.

  6. Irritants and allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Irritants – in this article to be understood as being chemical irritants – are substances that may cause injuries to the skin, the eyes or the airways after a single exposure. These injuries may range from small, initially invisible injuries after exposure to weak irritants up to chemical burns

  7. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    of eye dryness 6 times throughout each experiment. Eye tear film samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the exposure. The blinking rate was analysed in the beginning and at the end of exposures. The preliminary results of the analyses reveal that the environment subjects were exposed to had...

  8. Oral prednisone suppresses allergic but not irritant patch test reactions in individuals hypersensitive to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anveden, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2004-01-01

    A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of prednisone on allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 24 subjects with known allergy to nickel were recruited and patch tested with a nickel sulfate dilution series in aqueous solution, 5% nickel...... sulfate in petrolatum and 2 dilution series of the irritants nonanoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate. The subjects were tested x2, both during treatment with prednisone 20 mg oral daily and during placebo treatment. The total number of positive nickel patch test reactions decreased significantly...... in patients during prednisone treatment. The threshold concentration to elicit a patch test reaction increased and the overall degree of reactivity to nickel sulfate shifted towards weaker reactions. The effect of prednisone treatment on the response to irritants was divergent with both increased...

  9. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  10. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (< 50%) and significantly higher interleukin-1α release compared with the solvent alone group, in the RhE tissue model and an intracutaneous response test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Testing a biobehavioral model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veek, Patrick P J; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Rood, Yanda R; Masclee, Ad A M

    2010-04-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is probably multifactorial with dysfunction at different levels of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing biobehavioral model of IBS symptom generation in a large group of patients. In 104 IBS patients, we assessed symptom severity by a symptom diary, visceral hypersensitivity using a barostat, autonomic function by measuring arterial baroreflex sensitivity and psychological functioning using questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to calculate the reciprocal and chronological relationships between the model variables. Analysis of the adjusted original model indicated poor fit [Satorra-Bentler chi=28.47; degrees of freedom (df)=11, Pbehavior-IBS symptoms and trauma-IBS symptoms). The revised model yielded a reasonable fit (chi=13.88, df=9, P=0.13; CFI=0.94). The model explained 18.7% of the variance in IBS symptoms. Illness behavior completely mediated the effect of cognitions on IBS symptoms and partly mediated the effect of trauma on IBS symptoms. The fit of this alternative model was good (chi=9.85, df=8, P=0.28; CFI=0.98). The alternative model explained 20.0% of the variance in IBS symptoms. The proposed biobehavioral model could not be validated. Although visceral hypersensitivity and IBS symptom severity significantly correlate, autonomic function and IBS symptoms do not. Cognitive-behavioral aspects are important in the clinical expression of IBS, with illness behavior playing an intermediate and central role.

  12. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy.

  13. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  14. Microwave corneosurfametry and the short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test for rating concentrated irritant surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    2001-01-01

    There are ethical concerns to conduct in vivo tests in the animal and human to provide evidence that cosmetics and other topical products are safe. To compare two methods, namely the short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay, to test the irritation potential of concentrated surfactant systems. Five surfactants and water were tested using the in vivo test and the bioassay. A significant linear correlation was found between data yielded by the two procedures. The short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay provide similar information. The latter has the advantage of being safe.

  15. Total flight hours, irritated and burning eye and risk of mild myopia in civilian pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Maya Savitri

    2016-07-01

    .Methods: This cross-sectional study using using purposive sampling. Subjects answered the questionaire.Data was extracted from the medical record. Cox regression analyses using Stata 10.Results: The subject consisted of 21-45 years old male civilian pilots who performing scheduled medicalcheck up at the Civil Aviatian Medical Centre. We found that 36% of the pilots had mild myopia, and thedominant risk factors were total flight time for 1000 hours or more, parental myopia, as well as irritatedand burning eyes. Those who had compared to did have total flight hours for 1000 hours or more had 28%more risk to have mild myopia [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.00 to1.64; P = 0.047]. In term of parential myopia, those who had compared who did not have parential myopiahad 32% more risk to have mild myopia (RRa = 1.32; 95% CI = 3.75-7.55; P = 0.000. Moreover, thosewho had compared to who did have irritated and burning eyes had 48% more risk to have mild myopia(RRa = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.83; P = 0.009.Conclusions: Total flight 1000 hours or more, parental myopia, as well as irritated and burning eyes were dominantrisk factors for mild myopia in civilian pilots in Indonesia. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:49-53Key words: mild myopia, civilian aviator, total flight time, Indonesia.

  16. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  17. The Hen's Egg Test on Chorioallantoic Membrane: An Alternative Assay for the Assessment of the Irritating Effect of Vaccine Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Jorge Murillo, Gisela; Pérez, Ulpiano Marqués; Tur, Enieyis Naranjo; Portuondo, Deivys Fuentes; Martínez, Bruno Téllez; Téllez-Martínez, Damiana; Betancourt, Juan E; Pérez, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Local reactions are the most frequent adverse event associated with vaccines. Adjuvants are major constituents of many vaccines and they are frequently involved in these reactions, associated with their irritating effect and the stimulation of local inflammation. The hen's egg test on chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) is an alternative toxicological method widely used to determine ocular irritation potential, but very few studies have demonstrated the utility of this method for assessing the irritant properties of vaccine adjuvants. In this work, known/experimental adjuvants were evaluated by both HET-CAM and an in vivo local toxicity study in mice to compare irritation scores to determine whether there was a correlation (Pearson test). Based on these data (r = 0.9034; P alternate method for the prediction of the local toxicity potential of adjuvant candidates to be used in vaccines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  19. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ulander, Kerstin

    2007-05-03

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-reduction, internal reliability consistency, simplicity, and speed. Two samples were used. One expert panel (five physicians and four registered nurses), who gave their opinion on the content validity, and one of 71 patients with IBS (mean age 38 years SD +13, range 19-65), who completed the VAS-IBS, as well as the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Psychological General Well-Being Index for criterion validity. The items in the VAS-IBS capture the main physical concerns women with IBS might present and the psychometric testing confirmed that the VAS-IBS is an acceptable homogeneous patient-reported questionnaire indicated by Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient, with a value of 0.85. All correlations to test the criterion validity performed by using Pearson's correlation test, were statistically significant (p VAS-IBS is easy to complete and unproblematic to calculate. The VAS-IBS appears to be reliable and user-friendly, for patients as well as for health professionals. The final version of the VAS-IBS including nine items needs to be further tested in clinical practice cross-culturally in women as well as in men.

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Bodil

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS. The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-reduction, internal reliability consistency, simplicity, and speed. Two samples were used. One expert panel (five physicians and four registered nurses, who gave their opinion on the content validity, and one of 71 patients with IBS (mean age 38 years SD +13, range 19–65, who completed the VAS-IBS, as well as the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Psychological General Well-Being Index for criterion validity. Results The items in the VAS-IBS capture the main physical concerns women with IBS might present and the psychometric testing confirmed that the VAS-IBS is an acceptable homogeneous patient-reported questionnaire indicated by Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient, with a value of 0.85. All correlations to test the criterion validity performed by using Pearson's correlation test, were statistically significant (p Conclusion The VAS-IBS appears to be reliable and user-friendly, for patients as well as for health professionals. The final version of the VAS-IBS including nine items needs to be further tested in clinical practice cross-culturally in women as well as in men.

  1. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  2. Irritancy of antiseptics tested by repeated open exposures on the human skin, evaluated by non-invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Schuur, J; Coenraads, PJ

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the irritancy of 6 antiseptics in an open exposure model. The following agents were tested in their normal use concentrations using open exposures, 2x daily for 4 days in 20 subjects: chlorhexidine 4% (CH), chlorhexidine 0.5% in ethanol 70% (CE), ethanol 70% (ET),

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  4. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability. © 2010 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  5. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  6. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  7. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  8. Pre-validation of an in vitro skin irritation test for medical devices using the reconstructed human tissue model EpiDerm™.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; De Jong, Wim H; Letasiova, Silvia; Milasova, Tatiana; Bachelor, Michael A; Breyfogle, Bridget; Handa, Yuki; De la Fonteyne, Liset; Coleman, Kelly P

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of dermal irritation is an essential component of the safety evaluation of medical devices. Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have replaced rabbit skin irritation testing for neat chemicals and their mixtures (OECD Test Guideline 439). However, this guideline cannot be directly

  9. Genetic testing and counselling in inherited eye disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Hanne; Timshel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genetics have made genetic testing in patients with inherited eye disease increasingly accessible, and the initiation of clinical intervention trials makes it increasingly clinically relevant. Based on a multidisciplinary collaboration between ophthalmologists and clinical geneticists......, the extensive register of families with monogenic inherited eye diseases at the National Eye Clinic of the Kennedy Center in Denmark provides a valuable asset waiting to be exploited in the global effort to reduce blindness caused by genetic defects....

  10. EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA AND EYE EXERCISES ON EYE TO HAND COORDINATION: STUDY BY FINGER DEXTERITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our eyes are bo dy's most well developed sensory organs. Indeed, a far larger part of our brain is devoted to the functions of eyesight than to those of hearing, taste, touch or smell together. We usually take our eyesight for granted, although when vision problems develop, most of us will do everything in our capacity to restore our eyesight to normal . Eyes work together to perceive depth thus allowing us to coordinate with motor actions. Practicing relaxation exercises in the form of pranayama and eye exercise has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. AIM: To study the effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study consisted of 60 healthy subjects divided equally into two groups. One group practiced kapalabhati pranayama and eye exercises for eight weeks whereas other group did not participate in any kind of exercise. The effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination were assessed by finger dexterity test by using O′Connor finger dexterity task. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in eye to hand coordination in subjects practicing pranayama and eye exercises. Fi nger dexterity test values in study group before and after intervention were 31±4.94 and 33±4.98 respectively. Whereas in control group the values were 29.9±5.7 and 30.1±5.31 respectively. CONCLUSION: Both Kapalabhati pranayama and eye to hand coordination can improve fine motor skills

  11. An ancient eye test--using the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohigian, George M

    2008-01-01

    Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test.

  12. Can children with autism read emotions from the eyes? The eyes test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Itakura, Shoji; Pomorska, Krystyna; Abramowski, Anna; Nikaido, Kozue; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test two new, simplified tasks related to the eye-test, targeting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing controls (TD). Test-1 assessed the recognition of emotion/mental states with displays using one word and two eye-pictures, whereas Test-2 presented displays using two words and one eye-picture. Black and white photographs of children were used as materials. A cross-cultural study (Caucasian/East-Asian) with adults was initially carried out to verify generalizability across different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses were used to compare emotion recognition from the eyes in the two tests. Trajectories were constructed linking performance on both tests either to chronological age or to different measures of mental age (receptive vocabulary based on the BPVS, CARS or ASQ for the ASD group). Performance improved with chronological age in both the ASD and TD groups of children. However, performance in Test-1 was significantly superior in children with ASD, who showed delayed onset and slower rate of improvement than TD children in Test-2. In both the ASD and TD groups the lowest error rate was recorded for the item 'anger', suggesting that threat-detection cue mechanisms may be intact in autism. In general, all children showed good performance on our novel tests, thus making them good candidates for assessing younger children and those with lower general abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Topical antioxidants protect the skin from chemical-induced irritation in the repetitive washing test: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Christoph M; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Ferrari, Yvonne; Brecht, Thomas; Gehring, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species play an important role in the development of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. To assess the potential of topical antioxidants to prevent the development of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effect of a cream containing a combination of antioxidants on sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis in the repetitive washing test. As readout parameters for skin barrier function and cutaneous inflammation stratum corneum hydration, cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss were assessed in 25 volunteers with bioengineering methods. In comparison with the cream base and a frequently used barrier cream, the antioxidant cream had high radical scavenging activity and effectively protected the skin from chemical-induced irritation. The superiority of the cream with antioxidants to the cream base suggests that reactive oxygen species, at least in part, play a role in the development of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  15. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy for Kids With Rare Eye Disease (Video) Ocular Implant (Video) Glaucoma Additional Content Medical News Eyes, ... has other eye symptoms, such as dryness, increased tear formation, double vision, loss of vision, irritation, or ...

  16. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, K R; Fischer, A; Zöller, N N; Laubach, V; Bernd, A; Jacobs, A; van Rompay, A; Liebsch, M; Pirow, R; Petersohn, D

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new in vitro skin irritation test based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) with openly accessible protocols for tissue production and test performance. Due to structural, mechanistic and procedural similarity, a blinded catch-up validation study for skin irritation according to OECD Performance Standards (PS) was conducted in three laboratories to promote regulatory acceptance, with OS-REp models produced at a single production site only. While overall sensitivity and predictive capacity met the PS requirements, overall specificity was only 57%. A thorough analysis of the test results led to the assumption that some of the false-positive classifications could have been evoked by volatile skin-irritating chemicals tested in the same culture plate as the non-irritants falsely predicted as irritants. With GC/MS and biological approaches the cross-contamination effect was confirmed and the experimental set-up adapted accordingly. Retesting of the affected chemicals with the improved experimental set-up and otherwise identical protocol resulted in correct classifications as non-irritants. Taking these re-test results into account, 93% overall sensitivity, 70% specificity and 82% accuracy was achieved, which is in accordance with the OECD PS. A sufficient reliability of the method was indicated by a within-laboratory-reproducibility of 85-95% and a between-laboratory-reproducibility of 90%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Irritation of ocular tissue by irreversible hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moergeli, J R; Fraleigh, E M; Ostrowski, J S; Pelleu, G B

    1985-08-01

    Two ophthalmic and two dental irreversible hydrocolloid materials were tested on rabbit conjunctivae to determine histologically their potential to irritate these tissues. Each of the four impression materials elicited nearly the same amount of inflammatory response. The differences between the response of the controls and the response to Ophthalmic Mold-Eye, Jelset Special Formula, and Kerr Alignate Type II were significant. These results indicate that certain dental irreversible hydrocolloids may be used for ocular prostheses but that they should be used with caution because of the inflammation caused by irreversible hydrocolloids.

  19. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  20. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...... with more positive patch tests on the forearm patch tested with SLS plus hydroxycitronellal and no day of patch test readings with more positive patch tests on the forearm tested with hydroxycitronellal (P = 0.0253). Estimation of the blood flow with laser Doppler supported these findings....

  1. Correlation between symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome and the response to the food extract skin prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.S. Soares

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and food intolerance is not clear. We studied the cutaneous response to food antigens in 43 volunteers who were students and employees of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Federal Fluminense. Subjects were divided into 3 groups after evaluation for Roma II criteria for functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract: group I, 14 volunteers with IBS; group II, 15 volunteers with functional dyspepsia; group III, 14 volunteers without habitual gastrointestinal symptoms. The subjects were submitted to the skin prick test with 9 food antigen extracts, for a total of 387 skin tests (9 per volunteer. Of the 126 tests applied to group I, 24 (19.4% were positive (a 3-mm wider papule than the negative control and of the 135 tests applied to group II, 3 (2.3% were positive. Of the 126 tests applied to group III, 6 (4% were positive. The number of positive responses obtained in group I (IBS differed significantly from the other 2 groups (P < 0.01. None of the volunteers with IBS reported intolerance to any isolated food. The higher reactivity to food antigens in group I compared to groups II and III suggests that intestinal permeability may be increased in patients with IBS.

  2. Image sensor for testing refractive error of eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangning; Chen, Jiabi; Xu, Longyun

    2000-05-01

    It is difficult to detect ametropia and anisometropia for children. Image sensor for testing refractive error of eyes does not need the cooperation of children and can be used to do the general survey of ametropia and anisometropia for children. In our study, photographs are recorded by a CCD element in a digital form which can be directly processed by a computer. In order to process the image accurately by digital technique, formula considering the effect of extended light source and the size of lens aperture has been deduced, which is more reliable in practice. Computer simulation of the image sensing is made to verify the fineness of the results.

  3. Semiquantitative fecal calprotectin test in postinfectious and non-postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Elisabeta David

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:The presence of a certain degree of inflammation in the gut wall is now accepted in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Fecal calprotectin is considered to be a reliable test for detecting intestinal inflammation. Our aim was to assess the presence of inflammation in postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS, compared with non-postinfectious IBS (NPI-IBS. A secondary objective was to determine the usefulness of a rapid fecal calprotectin test in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD.DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with IBS and IBD at a single tertiary gastroenterology center were prospectively included in this study.METHODS:116 patients with Rome III IBS score (76 females; 48 ± 12 years were investigated; 24 patients (15 females had PI-IBS. Intestinal inflammation was assessed using the semiquantitative fecal calprotectin test. The results were expressed as T1, T2 or T3 according to the severity of inflammation ( 60 μg/g. Using the same test, we evaluated 20 patients with IBD (12 males; 47 ± 13 years.RESULTS:None of the patients with IBS had a T2 or T3 positive test. Among PI-IBS patients, 33% had a T1 positive test. Among NPI-IBS patients, 9.8% had a T1 positive test, which was significantly different to PI-IBS. The calprotectin test was positive in all IBD patients: 80% with T3, 10% with T2 and 10% with T1.CONCLUSIONS:Using a semiquantitative test for fecal calprotectin, positive tests were more frequent in PI-IBS patients than in NPI-IBS patients.

  4. Classification and labeling of industrial products with extreme pH by making use of in vitro methods for the assessment of skin and eye irritation and corrosion in a weight of evidence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Julia; Heppenheimer, Andreas; Lehringer, Elke; Kreutz, Juergen; Poth, Albrecht; Ammann, Holger; Reisinger, Kerstin; Banduhn, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Classification and labeling of products with extreme pH values (≤ 2 or ≥ 11.5) is addressed in chemicals legislation. Following determination of pH and alkaline/acid reserve, additional in vitro tests are needed, especially to substantiate results less than corrosive. However, only limited experience with the practical application of in vitro methods to determine appropriate classifications for pH extreme products is available so far. Expert judgment and weight of evidence are given major roles under the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS) and should be performed on a sound data basis. We have used a tiered testing strategy to assess 20 industrial products (cleaning and metal pretreatment) regarding their corrosive and irritating properties towards human skin models in vitro in the EpiDerm skin corrosion and/or skin irritation test. Nine dilutions of individual compounds were additionally tested. Non-corrosive samples were tested in the Hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). We demonstrate how data is combined in a weight of evidence expert judgment, and give examples of classification decisions. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of industrial products with extreme pH values to determine irritating and corrosive properties by making use of in vitro methods in a weight of evidence approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  6. 16 CFR 1500.41 - Method of testing primary irritant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... patch-test technique on the abraded and intact skin of the albino rabbit, clipped free of hair. A... area of exposure) 4 1 The “value” recorded for each reading is the average value of the six or more animals subject to the test. Readings are again made at the end of a total of 72 hours (48 hours after the...

  7. New method for determining eye anesthesia in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, G A; Bond, G G; Reer, P J; Cloyd, G C

    1977-02-01

    Some chemical which are injurious to the eye may also cause anesthesia. If the eye were unknowingly anesthetized, exposure to an irritant could go undected and cause injury. Techniques for determining whether the eye was anesthetized have been generally unreliable. Usually the technique consists of challenging the cornea with a probe and testing for a blink response. In a new method described herein, an indwelling subpalpebral lavage apparatus was surgically implanted in the dog. Through this apparatus, a test material was instilled into the eye without the animal's anticipation. Responses caused by the materials were monitored by electroencephalography. The normal response to an irritting material was increased frequency and decreased amplitude of the electroencephalogram tracing or a deflection of thepolygraph needle (blink response), or both. The method was evaluated with known eye anesthetic agents and appeared to be a useful way of detecting eye anesthesia.

  8. Handling test of eye drop dispenser--comparison of unit-dose pipettes with conventional eye drop bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, Minna; Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use.

  9. Dermal and ocular irritation and skin sensitization studies of fullerene C60 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-06-01

    Widespread production and use of nanomaterials have caused the release of increasing amounts of nanomaterials into the environment. The introduction of novel materials into industry requires safety evaluations as well as an understanding of the impact of the nanomaterials on human health, because the unique properties and size of nanomaterials may also result in unique health risks. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition to the superficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. However, information on the dermal and eye irritation and sensitization of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles is still lacking. This study was performed to examine the potential irritating and sensitizing effects of fullerenes on the skin and eyes. The dermal and eye irritation study was performed using rabbits according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines 404 and 405, respectively. The skin sensitization study was carried out in accordance to the OECD Guideline 406 using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the fullerenes in the test substances were the maximum allowable for administration. Fullerenes were applied at 50 mg in dermal irritation, 40 mg in skin sensitization, and 100 mg in eye irritation studies. No dermal responses, including erythema/eschar or edema, were found in rabbits treated with fullerenes. No rabbits exhibited corneal opacity, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis eye at any time point after the application of fullerenes. Fullerenes caused conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1 h, but not at 24 h. No erythema or edema was observed after the challenge with fullerenes in the fullerene-treated guinea pigs. Reversible minimal potential for acute irritation of the eyes was induced by fullerenes, but neither irritation nor sensitization was caused on the skin. Although the present study provided

  10. Short term study of human skin irritation by single application closed patch test: assessment of four multiple emulsion formulations loaded with botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of skin irritation potential is a major concern in safety assessment of cosmetics, when long-term use of these products are expected. Non-invasive bioengineering probes have been used previously to measure skin irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients. Experimentation carried out to weigh up the skin irritation potential of four multiple emulsion formulations via visual and non-invasive measurements. Immediate effects of formulations and comparison of two assessment techniques were also tried to establish. Four multiple emulsion formulations one control (without botanical active) and three containing the functional botanical actives plus additives were tested in this study using the following techniques: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), COLIPA visual scoring method (CVSM), Mexameter MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany) and capacitance [Corneometer MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany)]. Visual examination and non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and after 24 h. The formulations were applied on the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers of same sexes aged 20-25 years. We found that none of the formulation produced irritation both on visual and instrumental evaluation. However, formulations MeB and MeC have comparable immediate effects on dryness, erythema, melanin and TEWL. Formulation MeC produced more effective results on different parameters, may be due to synergistic effect of two extracts, while MeA failed to produce any immediate effects on skin parameters. Moreover results of both assessment methods are parallel to each other. None of the formulation produce irritant effects, barrier impairment effects or immediate effects except for the formulation MeC which produced appreciable results than other formulations but statistically these results were insignificant (p > 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that formulations may be implied safely as skin rejuvenating candidates.

  11. Winter season, frequent hand washing, and irritant patch test reactions to detergents are associated with hand dermatitis in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Adrienne; Baron, Elma; Fekedulegn, Desta; Kashon, Michael; Yucesoy, Berran; Johnson, Victor J; Domingo, Diana Santo; Kirkland, Brent; Luster, Michael I; Nedorost, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Irritant hand dermatitis (IHD) is common in health care workers. We studied endogenous irritant contact dermatitis threshold by patch testing and exogenous factors such as season and hand washing for their association with IHD in health care workers. Irritant patch testing with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride at varying concentrations was measured in 113 health care workers. Examination for hand dermatitis occurred at 1-month intervals for a period of 6 months in the Midwestern United States. Positive patch testing to low-concentration SLS was associated with IHD (P = 0.0310) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, season, history of childhood flexural dermatitis, mean indoor relative humidity, and glove and hand sanitizer usage. Subjects with a positive patch test to SLS were 78% more likely to have occurrence of IHD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-3.45). Hand washing frequency (≥10 times a day; IRR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.39) and cold season (IRR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.35-5.65) were associated with IHD. No association was found between history of childhood flexural dermatitis and IHD in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of IHD and should be considered in designing strategies to protect, educate, and treat susceptible individuals.

  12. Handling Test of Eye Drop Dispenser—Comparison of Unit-Dose Pipettes with Conventional Eye Drop Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. Methods In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. Results The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. Conclusions The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use. PMID:20565314

  13. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  14. What colour are newborns' eyes? Prevalence of iris colour in the Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Cassie A; Callaway, Natalia F; Fredrick, Douglas R; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to assess the birth prevalence of iris colour among newborns in a prospective, healthy, full-term newborn cohort. The Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study is a prospective cohort study conducted at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University School of Medicine. A paediatric vitreoretinal specialist (DMM) reviewed images sent to the Byers Eye Institute telemedicine reading centre and recorded eye colour for every infant screened. Variables were graphed to assess for normality, and frequencies per subject were reported for eye colour, sex, ethnicity and race. Among 192 subjects screened in the first year of the NEST study with external images of appropriate quality for visualization of the irides, the birth prevalence of iris colour was 63.0% brown, 20.8% blue, 5.7% green/hazel, 9.9% indeterminate and 0.5% partial heterochromia. The study population was derived from a quaternary care children's hospital. We report the birth prevalence of iris colour among full-term newborns in a diverse prospective cohort. The study demonstrates a broad range of iris colour prevalence at birth with a predominance of brown iris coloration. Future studies with the NEST cohort will assess the change in iris colour over time and whether the frequencies of eye colour change as the child ages. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7440 Korean women during 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, S M; Ham, H; Choi, E J; Shin, M K; An, S S; Kim, H O; Koh, J S

    2014-02-01

    Cosmetics are products used over long periods by the public, and their safety is very important. Several types of human tests are used widely for the evaluation of cosmetics including single patch tests, in-use tests, human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). However, there is no clear and well-defined published objective and standardized criteria for primary skin irritation in regard to the large variety of cosmetic products. This study analysed human patch tests conducted from May 2001 to December 2012 with 4606 materials of prototype or finished cosmetic products on 7440 normal Korean women aged 18-60 years. The tested products were patched under occlusion for 24 or 48 h, and skin tolerance was assessed twice at 30 min and 24 h after patch removal using a 5-step scale according to the CTFA guidelines. Human patch tests for cosmetics were performed of 4606 cases, and 30-33 subjects participated in each case. The response in each case was calculated based on total subject number, skin reaction intensity and the number of respondents. The calculated response was standardized using the z-score, and a safety zone was provided in terms of human primary irritation in accordance with the human skin reaction evaluation criteria and usage or formula of cosmetics. This study established the safety criteria for irritation in the cosmetics field. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. The Handy Eye Check: a mobile medical application to test visual acuity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Keri N; Lynn, Michael J; Candy, T Rowan; Hutchinson, Amy K

    2014-06-01

    To compare visual acuity results obtained with the Handy Eye Chart to results obtained using the Handy Eye Check, a mobile medical application that electronically presents isolated Handy Eye Chart optotypes according the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) protocol. Consecutive patients 6-18 years of age presenting for eye examinations between May 30, 2012, and June 26, 2012, were invited to participate. Monocular visual acuity testing was performed on the subject's poorer-seeing eye using both the Handy Eye Check and the Handy Eye Chart under the same conditions. Visual acuity was first tested using the mobile application, then using the chart, followed by repeated application testing. Patients were excluded if they were unable to undergo the required visual acuity testing or if visual acuity in the worse-seeing eye was less than 20/200 (for validity testing, but not reliability testing). There was a strong linear correlation (r = 0.92) and a mean difference in acuity of -0.005 logMAR, or less than one letter (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.02), between the two tests. The 95% limits of agreement were ± 2 lines. Test-retest reliability was high, with 81% of retest scores within 0.1 logMAR (5 letters) and 100% within 0.2 logMAR (10 letters), an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93, and a standard error of measurement of 0.08. The Handy Eye Check mobile application compares similarly to the Handy Eye Chart as a valid and reliable test of visual acuity in children age 6-18 years. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  18. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  19. A Turbo Pascal program for testing eye-hand coordination by means of tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, M

    1992-02-01

    A Turbo Pascal program for eye-hand coordination testing using standard PC XT/AT mouse is presented. The contour segments of three simple figures (square, circle and triangle) are chosen as tracing trajectories. Tracing performance expressed in root mean squared (RMS) and modulus mean error (MME) measures are calculated and used, together with tracing time for evaluation of eye hand coordination ability.

  20. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  1. Existe importância na utilização de exames de fisiologia ano retal no diagnóstico da sindrome do intestino irritável? Is there importance in the use of anorectal physiologic tests in the diagnosis of the irritable bowel syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em alguns pacientes a síndrome do intestino irritável e a constipação funcional se confundem, principalmente quando o sintoma predominante na síndrome do cólon irritável é a constipação. Dentre os vários exames alguns testes fisiológicos ano retais avaliam a função esfincteriana e sensibilidade retal OBJETIVO: Verificar se existem diferenças entre as manometrias anais dos pacientes com constipação funcional e síndrome do intestino irritável. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo de 55 manometrias e testes de sensibilidade anais realizadas em pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de Fisiologia Anal do Serviço de Clínica Cirúrgica do Hospital Universitário de Taubaté com diagnóstico de constipação intestinal ou síndrome do intestino irritável no período de janeiro de 2006 a maio de 2007. Todos os pacientes possuíam colonoscopia a normal e foram incluídos nos critérios diagnósticos de Roma II para Constipação Funcional e Síndrome do Intestino Irritável. As manometrias foram realizadas com aparelho ALACER, de perfusão com 8 canais. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as manometrias quanto às pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação, assim como nos valores de sensibilidade retal. Encontramos diferenças quanto à dor abdominal desencadeada nos pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável no momento do volume máximo tolerável em que 69,2% destes pacientes apresentaram dor abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com a síndrome do intestino irritável apresentam dor à distensão da ampola retal, que não ocorre nos pacientes constipados, na aferição do volume máximo tolerável, não houve diferença em relação aos outros dados da manometria.INTRODUCTION: In some patients the irritable bowel syndrome and the functional constipation is confuse, mainly when the predominant symptom in the irritable bowel syndrome is the constipation. Amongst some examinations the anal manometry

  2. Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test: A Unique Test of Spaceflight Induced Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and quantification of posture and locomotion following spaceflight is an evolving process. Based on the data obtained from the current investigation we believe that the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. As a part of an ongoing investigation designed to look at functional changes in astronauts returning from spaceflight seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember side-stepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. The data reveled a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on the first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and seemed to be determined by the angle of foot placement relative to their body. While deviation from a straight line could be either left or right, primary deviations were observed to occur to the right. Furthermore, the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular

  3. Evaluation of clinical validity of the Rabin cone contrast test in normal phakic or pseudophakic eyes and severely dichromatic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Masato; Muraki, Sanae; Niwa, Yuichi; Ohji, Masahito

    2017-05-29

    To evaluate the clinical validity of the Rabin cone contrast test (RCCT; Innova Systems, Inc.) in patients with normal phakic/pseudophakic eyes and severe dichromatic colour vision deficiency (CVD). We evaluated age-related changes in the RCCT scores in 166 phakic eyes and 34 pseudophakic eyes and the RCCT sensitivity and specificity in 28 men with severe dichromatic CVD (10 with protanopia, 18 with deutanopia) and nine age-matched controls. All participants had 20/20 or better Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The RCCT was used to measure the L, M and S-CCT scores (range, 0-100). In normal phakic eyes, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores decreased gradually with ageing, with normal levels in patients in the second to seventh decades of life and some below normal in the eighth and ninth decades of life. In normal pseudophakic eyes, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores were normal in patients in the seventh to ninth decades of life. In eyes with severe CVD, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores were, respectively, 31.5 ± 18.3, 86.0 ± 12.6 and 98.0 ± 6.3 in patients with protanopia; 92.8 ± 10.5, 50.8 ± 19.6 and 97.8 ± 5.2 in patients with deutanopia; and 99.4 ± 1.7, 98.3 ± 5.0 and 99.4 ± 1.7 in controls. The RCCT sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diagnosing the CVD type. The RCCT can be used in non-visually impaired patients up to the seventh decade of life and after cataract surgery in elderly patients. The RCCT is available for CVD screening and typing and the score has a wide distribution range even in patients with severe CVD. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Human in vivo cumulative irritation tests with low-grade irritants simulate real-life exposure to skin irritants. The test outcome depends not only on the substance tested but also on the design of the assay. More than one experimental irritant is usually used because chemicals...... have diverse mechanisms of action on the skin. We used sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON) in three different concentrations plus their vehicles, water and n-propanol, respectively, to validate our test models and to optimize test concentrations. METHODS: Healthy volunteer forearm skin....... Wash test: induction of irritation by three daily washings for 6 days and maintenance of the dermatitis by two daily washings for 12 days with SLS 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% or NON 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally (transepidermal water loss, colorimetry...

  5. Formulation of tretinoin-loaded topical proniosomes for treatment of acne: in-vitro characterization, skin irritation test and comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Salwa Abdel; Abdelmalak, Nevine Shawky; Badawi, Alia; Elbayoumy, Tahany; Sabry, Nermeen; El Ramly, Amany

    2015-01-01

    Tretinoin (TRT) is a widely used retinoid for the topical treatment of acne, photo-aged skin, psoriasis and skin cancer which makes it a good candidate for topical formulation. Yet side effects, like redness, swelling, peeling, blistering and, erythema, in addition to its high lipophilicity make this challenging. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of TRT-loaded proniosomes to improve the drug efficacy and to increase user acceptability and compliance by reducing its side effects. Nine formulae were prepared according to 3(2) factorial design and were evaluated for their morphology, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency (EE %), and% of drug released after 5 h. Hydrogel of the candidate formula, N8G (proniosomes prepared with 0.025% TRT, and Span60: cholesterol molar ratio of 3:1 and incorporated in 1% carbopol gel) was developed and evaluated for skin irritation test and clinical study in acne patients compared to marketed product. Candidate formula showed higher efficacy and very low irritation potential when compared to marketed product in human volunteers.

  6. Low Cost vs. High-End Eye Tracking for Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy of an open source remote eye tracking system and a state-of-the-art commercial eye tracker was measured 4 times during a usability test. Results from 9 participants showed both devices to be fairly stable over time, but the commercial tracker was more accurate with a mean error of 31...... pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas...

  7. The handy eye chart: a new visual acuity test for use in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromelin, Caroline H; Candy, T Rowan; Lynn, Michael J; Harrington, Cindy Lou; Hutchinson, Amy K

    2012-10-01

    To design a simple matching acuity test based on hand gestures that is minimally dependent on familiarity with symbols and letters. The visual acuity results obtained from children using the Handy Eye Chart were compared with results obtained with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Sixty children aged 6 to 16 years were recruited consecutively from the Pediatric Ophthalmology section of the Emory Eye Center. Monocular visual acuity was tested using both the new eye chart and the ETDRS chart, alternating the order of administration between subjects. Testing was performed on the subject's eye with the poorest acuity. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity scores for each chart. The acuities were shown to have a strong linear correlation (r = 0.95) and a mean difference in acuity of -0.03 (95% confidence interval, -0.05 to -0.01) logMAR, equivalent to approximately 1.5 letters, with the new eye chart underestimating the vision as determined by the ETDRS chart. The 95% limits of agreement were ±1.6 lines. This study supports the validity of the new eye chart as a measure of visual acuity in pediatric patients aged 6 to 18 years with vision ranging from 20/16 to 20/200. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suitability of histopathology as an additional endpoint to the Isolated Chicken Eye Test for classification of non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2014-06-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of histopathological evaluations as an additional endpoint to the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) to identify non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 (serious eye damage). To this aim, a total of 30 non-extreme pH products covering the range of in vivo classifications for eye irritation, and representing various product categories were tested. Epithelium vacuolation (mid and lower layers) and erosion (at least moderate) were found to be the most relevant histopathological effects induced by products classified in vivo as Category 1. Histopathology criteria specifically developed for non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products were shown to correctly identify materials classified as Category 1 based on in vivo persistent effects, and to significantly increase the overall sensitivity of the standard ICE prediction model for Category 1 identification (to 75%) whilst maintaining a good concordance (73%). In contrast, use of EU CLP additivity approach for classification of mixtures was considerably less predictive, with a concordance of only 27%, and 100% over-predictions of non-Category 1 products. As such, use of histopathology as an addition to the ICE test method was found suitable to identify EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products and to allow a better discrimination from Category 2 products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The psychometric properties of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test: an item response theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Vellante, Marcello; Petretto, Donatella R

    2017-05-01

    The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test (hereafter: Eyes Test) is considered an advanced task of the Theory of Mind aimed at assessing the performance of the participant in perspective-takingthat is, the ability to sense or understand other people's cognitive and emotional states. In this study, the item response theory analysis was applied to the adult version of the Eyes Test. The Italian version of the Eyes Test was administered to 200 undergraduate students of both genders (males = 46%). Modified parallel analysis (MPA) was used to test unidimensionality. Marginal maximum likelihood estimation was used to fit the 1-, 2-, and 3-parameter logistic (PL) model to the data. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) due to gender was explored with five independent methods. MPA provided evidence in favour of unidimensionality. The Rasch model (1-PL) was superior to the other two models in explaining participants' responses to the Eyes Test. There was no robust evidence of gender-related DIF in the Eyes Test, although some differences may exist for some items as a reflection of real differences by group. The study results support a one-factor model of the Eyes Test. Performance on the Eyes Test is defined by the participant's ability in perspective-taking. Researchers should cease using arbitrarily selected subscores in assessing the performance of participants to the Eyes Test. Lack of gender-related DIF favours the use of the Eyes Test in the investigation of gender differences concerning empathy and social cognition.

  10. Assessment of the dermal and ocular irritation potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by using in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, A Sairam; Surekha, P; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2009-12-15

    In view of increase in the manufacture of various nanomaterials runs the risk of increased human exposure, in vitro screening will serve as a preliminary method to assess possible risk in animal studies. We attempted to know whether the validated in vitro alternative models established for chemicals, drugs, pesticides are suitable for nanomaterials, since these materials differ largely and may interfere with commonly used test systems. In vitro and in vivo studies on ocular and dermal irritation were carried out with two different sizes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The results of acute eye irritation toxicity studies with two different sizes of MWCNT in rabbits demonstrated reversible conjunctival redness and discharge and exhibited minimal concern while acute dermal irritation studies indicated that MWCNT of two sizes were non-irritant to the skin of rabbits. Both the sizes of MWCNT revealed non-irritant result in HE-CAM test. In vitro skin (EPISKIN) irritation studies revealed that two sizes of MWCNT are non-irritant to skin. In conclusion this work purports, the future of alternative research lies in the validation of the methodology for nanomaterials.

  11. Road safety effect of obligatory eye test for 45 year olds and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Some years ago, the introduction of an obligatory eye test for drivers 45 years old and older was (once more) brought to discussion. We expect that the introduction of such a measure will only have a very slight positive effect on road safety. This measure, in which only visual acuity is tested,

  12. Eye-Tracking as a Tool in Process-Oriented Reading Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Oddny Judith; Uppstad, Per Henning

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations…

  13. Application of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ping Yin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe and study the comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia.METHODS:Eighty-four children with hyperopia who were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry in our hospital from February 2014 to March 2015 were selected as the research object,and they were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry by tropicamide or hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops. The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration and at different time after administration of the two methods were compared,and the detected results of the two groups with different severity degree were compared too.RESULTS:The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration of the two eye drops had no significant differences(all P>0.05,while the residual regulation after using hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops at 20, 40, 60min and 24h were all smaller than those after using tropicamide(all PP>0.05. The pupil diameter of the two groups at 48h after administration both had no significant differences to those before administration(all P>0.05.CONCLUSION:The comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry of children with hyperopia is better,and its paralysis effect for ciliaris is obvious.

  14. The Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: Through My Own Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    births. Infant mortality in the oblast equals 34 per 1,000; for the Republic it is 27 per 1,000. 31 6.0 CRISIS OF CONFIDENCE The newspaper...me) statistical digression. 1.2 TEST SITES OF OTHER NATIONS Today five countries (Great Britain, the U.S., France, China , and the USSR) conduct...overall number of explosions is close to 180. China has conducted significantly fewer tests, 34 in all, beginning in 1964. However, what signals alarm

  15. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... assess the validation status of in vitro tests and integrated non-animal testing strategies proposed for... vitro alternatives to animals for eye safety assessments is an ICCVAM priority (ICCVAM, 2008). See http... test and integrated non-animal ] testing strategies proposed for identifying eye injury hazard...

  16. Comparison of LogMAR Eye charts with angular vision for visually impaired: the Berkeley rudimentary vision test vs LogMAR One target Landolt ring Eye chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Marie; Iwanami, Masaki; Oba, Mari S; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nishida, Tomomi

    2013-12-01

    It is not common to quantify visual acuity worse than 2.0 logarithm of the minimal angle resolution (logMAR) (commensurate with decimal visual acuity 0.01) at ophthalmology clinics. Recently, the Berkeley rudimentary vision test (BRVT) was developed as a simple measurement tool of logMAR with angular vision for quantifying poor levels of visual acuity. We compared the difference between BRVT and conventional Landolt ring logMAR chart with angular vision measured by the logMAR one target Landolt ring eye chart (LogMAR LEC). We reviewed 110 patients with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the better eye from light perception (LP) to 0.8 logMAR measured by LogMAR LEC. The reproducibility of the log MAR LEC and BRVT was evaluated on 39 eyes from 20 patients, and 33 eyes from 20 patients respectively. The comparison of logMAR between BRVT and logMAR LEC was evaluated by surveying 61 eyes from 70 patients. In addition, regardless of their BCVA, the eyes from patients with worse than 2.0 logMAR by LogMAR LEC were re-evaluated by BRVT. The logMAR of patients examined by BRVT or logMAR LEC did not show any significant difference between the first and second examinations, and there was a strong correlation between the examinations in both eye charts. The BRVT significantly produced better logMAR compared with logMAR LEC, and the strong correlation was shown between both eye charts. Although 35 eyes from 28 patients among 110 patients could not be quantified by logMAR LEC, 18 eyes of 35 eyes could be quantified logMAR by BRVT. The BRVT and logMAR LEC are reliable visual acuity measurement tools. Moreover, the BRVT is potentially effective in quantifying visual acuity of the more severe visually impaired patients.

  17. Safety evaluation of highly purified fullerenes (HPFs): based on screening of eye and skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Ito, Shinobu; Yamana, Shuichi; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    The safety of highly purified fullerenes (HPFs) for utilization as antioxidants in the cosmetic industry was evaluated by studying the toxicity and effects on laboratory animals, human epidermal keratinocytes, and human fibroblasts. The HPFs did not induce primary or cumulative skin irritation, skin sensitization, skin photosensitization or contact phototoxicity. No skin reaction was observed in the patch test on human skin. In the primary eye-irritation test on rabbits, conjunctival redness and corneal epithelial defects were observed in all animals of the eye-unwashed group at 1 and 24 hr after application, but disappeared by 48 hr after application. The irritation may have been caused by administration of insoluble fullerene powder. Therefore, the HPFs were assessed as "minimally irritating" in the eye-irritation test. By comparing these results with previously published data, we concluded that HPFs can be safely used in cosmetic ingredients for human skin application. This is the first study performing all the toxicity tests on the same fullerene material for approval as an additive in quasi-drugs.

  18. Intentional response distortion on personality tests: using eye-tracking to understand response processes when faking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, E.A.J.; Born, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In

  19. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected.

  20. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

  1. Schirmer tear test, phenol red thread tear test, eye blink frequency and corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Katrin; Skalicky, M; Nell, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    To establish reference values for Schirmer tear tests (STT) I and II, phenol red thread (PRT) tear test and eye blink frequency, and to determine corneal sensitivity for normal guinea pigs. One hundred and eight eyes of 54 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Schirmer tear test (STT) I and then STT II were performed in 36 guinea pigs. PRT and STT I were compared in 18 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Corneal sensitivity was determined in 23 guinea pigs by evaluating the corneal touch threshold (CTT) of five different regions using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Eye blink frequency was measured in 10 guinea pigs over a period of 20 min and in 17 guinea pigs over a period of 10 min. Mean STT I was 0.36 mm +/- 1.09 mm (wetting/min) and mean STT II was 0.43 mm +/- 1.29 mm (wetting/min). There was no significant difference between mean STT I and mean STT II (P = 0.79). The mean PRT-value was 16 +/- 4.7 mm (wetting/15 s), and the mean STT I-value in the same guinea pigs was 0.6 +/- 1.83 mm (wetting/min). Corneal sensitivity was significantly higher in the center than in the four limbal regions. The mean CTT for central, ventral, nasal, temporal and dorsal regions was 2, 1.7, 1.7, 1.7 and 1.6 cm or 3.7, 5.2, 5.6, 5.7 and 6.4 g/mm(2), respectively. Eye blink frequency was between two to five (mean 3.4 +/- 1.04) blinks per eye over 20 min in guinea pigs in their home environment, while in handheld and restrained guinea pigs eye blink frequency showed a variation between 0 and 17 blinks per eye (mean 3.24 +/- 3.64 blinks per eye) over 10 min. As there were no significant differences between STT I and STT II results, reflex tear secretion in the guinea pig may not exist. The most likely explanation is a lower corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig than in other species, such as cats, dogs and horses. Because of the small amount of tears, PRT is the preferred test for tear measurement in the guinea pig.

  2. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects of Drugs . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:488-494. Canavan C, West J, Card ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:722-725. Ford AC, Talley NJ. Irritable ...

  4. Application of eye-tracking in the testing of drivers: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Kapitaniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation. Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet – or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training.

  5. The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F

    2012-01-01

    Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples.

  6. The Eyes Test as a measure of individual differences: How much of the variance reflects verbal IQ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric ePeterson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Developed by Baron-Cohen and colleagues, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest WASI, a face processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test, and the Eyes Test to forty-two college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples.

  7. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS: There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P value using Chi-square test of RESULTS: Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire, Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20, 75.86% had a low TBUT (CONCLUSION: Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation between MS and Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining in normal as well as marginal and pathological dry eye.

  8. Eye-tracking as a tool in process-oriented reading test validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddny Judith Solheim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations are highlighted and special significance is placed on the importance of studying the first reading of a text as well as reading while answering questions about it. This point of view expands the traditional scope of eye-tracking methodology in reading research. We conducted a small-scale study in which 18 12-year olds read and answered questions about a multimodal text. In this study comprehension scores were related to allocation of visual attention in two conditions: (i reading a text passage for the first time; and (ii rereading of the text passage while answering questions about it.

  9. Eye-tracking as a tool in process-oriented reading test validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddny Judith SOLHEIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations are highlighted and special significance is placed on the importance of studying the first reading of a text as well as reading while answering questions about it. This point of view expands the traditional scope of eye-tracking methodology in reading research. We conducted a small-scale study in which 18 12-year olds read and answered questions about a multimodal text. In this study comprehension scores were related to allocation of visual attention in two conditions: (i reading a text passage for the first time; and (ii rereading of the text passage while answering questions about it.

  10. Task Type in Reading Span Tests Matters: An Eye Movement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Oya

    2015-01-01

    Reading span tests (RSTs) are commonly used to measure working memory (WM) capacity in L2 research. RSTs require simultaneous processing (secondary task) and storage (primary task) of information. However, the type of the secondary task varies from one study to another. Since syntactic and semantic processing in the L2 might be different, this study examined how the eye movements of late L2 learners changed when RSTs in the L2 involving syntactic accuracy vs. semantic plausibility judgment as...

  11. Vertical eye movements during horizontal head impulse test: a new clinical sign of superior vestibular neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    D'Onofrio, F

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In some patients suffering from acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, the head impulse test performed towards the affected side reveals the typical catch-up saccade in the horizontal plane, and an oblique, mostly vertical, upward catch-up saccade after the rotation of the head towards the healthy side. Three cases are reported herein, which have been studied using slow motion video analysis of the eye movements captured by a high-speed webcam (90 fps). The clinical evidence ...

  12. Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eValuch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times (SRTs. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a and (b but not (c. By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach toward studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli.

  13. Blur, eye movements and performance on a driving visual recognition slide test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alexander A

    2015-09-01

    Optical blur and ageing are known to affect driving performance but their effects on drivers' eye movements are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of optical blur and age on eye movement patterns and performance on the DriveSafe slide recognition test which is purported to predict fitness to drive. Twenty young (27.1 ± 4.6 years) and 20 older (73.3 ± 5.7 years) visually normal drivers performed the DriveSafe under two visual conditions: best-corrected vision and with +2.00 DS blur. The DriveSafe is a Visual Recognition Slide Test that consists of brief presentations of static, real-world driving scenes containing different road users (pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles). Participants reported the types, relative positions and direction of travel of the road users in each image; the score was the number of correctly reported items (maximum score of 128). Eye movements were recorded while participants performed the DriveSafe test using a Tobii TX300 eye tracking system. There was a significant main effect of blur on DriveSafe scores (best-corrected: 114.9 vs blur: 93.2; p eye movement patterns, blur significantly reduced the number of fixations on road users (best-corrected: 5.1 vs blur: 4.5; p eye movements was also found where older drivers made smaller saccades than the young drivers (6.7° vs 7.4°; p < 0.001). Blur reduced DriveSafe scores for both age groups and this effect was greater for the young drivers. The decrease in number of fixations and fixation duration on road users, as well as the reduction in saccade amplitudes under the blurred condition, highlight the difficulty experienced in performing the task in the presence of optical blur, which suggests that uncorrected refractive errors may have a detrimental impact on aspects of driving performance. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Ocular Emergencies: Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarff, Andreina; Behrens, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    "Red eye" is used as a general term to describe irritated or bloodshot eyes. It is a recognizable sign of an acute/chronic, localized/systemic underlying inflammatory condition. Conjunctival injection is most commonly caused by dryness, allergy, visual fatigue, contact lens overwear, and local infections. In some instances, red eye can represent a true ocular emergency that should be treated by an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive assessment of red eye conditions is required to preserve the patients visual function. Severe ocular pain, significant photophobia, decreased vision, and history of ocular trauma are warning signs demanding immediate ophthalmological consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  16. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  17. Sensitivity and Specificity of Red Reflex Test in Newborn Eye Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Ma, Aihua; Li, Fengjiao; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Min; Yang, Haixia; Nie, Wenying; Zhao, Bojun

    2016-12-01

    To validate the sensitivity of an isolated red reflex test in detection of ocular abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments in newborns. Red reflex test and comprehensive eye examinations including external inspection, pupil examination, hand-held slit lamp examination, and RetCam fundus imaging (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, California) were performed in 7641 newborns. All results were documented as negative or positive. Sensitivity and specificity of red reflex test were calculated by the use of comprehensive eye examinations as the reference standard. Anterior abnormalities were separated from posterior abnormalities, and the sensitivity of red reflex test for each group was calculated. The proportion of abnormalities that were correctly classified by red reflex test was greater in anterior segment group (sensitivity = 99.6%, 95% CI 97.1%-100%) than in the posterior group (sensitivity = 4.1%, 95% CI 3.3%-5.1%, χ(2) = 1521.382, φ = 0.836, P red reflex test was a useful universal screening tool in detection of anterior abnormalities; however, the test has limitations in detection of posterior abnormalities. The generalization of these results to infants and children and observers with varying levels of expertise may need to be established further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used

  19. Influence of eye closing on the cardiovascular response to stand test on stable and unstable platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Ph; Kerbeci, P; Besnard, S; Montoya, A; Dupui, P

    2004-07-01

    Check if the stimulation of the leg muscles and neuro-sensorial system during stand test influence the cardiovascular response to stand test pre and post a 7 d HDT (4 subjects). After 20 min supine, the subject stood for 10 min, and closed the eyes for 1 min. Then he stayed 2 min stand up on ant-posterior or lateral unstable platform and closed the eyes for 30 sec. The cerebral and lower limb flow were assessed by Doppler (skin fixed sensors) and also the cerebral to femoral flow ratio (CFR). All 4 subjects were tolerant, CFR increased similarly pre and post HDT. Post HDT eye closing increased leg muscle activity, and femoral flow increased more than pre HDT, on ant-post unstable platform. The trace of the body foot pressure point was much longer post HDT on the ant-post platform. Post HDT neuro-sensorial disadaptation may contribute to reduce the orthostatic tolerance at least in absence of visual references.

  20. Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

  1. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  3. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  4. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  5. Eye-tracking controlled cognitive function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a controlled proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Horn, Hannah T; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. There is a need to establish an eye movement-based method of neuropsychological assessment suitable for severely physically impaired patients with ALS. Forty-eight ALS patients and thirty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex and education performed a hand and speech motor-free version of the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM) and the D2-test which had been especially adapted for eye-tracking control. Data were compared to a classical motor-dependent paper-pencil version. The association of parameters of the eye-tracking and the paper-pencil version of the tests and the differences between and within groups were studied. Subjects presented similar results in the eye-tracking and the corresponding paper-pencil versions of the CPM and D2-test: a correlation between performance accuracy for the CPM was observed for ALS patients (p eye-tracking (p = 0.053) and the paper-pencil version (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eye-tracking versions of the CPM (p Eye-tracking-based neuropsychological testing is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS.

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of the Ophthalmic Toxicity Profile of Chlorhexidine and Propamidine Isethionate Eye Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Santiago-Varela, María; Gil-Martínez, María; González-Barcia, Miguel; Luaces-Rodríguez, Andrea; Díaz-Tome, Victoria; Pardo, María; Méndez, José Blanco; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ares, María Teresa; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis causes frequent epithelial lesions that fully expose the corneal stroma. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic profile of chlorhexidine and propamidine eye drops. We used primary human keratocytes in cell culture in combination with a novel technology that evaluates dynamic real-time cytotoxicity through impedance analysis. Additional studies such as a classic cell viability test (WST-1®), a bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay, and an irritation eye study (Hen's Egg Test [HET]) have been made. Both eye drop formulations showed a time- and concentration-dependent toxicity profile, in which long periods and high concentrations were more detrimental to cells. In prolonged times of exposure, propamidine is more harmful to cells than chlorhexidine. On the contrary, no irritation has been detected in using the HET-chorioallantoic membrane test and no alterations in the corneal transparency nor permeability was produced by the treatment with both eye drops. In culture assay, chlorhexidine eye drops have proven to be less cytotoxic than Brolene® for a long contact period of time, but no signs of irritation or alterations in transparency or permeability have been observed in the cornea after both treatments.

  7. Perception of depth distance of integral photography through the measurement of eye movement and subjective test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sumio; Suzuki, Makoto; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    We developed a measurement tool for binocular eye movement and examined the perception of depth distance in integral photography images, which is a type of three dimensional image, using the tool we developed. Furthermore, we evaluated the perception of the depth distance in integral photography images by the subjective test, and we considered the perception results of the depth distance, which were these two experimental results. Additionally, we examined the perception of the depth distance in the real objects, and compared with the results in the case of integral photography images and real objects.

  8. Classification of user performance in the Ruff Figural Fluency Test based on eye-tracking features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive assessment in neurological diseases represents a relevant topic due to its diagnostic significance in detecting disease, but also in assessing progress of the treatment. Computer-based tests provide objective and accurate cognitive skills and capacity measures. The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT provides information about non-verbal capacity for initiation, planning, and divergent reasoning. The traditional paper form of the test was transformed into a computer application and examined. The RFFT was applied in an experiment performed among 70 male students to assess their cognitive performance in the laboratory environment. Each student was examined in three sequential series. Besides the students’ performances measured by using in app keylogging, the eye-tracking data obtained by non-invasive video-based oculography were gathered, from which several features were extracted. Eye-tracking features combined with performance measures (a total number of designs and/or error ratio were applied in machine learning classification. Various classification algorithms were applied, and their accuracy, specificity, sensitivity and performance were compared.

  9. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  10. The Eyes Test is influenced more by artistic inclination and less by sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eGuariglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test was developed by Baron-Cohen and his co-workers. This test provides them the unique opportunity to evaluate social cognition assessing the ability to recognize the mental state of others using only the expressions around the eyes. In healthy populations, however, it has produced conflicting results, particularly regarding sex differences and number of items to use. In this study we performed two studies: The first one investigated the presence of gender effects and the sensitivity of test stimuli; the second one considered other individual factors (i.e. artistic attitude, social empathy and personality traits that could influence the ability to understand emotions from gaze. Our results demonstrated a sex effect, which can be more or less attenuated by the nature of the stimuli. This could be as aforementioned the result of the following, empathy or artistic attitude in being proficient in understanding the mental states of others.

  11. The eyes test is influenced more by artistic inclination and less by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Giaimo, Flavio; Alaimo, Sofia; Miccichè, Giusy; Antonucci, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test was developed by Baron-Cohen and his co-workers. This test provides them the unique opportunity to evaluate social cognition assessing the ability to recognize the mental state of others using only the expressions around the eyes. In healthy populations, however, it has produced conflicting results, particularly regarding sex differences and number of items to use. In this study we performed two studies: The first one investigated the presence of gender effects and the sensitivity of test stimuli; the second one considered other individual factors (i.e., artistic attitude, social empathy and personality traits) that could influence the ability to understand emotions from gaze. Our results demonstrated a sex effect, which can be more or less attenuated by the nature of the stimuli. This could be as aforementioned the result of the following, empathy or artistic attitude in being proficient in understanding the mental states of others. PMID:26052278

  12. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Technique in the Treatment of Test Anxiety of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and…

  13. Respiratory irritation by trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway and Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W.de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Several acid anhydrides are known for their sensitizing and irritative properties. Since both irritation and respiratory allergy can cause changes of lung function, proper testing of allergen-dependent effects on the respiratory tract requires knowledge of the respiratory irritant effects. To study

  14. [The observation of tacrolimus eye drops preventing the early immunological rejection after penetrating keratoplasty for fungal keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D M; Wang, Y X; Jia, Y N; Li, S X; Zhai, H L; Shi, W Y; Gao, H

    2017-04-11

    Objective: To observe the early immunological rejection prevention effect of tacrolimus eye drops combined with glucocorticoids on fungal keratitis patients who received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Methods: In a retrospective case series study, medical records of fungal keratitis patients who received PKP in Shandong Eye Institute from March 2013 to December 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-six patients (26 eyes) were given tacrolimus eye drops, and 24 patients (24 eyes) were given 1% cyclosporine A eye drops immediately after PKP. Two weeks after PKP, these patients were given low concentration of glucocorticoids if no fungal recurrence was found. Immune rejection, fungal recurrence, intraocular pressure, and drug irritation symptoms were monitored. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and independent t-test. Results: The average follow-up was 7 months (range, 3 to 12 months) postoperatively. The rejection rate was 15.3% in the tacrolimus group and 47.8% in the cyclosporine A group (χ(2)=5.510, Ptacrolimus group and two patients in the cyclosporine A group suffered fungal recurrence. Two patients in the tacrolimus group and four patients in the cyclosporine A group had secondary glaucoma. The intraocular pressure was controlled. Three patients receiving tacrolimus eye drops and 13 patients receiving cyclosporine A eye drops had mild irritation symptoms. Conclusions: Tacrolimus eye drops combined with low concentration of glucocorticoids can prevent the early immunological rejection after PKP for fungalkeratitis effectively and safely. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53:305-310).

  15. A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF DRY EYES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant V. Solanke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES, also known as Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS, is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. Tobacco smoke exposure or infection may also lead to the condition. Diagnosis is mostly based on the symptoms, though a number of other tests may be used. Prevalence of dry eyes are commoner in females than males. There is a positive relationship between glaucoma and ocular dryness as well as diabetic retinopathy and ocular dryness. Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. Ocular symptoms such as pain, irritation and poor vision can result from dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence, symptomatology and distribution of dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2016 to March 2017. Study place was Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology at Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam. Sample size was calculated by 4PQ/d², which was 132. Systemic random sampling was used for the study. RESULTS Prevalence of dry eyes - 17.8%. Dry eyes in males - 16.8% and in females - 24.6%. Dry eyes in age 40 yrs. - 21.8%. Prevalence of dry eyes in contact lens wearers - 36.5%. Prevalence of dry eyes in glaucoma cases - 38.2%. Prevalence of dry eyes in farmers - 27.3%, in smokers - 36.7%. Dry eyes in emmetropes - 12.8% in myopes - 17.2% in hypermetropes - 28.6%. CONCLUSION Dry eyes prevalence obtained was 17.8%. Dry eyes were seen more in females. As age increases, prevalence of dry eyes increases. Ocular surface dryness was observed more in contact

  16. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  17. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    of 4 alleged AI (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) was studied on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers, and only glycerol showed dose-related response and effects potentially better than no treatment. The acute irritation model only allowed a small...

  18. An eye-tracking version of the trail-making test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may render patients unable to speak or write, so that objective assessment of cognitive impairment, which is commonly of a dysexecutive nature, is challenging. There is therefore a need to develop other methods of assessment that utilize other relatively unaffected motor systems. In this proof-of-principle study a novel eye-tracking version of the trail-making test was compared with performance on the standard written version in a group of healthy volunteers. There was good correlation for speed between both versions of Part B (R(2=0.73, suggesting that this is a viable method to objectively assess cognitive impairment in disorders where patients are unable to speak or write.

  19. Eye-movement evidence of the time-course of attentional bias for threatening pictures in test-anxious students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.; De Beuckelaer, A.; Yu, L.; Zhou, R

    2017-01-01

    Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high

  20. Rasch analysis of three dry eye questionnaires and correlates with objective clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Gao, Rongrong; Wang, Qinmei; Zhu, Senmiao; Yang, Jing; Yu, Ayong; Bron, Anthony J; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-04-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of Chinese versions of the Ocular Comfort Index (OCI), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies questionnaires. Further, to assess the correlation between questionnaire scores and objective dry eye disease (DED) clinical tests. Translated versions of the OCI, OSDI and McMonnies questionnaires were completed in a random order by 238 participants with DED. Objective clinical tests included visual acuity (VA), fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I testing and meibomian gland grading. Rasch analysis was used to assess questionnaire psychometrics and spearman rank for correlations. For the OCI, the person separation was 2.31, item infit and outfit statistics ranged from 0.74-1.14 and 0.75-1.32, respectively, and targeting 1.54 logits. For the OSDI, person separation was 0.94. None of the three subscales provided valid measurements based on Rasch analysis. For the McMonnies questionnaire, person separation was 1.17, item infit and outfit statistics ranged from 0.7 to 1.21 and 0.51-3.49, respectively. There were weak correlations between questionnaire scores and clinical tests. There were weak correlations between OSDI scores and VA, fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing and corneal fluorescein staining. There were weak correlations between McMonnies scores and VA, fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing, and corneal fluorescein staining and meibomian gland grading. The OCI questionnaire was the only questionnaire that provided valid measurement on the basis of Rasch analysis, although slight multidimensionality was found. There were weak correlations between OCI scores and fluorescein TBUT, Schirmer I testing, and corneal fluorescein staining. Due to this paradoxical disconnect between symptoms and signs and the repeatability of tests, the use of both subjective and objective markers in the clinical management of patients or as endpoints in clinical trials would appear prudent

  1. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  2. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  3. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment. PMID:24177482

  4. Local effects in the respiratory tract: relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; de Heer, Cees; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2006-04-01

    Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration found to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans when compared to experimental animals has brought much debate in the process of setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for such chemicals. In this paper it will be discussed as to how far subjectively measured sensory irritation threshold levels can be used to establish OELs. Data on respiratory irritation of four odorous irritants were retrieved from public literature and discussed, viz. acetone, formaldehyde, furfural and sulphur dioxide. Objective measures of irritation yielded results that differed from subjective evaluations. Important factors modulating the reported levels of irritation and health symptoms include the perception of odour intensity, exposure history and the individual's bias to report irritation on the basis of his/her prejudice or knowledge of the compound. Subjective measures alone are less appropriate for establishing sensory irritation thresholds of odorous irritants and are, therefore, less suitable to establish OELs without supporting evidence. Objectively measured irritation in humans, the Alarie assay (an experimental animal test assessing the concentration that results in a 50% reduction of the breathing frequency) and repeated exposure studies in animals may be of help to study objective irritation. If subjective measurements are used to study sensory irritation, the study design should at least include: measurement of both incidence and severity determined at several concentrations, an appropriate (0 ppm) control condition, preferably a non-irritant odorant control exposure, validated questionnaires and correct concentration measurements.

  5. Test of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis that eye-movements relate to processing imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, E H; Habib, C; Cumming, G

    1986-04-01

    Bandler and Grinder's hypothesis that eye-movements reflect sensory processing was examined. 28 volunteers first memorized and then recalled visual, auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Changes in eye-positions during recall were videotaped and categorized by two raters into positions hypothesized by Bandler and Grinder's model to represent visual, auditory, and kinesthetic recall. Planned contrast analyses suggested that visual stimulus items, when recalled, elicited significantly more upward eye-positions and stares than auditory and kinesthetic items. Auditory and kinesthetic items, however, did not elicit more changes in eye-position hypothesized by the model to represent auditory and kinesthetic recall, respectively.

  6. The importance of fundus eye testing in rubella-induced deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Marta L; García, Natalia; Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Morales, Lisbeth; Flórez, Silvia; Varón, Clara; Gelvez, Nancy

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new approach to improve detection of deafness due to rubella. Colombian institutes for the deaf were visited by a medical team to perform in all enrolled individuals an ophthalmological examination with emphasis in fundus eye by a retina specialist. In cases where ocular alterations compatible with CRS were found, a medical interview by a clinical geneticist analyzing pre-and postnatal history and a thorough medical examination was done. A total of 1383 deaf institutionalized individuals were evaluated in 9 Colombian cities in the period of 2005 to 2006, finding a total of 463 positive cases for salt-and-pepper retinopathy (33.5%), in which rubella could be the etiology of deafness. Medellin, Cartagena, Bucaramanga and Barranquilla were the cities with the highest percentage of Congenital rubella, corresponding to 22.8% of analyzed population. The analysis performed on cases in which reliable prenatal history was obtained in a second appointment (n=88) showed association between positive viral symptoms during pregnancy and salt-and-pepper retinopathy in 62.5% of cases, while both (retinopathy and viral symptoms) were absent in 29.5% of cases; showing a correlation in 92% of cases. The frequency of deafness by rubella obtained by this study is significantly high compared with previous Colombian studies and with international reports. It was possible to correlate the antecedent of symptoms during pregnancy with the presence of salt-and-pepper retinopathy in this deaf population when reliable prenatal history was available, therefore eye testing with emphasis in fundus examination is a good indicator of rubella induced deafness. We propose a new approach in the search of deafness causes, based on a thorough ophthalmologic examination in all deaf people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis and management of red eye in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronau, Holly; Kankanala, Ramana Reddy; Mauger, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Red eye is the cardinal sign of ocular inflammation. The condition is usually benign and can be managed by primary care physicians. Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis. Signs and symptoms of red eye include eye discharge, redness, pain, photophobia, itching, and visual changes. Generally, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting conditions, and serious complications are rare. Because there is no specific diagnostic test to differentiate viral from bacterial conjunctivitis, most cases are treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Allergies or irritants also may cause conjunctivitis. The cause of red eye can be diagnosed through a detailed patient history and careful eye examination, and treatment is based on the underlying etiology. Recognizing the need for emergent referral to an ophthalmologist is key in the primary care management of red eye. Referral is necessary when severe pain is not relieved with topical anesthetics; topical steroids are needed; or the patient has vision loss, copious purulent discharge, corneal involvement, traumatic eye injury, recent ocular surgery, distorted pupil, herpes infection, or recurrent infections.

  8. Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization due to vitacoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available The prediction of side-effects is a key issue in the REACH initiative on chemicals in the preclinical testing of drugs. The dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity potential of a new molecule, vitacoxib, were invested in rabbits and guinea pigs in compliance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline. To assess dermal irritation, rabbits were dermally attached to vitacoxib for 72 h or repeated application. The results showed that no adverse reactions such as erythema and edema were observed throughout the test. In skin sensitization test, guinea pigs were sensitized to vitaoxib, positive and negative article for 24 h. No sensitization reaction was shown in the vitacoxib and negative group whereas severe sensitization was observed in the positive group. Based on these findings, vitacoxib does not cause dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity, and seems to be safe for animal use. Keywords: Vitacoxib, Dermal irritation, Skin sensitization

  9. Eye blink correction: a test on the preservation of common ERP components using a regression based technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Woltering

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eye blinks are a pervasive problem in electroencephalography research as they contaminate the brain signal. This paper tests the merits of a software tool employing the regression-based Gratton method that claims to remove the detrimental effects of the eye blink and leaves the activity of the brain. The efficacy of the correction tool was tested on five common stimulus-locked Event Related Potential (ERP components used in a standard Go/Nogo task. Results suggested that the ‘corrected’ data could be predicted from data containing no eye blinks, suggesting the tool does not distort the data to great extent. This effect was found significant for all components, except for the P3. The conclusion is that this tool distorts the data at acceptable levels, yet caution should be taken when interpreting later components, like the P3.

  10. Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET - Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Sanvicente-Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET, in both paper-and-pencil and computerized versions. The RMET is a well-accepted instrument for assessment of Theory of Mind (ToM, an important component of social cognition. Methods: Following a guideline for translation of material for clinical populations, this study had three main phases: 1 formal translation and semantic adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese; 2 an acceptability trial with health professionals as judges evaluating picture-word matching; and 3 a trial using the paper-and-pencil and computerized versions (experiments built in E-Prime 2.0.10 software with healthy participants to test whether the instrument has similar outputs to those expected in versions in other languages. Results: RMET was adequately adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. This version showed acceptability and outputs similar to versions of the instrument in other languages, including the original one. We kept the same number of images as the original English version. Conclusions: Considering the scarcity of cognitive assessment instruments adequately adapted to Portuguese and the importance of social cognition in many psychiatric disorders, this work adds an important resource to Brazilian research and is administrable in both paper-and-pencil and computerized versions.

  11. Ocular biocompatibility testing of intraocular lenses: a 1 year study in pseudophakic rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J N; Kohnen, T; Hackett, R B; Patel, A; Koch, D D

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the appropriate duration for conducting ocular biocompatibility studies with an intraocular lens (IOL) in the pseudophakic rabbit model. Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, USA. A single-piece biconvex poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL was implanted in the capsular bag of 18 eyes of New Zealand white rabbits; 8 eyes received sham surgeries. Rabbits were monitored clinically and then sacrificed 6 or 12 months after surgery for histopathological examination of ocular tissues. Biomicroscopic examination revealed mild ocular changes in all surgical eyes during the first 3 months postoperatively. After that, there was a high incidence of posterior synechias, flare, and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in eyes with PMMA IOLs. Posterior synechias and flare scores remained mild to moderate throughout the study, whereas PCO severity increased over time. Similar findings were observed in sham eyes. In addition, several eyes with PMMA IOLs developed IOL dislocation, hyphema, iris bombe, and a fibrous membrane covering the IOL. No discernible differences in biomicroscopic scores were observed in eyes at 6 or 12 months. Intraocular pressures and morphology of the corneal endothelium were normal in both groups. Results from histopathological analysis of the ocular tissues were consistent with observations from the biomicroscopic examinations. The results suggest that IOL implantation studies in the pseudophakic rabbit eye should be conducted for 3 or fewer months. Regulatory guidelines requiring longer ocular implantation studies should be revised to reflect the inherently rapid and extensive ocular response in the rabbit model.

  12. Hollow Prosthetic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Emma

    A new technique to produce hollow prostheses is presented. A small case series of patients utilized standard methods to fabricate hollow ocular prostheses where rehabilitation had proved difficult. This article describes the fabrication and results of hollow ocular prostheses. Each hollow eye was significantly reduced in weight, one-third lighter than the original weight, with the exact size, shape, and volume of the existing solid prosthesis. This simple design significantly reduced the weight of these eyes and revolutionized these patients' rehabilitation. Previously the solid prostheses overburdened the lower eyelids, causing discomfort, irritation, discharge, and reddening, whereas the new lightweight prostheses are unobtrusive, comfortable, and good aesthetically.

  13. Evaluation of an automatic dry eye test using MCDM methods and rank correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro-Barral, Diego; Remeseiro, Beatriz; Méndez, Rebeca; Penedo, Manuel G

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye is an increasingly common disease in modern society which affects a wide range of population and has a negative impact on their daily activities, such as working with computers or driving. It can be diagnosed through an automatic clinical test for tear film lipid layer classification based on color and texture analysis. Up to now, researchers have mainly focused on the improvement of the image analysis step. However, there is still large room for improvement on the machine learning side. This paper presents a methodology to optimize this problem by means of class binarization, feature selection, and classification. The methodology can be used as a baseline in other classification problems to provide several solutions and evaluate their performance using a set of representative metrics and decision-making methods. When several decision-making methods are used, they may offer disagreeing rankings that will be solved by conflict handling in which rankings are merged into a single one. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in this domain. Also, its general purpose allows to adapt it to other classification problems in different fields such as medicine and biology.

  14. Testing and modelling of the SVOM MXT narrow field lobster-eye telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Charlotte; Pearson, James; Willingale, Richard; Sykes, John; Drumm, Paul; Houghton, Paul; Bicknell, Chris; Osborne, Julian; Martindale, Adrian; O'Brien, Paul; Fairbend, Ray; Schyns, Emile; Petit, Sylvain; Roudot, Romain; Mercier, Karine; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Gotz, Diego

    2017-08-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor (SVOM) is a French-Chinese space mission to be launched in 2021 with the goal of studying gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful stellar explosions in the Universe. The Microchannel X-ray Telescope (MXT) on-board SVOM, is an X-ray focusing telescope with a detector-limited field of view of ˜1 square° , working in the 0.2-10 keV energy band. The MXT is a narrow-field-optimised lobster eye telescope, designed to promptly detect and accurately locate gamma-ray bursts afterglows. The breadboard MXT optic comprises of an array of square pore micro pore optics (MPOs) which are slumped to a spherical radius of 2 m giving a focal length of 1 m and an intrinsic field of view of ˜6° . We present details of the baseline design and results from the ongoing X-ray tests of the breadboard and structural thermal model MPOs performed at the University of Leicester and at Panter. In addition, we present details of modelling and analysis which reveals the factors that limit the angular resolution, characteristics of the point spread function and the efficiency and collecting area of the currently available MPOs.

  15. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  16. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  17. Nail cosmetics: allergies and irritations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent precise figures are not available for the number of adverse reactions related to the use of nail care products. Reactions to nail cosmetic procedures may be divided into reactions at the site of application to the nail itself and ectopic reactions, when the hand transfers a small amount of nail cosmetic to other areas of the skin. Fingernail coatings encompass two types: coatings that harden upon evaporation (nail enamel, base coat, top coat); and coatings that polymerize (sculptured nails, light-curing gels, preformed artificial nails, nail mending and nail wrapping). The test battery enables us to distinguish allergic reactions from irritant reactions. Interestingly, some reactions, such as distant allergic contact dermatitis, are more frequent with nail enamel than with coatings that polymerize. On the other hand, the latter are greater offenders in the nail area. Nail hardeners may just be modified nail enamels containing nylon fibers, acrylate resin and hydrolyzed proteins. Others may contain up to 5% formaldehyde tissue fixative (which can have adverse effects on the nail), but are designed in the US to be applied only to the free edge of the nail while the skin is shielded. Caution is necessary in interpreting formaldehyde patch testing reactions.

  18. Histopathological effects of carbaryl on testes of snake-eyed lizard, Ophisops elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Ozlem; Akat, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Due to their ecological niche and insectivore nature, lizards are of increased risk of exposure to pesticides in agricultural areas. In addition to their potential direct effects on non-target species, insecticides can also result in indirect impacts on lizard population by reducing their food source. Carbaryl is a common insecticide that is widely used in areas of Turkey that are home to a variety of reptiles. However, to date, little is known about the potential effects of the exposure of reptiles such as lizards or snakes to this pesticide. The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of carbaryl on the testes of snake-eyed lizard, Ophisops elegans that is common to regions in Turkey where Carbaryl is applied and that it can be easily cultured in the laboratory. Adult male lizards were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 2.5, 25 and 250 μg/g. After 96 h, lizards were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were detected by randomly counting 100 tubules in each lizard. Seminiferous tubules were categorized as normal, sloughing and disorganized tubules. Diameters of tubules were also measured. The differences in histopathological changes and tubule diameters were compared for statistical significance by one-way ANOVA, using SPSS 16.0. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (25 μg/g) and high-dose (250 μg/g) groups than in the low-dose (2.5 μg/g) group. In the medium-dose group, the hexagonal appearance of most tubules disappeared, and they took on an oval shape. Sloughing was the characteristic tubule appearance of the medium group. In the high-dose group, significant increases in the number of disorganized tubules and prominence of haemorrhages was observed. Carbaryl caused histopathological defects on the testes of O. elegans, so it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in O. elegans.

  19. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  20. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neera; Ciuffreda, Kenneth Joseph

    2017-07-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training. For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.

  1. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  3. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  4. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy ... Eye allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Son las Alergias ...

  5. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test: Investigation of Psychometric Properties and Test-Retest Reliability of the Persian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashad, Behzad S.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Roshan, Ghasem M.; Kazemian, Mojtaba; Khazai, Ladan; Aghili, Zahra; Talaei, Ali; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Persian "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test were investigated, so were the predictions from the Empathizing-Systemizing theory of psychological sex differences. Adults aged 16-69 years old (N = 545, female = 51.7%) completed the test online. The analysis of items showed them to be generally acceptable.…

  7. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  8. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test revised version: a study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Wheelwright, S; Hill, J; Raste, Y; Plumb, I

    2001-02-01

    In 1997 in this Journal we published the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test, as a measure of adult "mentalising". Whilst that test succeeded in discriminating a group of adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) from controls, it suffered from several psychometric problems. In this paper these limitations are rectified by revising the test. The Revised Eyes Test was administered to a group of adults with AS or HFA (N = 15) and again discriminated these from a large number of normal controls (N = 239) drawn from different samples. In both the clinical and control groups the Eyes Test was inversely correlated with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (the AQ), a measure of autistic traits in adults of normal intelligence. The Revised Eyes Test has improved power to detect subtle individual differences in social sensitivity.

  9. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  10. National Eye Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing new therapies. Learn more Learn about the Eye and Vision Our web pages for kids make ... illusions, and more. View the site Video: New Eye Imaging Tools The NEI Audacious Goals Initiative is ...

  11. Corneal hysteresis with intraocular pressure of a wide range: a test on porcine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Sun, Yong; Zhou, Chuanqing; Roberts, Cynthia; Zhou, Dai; Ren, Qiushi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal hysteresis (CH) and intraocular pressure (IOP) using porcine eyes in the low to high IOP ranges. In vitro porcine eyes were used to investigate the relationship of CH and IOP. IOP was altered by changing the height of a drip stand within the dynamic range of 60 mm Hg. CH and IOP were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Depew, NY) at different heights. Second-order polynomial regression method was employed to assess the nonlinear correlation of CH and IOP. CH demonstrated an initial plateau stage with low IOP, which then decreased as IOP increased to higher values up to 60 mm Hg. The maximum CH value of approximately 6 to 8 mm Hg was achieved when IOP ranged from 11 to 25 mm Hg. The nonlinear regression lines of Goldmann correlated IOP (IOPg) and CH can be described as CH = − 0.0029 × IOPg2 + 0.1005 × IOPg + 5.2824, R2 = 0.3676, P < .05. CH was relatively constant for lower values of IOP and showed a decreasing relationship at higher values of IOP. This nonlinear relationship provides insight into understanding the viscoelastic nature of CH over a wider range of IOP values. The experimental data on porcine eyes may indicate that IOP should be taken into account when analyzing the deformation response of the cornea to an applied air puff.

  12. Susceptibility to primary irritants: age dependence and relation to contact allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenraads, P J; Bleumink, E; Nater, J P

    1975-12-01

    Patch tests with three primary irritants were performed in 600 persons with eczema and in 33 healthy controls, The irritants assayed were: croton oil (20%) in mineral oil, thymoquinone (1%) in ethanol and crotonaldehyde (7.5%) plus sodium lauryl sulphate (4%) in aqua dest. The number of positive reactions to croton oil was found to decrease with age, while for thymoquinone and crotonaldehyde and for the total irritant score no age dependence was observed. No significant correlation was found between sensitization to common contact allergens and susceptibility to irritants. The incidence of positive reactions to common allergens proved to increase with age.

  13. Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, J M

    1986-03-01

    Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis is commonly observed in many factories. Examples of airborne irritants include fibres (such as fibreglass or rockwool), various kinds of dust particles (such as cement, slag, sludge, insulating foam, wood chips), acids and alkalis, gasses and vapours. Airborne contact allergens are unequivocally numerous. The clinical symptoms of both irritant and allergic airborne contact dermatitis are reviewed.

  14. Effectiveness of Barrier Creams against Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostosi, Christian; Simonart, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Skin tissue is frequently exposed to various irritant substances in the workplace, particularly in wet work, which can lead to the development of occupational contact dermatitis. 'Barrier' creams (BCs) are well known, and their applications are still the subject of many studies and controversies. We searched all controlled trials investigating BCs against cutaneous irritants in humans published between 1956 and December 2014 from MEDLINE, PubMed, reference lists and existing reviews. Thirty-nine studies about the effects of BCs against skin irritants in humans were selected. Among these, 27 trials in healthy volunteers were found to show many differences with regard to BCs and irritants used, their quantities, test locations, procedures and assessment methods. Finally, 14 patch test trials assessed by clinical scoring and evaporimetry emerged. Although the findings were generally positive, only few findings could be cross-checked from all the data, and vehicles seem to be as effective as BCs. Although this review highlights the poor quality and the lack of standardization of most studies, BCs seem to have protective effects against irritants. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials with clinical and biophysical assessments are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Association between eye diagnosis and positive syphilis test results in a large, urban sexually transmitted infection/primary care clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Ann-Marie; Gao, Yan; Rusie, Laura; Houlberg, Magda; Mehta, Supriya D

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015. Confirmed eye diagnosis was based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes for conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, retinitis, and red eye. Demographic information, syphilis treatment, HIV status, and high-risk behaviors were abstracted. Syphilis diagnosis was defined by available laboratory data (enzyme immunoassay [EIA], rapid plasma reagin [RPR] titer, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption [FTA-Abs], Treponema pallidum Ab). Multivariable logistic regression with robust variance was used to identify independent associations. During the study period, 71,299 syphilis tests were performed on 30,422 patients. There were 2288 (3.2%) positive syphilis tests. Seventy-seven patients had a confirmed eye diagnosis (0.25%). Patients with eye disease had higher probability of at least one positive syphilis test (33%) compared to those without eye disease (8%) ( p < 0.01). Of patients with eye disease, 77% were men who had sex with men (MSM) and 65% were HIV-positive. Patients with eye disease had 5.97 (95% CI: 3.70, 9.63) higher odds of having syphilis compared to patients without eye disease. When adjusted for age, race, gender/sexual orientation, insurance status, and HIV status, this association between positive syphilis test and eye disease decreased but was still significant (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.17, 3.41). Patients who present with an eye diagnosis to STI/primary care

  16. Human and rabbit eye responses to chemical insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, F E; Nixon, G A; Reer, P J; Weaver, J E; Bruce, R D; Griffith, J F; Sanders, L W

    1986-11-01

    Groups of eight human volunteers and eight albino rabbits, under controlled laboratory conditions, were exposed in one eye without subsequent rinsing to the same concentrations and volumes of four prototype consumer products: fabric softener, shampoo, hand soap, and laundry detergent. Dose volume was 0.10 or 0.01 ml. The dose concentrations were selected to produce moderate effects with recovery within 24 to 48 hr. Two irritation scales were employed with both human and animal subjects: the Draize scale by a technician and a medical scale used with slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist. Eyes were examined by both graders before and after dosing at specified intervals until recovery. Mean and maximum irritation scores are presented for each grading time, method, and exposure, as are the mean hours to recovery (clearing) for each exposure. Recovery times for human eyes were consistent with those reported previously for accidental human exposures to similar materials. Correlation coefficients for time to clear, comparing human vs rabbit for each dose volume-species combination across the four test products, were 0.72, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.66, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.40, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit; 0.35, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit. Thus, recovery time obtained under conditions of the "Low-Volume" test (0.01 ml-rabbit) better correlates with human eye recovery time (either dose volume) than does recovery time under Draize test conditions (0.10 ml-rabbit).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  18. Protective creams fail to prevent solvent-induced cumulative skin irritation - results of a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Kleesz, Peter; Elsner, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Occupational skin contact with lipophilic substances is a risk factor for the development of irritant hand dermatitis. Skin protection creams form part of the personal protective equipment, and some are claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants. However, their benefit against solvents is under debate. To evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants in a newly developed repetitive irritation model. Thirty-five healthy volunteers were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study, and six barrier creams were evaluated against irritation induced by two occupationally relevant model solvents, n-octane and cumene. Clinical scoring and bioengineering methods (capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements) were used to quantify the irritant reactions. None of the test products offered protection against n-octane-induced clinical irritation or stratum corneum dehydration. One test product significantly aggravated the skin irritation induced by both irritants, and a second one enhanced dehydration induced by n-octane only. The lack of efficacy and the aggravation of skin irritation induced by two of six test products stress the need for standardized efficacy testing of occupational skin protection products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Novel cellulose-based halochromic test strips for naked-eye detection of alkaline vapors and analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Yousef, Hussein; Khattab, Tawfik A; Youssef, Yehia A; Al-Balakocy, Naser; Kamel, Samir

    2017-08-01

    A simple, portable and highly sensitive naked-eye test strip is successfully prepared for optical detection of gaseous and aqueous alkaline analytes. Novel pH-sensory tricyanofuran-hydrazone (TCFH) disperse colorant containing a hydrazone recognition functional moiety is successfully synthesized via azo-coupling reaction between active methyl-containing tricyanofuran (TCF) heterocycle and diazonium salt of 4-aminobenzaldehyde followed by Knoevenagel condensation with malononitrile. UV-vis absorption spectra display solvatochromism and reversible color changes of the TCFH solution in dimethyl sulfoxide in response to pH variations. We investigate the preparation of hydrophobic cellulose/polyethylene terephthalate composites characterized by their high affinity for disperse dyes. Composite films made from CA, Cell/CA, PET/CA, and Cell/PET-CA are produced via solvent-casting procedure using 10-30% modified cellulose or modified polyethylene terephthalate. The mechanical properties and morphologies of these composite films are investigated. The prepared pH-sensory hydrazone-based disperse dye is then applied to dye the produced cellulose-based composite films employing the high temperature pressure dyeing procedure. The produced halochromic PET-CA-TCFH test strip provide an instant visible signal from orange to purple upon exposure to alkaline conditions as proved by the coloration measurements. The sensor strip exhibits high sensitivity and quick detection toward ammonia in both of aqueous and vapor phases by naked-eye observations at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and validation of the irritable bowel syndrome scale under the system of quality of life instruments for chronic diseases QLICD-IBS: combinations of classical test theory and generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pingguang; Lei, Guanghe; Tian, Jianjun; Zhou, Zengfen; Zhao, Miao; Wan, Chonghua

    2014-10-01

    This paper is aimed to develop the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) scale of the system of Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-IBS) by the modular approach and validate it by both classical test theory and generalizability theory. The QLICD-IBS was developed based on programmed decision procedures with multiple nominal and focus group discussions, in-depth interview, and quantitative statistical procedures. One hundred twelve inpatients with IBS were used to provide the data measuring QOL three times before and after treatments. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated with respect to validity, reliability, and responsiveness employing correlation analysis, factor analyses, multi-trait scaling analysis, t tests and also G studies and D studies of generalizability theory analysis. Multi-trait scaling analysis, correlation, and factor analyses confirmed good construct validity and criterion-related validity when using SF-36 as a criterion. Test-retest reliability coefficients (Pearson r and intra-class correlation (ICC)) for the overall score and all domains were higher than 0.80; the internal consistency α for all domains at two measurements were higher than 0.70 except for the social domain (0.55 and 0.67, respectively). The overall score and scores for all domains/facets had statistically significant changes after treatments with moderate or higher effect size standardized response mean (SRM) ranging from 0.72 to 1.02 at domain levels. G coefficients and index of dependability (Ф coefficients) confirmed the reliability of the scale further with more exact variance components. The QLICD-IBS has good validity, reliability, responsiveness, and some highlights and can be used as the quality of life instrument for patients with IBS.

  1. PREVENTION OF NASAL MUCOSAL IRRITATION IN PATIENTS OBTAIN NASAL OXYGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Dian Kurniawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The provision of oxygen therapy is traditionally use a humidifier to moisten the oxygen and prevent irritation of the nasal mucosa. Recent research proves that the use of a maximum of 4 lpm nasal oxygen without using a humidifier (non humidifier up to 8 hours does not cause irritation of the nasal mucosa and prevent colonization of bacteria in the humidifier. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of nasal oxygen administration using a non-humidifier more than 8 hours in the prevention of irritation of the nasal mucosa. Method: This study employed an analytic survey with cross-sectional study design. As many as 20 patients at inpatient wards of Port Health Center Hospital Surabaya were recruited as sample by means of consecutive sampling. Inclusion criteria was patients must not suffer from upper respiratory tract infection and do not suffer from impaired immunity. Independent variables were oxygen flow and long of oxygen therapy. Dependent variable was irritation of the nasal mucosa. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and tested with spearman rho correlation test. Result: The results showed that the use of oxygen up to 140 hours with 4 LPM had no effect on the nasal mucosa such as signs of irritation and complaints of discomfort in the nose area. Discussion: It can be concluded that the use of non-humidifier for a maximum of 140 hours with flow maximum of 4 lpm is effective in preventing irritation of the nasal mucosa. Further research on the effectiveness of non humidi fi ers in the elderly population and children under five years of age is needed.

  2. The eye of the red-eared slider turtle: morphologic observations and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, André T; Lima, Leandro; Lange, Rogério R; Turner-Giannico, Amália; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    To perform a descriptive investigation of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eye, performing selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal reference values for this species. Thirty adult healthy red-eared slider turtles were used to establish normal ophthalmic test values in this investigation. Selected ophthalmic tests included: collection of material for bacterial culture analysis, esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), A- and B-mode ultrasonic biometry, fundus photography, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Normal parameters found for the ocular diagnostic tests were: esthesiometry: 5.84 ± 0.48 cm; IOP: 5.42 ± 1.70 mmHg; CCT: 154.5 ± 0.14 μm; palpebral fissure length: 9.71 ± 0.55 mm; modified Schirmer tear test: 2.55 ± 3.4 mm; globe axial length: 7.60 ± 0.23 mm; anterior chamber depth: 0.76 ± 0.23 mm; lens axial length: 2.45 ± 0.28 mm; vitreous chamber depth: 4.31 ± 0.42 mm. An avascular retinal pattern with nerve fibers radiating from the small white circular optic disk was observed. None of the animals had a conus papillaris. The most frequent bacteria found were Bacillus spp. (33.33%) followed by Proteus vulgaris (20.69%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18.39%). No significant differences between left and right eyes or genders were found for any of the results. Reference data and morphologic observations obtained in this investigation might help veterinary ophthalmologists to diagnose ocular diseases in the red-eared slider turtle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  4. Matched experimental and computational simulations of paintball eye impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eric A; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    Over 1200 paintball related eye injuries are treated every year in US emergency departments. These injuries can be manifested as irritation from paint splatter in the eye to catastrophic rupture of the globe. Using the Virginia Tech - Wake Forest University Eye Model, experimental paintball impacts were replicated and the experimental and computational results compared. A total of 10 paintball impacts were conducted from a range of 71.1 m/s to 112.5 m/s. All experimental tests resulted in rupture of the globe. The matched computational simulations also predicted near-failure or failure in each of the simulations, with a maximum principal stress of greater than 22.8 MPa in all scenarios, over 23 MPa for velocities above 73 m/s. Failure stress for the VT-WFU Eye Model is defined as 23 MPa. The current regulation velocity for paintballs of 91 m/s exceeds the tolerance of the eye to globe rupture and underscores the importance for eyewear in this sport.

  5. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth is Associated with Intestinal Inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liliana; Babin, Alexandru; Picos, Alina; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is encountered in bowel disorders, including irritable bowel symptoms. Low degrees of inflammation have been recently reported in the irritable bowel syndrome. We looked for the association between intestinal inflammation and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by the H2 glucose breath test in 90 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A check-up of the oral cavity was carried out before the breath testing. Further on, the patients were classified into two groups, positive and negative, at the breath test. Then they were tested for intestinal inflammation with a fecal test for calprotectin. We used a semiquantitative test for this study. Both groups were compared for the association of intestinal inflammation with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A number of 24/90 (26.7%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome had small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A positive test for intestinal inflammation was significantly more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (chi(2): p<0.05). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is present in almost one quarter of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is significantly associated with intestinal inflammation.

  6. Tear volume estimation using a modified Schirmer test: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial comparing 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution and artificial tears in dry eye patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Miyake,1 Yuri Kawano,2 Hiroshi Tanaka,2 Akihiro Iwata,3 Takahiro Imanaka,1 Masatsugu Nakamura1 1Ophthalmic Disease Area Strategy Department, 2Clinical Operations Department, 3Data Science Department, R&D Division, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Osaka, Japan Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a modified Schirmer test to determine the increase in tear volume after administration of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution (diquafosol 3% in dry eye patients. Patients and methods: A randomized, multicenter, prospective, double-blind clinical study recruited 50 qualified subjects. They received diquafosol 3% in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. The study protocol comprised a screening and treatment procedure completed within 1 day. The Schirmer test was performed on closed eyes three times a day. The primary efficacy end points were the second Schirmer test scores 10 minutes after the single dose. Secondary end points were the third Schirmer test scores 3 hours and 40 minutes after the single dose and the symptom scores prior to the second and third Schirmer tests. Results: According to the Schirmer test, 10 minutes after administration, diquafosol 3% significantly increased tear volume compared to artificial tears. Diquafosol 3% and artificial tears both showed significant improvements in the symptom scores compared to baseline. However, there was no significant difference in the symptoms score between diquafosol 3% and artificial tears. Conclusion: The modified Schirmer test can detect a minute change in tear volume in dry eye patients. These findings will be useful in the diagnosis of dry eye, assessment of treatment benefits in daily clinical practice, and the development of possible tear-secreting compounds for dry eye. Keywords: P2Y2, efficacy, Diquas®

  7. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations of multiple tree, grass, weed and mould allergens for intradermal testing of horses residing in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Martha J; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Kearney, Michael T; Woodward, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate allergen threshold concentrations (TCs) for intradermal testing (IDT) have not been established in horses for many pollen and mould allergens. To determine the TCs in non-allergic horses and describe the frequency of late phase reactions for 26 allergens, including trees, grasses, weeds and moulds in horses residing in the southern Unites States. Twenty four clinically normal horses in the southern United States. Threshold concentrations for different allergens were determined using IDT subjective measurements at 30 minutes. Delayed reactions were evaluated at 4 and 24 h. Threshold concentrations (all PNU/mL) were established for eight tree allergens (black willow 1,000, box elder 1,000, live oak 1,000, pecan 2,000, white ash 4,000, red oak 4,000, red mulberry 2,000 and green ash 2,000); two grass allergens (Johnson grass 250 PNU/mL and Kentucky blue grass 500 PNU/mL); two weeds (carelessweed 1,000 PNU/mL, great ragweed 500 PNU/mL) and one mould (Curvularia 8,000 PNU/mL). The TC was not determined due to excessive reactivity at the lowest concentration tested (1,000 PNU/mL) for bahia and perennial rye grass. Eleven other allergens did not meet the criteria to establish a TC when evaluated at 30 min due to lack of positive reactions. Multiple allergens caused positive reactions in ≥10% of horses at 4 h. Reactions at 24 h were rare with the exception of one horse. This study identified intradermal TC for multiple pollen and mould allergens in horses. These values may prove useful for optimizing allergen concentrations for IDT of allergic horses. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Pupillary autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease: an assessment by eye-drop tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Fumitada; Hirayama, M; Nakamura, T; Takamori, M; Hori, N; Uchida, K; Hama, T; Sobue, Gen

    2010-06-01

    To compare pupillary autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We administered eye-drop tests to 40 MSA patients, 40 PD patients with similar disease duration, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Pupillary supersensitivity to a parasympathomimetic agent (0.05% pilocarpine hydrochloride) and to a sympathomimetic agent (0.02% dipivefrine hydrochloride) was examined by assessing changes in pupil diameter. Pupillary supersensitivity to a parasympathomimetic agent (0.05% pilocarpine hydrochloride) and to a sympathomimetic agent (0.02% dipivefrine hydrochloride) was examined by assessing changes in pupil diameter. Pupillary supersensitivity to 0.05% pilocarpine was greatest among the PD patients (PD -23.1 +/- 14.4%, MSA -12.4 +/- 11.5%, control -9.5 +/- 8.2%, p disease duration. Pupillary sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was significantly greater in the PD and MSA patients versus controls (PD 10.5 +/- 12.0%, MSA 11.8 +/- 11.0%, control 3.1 +/- 5.8%, p disease advanced. In MSA patients, pupillary sympathetic sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was correlated with the severity of orthostatic hypotension during a head-up tilt test and with the elevation of systolic blood pressure during a noradrenaline infusion test. In PD patients, pupillary sympathetic sensitivity to 0.02% dipivefrine was correlated with a reduction of the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio using delayed-phase iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. These data indicate that eye-drop tests can reveal differences in the progression of pupillary autonomic dysfunction in patients with MSA and PD.

  9. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  10. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  11. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  12. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  13. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep flushing the eye with clean water or saline for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical help right away. Do not delay. EYE CUT, SCRATCH, OR BLOW Gently apply a clean cold compress to the eye to reduce swelling and ...

  14. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & Practice Blog Health Communication Programs FAQs ... Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Related Topics Section Navigation Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( ...

  15. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  17. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  18. Electrodes in Human Eyes: An Update of Blind Patient Psychophysical Testing for Artificial Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the accuracy with which subjects implanted with an Intraocular Retinal Prosthesis (IRP) can perform visual tasks. The Food and Drug Administration and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Southern California approved the protocol. Test subjects who met the protocol requirements were implanted with an epiretinal prosthesis consisting of 16 electrodes in a 4x4 distribution. The tests were divided in two categories: computer controlled tests and video camera tests. Results from computer controlled tests include: sequential activation (4 alternative forced choice (AFC)) 70% correct (p27s, p< .0001; L orientation 80s, p< .0003) and a trend towards better performance when using multiple pixels (the number of pixels varied between subjects). In summary, test subjects with no better than light perception vision can perform simple visual tasks using the Model-1 IRP device. An increased number of pixels and electrodes in the Model 2 IRP device may produce greater functionality. Work done in collaboration with Douglas Yanai, MD, James D. Weiland, PhD, Manju Mahadevappa, PhD, Eugene de Juan, Jr., MD.

  19. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  20. The Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Dry Eye Syndrome Evaluated with Schirmer Test and Break-Up Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanhong; Feng, Gang; Peng, Shuli; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for dry eye syndrome (DES) is controversial in clinical practice. The goal of this study was to review relevant studies and analyze the pooled data to determine whether HRT is effective for DES. In this study, a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015 was performed, with the search restricted to English language publications. The studies were screened after reading the abstract and full text. Only studies related to the effect of HRT on DES were included in the meta-analysis. Results of Schirmer tests with and without anesthetics and tear break-up time (BUT) values data were extracted and entered into RevMan software to meta-analyze the overall effect of HRT on DES. A total of 43 studies were identified, and 21 of these studies were found to be related to the effect of HRT on DES. Ultimately, 5 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled results revealed that HRT can affect Schirmer test results without anesthetics but does not affect Schirmer test results with anesthetics and BUT. The results indicate that HRT might improve DES symptoms when measuring basal tear production without anesthesia.

  1. The Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Dry Eye Syndrome Evaluated with Schirmer Test and Break-Up Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy (HRT for dry eye syndrome (DES is controversial in clinical practice. The goal of this study was to review relevant studies and analyze the pooled data to determine whether HRT is effective for DES. In this study, a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015 was performed, with the search restricted to English language publications. The studies were screened after reading the abstract and full text. Only studies related to the effect of HRT on DES were included in the meta-analysis. Results of Schirmer tests with and without anesthetics and tear break-up time (BUT values data were extracted and entered into RevMan software to meta-analyze the overall effect of HRT on DES. A total of 43 studies were identified, and 21 of these studies were found to be related to the effect of HRT on DES. Ultimately, 5 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled results revealed that HRT can affect Schirmer test results without anesthetics but does not affect Schirmer test results with anesthetics and BUT. The results indicate that HRT might improve DES symptoms when measuring basal tear production without anesthesia.

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(3):284–292. Wu JC. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths? Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010;6(11):705–711. Yoon ...

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Nkhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79, 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55 and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18 for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  4. Psychoemotional Features in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoş, D; Ionescu, O; Ojog, DG; Tănăsescu, MD

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To delineate the psychological profile of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Method. A triple questionnaire of 614 items (including psychological and medical ones) was given to 10192 respondents and the results were analyzed by means of Cronbach alpha and Chi square test, together with an ad-hoc designed method that implied ranking and outliers detecting. Results and conclusions. Anxiety and depression are general psychological tendencies unspecifcally linked with IBS. Among the features with a relatively more specific correlation with IBS, tension has the strongest association, followed by the inclination to endure unacceptable situations, preoccupation for health, and susceptibility, and then by fear of failure and sense of demanding profession. IBS individuals readily accept a subordinate position, which may be connected to their history of tyrannical parents, and also to their preoccupation for authority factors. The sense of being treated unfairly by the authority persons during the school years nuances this last feature. Some features that bring some nuances to this psychological portrait are: contemplative nature and analyzing tendency, preoccupation with health issues, a reserved, unsociable, and precautious nature, clinging to known circumstances. Abbreviations: ChiSq = chi-square; OdRa = odds ratio; OdRaCL = OdRa confidence limits; ErrProb = probability of error; SS = statistically significant; CrA = Cronbach alpha; a / m = the calculations were done by taking into account the average/ maximal score; P / M = psychological / medical category; PaMm / PmMa / PmMm / PaMa = the calculations were done by taking into account the average score for the PsyCt and the maximal score for the MedCt / the maximal score for PsyCt and the average score for the MedCt / and the maximal score for both / and the average score for both; FD = functional dyspepsia; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; IBSCt = IBS category; MedCt = medical category; Psy

  5. Tear Production Rate in a Mouse Model of Dry Eye According to the Phenol Red Thread and Endodontic Absorbent Paper Point Tear Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Tear production at weeks 2, 4, and 6 differed significantly between groups and tests. Evaluating the groups independently in terms of the test technique revealed significant differences in tear production rate between the 2 groups at the same measurement times. Due to their persistent exposure to evaporative stress factors, the tear production rate of the mice in the dry-eye cabinet was consistently lower than that of controls. Unlike PRTT, EAPTT can be readily applied to the small globes of laboratory animals without the need for forceps, thus saving time and effort. In addition, EAPTT was practical and imposed no undue stress on the mice, due to the test material's firmer structure. Therefore, compared with PRTT, EAPTT is safer and more reliable for the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in mice.

  6. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test: Complete Absence of Typical Sex Difference in ~400 Men and Women with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    Full Text Available The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test (Eyes test is an advanced test of theory of mind. Typical sex difference has been reported (i.e., female advantage. Individuals with autism show more difficulty than do typically developing individuals, yet it remains unclear how this is modulated by sex, as females with autism have been under-represented. Here in a large, non-male-biased sample we test for the effects of sex, diagnosis, and their interaction. The Eyes test (revised version was administered online to 395 adults with autism (178 males, 217 females and 320 control adults (152 males, 168 females. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant sex-by-diagnosis interaction in total correct score (F(1,711 = 5.090, p = 0.024, ηp2 = 0.007 arising from a significant sex difference between control males and females (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.47, and an absence of a sex difference between males and females with autism (p = 0.907, d = 0.01; significant case-control differences were observed across sexes, with effect sizes of d = 0.35 in males and d = 0.69 in females. Group-difference patterns fit with the extreme-male-brain (EMB theory predictions. Eyes test-Empathy Quotient and Eyes test-Autism Spectrum Quotient correlations were significant only in females with autism (r = 0.35, r = -0.32, respectively, but not in the other 3 groups. Support vector machine (SVM classification based on response pattern across all 36 items classified autism diagnosis with a relatively higher accuracy for females (72.2% than males (65.8%. Nevertheless, an SVM model trained within one sex generalized equally well when applied to the other sex. Performance on the Eyes test is a sex-independent phenotypic characteristic of adults with autism, reflecting sex-common social difficulties, and provides support for the EMB theory predictions for both males and females. Performance of females with autism differed from same-sex controls more than did that of males with autism. Females with

  7. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  8. Human Health Hazard Assessment of FT Jet Fuel and Sensory Irritation Study in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-08

    JP-8 is the DoD “universal fuel” and is used in airplanes, tanks, stoves, heaters, etc. JP-8 is one of a number of high production volume ( HPV ...a descriptive rating to each test article and the mixture. Based on the Irritation Index, FT jet fuel and the 50:50 blend are either the same as JP...Occluded Irritation Index 2.1 2.3 1.9 Descriptive Rating moderate moderate slight Semi-Occluded Irritation Index 1.8 0.8 1.5 Descriptive Rating slight

  9. Small-Item Vapor Test Method, FY11 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    common test agents using field manual values. Agent HD&L VX Toxic-Load Exponent n = 1 n = 1 Effects Mild (eye irritation) Mild ( miosis , rhinorrhea...Exponent n = 1.4 n = 1.5 Effects Mild ( miosis , rhinorrhea) Mild ( miosis , rhinorrhea) Units mg^min/m" mg1&min/m4t> Level ETL50 ETL16 ETL01 ETL50

  10. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm, i...

  11. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470 nm, i...

  12. Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? : A Validity and Reproducibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, IR (Irene); Nijhuis-van der Sanden, MWG (Ria); Oosterveld, FGJ (Frits)

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7–12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and

  13. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Oosterveld, F.G.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local

  14. Preventing irritant contact dermatitis with protective creams: influence of the application dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Petri, Maximilian; Elsner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Skin protection creams (PC)s are used in the occupational setting to help prevent irritant hand dermatitis. The actual amounts of PC applied and the resulting dose per unit area on hands at work are lower than recommended. To assess the influence of the applied dose on the efficacy of PCs in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis. Experimental cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced by twice daily application of 0.5% NaOH or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for 4 days on the backs of 20 healthy volunteers. Test areas were left unprotected or were pretreated with three different PCs applied at a low dose (2 mg/cm(2) ) or a high dose (20 mg/cm(2) ) before irritation. Irritant responses were assessed by visual scoring and measurement of transepidermal water loss, chromametry, and corneometry. Although cumulative irritant dermatitis developed in all unprotected test sites, irritation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner on PC-protected sites. The higher doses of all PCs provided significant protection against irritation. However, the lower dose of one product did not significantly protect against SLS-induced irritation. The protective efficacy of PCs depends on the amount of product applied per unit skin surface area. Some products may show no protective efficacy when used at doses close to those practically applied at workplaces. Future efficacy studies of PCs should be performed with doses not higher than 2 mg/cm(2) , to avoid overestimation of their protective efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contri, Renata V; Frank, Luiza A; Kaiser, Moacir; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC) was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP) did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP]) and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product]) and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product]) irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation.

  16. Cognitive control associated with irritability induction: an autobiographical recall fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Carlos T; Almeida, Jorge R C; Sato, João R; Gorenstein, Clarice; Gentil, Valentim; Leite, Claudia C; Amaro, Edson; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2010-06-01

    Despite the relevance of irritability emotions to the treatment, prognosis and classification of psychiatric disorders, the neurobiological basis of this emotional state has been rarely investigated to date. We assessed the brain circuitry underlying personal script-driven irritability in healthy subjects (n = 11) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes were recorded during auditory presentation of personal scripts of irritability in contrast to scripts of happiness or neutral emotional content. Self-rated emotional measurements and skin conductance recordings were also obtained. Images were acquired using a 1,5T magnetic resonance scanner. Brain activation maps were constructed from individual images, and between-condition differences in the mean power of experimental response were identified by using cluster-wise nonparametric tests. Compared to neutral scripts, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal during irritability scripts was detected in the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and in the left medial, anterolateral and posterolateral dorsal prefrontal cortex (cluster-wise p-value < 0.05). While the involvement of the subgenual cingulate and dorsal anterolateral prefrontal cortices was unique to the irritability state, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in dorsomedial and dorsal posterolateral prefrontal regions were also present during happiness induction. Irritability induction is associated with functional changes in a limited set of brain regions previously implicated in the mediation of emotional states. Changes in prefrontal and cingulate areas may be related to effortful cognitive control aspects that gain salience during the emergence of irritability.

  17. The feasibility of automated eye tracking with the Early Childhood Vigilance Test of attention in younger HIV-exposed Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Weiss, Jonathan; Chhaya, Ronak; Seffren, Victoria; Awadu, Jorem; Sikorskii, Alla; Giordani, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P. Tobii ×2-30 portable infrared cameras were programmed to monitor pupil direction during the ECVT 6-min animation and compared with observer-based PROCODER webcam scoring. Children watched 78% of the cartoon (Tobii) compared with 67% (webcam scoring), although the 2 measures were highly correlated (r = .90, p = .001). It is possible for 2 such measures to be highly correlated even if one is consistently higher than the other (Bergemann et al., 2012). Both ECVT Tobii and webcam ECVT measures significantly correlated with COAT immediate recall (r = .37, p = .02 vs. r = .38, p = .01, respectively) and total recall (r = .33, p = .06 vs. r = .42, p = .005) measures. However, neither the Tobii eye tracking nor PROCODER webcam ECVT measures of attention correlated with MSEL composite cognitive performance or BRIEF-P global executive composite. ECVT scoring using Tobii eye tracking is feasible with at-risk very young African children and consistent with webcam-based scoring approaches in their correspondence to one another and other neurocognitive performance-based measures. By automating measurement and scoring, eye tracking technologies can improve the efficiency and help better standardize ECVT testing of attention in younger children. This holds promise for other neurodevelopmental tests where eye movements, tracking, and gaze length can provide important behavioral markers of neuropsychological and neurodevelopmental processes

  18. The relationship between childhood trauma, emotion recognition, and irritability in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgi, Mustafa Melih; Taspinar, Seval; Aksoy, Burcu; Oguz, Kaya; Coburn, Kerry; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, irritability, and emotion recognition, in schizophrenia patients during a psychotic break. Thirty-six schizophrenia inpatients and 36 healthy controls were assessed with the Irritability Questionnaire (IRQ) and two facial emotion recognition tasks, the Emotion Discrimination Test (EDT) and Emotion Identification Test (EIT). Patients were further assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 (CTQ-28). EDT and EIT performance was significantly impaired in patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, patients tended to misidentify sad, surprised, or angry faces as showing fear, and this misidentification correlated with the patients' irritability. Childhood adversity increased irritability both directly and indirectly through emotion misidentification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farup, Per Grønaas; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic dep...

  20. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form of childhood eye cancer. Hemangioma is a benign tumor of the choroid and retina that starts in the blood vessels. Other, rare cancers of the eye include: Conjunctival melanoma is a tumor of the conjunctiva, which is ...

  1. The effects of lubricant eye drops on visual function as measured by the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Torkildsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Gail TorkildsenAndover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USAObjective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two marketed ocular lubricants on the visual decay in dry eye patients using the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay (IVAD test.Methods: This controlled, randomized, double-masked crossover study compared the effects of a polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based (PEG/PG tear and a carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC/glycerin tear on the visual acuity decay between blinks of dry eye patients. At visit 1 (Day 0, baseline IVAD measurements were recorded prior to instillation of a single drop of randomized study medication. IVAD testing was repeated at 15-, 45-, and 90-minutes post-instillation. Reading rate and functional blink rate were also evaluated. At the second visit (Day 7 ± 3, study procedures were repeated using crossover treatment.Results: Forty-eight (48 subjects with dry eye (61.1 ± 14.8 years old, 79.2% female, 95.8% white completed the study. Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significantly longer time to one-line loss of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA as determined by the IVAD test at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear (P = 0.0365. Measurements of median time at BCVA, reading rate, and functional blink rate were similar for both treatments. Both formulations were well tolerated in the population studied.Conclusions: Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significant improved maintenance of visual acuity between blinks at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of an artificial tear to extend visual acuity maintenance between blinks, as measured by the IVAD test.Keywords: dry eye, visual function, artificial tears, ocular lubricant

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, N; Villata, L; Santini, B; Fantino, N; Robazza, V; Ciervo, T; Barbera, C; Elia, G; Oderda, G

    1987-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic functional gastroenterological disorder both in adults and in children. In this study we evaluate the different aspects of this syndrome, comparing our observations on 332 children with other studies. Epidemiological data (frequency, sex, age) are examined so as the family histories of gastroenterological disorders. We take in account several pathogenic hypotheses, especially with reference to the alterations of gastrointestinal motility, which could be caused by several factors (psychological, prostaglandins, bile acids, etc.). The clinical picture is very variable, variations depending on the age of children and on the time of onset of IBS. The colic of neonate, caused by retention of air, is the main symptom in the first months of life, followed by chronic diarrhoea, also defined as toddler's diarrhoea, sometime alternating with constipation. In later childhood, recurrent abdominal pain represents a common complaint, in association with diarrhoea or constipation. The principal steps for a proper diagnosis so as the main differential diagnosis are defined. We explain the most important features of management (reassuring parents, free diet), excluding prescription of drugs, that produce only a transitory and symptomatic relief, so as elimination diets, that cause only a failure to thrive without any improvement of symptoms.

  3. Towards a better understanding of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, C P; Backhouse, S

    1993-09-01

    This study was undertaken by sending a questionnaire to 148 people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The respondents all were members of the IBS Network, a national independent organization formed to help alleviate the suffering and distress of people diagnosed as having irritable bowel. They were asked about their symptoms, the medical tests they had undergone, how they felt about the treatment they received, and how IBS affected their lives. The study found that IBS affected all aspects of their lives: work, leisure, travel and relationships. Sufferers indicated that they felt they would have coped better if they had been provided with more information about IBS, its possible causes and treatment, and greater sensitivity from members of the medical profession in dealing with them.

  4. Risk of Irritability With Psychostimulant Treatment in Children With ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckelman, Zachary D; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Cohen, Stephanie C; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Irritability is listed as a common side effect of psychostimulant medications. However, psychostimulants have been demonstrated as an effective treatment in reducing irritability and aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to quantify the risk of irritability as a side effect of psychostimulant treatment for ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted on August 18, 2013, to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in English examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with ADHD. Trials were excluded if (1) they required additional psychiatric or medical comorbidity in addition to ADHD, (2) they involved fewer than 20 subjects (parallel group trials), or (3) children received psychostimulant medication for less than 1 week. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to examine the risk ratio of irritability reported as a side effect in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to examine the effects of stimulant type, dosage, duration of use, and trial design on the measured risk of irritability. From 92 potentially eligible trials, the meta-analysis identified 32 trials involving 3,664 children with ADHD that reported data on irritability as a side effect. The relative risk of irritability significantly differed between psychostimulant classes (test for subgroup differences χ²₁ = 7.6, P = .006). Methylphenidate derivatives were associated with a significantly decreased risk of irritability compared to placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96], z = -2.87, P = .004, k = 32, I² = 50%), whereas amphetamine derivatives were associated with a significantly increased risk of irritability (RR = 2.90 [95% CI, 1.26 to 6.71], z = 2.5, P = .01, k = 5, I² = 0%). This meta-analysis suggests an increased risk of irritability may be confined to amphetamine

  5. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  6. Standard eye exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye ( glaucoma ) using a method called tonometry Color blindness is tested using cards with colored dots that ... Astigmatism (abnormally curved cornea) Blocked tear duct Cataracts Color blindness Corneal abrasion (or dystrophy) Corneal ulcers and infections ...

  7. The feasibility of an automated eye-tracking-modified Fagan test of memory for human faces in younger Ugandan HIV-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Ronak; Weiss, Jonathan; Seffren, Victoria; Sikorskii, Alla; Winke, Paula M; Ojuka, Julius C; Boivin, Michael J

    2017-05-22

    The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0.14; 19 girls; M = 0.79, SD = 0.15). A series of 10 different faces were presented (familiar face exposure for 25 s followed by a gaze preference trial of 15 s with both the familiar and unfamiliar faces). Tobii X2-30 infrared camera for pupil detection provided automated eye-tracking measures of gaze location and length during presentation of Ugandan faces selected to correspond to the gender, age (adult, child), face expression, and orientation of the original FTII. Eye-tracking gaze length for unfamiliar faces was correlated with performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Infants gazed longer at the novel picture compared to familiar across 10 novelty preference trials. Better MSEL cognitive development was correlated with proportionately longer time spent looking at the novel faces (r(30) = 0.52, p = .004); especially for the Fine Motor Cognitive Sub-scale (r(30) = 0.54, p = .002). Automated eye tracking in a human face recognition test proved feasible and corresponded to the MSEL composite cognitive development in HEU infants in a resource-constrained clinical setting. Eye tracking may be a viable means of enhancing the validity and accuracy of other neurodevelopmental measures in at-risk children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. The association of vitamin D deficiency with tear break-up time and Schirmer testing in non-Sjögren dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtul, B E; Özer, P A; Aydinli, M S

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test scores and to assess their relationship in non-Sjögren dry-eye patients. Thirty-four patients with serum vitamin D deficiency and 21 control subjects with normal vitamin D levels were included in this study. The TBUT and Schirmer-1 test without topical anesthesia were performed to all patients. The mean TBUT were 5.18±2.15 and 7.36±3.10 s and Schirmer scores were 12.18±6.44 and 18.57±8.99 mm in the study and control groups, respectively. TBUT scores and Schirmer-1 results of the study group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.01 and 0.007, respectively). The mean vitamin D levels were 11.50±1.8 ng/ml in the study group and 32.8±8.72 ng/ml in control group (P=0.001). Dry-eye symptoms were detected in all patients in the study group and 15% of the patients in the control group. We demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency decreases the TBUT and Schirmer test values and may be associated with dry-eye symptoms in non-Sjögren syndrome.

  9. Enhancing the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process: linguistic and psychometric testing of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of a self-report measure for dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila

    2015-04-01

    To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing

  10. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other tests to check for other health problems. Blood test A health care professional will take a blood sample from you and send the sample to a lab. Doctors use blood tests to check for conditions other than IBS, including ...

  11. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  12. Barrier recovery and influence of irritant stimuli in skin treated with a moisturizing cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M

    1997-05-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of clinically and subjectively dry skin. Recent studies suggest that certain ingredients in creams may accelerate the recovery of a disrupted barrier and decrease the skin susceptibility to irritant stimuli. In the present single-blind study, a moisturizing cream was tested for its influence both on barrier recovery in surfactant-damaged skin and on the susceptibility of normal skin to exposure to the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Parameters measured were transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin corneometer values, indicating degree of hydration. Treatment of surfactant-damaged skin with the test cream for 14 days promoted barrier recovery, as observed as a decrease in TEWL. Skin corneometer values also normalized more rapidly during the treatment. In normal skin, use of the test cream significantly reduced TEWL after 14 days of treatment, and irritant reactions to SLS were significantly decreased. Skin corneometer values increased after only 1 application and remained elevated after 14 days. In conclusion, the accelerated rate of recovery of surfactant-damaged skin and the lower degree of SLS-induced irritation in normal skin treated with the test cream may be of clinical relevance in attempts to reduce contact dermatitis due to irritant stimuli.

  13. Clinical analysis of diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops for dry eye after ophthalmic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study and analyze the clinical efficacy of diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in treating dry eyes after ophthalmic surgery. METHODS: Totally 94 eyes from 94 patients with dry eyes were slected, and they were randomly divided into orbervation group and control group. Fouty-seven patients in the control group using conventional treatment combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops. Other 47 patients in orbervation group were treated with diclofenac sodium eye drops on the basis of control group. We compared symptoms, fluorescein station, tear film break time, Schirmer Ⅰ test between the two groups.RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, patients of both groups with sympotom, fluorescein station score, BUT, and Schirmer Ⅰ test were significantly improved(PPPCONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops have significant efficacy in treatment of dry eyes after ophthalmic surgery, which can effectively relieve clinical symptoms, improve BUT and Schirmer Ⅰ test.

  14. Tuberculosis; Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle could present as a painful swelling over the corresponding part of the eye with associated restriction of ocular motility involving the muscle. TUBERCULOSIS OF THE EYE. CORNEA: Primary infection of the cornea is very rare. Corneal involvement is usually due to a hypersentitivity or cross-reaction whereby the.

  15. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, M N

    2000-10-01

    There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin.

  16. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  17. Structure and determinants of psychophysiological response to odorant/irritant air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G. (Department of Psychophysiology, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, (West Germany))

    1992-04-30

    From a psychophysiological point of view, acute effects of indoor air pollution with odorant/irritant properties can be evaluated in terms of sensory/perceptual factors, in terms of objective eye/mucous membrane irritation or systemic responses of the orienting reflex, as well as in terms of either specific or systemic psychological responses. Formaldehyde and hydrogen sulfide are used to illustrate sensory evaluation in terms of detection (absolute thresholds), suprathreshold intensity, and hedonic tone. Dose-response contingencies are exemplified for ETS-induced eye irritation in terms of eyeblinks and lacrymal flow. Orienting responses to odorant stimuli are illustrated using peripheral vasoconstriction and pupil dilation as outcome measures. Specific (descriptive statements and symptoms) as well as systemic psychological responses (annoyance) exhibited clear-cut dose-response association in chamber studies using ETS and hydrogen sulfide exposures. It is, furthermore, shown that environmental annoyance to different environmental stressors exhibits both trait and state characteristics, and that age, perceived health, and (to a smaller degree) gender moderate the response. Based on this information proposals for research needs are given.28 references.

  18. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R Faber

    Full Text Available This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years from national (n = 13, regional (n = 11 and local training centres (n = 19 participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter and using a tennis or table tennis ball. 'Within session' reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate 'between sessions' reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05. The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001. Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between -8 and +7 repetitions with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between -3 and +3 repetitions. Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test.

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Dry Eye Patients With Chronic Pain Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Smitt-Kamminga, Nicole Sillevis; Kozareva, Diana; Nibourg, Simone A.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    PURPOSE: To investigate clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) patients with a chronic pain syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. study. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-five patients of a tertiary care DED patient cohort in the Netherlands were included. Chronic pain syndromes irritable bowel

  20. Pattern of eye diseases among welders in a Nigeria community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    hot metal can also occur when welding and contribute to the risk of developing skin and ocular damage14. Erhabor5 in a study of the pulmonary functions of. 54 gas welders in Ile-Ife reported that 51.1% of the gas welders complained of eye irritation. The mainstay of ocular protection from welding arc radiation is filter placed ...

  1. Anti-irritants agents for the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis: clinical and patent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-09-01

    This overview defines whether anti-irritant agents, in fact, inhibit, prevent or treat irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in man. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus via the library at University of California San Francisco, and a hand search of relevant text books to investigate chemicals that can be considered anti-irritants in either prevention or treatment. Emphasis was placed on data that included quantitative and qualitative results and that followed evidence-based dermatological guidelines. Related patents were summarized. Conflicting observations summarized here suggest well controlled, but often arduous, field type studies are required for confirmation.

  2. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Evaluation of the toxicity of graphene oxide exposure to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yan, Liang; Wu, Qian; Li, Yijian; Li, Qiyou; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Yuli; Gu, Zhanjun; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-11-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are the new carbon nanomaterials with the prospect for great applications in electronics, energy storage, biosensors and medicine. However, little is known about the toxicity of graphene or its derivatives in the case of occasional or repeated ocular exposure. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) exposure to the eye. Primary human corneal epithelium cells (hCorECs) and human conjunctiva epithelium cells (hConECs) were exposed to GO (12.5-100 μg/mL). Acute GO exposure (2 h) did not induce cytotoxicity to hCorECs. However, short-term GO exposure (24 h) exerted significant cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione (GSH) reduced the GO-induced cytotoxicity. We further performed acute eye irritation tests in albino rabbits according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines, and the rabbits did not exhibit corneal opacity, conjunctival redness, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis at any time point after the instillation of 100 μg/mL of GO. However, 5-day repeated GO exposure (50 and 100 μg/mL) caused reversible mild corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and corneal epithelium damage to Sprague-Dawley rats, which was also alleviated by GSH. Therefore, our study suggests that GO-induced time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs via oxidative stress. Occasional GO exposure did not cause acute eye irritation; short-term repeated GO exposure generally resulted in reversible damage to the eye via oxidative stress, which may be alleviated by the antioxidant GSH.

  4. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  5. Smoke Composition to Disseminate Capsaicinoids in Atmosphere as Sensory Irritant

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; U. G. Phapale; N. G. Swarge; M. R. Somayajulu

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of sensory irritants in the atmosphere with the help of an evaporating mixtureis adopted. Experiments were carried out to find an alternative sensory irritant which is moreirritating and less toxic than the existing sensory irritating agents and originating from a naturalsource. Extract of red pepper, the oleoresin, is less toxic than the existing sensory irritants andis analysed for its constituents. Thermal studies of capsaicin and the composition indicate thatthe composition ...

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its

  7. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, L. R.; Engsbro, A. L.; Jones, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to explore the natural history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Denmark over 3 years by studying development of IBS symptoms and associated factors. Methods: A cohort study was carried out using a web panel representative of the Danish general population 18-50 years...

  8. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  9. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  10. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  11. A hydroquinone formulation with increased stability and decreased potential for irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Kenneth A; Dong, Kelly K; Canning, Matthew T; Grimson, Roger; Walfield, Alan M; Yarosh, Daniel B

    2007-06-01

    Long-term treatment with a high-strength hydroquinone (HQ) cream (usually 4% HQ) is the mainstay therapy for hyperpigmentation disorders. Instability and high potential for irritancy hinders patient compliance. A new 4% HQ preparation has been designed with an innovative antioxidant for stability and a biomimetic of an herbal extract for skin calming. To investigate the activity, stability, and irritancy of a new HQ cream. To evaluate the new HQ cream in comparison with commercial 4% HQ creams for stability by temperature stress test, for irritancy by repeated-insult patch test on human subjects, and for lightening effect using the MelanoDerm B skin equivalent model. The new HQ is more resistant to browning and shows less irritancy than three commercially available 4% HQ products. It has comparable bleaching effect with faster onset than a 4% HQ product containing 0.05% tretinoin and 0.01% fluocinolone acetonide. Based on its improved stability, lower irritancy, and activity in skin lightening, the new approach to the formulation of 4% HQ may improve therapeutic outcomes by improving patient compliance to dosing.

  12. Red Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AskMayoExpert. Conjunctivitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/red-eye/basics/definition/SYM-20050748 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Addressing neurodynamic irritability in a patient with adhesive capsulitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Lampe, Katherine

    2017-02-01

    Patients with adhesive capsulitis are commonly seen by physical therapists. Pain and limited shoulder motion from adhesive capsulitis have at times been linked to neural irritation. The purpose of this case is to describe the examination and intervention of a patient with adhesive capsulitis who appeared to have a coexisting, underlying neural irritation. This paper emphasizes how the neurological component must initially be identified and addressed for a successful outcome. A 47-year-old female presented with reduced shoulder motion and function, upper extremity neural irritation, diffuse weakness, altered sensation in the involved extremity, and symptoms reproduced with upper limb neurodynamic testing. Her reduced shoulder range of motion was accompanied by limited glenohumeral glides and a report of local neck stiffness. Symptoms began several months earlier after an apparent electrical shock injury to the arm that caused symptoms and guarding of the shoulder. Intervention initially addressed the underlying neural component with spinal mobilizations while avoiding further irritation. Interventions were progressed to include mobilization and exercise to address shoulder mobility. The patient's neurodynamic irritability, distal symptoms, and neck stiffness were normalized within the first weeks of care. Subsequently, interventions were directed at the shoulder. Outcomes over an 12-week time frame included reduced pain from 10/10 to 2/10. Passive range of motion increases included flexion from 121 to 160°, abduction from 71 to 121°, and external rotation from 18 to 60°. Disability scores on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) dropped from initially 68·3 to 18·3% at discharge. She ultimately regained full upper extremity function. Therapists should be cognizant of possible neural irritation in shoulder disorders, which may contribute to conditions such as adhesive capsulitis. Identifying neural irritation is critical when determining which

  15. Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... probiotics you should take and for how long. Mental health therapies Your doctor may recommend mental health ... Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  17. Evaluation of tensile strength of tissue adhesives and sutures for clear corneal incisions using porcine and bovine eyes, with a novel standardized testing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Goad, Daryl L; Ali, Fatima; Abraham, Ashley; Rebenitsch, R Luke; Teymoorian, Savak; Krishna, Rohit; Koulen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tissue adhesives for ophthalmologic applications were proposed almost 50 years ago, yet to date no adequate tissue glues have been identified that combine strong sealing properties with adequate safety and absence of postsurgical side effects. In recent years, cataract surgeries and Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty procedures have significantly increased the number of clear corneal incisions performed. One of the obstacles to discovery and development of novel tissue adhesives has been the result of nonstandardized testing of potential tissue glues. We developed an instrument capable of controlling intraocular pressure in explanted porcine and bovine eyes in order to evaluate sealants, adhesives, and surgical closure methods used in ophthalmic surgery in a controlled, repeatable, and validated fashion. We herein developed and validated our instrument by testing the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate glue in both porcine and bovine explant eyes. The instrument applied and maintained intraocular pressure through a broad range of physiological intraocular pressures. Cyanoacrylate-based glues showed significantly enhanced sealing properties of clear corneal incisions compared with sutured wounds. This study shows the feasibility of our instrument for reliable and standardized testing of tissue adhesive for ophthalmological surgery.

  18. Evaluation of tensile strength of tissue adhesives and sutures for clear corneal incisions using porcine and bovine eyes, with a novel standardized testing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Simon Kaja, Daryl L Goad, Fatima Ali, Ashley Abraham, R Luke Rebenitsch, Savak Teymoorian, Rohit Krishna, Peter KoulenVision Research Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USABackground: Tissue adhesives for ophthalmologic applications were proposed almost 50 years ago, yet to date no adequate tissue glues have been identified that combine strong sealing properties with adequate safety and absence of postsurgical side effects. In recent years, cataract surgeries and Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty procedures have significantly increased the number of clear corneal incisions performed. One of the obstacles to discovery and development of novel tissue adhesives has been the result of nonstandardized testing of potential tissue glues.Methods: We developed an instrument capable of controlling intraocular pressure in explanted porcine and bovine eyes in order to evaluate sealants, adhesives, and surgical closure methods used in ophthalmic surgery in a controlled, repeatable, and validated fashion. We herein developed and validated our instrument by testing the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate glue in both porcine and bovine explant eyes.Results: The instrument applied and maintained intraocular pressure through a broad range of physiological intraocular pressures. Cyanoacrylate-based glues showed significantly enhanced sealing properties of clear corneal incisions compared with sutured wounds.Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of our instrument for reliable and standardized testing of tissue adhesive for ophthalmological surgery.Keywords: manometer, intraocular pressure, applanation tonometry, clear corneal incision, tissue adhesive, ocular surgery

  19. Mineral intake independent from gastric irritation or pica by cell-dehydrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancio, Juliana; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-10-24

    Gavage of 2 M NaCl (IG 2 M NaCl), a procedure to induce cell-dehydration-and water and 0.15 M NaCl intake in a two-bottle choice test-is also a potential gastric irritant. In this study, we assessed whether mineral intake induced by IG 2 M NaCl is associated with gastric irritation or production of pica in the rat. We first determined the amount of mineral solution (0.15 M NaCl, 0.15 M NaHCO3, 0.01 M KCl and 0.05 mM CaCl2) and water ingested in response to IG 2 M NaCl in a five-bottle test. Then, we used mineral solutions (0.01 M KCl and 0.15 M NaHCO3), whose intakes were significantly increased compared to controls, and water in three-bottle tests to test the gastric irritation hypothesis. The IG 2 M NaCl induced KCl and NaHCO3 intake that was not inhibited by gavage with gastric protectors Al(OH)3 or NaHCO3. IG 2 M NaCl or gavage of 0.6 N acetic acid induced mild irritation, hyperemia, of the glandular part of the stomach. A gavage of 50% ethanol induced strong irritation seen as pinpoint ulcerations. Neither ethanol nor acetic acid induced any fluid intake. Neither IG 2 M NaCl nor acetic acid induced kaolin intake, a marker of pica in laboratory rats. Ethanol did induce kaolin intake. These results suggest that IG 2 M NaCl induced a mineral fluid intake not selective for sodium and independent from gastric irritation or pica. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  1. Further validation of the visual analogue scale for irritable bowel syndrome after use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Persson, Jesper; Sjölund, Kristina; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS), a self-rating questionnaire, was designed to measure symptoms and the effect of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this descriptive correlational study was to conduct further psychometric validation after the VAS-IBS had been used in clinical practice, translate it into English, and compare the results with controls. Forty-nine patients with irritable bowel syndrome (median age = 38 years old [range, 18-69 years]) were compared with 90 healthy persons (median age = 44 years old [range, 21-77 years]) who served as controls. The patients with irritable bowel syndrome completed 3 questionnaires: the VAS-IBS, the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, and the Perception of Change of Symptoms. Controls completed only the VAS-IBS. Results showed that the VAS-IBS is a valid questionnaire that measures the degree of change of symptoms and discriminates between patients who have irritable bowel syndrome from those who do not. It is important to compare the VAS-IBS among different cultural populations so we suggest that the English version of the VAS-IBS should now be used in English-speaking countries and be further tested for validity and reliability with English-speaking patients.

  2. Clinical trial: phase 2 study of lubiprostone for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, J F; Drossman, D A; Panas, R; Wahle, A; Ueno, R

    2008-04-01

    Analyses of a trial in constipated patients indicated that lubiprostone may be an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. To assess the efficacy and safety of three lubiprostone doses for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. 195 irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients received daily doses of 16 [8 microg twice daily (b.d.)], 32 (16 microg b.d.) or 48 microg (24 microg b.d.) lubiprostone or placebo b.d. for 3 months. Gastrointestinal parameters were recorded in diaries daily by patients. After 1 month, lubiprostone showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores vs. placebo (P = 0.023). After 2 months, all lubiprostone groups showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores (P lubiprostone arm was greater than placebo, but the test for trend was no longer significant. Treatment with lubiprostone showed significantly higher rates of gastrointestinal adverse events (P = 0.020), especially diarrhoea and nausea. Lubiprostone significantly improved gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation at all doses. Higher doses of lubiprostone, especially the 48 microg/day group, were associated with more gastrointestinal adverse events. From these data, the 16 microg/day dose demonstrated the optimal combination of efficacy and safety. These results warrant further study of lubiprostone for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients.

  3. Association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Darabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS. In this case-control study that conducted in Mashhad, Iran in 2014-2015, one hundred IBS cases and one hundred matched (age and sex healthy people were participated. Direct stool examination, formalin-ether concentration technique and trichrome staining were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS20 with Fisher's exact test and T-test. One hundred IBS patients (31 males and 69 females had a mean age of 29.5 (±7.4 years. B. hominis were positive in 26% of IBS participants, and 9% in control group (P-value=0.002,Risk Estimate=3.5. Giardia lamblia were positive in 6% of IBS participants, and in none of control participants (P-value=0.01. Trichrome staining for detection of B. hominis was more sensitive than direct examination and formalin-ether concentration technique (P-value <0/001. B. hominis was more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. For detection of B. hominis, trichrome staining was more sensitive than other methods. Authors suggest that in patients with IBS, stool should be examined with different methods for three times to obtain a more reliable diagnosis.

  4. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  5. Patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis based on narrative and feminist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare

  6. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S

    2001-02-01

    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  7. Reinforcement of irritability during therapy with benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    Often, long-term treatment with benzodiazepines is a subject of discussion due to potential side effects, with dependence on benzodiazepines as the most serous one. After longer period of benzodiazepines tolerance on their anxiolytic effects develops. Discontinuation is usually beneficial as it is followed by improved psychomotor and cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. Previous studies confirmed occurrence of physical dependence in high percentage of patients in long term treatment with benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages. Benzodiazepines are relatively well-tolerated medicines but can induce serious problems of addiction and that is why their use is regulated. The aim of this article is to report a case of a patient who was taking 15 tablets of oxazepam daily for a period of time, during which reinforcement of irritability occurred. It is necessary to warn patients who take benzodiazepines in therapy that reinforcement of irritability may occur in case of higher dosage of benzodiazepines, which may be misinterpreted as worsening in mental condition.

  8. Characterizing Soldier Responses to Irritant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-16

    success, the performance decrement from various drugs in terms of alcohol dosage. in the second (O’Hanlon et &l., 1986), a benzodiazepine ( Lorazepam ...in this case alcohol , are f*irst calikrated agF-nst that agent. Then decrements in performance in the presence of irritant gases can bt calibrated in...terms of their dose equivalence relative to the effects of alcohol . Tr quantify the human mental acuity functions which are related to military 0’r

  9. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  11. Testing intravitreal toxicity of rapamycin in rabbit eyes Toxicidade intravítrea da rapamicina em olhos de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pereira de Almeida Manzano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal toxicity of varying doses of rapamycin when injected intravitreally in rabbits. Rapamycin is a potent immunosuppressive agent with significant antitumor and antiangiogenic properties, clinically approved for prevention of organ transplant rejection. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into four groups. Four different doses of rapamycin were prepared in 0.1 ml: 20 µg, 50 µg, 200 µg, and 1000 µg. Each concentration was injected in one eye of three rabbits, and 0.1 ml volume of sterile BSS was injected into the contralateral eye of the three rabbits. Slit-lamp and fundoscopic examinations were performed and the animals were observed for 2 weeks for signs of infection, inflammation, and toxicity. A baseline ERG was performed before drug treatment and at day 14, after which the rabbits were euthanized. Histology of the enucleated eyes was studied to look for retinal toxicity. RESULTS: ERG results showed some decrease in scotopic response; however this was not dose related. ERG results were normal at 20 µg. Histological results showed no retinal toxicity in all groups. CONCLUSION: Although ERG changes were identified at dosages between 50-1000 µg, the histology of all groups up to 1000 µg did not show any discernable abnormalities.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a toxicidade da injeção intravítrea de diferentes doses de rapamicina para a retina de coelhos. Rapamicina é uma potente droga imunossupressora aprovada clinicamente para a prevenção da rejeição de transplantes de orgãos. MÉTODOS: Doze coelhos albinos da Nova Zelândia foram usados neste estudo. Foram divididos em quatro grupos. Quatro diferentes doses de rapamicina foram preparadas nas seguintes concentrações: 20 µg, 50 µg, 200 µg, 1000 µg. Foram realizadas injeções intravítreas de 0,1 ml de cada concentração em um olho de três coelhos e 0,1 ml de solução salina foi injetada no olho contralateral de cada coelho. Foram

  12. The King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid eye movements: a bedside correlate of disability and quality of life in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moster, Stephen; Wilson, James A; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid number naming as a visual performance measure in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, 81 patients with MS and 20 disease-free controls from an ongoing study of visual outcomes underwent K-D testing. A test of rapid number naming, K-D requires saccadic eye movements as well as intact vision, attention and concentration. To perform the K-D test, participants are asked to read numbers aloud as quickly as possible from three test cards; the sum of the three test card times in seconds constitutes the summary score. High-contrast visual acuity (VA), low-contrast letter acuity (1.25% and 2.5% levels), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT), MS Functional Composite (MSFC) and vision-specific quality of life (QOL) measures (25-Item NEI Visual Functioning Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ-25] and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement) were also assessed. K-D time scores in the MS cohort (total time to read the three test cards) were significantly higher (worse) compared to those for disease-free controls (P=0.003, linear regression, accounting for age). Within the MS cohort, higher K-D scores were associated with worse scores for the NEI-VFQ-25 composite (Pdisability status as disabled (receiving disability pension) did worse on K-D testing compared to those working full-time (P=0.001, accounting for age). The K-D test, a impairment, and reduced vision-specific QOL in patients with MS. Scores reflect work disability as well as structural changes as measured by OCT imaging. History of ON and abnormal binocular acuities were associated with worse K-D scores, suggesting that abnormalities detected by K-D may go along with afferent dysfunction in MS patients. A brief test that requires saccadic eye movements, K-D should be considered for future MS trials as a rapid visual performance measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The involvement of TRP channels in sensory irritation: a mechanistic approach toward a better understanding of the biological effects of local irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ramona; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves innervating the mucosae of the nose, mouth, and throat protect the organism against chemical hazards. Upon their stimulation, characteristic perceptions (e.g., stinging and burning) and various reflexes are triggered (e.g., sneezing and cough). The potency of a chemical to cause sensory irritation can be estimated by a mouse bioassay assessing the concentration-dependent decrease in the respiratory rate (50 % decrease: RD50). The involvement of the N. trigeminus and its sensory neurons in the irritant-induced decrease in respiratory rates are not well understood to date. In calcium imaging experiments, we tested which of eight different irritants (RD50 5-730 ppm) could induce responses in primary mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons. The tested irritants acetophenone, 2-ethylhexanol, hexyl isocyanate, isophorone, and trimethylcyclohexanol stimulated responses in trigeminal neurons. Most of these responses depended on functional TRPA1 or TRPV1 channels. For crotyl alcohol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and sodium metabisulfite, no activation could be observed. 2-ethylhexanol can activate both TRPA1 and TRPV1, and at low contractions (100 µM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) seem to be involved. GPCRs might also be involved in the mediation of the responses to trimethylcyclohexanol. By using neurobiological tools, we showed that sensory irritation in vivo could be based on the direct activation of TRP channels but also on yet unknown interactions with GPCRs present in trigeminal neurons. Our results showed that the potency suggested by the RD50 values was not reflected by direct nerve-compound interaction.

  14. The Role of Predictability in Saccadic Eye Responses in the Suppression Head Impulse Test of Horizontal Semicircular Canal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rey-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP vHIT protocol, the participant is instructed to follow with his gaze a mobile target generated by a laser placed on the participant’s head. Recent studies have reported that the refixation saccade latencies are in relation with the time evolution of the vestibular dysfunction in both (standard and SHIMP procedures. We hypothesized that some central mechanisms like head impulse prediction could be one of the causes for the differences in the saccadic eye responses.MethodsA prospective cohort non-randomized study was designed. For the SHIMP protocol, recorded with the ICS Impulse ver. 4.0® (Otometrics A/S, Taastrup, Denmark vHIT device, three different algorithms were performed: “predictable,” “less predictable,” and “unpredictable” depending on the target’s predictability. A mathematical method was developed to analyze the SHIMP responses. The method was implemented as an additional tool to the MATLAB open source script for the extended analysis of the vHIT responses named HITCal.ResultsIn cohort 1, 52 participants were included in “predictable” SHIMP protocol. In cohort 2, 60 patients were included for the “less predictable” and 35 patients for the “unpredictable” SHIMP protocol. The participants made more early saccades when instructed to perform the “predictable” paradigm compared with the “less predictable” paradigm (p < 0.001. The less predictable protocol did not reveal any significant difference when compared with the unpredictable protocol (p = 0.189. For the latency of the first saccade, there was statistical difference between the “unpredictable” and “predictable” protocols (p < 0.001 and between the “less predictable” and “predictable” protocols (p < 0.001. Finally, we did not find any relationship between the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (hVOR gain and the latency of the saccades.ConclusionWe developed a

  15. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    % isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. in both HLGP and HV, and in HV also by using nonanoic acid in n...

  16. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  17. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy BE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Lacy Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. Keywords: abdominal pain, antibiotic, bloating, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome

  19. Anxiety control of dental patients by clinical combination of acupuncture, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, and eye movement desensitization with sedation via submucosal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dominic P; Lu, Gabriel P; Lu, Winston I

    2007-01-01

    The data presented in this article was collected after reviewing clinical findings gathered from using various anxiety control methods on apprehensive patients. We examined clinical applications of the eye movement (EM) component of Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) on fearful dental patients who have histories of traumatic dental experiences. We also used Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) to select the proper dosage of sedative to minimize the adverse side effects. For patients who did not respond well to EM, we used BDORT to select the proper sedative medication and its dosage. In certain difficult cases, we supplemented these techniques with acupuncture to augment the sedative effects. Findings were based on the clinical impressions and assessments of both the patients and the operating team. Results showed that EM, although effective in enabling patients to undergo non-invasive dental procedures such as clinical examination and simple prophylaxis, had only limited beneficial effect with invasive procedures such as extraction, drilling, and injections, etc. We also found that BDORT greatly reduced adverse side effects of sedatives such as hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia, tachycardia, bradycardia, nausea, and vomiting. For most apprehensive patients, we found that EMD and acupuncture combined with BDORT predetermined dosage for the submucosal sedation enabled these patients to undergo the complete dental treatment. The authors try to explain the mechanism of BDORT and EM in terms of visual awareness (or consciousness) and preferred patterns, where neurons in the brain respond to the actions and/or direction of movement. The authors believe that BDORT and EM could have better results if the persons performing BDORT have visual awareness and are focused on the task; whereas in EM, the patient's eye on the therapist's hand movements. A more focused approach via visual pathway will result in more favorable results in EM. Likewise, performing BDORT absentmindedly

  20. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Industrial workers should be protected by safety glasses but injuries occur nonetheless. Eye trauma is frequent in homes, farms and backyards where safety glasses are not available. Angle-grinders, metal beating, hammering, fence mending, herding animals, forestry, fire fighting and cutting sugar cane ...

  1. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK if you ask to see their liver! Big as a Ping Pong Ball The eye is about as big as a ping-pong ball and sits in ... of sight! Reviewed by: Jonathan H. Salvin, MD Date reviewed: February 2015 More on this topic for: ...

  2. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can be overcome using cotton tips to retract the eyelids, or lid retractors can be made from bent paper clips (Illustration 1).

  3. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  4. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  5. [Psychodynamic factors in disk irritations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt Fleck, H

    1975-01-01

    The patients here concerned had a faulty psychical development. During the caracter-building period of early childhood they were unable, to assert themselves sufficiently enough to be accepted, or to feel that they are loved. Therefore they tried by means of overcompensatory efforts in the sense of extreme adjustment to others, to make up for this lack. Increasingly confined, as a preponderant attitude they finally developed a forced "assistant" pose (W. Schwidder). Under these circumstances the personality of the patients could not develop sufficiently in the way, that they were able to make free decisions by maintaining legitimate interests of selfassertion. As a rule, they did not experience their own subconscious, arbitrary strong protest against their overwhelming neurotic obligations, especially as their "backbone" did not make possible the establishment of any suitable or sufficient representation of their own desires or needs corresponding to the largely obsessional structure of most patients. The vicious circle, leading to the loss of inner balance makes understandable the determinant preponderance of self defense against complete exhaustion of strength. Therefore the necessary relaxation cannot be acquired and at the same time the fixation of the bodily ailments becomes unavoidable. In comparison with the study of Reischauer, with regard to our patients there cannot be established any special imperilled type; by these patients, however, a specific failure in trying to master their lives becomes a probability. By reason of our experiences, even though they are limited and still to be tested in other ways, conservative measures, which stimulate the activeness of the patients are to be preferred. If one interrupts that sort of pliant texture operatively-unless their is an urgent indication-unprofitable results must be expected, which correspond to orthopedic experiences. In the case of chronic manifestations and unusually deep fixation of the syndroms in the

  6. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    ), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  7. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  8. Effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in the reduction of chronic traumatic brain injury irritability and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Bickett, Allison K; Norton, James H; Pershad, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals may experience chronic problems with irritability or aggression, which may need treatment to minimize the negative impact on their relationships, home life, social interactions, community participation, and employment : To test the a priori hypothesis that amantadine reduces irritability (primary hypothesis) and aggression (secondary hypothesis) among individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI METHODS:: A total of 76 individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI referred for irritability management were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amantadine (n = 38) versus placebo (n = 38). Study participants were randomly assigned to receive amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg twice daily versus equivalent placebo for 28 days. Symptoms of irritability and aggression were measured before and after treatment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability (NPI-I) and Aggression (NPI-A) domains, as well as the NPI-Distress for these domains : In the amantadine group, 80.56% improved at least 3 points on the NPI-I, compared with 44.44% in the group that received placebo (P = .0016). Mean change in NPI-I was -4.3 in the amantadine group and -2.6 in the placebo group (P = .0085). When excluding individuals with minimal to no baseline aggression, mean change in NPI-A was -4.56 in the amantadine group and -2.46 in the placebo group (P = .046). Mean changes in NPI-I and NPI-A Distress were not statistically significant between the amantadine and placebo groups. Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the 2 groups : Amantadine 100 mg every morning and at noon appears an effective and safe means of reducing frequency and severity of irritability and aggression among individuals with TBI and sufficient creatinine clearance.

  9. [Irritating effect and dermal toxicity of virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, B; Stetkiewicz, J; Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the threshold irritating effect of Virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland, on the rabbit's skin and eye, and its dermal toxicity in single exposure. The studies were carried out according to the OECD guidelines, modified by Krysiak. A 10% aqueous solution of Virkon in the conditions of multiple open exposure was defined as the threshold concentration evoking small inflammatory reaction. After a single administration of Virkon in aqueous solutions into the rabbit's eye, the value of sensitising effect index was 1.5 for 1% solution of the disinfectant in question which indicates weak inflammatory reaction. The study of dermal toxicity in a single exposure revealed neither animal death nor morphological changes in internal organs which suggests non-cutaneous absorption of Virkon. The present study may provide the basis for assessing dermatological changes in people exposed to disinfectants.

  10. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  11. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p approach for assessing cognitive deficits in ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  12. Suitability of the isolated chicken eye test for classification of extreme pH detergents and cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2015-04-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) with or without histopathology to identify detergent and cleaning formulations having extreme pH that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1. To this aim, 18 extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations were tested covering both alkaline and acidic extreme pHs. The ICE standard test method following OECD Test Guideline 438 showed good concordance with in vivo classification (83%) and good and balanced specificity and sensitivity values (83%) which are in line with the performances of currently adopted in vitro test guidelines, confirming its suitability to identify Category 1 extreme pH detergent and cleaning products. In contrast to previous findings obtained with non-extreme pH formulations, the use of histopathology did not improve the sensitivity of the assay whilst it strongly decreased its specificity for the extreme pH formulations. Furthermore, use of non-testing prediction rules for classification showed poor concordance values (33% for the extreme pH rule and 61% for the EU CLP additivity approach) with high rates of over-prediction (100% for the extreme pH rule and 50% for the additivity approach), indicating that these non-testing prediction rules are not suitable to predict Category 1 hazards of extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can put on your web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video ... Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many ...

  18. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  1. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  2. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  3. [Eye banks and available transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettedal, Jon Klokk; Drolsum, Liv; Ramstad, Hanne; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2008-04-17

    Eye banks have procured, processed and stored donor corneas for decades. In parallel, new techniques have emerged employing allogeneic transplantation of various cells and tissues from the eye banks. This progress is a consequence of increased knowledge of stem cells, cell kinetics and immunological aspects and improved techniques for cell culturing, tissue storage and microsurgery. Review article on available transplants for treating eye diseases, based on experience with eye banking, clinical ophthalmological practice, own research and literature retrieved from PubMed, Medline and www.google.com. Treatment techniques for eye diseases, which require biological material for grafting, need efficient eye banks for continuous supply of donor material of high quality. New Norwegian legislation, based on implementation of EU Directive 2004/23/EC, demands authorization of all eye banks. The EU Directive sets high and rigorous standards for quality and safety for donation, procurement, testing, processing, storage and distribution of tissues and cells. Well-run eye banks are of great importance for modern treatment of patients suffering from eye diseases and for progress and research in ophthalmology.

  4. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  5. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  6. Novel NSAIDs ophthalmic formulation: flurbiprofen axetil emulsion with low irritancy and improved anti-inflammation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinqiu; Gan, Li; Zhu, Chunliu; Zhang, Xinxin; Dong, Yang; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Jiabi; Gan, Yong

    2011-06-30

    The aim of this study was to design and formulate a novel low-irritant NSAIDs ophthalmic emulsion of flurbiprofen axetil (FBA), the prodrug of flurbiprofen (FB). FBA ophthalmic emulsion (FBA-EM) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization with caster oil as oil phase and tween 80 as emulsifying agent. Results from the stability evaluation suggested the protect effect of oil droplets on the stability of FBA. Compared with FBA-oil solution, the AUC(0→10h) of FB in aqueous humor administered in FBA-EMs exhibited 6.7-fold (F2), 4.5-fold (F3) and 4.6-fold (F4) increase. With the increment of oil content, the MRT also prolonged, which of FBA-EM F2-F4 were 5.14 ± 2.23, 5.73 ± 3.35 and 8.71 ± 0.94 h, respectively. No significant difference was found between the ocular bioavailability of FBA-EM F2 and 0.03% FB-Na eye drops. Ocular irritation evaluation revealed that FBA-EM F2 had better ocular biocompatibility than 0.03% FB-Na eye drops, even though the FBA concentration was up to 0.1%. Intraocular anti-inflammation effect evaluation showed that FBA-EM F2 had a quite good anti-inflammation effect. In conclusion, FBA-EM F2 with elevated FBA concentration to be 0.1% might represent a promising NSAIDs ophthalmic emulsion with low irritancy and improved anti-inflammation effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos Reviewed ...

  8. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant finding. High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive real-time three-dimensional imaging technique with cellular resolution for which an adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis discriminating inflammatory skin diseases has been proposed. The aim of this study was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test application according to ECDRG guidelines. Selected HD-OCT features correlated well with clinical severity scores. HD-OCT assessment improved the visual patch test scoring although not significantly. Increased epidermal thickness observed in ICD at first reading was a significant finding useful in differentiating doubtful (+?) ACD from irritant (IR) ICD reactions. In conclusion, HD-OCT might be a unique tool for in vivo non-invasive real-time three-dimensional epidermal thickness measurements helping to differentiate IR from doubtful (+?) reactions in patch testing. Selected HD-OCT features corresponded well with severity of visual scoring. These features might help to quantify the degree of inflammation in inflammatory skin conditions. HD-OCT might help in optimizing visual patch

  9. The Effect of Repetitive Saccade Execution on the Attention Network Test: Enhancing Executive Function with a Flick of the Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, James M.; Lyle, Keith B.

    2013-01-01

    The simple act of repeatedly looking left and right can enhance subsequent cognition, including divergent thinking, detection of matching letters from visual arrays, and memory retrieval. One hypothesis is that saccade execution enhances subsequent cognition by altering attentional control. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance…

  10. A Psychometric Analysis of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test: Towards a Brief Form for Research and Applied Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eOlderbak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum. However, little is known about the test’s psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test’s reliance on one’s vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations.

  11. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  12. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  13. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Canavan, Joe West, Timothy Card Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional condition of the bowel that is diagnosed using clinical criteria. This paper discusses the nature of the diagnostic process for IBS and how this impacts epidemiological measurements. Depending on the diagnostic criteria employed, IBS affects around 11% of the population globally. Around 30% of people who experience the symptoms of IBS will consult physicians for their IBS symptoms. These people do not have significantly different abdominal symptoms to those who do not consult, but they do have greater levels of anxiety and lower quality of life. Internationally, there is a female predominance in the prevalence of IBS. There is 25% less IBS diagnosed in those over 50 years and there is no association with socioeconomic status. IBS aggregates within families and the genetic and sociological factors potentially underlying this are reviewed. Patients diagnosed with IBS are highly likely to have other functional disease and have more surgery than the general population. There is no evidence that IBS is associated with an increased mortality risk. The epidemiological evidence surrounding these aspects of the natural history is discussed. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, epidemiology, prevalence, mortality, natural history

  14. Analysis of exploratory eye movements in patients with schizophrenia during visual scanning of projective tests' figures Análise dos movimentos oculares de pacientes com esquizofrenia durante a exploração visual de figuras de testes projetivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lukasova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare pattern of exploratory eye movements during visual scanning of the Rorschach and TAT test cards in people with schizophrenia and controls. METHOD: 10 participants with schizophrenia and 10 controls matched by age, schooling and intellectual level participated in the study. Severity of symptoms was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Test cards were divided into three groups: TAT cards with scenes content, TAT cards with interaction content (TAT-faces, and Rorschach cards with abstract images. Eye movements were analyzed for: total number, duration and location of fixation; and length of saccadic movements. RESULTS: Different pattern of eye movement was found, with schizophrenia participants showing lower number of fixations but longer fixation duration in Rorschach cards and TAT-faces. The biggest difference was observed in Rorschach, followed by TAT-faces and TAT-scene cards. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest alteration in visual exploration mechanisms possibly related to integration of abstract visual information.OBJETIVO: Comparar o padrão do movimento ocular durante a inspeção dos cartões dos testes projetivos Rorschach e TAT em pessoas com esquizofrenia e controles. MÉTODO: Participaram 10 sujeitos com esquizofrenia e 10 controles, pareados por idade, escolaridade e nível de inteligência. A severidade dos sintomas foi avaliada com a Escala das Síndromes Positiva e Negativa. Os cartões dos testes foram divididos em três grupos: figuras do TAT representando ambientes, figuras do TAT com faces humanas e figuras abstratas do teste Rorschach. Os movimentos oculares foram analisados para: número total, duração e localização das fixações e comprimento dos movimentos sacádicos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças no padrão do movimento ocular, e pessoas com esquizofrenia apresentaram menos fixações nos cartões do teste Rorschach e TAT-faces. Maiores diferenças foram observadas nos cart

  15. Resolution of pinguecula-related dry eye disease after argon laser photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli PE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Emanuele Napoli,1 Raffaele Sanna,1 Claudio Iovino,1 Maurizio Fossarello,1,2 1Department of Surgical Sciences, Eye Clinic, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 2Clinica Oculistica, San Giovanni di Dio hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Purpose: To describe an unusual case of unilateral, chronic symptoms and signs of dry eye, and recurrent episodes of ocular irritation related to pinguecula, which were refractory to prior medical treatments, successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation.Methods: A 36-year-old man presented with an elevated yellowish mass on his conjunctiva in his left eye, which was associated with dry eye symptoms and general discomfort, such as “tightening sensation” and “stiffness”. On clinical assessment, the left eye revealed a mild conjunctival injection, a fluorescein break-up time (FBUT of 3.5 s, an abnormal fluorescein staining, and a Schirmer I test of 5 mm. Optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging ­evidenced a height at the most elevated point of the pinguecula of 740 µm. The patient underwent ­argon-laser photocoagulation. Results: After 2 weeks postoperatively, no residual of pinguecula or focal injection of the conjunctiva was detected by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and there was a significant improvement of clinical symptoms and signs: Schirmer I test and FBUT increased to 12 mm and >10 s, respectively, and fluorescein staining was absent. OCT imaging revealed a smooth structure of conjunctival contour, with a height of 404 µm. According to an ex juvantibus line of reasoning, definitive diagnosis was pinguecula-related dry eye disease.Conclusion: Based on the concept that tear film instability and inflammation are two key components of the pathogenesis of dry eye, we coined the term “pinguecula-related dry eye disease,” which can be successfully treated by a complete, accurate removal of the lesion with argon laser photocoagulation. Keywords

  16. Inhaled formaldehyde: Evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The critical health effects of formaldehyde exposure include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumours in the upper respiratory tract. In literature, a concentration as low as 0.24 ppm has been reported to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans. Nasal

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  18. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans. ... The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male ... Conclusion: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to Irritable Bowel Syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns.

  20. Determination of the optimal cutoff time to use when screening elderly people for locomotive syndrome using the one-leg standing test (with eyes open).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Doi, Tokuhide; Akai, Masami; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Kita, Kiyoshi; Iwaya, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    To establish the cutoff time for the one-leg standing (OLS) test (with eyes open) to use when screening elderly people for locomotive syndrome. Patients visiting orthopedic clinics and healthy volunteers, all ≥65 years old, were recruited. Participants were asked to complete the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) and then underwent the OLS test. Using the previously determined GLFS-25 cutoff value, participants were divided into two groups: the locomotive and the non-locomotive syndrome groups (GLFS-25 scores of ≥16 and 70 and ≤75, and aged >75), we determined the optimal cutoff value for IA-OLS time for each of the three age groups using ROC analysis. According to additional ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for IA-OLS time was 19 s for individuals aged ≤70, 10 s for individuals aged >70 and ≤75, and 6 s for individuals aged >75 when screening elderly persons for locomotive syndrome. We propose using a GLFS-25 score of 16 and/or a cutoff for the IA-OLS time of 19 s for individuals aged ≤70, 10 s for individuals aged >70 and ≤75, and 6 s for individuals aged >75 when screening elderly persons to determine who should receive medical intervention or undergoing training programs.

  1. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... ratio is associated with a poorer prognosis . A variety of medications can interfere with VMA testing, but ...

  2. Ocular burns in eye traumatology emphatically on chemical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Farský, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Burns to the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid are considered ocular burns. Ocular burn injuries are classified by etiologic agents as either chemical injuries (ie, acid, alkali) or radiant energy injuries (ie, thermal, ultraviolet). Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic (alkaline) compounds or acidic compounds. Alkali injuries are m...

  3. Topical dobesilate eye drops for ophthalmic primary pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis A; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-03-08

    Selective inhibition of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathways is effective in causing regression of pterygia. Prompt regression of fibrovascular mass and conjunctival angiogenesis was documented 2 weeks after topical administration of dobesilate eye drops twice daily. At 3-month follow-up, no recurrence was seen and no ocular irritation and burning were noted. The authors believe that this is the first known successful use of topical dobesilate in primary pterygium.

  4. Topical dobesilate eye drops for ophthalmic primary pterygium

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis A; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Selective inhibition of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathways is effective in causing regression of pterygia. Prompt regression of fibrovascular mass and conjunctival angiogenesis was documented 2 weeks after topical administration of dobesilate eye drops twice daily. At 3-month follow-up, no recurrence was seen and no ocular irritation and burning were noted. The authors believe that this is the first known successful use of topical dobesilate in...

  5. Testing for clinical anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa using an eye colour chart developed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Letty, B A; van der Linde, M J; van Wijk, E F; Hansen, J W; Krecek, R C

    2001-07-31

    A novel clinical assay for the assessment and subsequent treatment of Haemonchus infection in sheep to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance--the FAMACHA system--has been developed, tested and validated in South Africa. The system is based on a colour chart with five colour categories depicting varying degrees of anaemia that are compared with the colour of the mucous membranes of the eyes of sheep. The animal is then scored from severely anaemic (pale) through anaemic to non-anaemic (red) and those animals considered in danger of succumbing to the effects of haemonchosis are treated. This method was tested in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa. Analyses in goats performed during the summers of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 show a test sensitivity of 76 and 85%, respectively, meaning that the system may be used to identify correctly 76-85% of those animals in need of treatment with an anthelmintic. However, the test specificity remains low at 52-55%. This means that a large proportion of those animals that would not require treatment would in fact be treated. However, when the use of the FAMACHA system is compared with conventional dosing practices where all the animals are treated, using the FAMACHA system would result in a large proportion of the animals being left untreated. The untreated animals are then able to deposit the eggs of anthelmintic-susceptible worms on the pasture, while the treated ones should pass very few ova, given an effective anthelmintic. This maintains a reservoir of susceptible larvae in refugia, and should slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance. The validation of the FAMACHA system for goats for use by resource-poor farmers, which this paper describes, may have wide application in the tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  6. Molecular Inflammation in the Contralateral Eye After Cataract Surgery in the First Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Jia; Wolff, Don; Zhang, Ke-Ke; He, Wen-Wen; Sun, Xing-Huai; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inflammatory status of the aqueous humor in the fellow eye after uneventful cataract surgery in the first eye. At the screening stage, aqueous humor samples from 15 first-eye and 15 second-eye cataract patients were collected just before cataract surgery and assayed using human cytokine antibody array. Screened cytokines were then verified using a suspension array system with aqueous humor samples obtained from 35 first-eye and 36 second-eye cataract patients. The cytokine antibody array revealed that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il-1ra) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a and MIP-1b were expressed at high levels in first-eye patients and were lower in second-eye patients, whereas opposite trends were found for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and for regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) (all, P eye patients than in that of first-eye patients (P = 0.0067, Student's t-test). This study revealed that expression of MCP-1, a pain-related inflammatory chemokine, was significantly increased in aqueous humor in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery. This suggests there may be a sympathetic ophthalmic type uveitis in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery and that may help to explain why second-eye phacoemulsification is often more painful. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01824927.)

  7. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  8. [Mastered with statistics: perfect eye drops and ideal screening test : Possibilities and limits of statistical methods for glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, K E; Lanzl, I M

    2016-10-01

    The use and the understanding of statistics are very important for biomedical research and for the clinical practice. This is particularly true for estimation of the possibilities for different diagnostic and therapy options in the field of glaucoma. The apparent complexity and contraintuitiveness of statistics along with a cautious acceptance by many physicians, might be the cause of conscious and unconscious manipulation with data representation and interpretation. Comprehendable clarification of some typical errors in the handling of medical statistical data. Using two hypothetical examples from glaucoma diagnostics the presentation of the effect of a hypotensive drug and interpretation of the results of a diagnostic test and typical statistical applications and sources of error are analyzed in detail and discussed. Mechanisms of data manipulation and incorrect data interpretation are elucidated. Typical sources of error in the statistical analysis and data presentation are explained. The practical examples analyzed demonstrate the need to understand the basics of statistics and to be able to apply them correctly. The lack of basic knowledge or half-knowledge in medical statistics can lead to misunderstandings, confusion and wrong decisions in medical research and also in clinical practice.

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  10. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  12. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? ...

  18. Irritant and sensitizing potential of eight surfactants commonly used in skin cleansers: an evaluation of 105 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Lauriola, Maria Michela; Bianchi, Anna; Zappaterra, Mario; Virgili, Annarosa

    2010-01-01

    Irritation from surfactants contained in detergents is a frequent adverse reaction to cosmetics. Sensitization to surfactants is also possible. In the literature, comparative studies about irritant and sensitizing potential of different surfactants are heterogeneous and inconclusive about the best molecules to use. We compared the irritant and sensitizing potential of some surfactants that are usual components in marketed synthetic detergents (syndets) to obtain practical information regarding commonly used detergents. We patch-tested eight surfactants of the different types (anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic) in 105 patients. Assessment of allergic reactions of tested surfactants was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group; assessment of irritant power followed the amended Draize classification. None of the eight surfactants in our series gave positive allergic reactions. Only cocamidopropyl betaine from the Italian standard (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica, Professionale e Ambientale [SIDAPA]) series gave five positive reactions among 105 patients. None of the eight studied surfactants induced skin irritation. The most tolerated are two new mild anionics (sodium cocoyl glutamate and sodium lauroyl oat amino acids) and an amphoteric agent (disodium cocoamphodiacetate). From this study, we deduce that cosmetic companies' efforts to search for and market new products with very mild surfactants have been generally successful.

  19. Association of Irritability and Anxiety With the Neural Mechanisms of Implicit Face Emotion Processing in Youths With Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Joel; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kim, Pilyoung; Chen, Gang; Yi, Jennifer; Donahue, Laura; Brotman, Melissa A; Towbin, Kenneth E; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity complicates clinical care and confounds efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology of commonly occurring symptoms in youths. To our knowledge, few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of 2 continuously distributed traits on brain-behavior relationships in children with psychopathology. To determine shared and unique effects of 2 major dimensions of child psychopathology, irritability and anxiety, on neural responses to facial emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a large, well-characterized clinical sample at a research clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health. The referred sample included youths ages 8 to 17 years, 93 youths with anxiety, disruptive mood dysregulation, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and 22 healthy youths. The child's irritability and anxiety were rated by both parent and child on the Affective Reactivity Index and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, neural response was measured across the brain during gender labeling of varying intensities of angry, happy, or fearful face emotions. In mixed-effects analyses, the shared and unique effects of irritability and anxiety were tested on amygdala functional connectivity and activation to face emotions. The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.2 (2.6) years; of the 115 included, 64 were male. Irritability and/or anxiety influenced amygdala connectivity to the prefrontal and temporal cortex. Specifically, irritability and anxiety jointly influenced left amygdala to left medial prefrontal cortex connectivity during face emotion viewing (F4,888 = 9.20; P emotions in several areas (F2, 888 ≥ 13.45; all P emotion dysregulation when very anxious and irritable youth process threat-related faces. Activation in the ventral visual circuitry suggests a mechanism through which signals of social approach

  20. A comparative study to assess the clinical use of Fluorescein Meniscus Time (FMT) with Tear Break up Time (TBUT) and Schirmer's tests (ST) in the diagnosis of dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallarackal, G U; Ansari, E A; Amos, N; Martin, J C; Lane, C; Camilleri, J P

    2002-09-01

    The clinical diagnosis of dry-eye is confirmed by a suitable test of tear production and the technique commonly used today to diagnose dry eye is the Schirmer's test (ST). Although the ST is easy to perform it gives variable results, poor reproducibility and low sensitivity for detecting dry eyes. Another test, the tear break up time (TBUT) is used to assess the stability of tears which if abnormal may also cause symptomatic dry-eye. We present the results of both these tests and a new test, which shows greater sensitivity than the ST in detecting aqueous tear deficiency. The fluorescein meniscus time (FMT) is a new test developed in conjunction with one of the authors (CL) and the Department of Ophthalmology at the University Hospital of Wales. The FMT is a measure of the rate at which a fluorescent tear meniscus is formed using 2% sodium fluorescein, a stopwatch and suitable illumination with a slit lamp. An open controlled study in 62 patients and 51 controls was conducted to compare the ability of ST, FMT and TBUT to detect dry-eye in a group of patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and symptomatic dry eyes for a minimum period of 6 months. A separate control group of 15 subjects was tested on three separate occasions to assess the reproducibility of the FMT test. All three tests showed a statistically significant difference between the patient and control populations; Mann-Whitney P FMT r(2) = 0.98, TBUT r(2) = 0.94). This correlation was markedly reduced for FMT and TBUT in the patient population and was in keeping with the symptoms reported as being worse on one side in a proportion of the patients (FMT r(2) = 0.52, TBUT r(2) = 0.54, ST r(2) = 0.75). A correlation with age was also observed for all the three tests in the control group (ST r(2) = 0.74, FMT r(2)= 0.92, TBUT r(2) = 0.51), but not in the patient population (ST r(2) = 0.06, FMT r(2) = 0.18, TBUT r(2) = 0.03). A significant correlation was observed between the ST and FMT in both the control

  1. Skin irritation and exposure to diisocyanates in orthopedic nurses working with soft casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T H; Gregersen, P; Jemec, G B

    2001-12-01

    Diisocyanates are widely used in industry, for example at hospitals as a constituent of Scotch Cast soft casts (3M, Glostrup, Denmark). They are a cause of occupational asthma and have been described as causing cutaneous problems both as irritants and as sensitizers. The sensitizing potential of diisocyanates has previously only sporadically been described, predominantly in case reports. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate eventual work-related skin sensitization to diisocyanates in a regularly exposed population. The nursing staff of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic, consisting of 10 persons, were interviewed and subjected to patch testing using 5 types of diisocyanates and the TRUE Test (ECDRG Standard Series) to elucidate possible other type IV allergies with similar symptoms. Patch test results were evaluated according to the guidelines of the International Contact Dermatitis Group. We found no relationship between exposure time and severity of symptoms. Symptoms were mild, consisting of redness, itching, or both, lasting about 30 minutes. There was no suggestion that they result in any chronic skin problems. One nurse presented a doubtful reaction towards diaminophenylmethane (MDA) and isophorene diisocyanate (IPDI). Nine persons had no reactions to the 5 diisocyanates used in the patch test. Positive reactions were seen to nickel (4/10), thiomersal (2/10), and perfume mix (1/10). Our observations suggest that diisocyanates are primarily irritants rather than sensitizers in the professional setting studied. The skin symptoms of irritation were all mild and temporary. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  2. The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roest, R H; Dobbs, B R; Chapman, B A; Batman, B; O'Brien, L A; Leeper, J A; Hebblethwaite, C R; Gearry, R B

    2013-09-01

    Current treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is suboptimal. Fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) may trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS patients. Our aim was to determine whether a low FODMAP diet improves symptoms in IBS patients. Irritable bowel syndrome patients, who had performed hydrogen/methane breath testing for fructose and lactose malabsorption and had received dietary advice regarding the low FODMAP diet, were included. The effect of low FODMAP diet was prospectively evaluated using a symptom questionnaire. Furthermore, questions about adherence and satisfaction with symptom improvement, dietary advice and diet were assessed. Ninety patients with a mean follow up of 15.7 months were studied. Most symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea significantly improved (p 0.27, p FODMAP diet shows efficacy for IBS patients. The current strategy of breath testing and dietary advice provides a good basis to understand and adhere to the diet. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnostic approaches in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Burbige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eugene J BurbigeDivision of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Research, John Muir Medical Center, Concord, CA, USABackground: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional gastrointestinal disorder long considered a diagnosis of exclusion, has chronic symptoms that vary over time and overlap with those of non-IBS disorders. Traditional symptom-based criteria effectively identify IBS patients but are not easily applied in clinical practice, leaving >40% of patients to experience symptoms up to 5 years before diagnosis.Objective: To review the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected IBS, strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and newer diagnostic tools that can augment current symptom-based criteria.Methods: The peer-reviewed literature (PubMed was searched for primary reports and reviews using the limiters of date (1999–2009 and English language and the search terms irritable bowel syndrome, diagnosis, gastrointestinal disease, symptom-based criteria, outcome, serology, and fecal markers. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week 2008–2009 and reference lists of identified articles were reviewed.Results: A disconnect is apparent between practice guidelines and clinical practice. The American Gastroenterological Association and American College of Gastroenterology recommend diagnosing IBS in patients without alarm features of organic disease using symptom-based criteria (eg, Rome. However, physicians report confidence in a symptom-based diagnosis without further testing only up to 42% of the time; many order laboratory tests and perform sigmoidoscopies or colonoscopies despite good evidence showing no utility for this work-up in uncomplicated cases. In the absence of diagnostic criteria easily usable in a busy practice, newer diagnostic methods, such as stool-form examination, fecal inflammatory markers, and serum biomarkers, have been proposed as adjunctive tools to aid in an IBS diagnosis by increasing physicians

  4. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made ... of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of ...

  5. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  6. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  7. Dilating Eye Drops

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    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  8. About the Eye

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    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ... When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, ...

  10. LASIK eye surgery

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    ... to correct a very nearsighted eye may prevent amblyopia (lazy eye). Your eyes must be healthy and ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  12. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  13. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film. How do ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  17. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  18. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...... was excluded by patch testing. An attempt to reproduce the follicular reaction in man, rabbit and guinea pig was unsuccessful....

  19. A Comparative Study of the Water Drinking Test in Eyes With Open-Angle Glaucoma and Prior Trabeculectomy or Tube Shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Patricia; Trubnik, Valerie; Leiby, Benjamin E; Hegarty, Sarah E; Razeghinejad, Reza; Savant, Shravan; Myers, Jonathan S

    2017-02-01

    To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) response after the water drinking test (WDT) in patients who have undergone trabeculectomy or tube shunt surgery. This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 34 open-angle glaucoma subjects who had undergone trabeculectomy (n=20) or tube shunt surgery (n=20). Both groups were matched by IOP range and by number of topical antiglaucoma medications used. After a baseline IOP assessment, subjects drank 10 mL water per kg body weight over 15 minutes. IOP was then measured with a Goldman tonometer every 15 minutes over a 1-hour period. Outcomes measures were IOP peak, fluctuation, mean, and range. No significant differences in baseline demographics, baseline clinical characteristics or IOP changes during the WDT were observed between the 2 surgical procedure groups. Mean baseline IOPs for the tube shunt and trabeculectomy groups were 12.55±4.23 and 12.3±4.28 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.854). In the trabeculectomy and tube shunt groups, respectively, peak IOP was 16.25±5.55 and 16.15±5.36 mm Hg (P=0.954); IOP fluctuation (IOP max-IOP baseline) was 3.95±2.17 and 3.6±2.23 mm Hg (P=0.618), and IOP range was 2.78±1.56 and 2.8±1.47 mm Hg (P=0.959). Statistical analysis of IOP fluctuation associations using multivariable linear regression determined that the use of systemic antihypertensive blood pressure medication was associated with an increase in IOP fluctuation of approximately 2 mm Hg. Subjects who had undergone either trabeculectomy or tube shunt surgery showed a similar IOP response to the WDT. Subjects on systemic antihypertensive medications experienced significantly greater IOP fluctuations during the test.

  20. Heartfelt Empathy? No Association between Interoceptive Awareness, Questionnaire Measures of Empathy, Reading the Mind in the Eyes test or the Director Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien eAinley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self’. However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking. A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured interoceptive awareness in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognising emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between interoceptive awareness and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive perspective-taking ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to interoceptive awareness in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between interoceptive awareness and various

  1. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  2. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis ...

  3. The neural substrates of cognitive flexibility are related to individual differences in preschool irritability: A fNIRS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Grabell, Adam S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Huppert, Theodore J; Perlman, Susan B

    2017-06-01

    Preschool (age 3-5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation. However, at present it is unclear if they share common neural substrates in early childhood. Our main goal was to examine the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in preschool children and test for associations with irritability. Forty-six preschool aged children completed a novel, child-appropriate, Stroop task while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation was recorded using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Parents rated their child's irritability. Results indicated that left DLPFC activation was associated with cognitive flexibility and positively correlated with irritability. Right DLPFC activation was also positively correlated with irritability. Results suggest the entwined nature of cognitive and emotional neurodevelopment during a developmental period of rapid and mutual acceleration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The neural substrates of cognitive flexibility are related to individual differences in preschool irritability: A fNIRS investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preschool (age 3–5 is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation. However, at present it is unclear if they share common neural substrates in early childhood. Our main goal was to examine the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in preschool children and test for associations with irritability. Forty-six preschool aged children completed a novel, child-appropriate, Stroop task while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation was recorded using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS. Parents rated their child’s irritability. Results indicated that left DLPFC activation was associated with cognitive flexibility and positively correlated with irritability. Right DLPFC activation was also positively correlated with irritability. Results suggest the entwined nature of cognitive and emotional neurodevelopment during a developmental period of rapid and mutual acceleration.

  5. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Marc E

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia. This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of

  6. Test of ring, eye lens and whole body dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) to be used in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, A.; Budzanowski, M.; Kopeć, R.

    2017-11-01

    In its statement on tissue reactions approved on 21st April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2012) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens and reduced the dose limits for occupationally exposed persons to 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This limit was approved and written down in the new EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) directive 2013/59 and in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) BSS (Basic Safety Standard) of July 2014. For that reason, the necessity to monitor the eye lens may become more important than it was before. However, specially dedicated dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) are using very rarely. Commonly use are only whole body personal dosemeters for the personal dose equivalent quantities Hp(10) worn on the trunk and ring dosemeters worn on finger to measure the quantity Hp(0.07). Therefore, in this work it was investigated whether dosemeters from routine use calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) and worn on thyroid collar and protective apron could deliver similar results like dedicated eye lens dosemeter worn close to the eyes. The results show that the best method if dedicated eye lens dosimeters is not used is to measure doses in terms of Hp(0.07) on the thyroid collar (Pearson product, r=0.85). Obtained results shows also importance of proper localization of eye lens dosimeter (close to the eye, from side of the X-ray source).

  7. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  8. Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166391.html Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says Researchers warn ... 8, 2017 THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change may increase people's exposure to an outdoor fungus ...

  9. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, dietary intake, fibre, fructose. Food avoidance in .... energy intake for protein, fat and carbohydrates was compared to ..... groups. A potential relationship exists between overweight/obesity.

  10. Sensory dysfunction and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L A

    1999-10-01

    Dysfunction of the sensory system of the gut is now generally believed to be important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This disturbance may well account for some of the symptoms of the disorder, such as abdominal pain, by virtue of the fact that intra-lumenal events (e.g. contractions) may be 'sensed' more easily. It can be assessed in the laboratory by a variety of techniques, but usually involves measuring the patient's response to distension of any site of the gut, most commonly the rectum. Hypersensitivity is the most frequent finding, but hyposensitivity can also occur--hypersensitivity does not appear to be specific to any particular pattern of bowel habit, but hyposensitivity does tend to be generally only seen in patients with constipation, especially those with the 'no urge' type. Although there is some evidence to support hypersensitivity being related to enhanced vigilance in some patients, other data suggest that there may be a true alteration in sensory processing. The mechanisms underlying this sensory dysfunction remain to be elucidated, but could involve changes in either the enteric, spinal and/or central nervous systems. Finally, factors such as gender, stress, emotion and infection can all influence the sensitivity of the gut and may therefore play a role in IBS.

  11. Diagnosis and therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Stanghellini, V; Cremon, C; Salvioli, B; De Ponti, F; Corinaldesi, R

    2004-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gut functional diseases, affecting 10-20% of people worldwide. Although most patients do not seek medical help, the disease accounts for huge costs for both patients and health-care systems and worsens significantly patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based on the identification of symptoms according to Manning, Rome I and Rome II criteria and exclusion of alarm indicators. IBS symptoms overlap with those of coeliac disease, lactose intolerance, food allergies and bile salt malabsorption. The treatment of IBS is centred on an excellent doctor-patient relationship along with drugs targeting the predominant symptom, especially during exacerbations. Current pharmacological remedies are unsatisfactory due to the high number of patients complaining of lack of response and/or symptom recurrence. Although useful in some IBS patients, the validity of psychotherapy deserves further investigation. A wide array of potentially useful drugs are currently under consideration in pre-clinical trials. A better understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying IBS may help to develop more effective drugs for this disease.

  12. Probiotics use to treat irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Asieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorder with significant disability and a considerable financial burden to health service due to the consumption of resources including investigations, physician time, and cost of treatment. Despite availability of multiple treatment options, there is still poor functional recovery. Probiotics has been investigated as a promising treatment for IBS, and have demonstrated beneficial effects in some patients. There are many clinical trials investigating the therapeutic benefits of probiotics in IBS but most of them are heterogenic in terms of dose or species used and clinical endpoints. However, recent major meta-analyses revealed benefits of probiotics in patients with IBS. Inhibition of binding of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells, enhancing barrier function of intestinal epithelial, acidification of the colon, suppression of the growth of pathogens, modulation of immunity, inhibition of visceral hypersensitivity, alteration in mucosal response to stress, and improvement of bowel dysmotility are among mechanisms that probiotics may act. Most commonly used probiotics come from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus but other species are in trial. Although further studies are still needed, current evidences are almost enough to convince experts that probiotics are efficient in the treatment of IBS.

  13. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Biopsychosocial Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is in the class of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and results from dysregulation of central and enteric nervous system interactions. Psychosocial factors are closely related to their gut physiology, associated cognitions, symptom manifestations and illness behavior. Therefore, it is important for the physician to recognize the psychosocial issues of patients with IBS and in addition to build a good patient-physician relationship in order to optimize treatment. This review focuses on the interaction between psychological and physiological factors associated with IBS by using a biopsychosocial model. In this article, we describe (1) the predisposing psychological features seen in early life; (2) the psychological factors associated with life stress, the symptom presentation, and their associated coping patterns; (3) gut pathophysiology with emphasis on disturbances in motility, visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interactions; and finally (4) the clinical outcomes and effective treatments including psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:21602989

  15. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  16. Synesthesia, pseudo-synesthesia, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Synesthesia is a sensory disorder where the stimulation of one sensory modality can lead to a reaction in another which would not usually be expected to respond; for instance, someone might see a color on hearing a word such as a day of the week. Disordered perception of sensory information also appears to contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this exploratory study was to ascertain whether these two conditions might be linked in any way. Two hundred consecutive IBS outpatients were screened for synesthesia and compared with 200 matched healthy volunteers (controls). Positive responders were tested for two types of synesthesia (grapheme-color and music-color/shape) using a questionnaire which was repeated after 3 months to test for reproducibility. Of the 200 IBS outpatients screened, 26 (13%) patients and six (3%) controls claimed to be synesthetic (P synesthesia. IBS patients clearly differ from controls in terms of claiming to have synesthetic experiences. These results justify additional studies on the relationship between IBS and synesthesia to further understand the neural mechanisms underpinning these two conditions and to establish whether they may be linked.

  17. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Ortega, Marta Moreno; Alonso, Monica Olga Garcia; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. METHODS: We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. RESULTS: No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 ± 10.8 vs 102.8 ± 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 ± 9.4 vs 49.6 ± 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. CONCLUSION: IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS. PMID:19575489

  18. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to char...

  19. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). There was significant lower RMSJ in the affected side at higher velocities (P < 0.05). There was significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score (P < 0.05). There was also significant negative correlation between average RMSE and average ROM (P < 0.05), and moderate nonsignificant negative correlation with RMSJ, and CI. The characterization of velocity-dependent deficiencies, monitoring of training-induced improvement, and the correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  20. Diagnosis of response and non-response to dry eye treatment using infrared thermography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Vidya, S.; Yeo, Sharon; Too, Cheah Loon; Lim, Wei Jie Eugene; Chua, Kuang Chua; Tong, Louis

    2014-11-01

    The dry eye treatment outcome depends on the assessment of clinical relevance of the treatment effect. The potential approach to assess the clinical relevance of the treatment is to identify the symptoms responders and non-responders to the given treatments using the responder analysis. In our work, we have performed the responder analysis to assess the clinical relevance effect of the dry eye treatments namely, hot towel, EyeGiene®, and Blephasteam® twice daily and 12 min session of Lipiflow®. Thermography is performed at week 0 (baseline), at weeks 4 and 12 after treatment. The clinical parameters such as, change in the clinical irritations scores, tear break up time (TBUT), corneal staining and Schirmer's symptoms tests values are used to obtain the responders and non-responders groups. We have obtained the infrared thermography images of dry eye symptoms responders and non-responders to the three types of warming treatments. The energy, kurtosis, skewness, mean, standard deviation, and various entropies namely Shannon, Renyi and Kapoor are extracted from responders and non-responders thermograms. The extracted features are ranked based on t-values. These ranked features are fed to the various classifiers to get the highest performance using minimum features. We have used decision tree (DT), K nearest neighbour (KNN), Naves Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) to classify the features into responder and non-responder classes. We have obtained an average accuracy of 99.88%, sensitivity of 99.7% and specificity of 100% using KNN classifier using ten-fold cross validation.

  1. Microscopic colitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth--diagnosis behind the irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Andrei, M; Becheanu, G; Stoicescu, M; Nicolaie, T; Diculescu, M

    2012-01-01

    Some patients previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop microscopic colitis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To estimate the prevalence of microscopic colitis and SIBO in patients with IBS, to evaluate the symptoms and the efficacy of treatment. We examined patients with IBS admitted in our clinic during a three-year period. We identified patients with microscopic colitis by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal intestinal mucosa and those with SIBO by performing a H2-breath test with glucose. We compared the symptoms and the effectiveness of the treatment. Out of the 132 patients initially diagnosed with IBS 3% (n=4) had microscopic colitis and 43.9% (n=58) had SIBO. Diarrhea was the main symptom in patients with microscopic colitis and SIBO (p=0.041), while abdominal pain, abdominal bloating and flatulence were prominent in IBS patients (p=0.042; p=0.039; p=0.048). Specific treatment with rifaximin in SIBO patients negativated H2-breath test in 70.9% cases. Patients suspected to have irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis and SIBO. The proper diagnosis and the specific treatment may cure some difficult cases of the so called "irritable bowel syndrome".

  2. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  3. A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively weak allergen, although it may rarely cause immunological contact urticaria and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. Octenidine is considered a safe and efficient antiseptic when used for superficial skin infections, however, aseptic tissue necrosis and chronic inflammation have been reported following irrigation of penetrating hand wounds. Polihexanide is an uncommon contact allergen as regards irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis but cases of anaphylaxis have been reported. Considering the data available comparing the irritant and allergenic properties of major antiseptics currently in use, it should be acknowledged that all antiseptics may induce cutaneous side-effects. The present article reviews the most recent safety data that can guide consumers' choice.

  4. Release of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in skin organ cultures as characteristics of in vitro skin irritancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Maas, W.J.M.; Doornink, P.C.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro techniques make a major contribution to the development of alternatives to the in vivo 'Draize' skin irritation test, and the development of sensitive and generally applicable in vitro endpoints of cutaneous toxicity is an area of intensive research. To investigate in vitro characteristics

  5. An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. J. L.; Lehé, C.; Cammans, K. D. A.; Das, P. K.; Elliott, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of human organotypic skin explant cultures (hOSECs) for screening skin irritants. Test chemicals were applied to the epidermis of the skin explants which were incubated for 4, 24 or 48 h in tissue culture medium. A decrease in epidermal RNA staining, visualised in frozen

  6. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both far and near objects. Iris is ... front of your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera ( ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  9. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very high risk. This includes boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.There are several types of common eye injuries in sports.Blunt trauma injuries. These occur when something or someone hits you in or around your eye. A black eye is bruising of your eye, eyelid, or ...

  10. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized

  11. Comparison of ocular-surface disease index questionnaire, tearfilm break-up time, and Schirmer tests for the evaluation of the tearfilm in computer users with and without dry-eye symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Cihan; Güney, Esra; Akçay, Betül İlkay Sezgin; Akçalı, Gülünay; Erdoğan, Gürkan; Bayramlar, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of the Schirmer's and tearfilm breakup time (TBUT) tests and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) in dry-eye syndrome. Thirty-five employees of Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital who used computers in their daily work participated in this prospective study. All participants completed the OSDI. Following routine ophthalmologic examination, the TBUT and Schirmer's test were undertaken and outcomes were compared. The mean age was 29.09 ± 6.73 (range 20-46) years. Mean OSDI questionnaire, TBUT, and Schirmer's test scores were detected as 37.12 ± 19.05 (range 4-75), 11.37 ± 3.69 seconds (range 4-18 seconds), and 25.80 ± 8.43 mm (range 6-35 mm), respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between the OSDI and TBUT scores (r = -0.385, P = 0.022). No significant correlation existed between the OSDI and Schirmer's test scores. Dry eye is a common problem among computer users. The OSDI questionnaire, used together with the TBUT, is easily performed and may be of benefit in supporting the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome.

  12. Association and symptom characteristics of irritable bowel syndrome among bronchial asthma patients in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panicker Radhakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Excess prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in asthma has been reported, suggesting a link between these two conditions. Aims: To investigate the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and asthma, and explore the symptoms of IBS among asthma patients in Kuwait. Settings and Design: Case control study. Methods: In a tertiary center, for allergy and asthma, 138 patients aged 20-65 years, with asthma, diagnosed clinically and by spirometry,were compared with 145 healthy, non-asthmatic controls matched for age, gender and nationality. Cases and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire of irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis (ROME II criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and proportions were tested with Chi-square or Fisher′s test. Odds ratio (OR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI were calculated to identify the associated risk factors. The demographic variables were selected for logistic regression analysis. Results : A significantly large proportion (39.13% of asthmatics had IBS as compared to 7.93% controls (P < 0.001. A higher proportion of females with IBS were observed in cases and controls (74%, 61.54%. IBS was seen in 87% cases using inhalers, and in 13% with additional oral theophylline (P < 0.001. As many as 66.6% cases, had IBS with relatively short duration of asthma (1-5 years, P < 000. Predominant symptoms of IBS in asthmatics were abdominal discomfort or distension (64.8% vs. 11.5%, (P < 0.000, OR = 14.1; 95%CI: 3.748-53.209, bloated feeling of abdomen (74.1% vs. 34.62% (P < 0.001, OR = 5.38; 95%CI:1.96-14.84, increased frequency of stools (63%, P < 0.006. Conclusions: Irritable bowel syndrome in asthmatics was significantly high, more in the female asthmatics. Abdominal discomfort, persistent bloated feeling, increased frequency of passing stools were the most common IBS symptoms observed.

  13. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... to Safer Champagne Celebrations Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Reconociendo las Lesiones de los ...

  14. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  15. Noncontact detection of dry eye using a custom designed IR thermal image system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tai Yuan; Chen, Kerh Hwa; Liu, Po Hsuan; Wu, Ming Hong; Chang, David O.; Chiang, Huihua

    2011-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common irritating eye disease. Current clinical diagnostic methods are invasive and uncomfortable to patients. A custom designed noncontact infrared (IR) thermal image system was developed to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the ocular surface temperature over a 6-second eye-opening period. We defined two parameters: the temperature difference value and the compactness value to represent the degree of the temperature change and irregularity of the temperature distribution on the tear film. By using these two parameters, in this study, a linear discrimination result for the dry eye and the normal eye groups; the sensitivity is 0.9, the specificity is 0.86 and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area is 0.91. The result suggests that the custom designed IR thermal image system may be used as an effective tool for noncontact detection of dry eye.

  16. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey de Castro, Nicolas G; Miller, Vivien; Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally divided into subtypes depending on the bowel habit abnormality, but there is little clarity in the literature about whether these subtypes differ symptomatically or psychologically. Furthermore, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between symptom severity and psychological status. The aim of this study was to address these issues in a large cohort of patients defined by bowel habit. One thousand IBS patients were divided into diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), and mixed (IBS-M) bowel habit subtypes and completed a series of validated questionnaires capturing symptom severity, non-colonic symptomatology (somatization), quality of life, and anxiety or depression levels. Comparisons were made using SPSS version 20. There were no significant differences between the three subtypes with respect to symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity, non-colonic symptomatology, quality of life, and anxiety or depression scores (all Ps > 0.05). In addition, there was only a small but statistically significant correlation between IBS symptom severity and both anxiety or depression, as well as quality of life (highest r = 0.34), while the relationship between somatization and disease severity was moderate (r = 0.42). This study suggests that there are no differences in the symptom profiles and anxiety or depression scores between different subtypes of IBS. In addition, anxiety and depression do not appear to be strongly associated with symptom severity, although this does not exclude the possible interplay between these and other psychological drivers of severity, such as poor coping skills. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Gender differences in irritable bowel syndrome: the interpersonal connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, E R; Gurtman, M B; Keefer, L; Brenner, D M; Lackner, J M

    2015-10-01

    While irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects women more than men, the reasons are unclear. Research on the female preponderance of IBS has focused on gender differences in sex-linked biological processes; much less attention has been paid to the role of psychosocial factors. Interpersonal difficulties may be one source of stress that may significantly impact on women with IBS. Because of the importance that women attach to relationships, we suspected they would be more reactive to interpersonal stress. A total of 283 (M age = 41 years, F = 80%), Rome III-diagnosed IBS patients completed a test battery that included the IBS Symptom Severity Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), interpersonal support evaluation list (social support), Negative Interactions Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory (distress), Beck Depression Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory, and IBS-Quality of Life as part of baseline assessment of an NIH trial. Males scored higher on two IIP scales reflecting a hostile-dominant interpersonal pattern, and reported less social support. The quality of relationship problems (more interpersonal difficulties, lower support) correlated with IBS symptom severity as measured mainly by gastroenterologists. Male, not female, IBS patients reported more interpersonal difficulties. Male patients-a population for whom little is known-are characterized by hostile-dominant interpersonal problems. This finding has clinical importance, given that relationship problems may influence MDs' estimation of IBS symptom severity and undermine the physician-patient relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  20. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic patch test concentration for Kathon CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, H I

    1985-10-01

    Patch test studies, 21-day cumulative irritancy assays and Draize repeat insult patch tests with Kathon CG, were used to ascertain an appropriate diagnostic patch test concentration. A dilution of 100 ppm a.i. (aq. or pet.) appears to have low irritancy potential. Further observations are required to verify if this concentration is high enough to detect most cases of sensitization.

  2. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer. The t...

  3. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  4. Biomechanical Differences Between Femtosecond Lenticule Extraction (FLEx) and Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SmILE) Tested by 2D-Extensometry in Ex Vivo Porcine Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiru, Bogdan; Kling, Sabine; Hafezi, Farhad; Sekundo, Walter

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical stability of ex vivo porcine corneas after femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small incision lenticule extraction (SmILE) refractive surgeries. Forty-five porcine eyes were equally divided into three groups: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with FLEx and SmILE procedure, respectively. Group 3 served as control. A refractive correction of -14 diopters (D) with a 7-mm zone using either a 160-μm flap (FLEx) or a 160-μm cap (SmILE) was performed. For two-dimensional (2D) elastic and viscoelastic biomechanical characterization, two testing cycles (preconditioning stress-strain curve from 1.27 to 12.5 N, stress-relaxation at 12.5 N during 120 seconds) were conducted. Young's modulus and Prony constants were calculated. At 0.8% of strain, FLEx (370 ± 36 kPa) could resist a significantly lower stress than SmILE (392 ± 19 kPa, P = 0.046) and the control group (402 ± 30 kPa, P = 0.013). Also, FLEx (46.1 ± 4.5 MPa) had a significantly lower Young's modulus than the control group (50.2 ± 3.4 MPa, P = 0.008). The Young's modulus of SmILE (48.6 ± 2.5 MPa) had values situated between untreated corneas and FLEx-treated corneas. When compared to untreated controls, the stress resistance decreased by 8.0% with FLEx and 2.5% with SmILE; Young's modulus decreased by 5.1% with FLEx and 1.04% with SmILE. With a cap-based procedure, both anterior cap and stromal bed carry the intraocular pressure, while in a flap-based procedure, only the stromal bed does. Compared to flap-based procedures like FLEx, the cap-based technique SmILE can be considered superior in terms of biomechanical stability, when measured experimentally in ex vivo porcine corneas.

  5. Structural neural substrates of reading the mind in the eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read the minds of others in their eyes plays an important role in human adaptation to social environments. Behavioral studies have resulted in the development of a test to measure this ability (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version; Eyes Test, and have demonstrated that this ability is consistent over time. Although functional neuroimaging studies revealed brain activation while performing the Eyes Test, the structural neural substrates supporting consistent performance on the Eyes Test remain unclear. In this study we assessed the Eyes Test and analyzed structural magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry in healthy participants. Test performance was positively associated with the gray matter volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule (temporoparietal junction, and precuneus in the left hemisphere. These results suggest that the fronto-temporoparietal network structures support the consistent ability to read the mind in the eyes.

  6. Eye position stability in amblyopia and in normal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Esther G; Wong, Agnes M F; Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; Steinbach, Martin J

    2012-08-09

    We investigated whether the sensory impairments of amblyopia are associated with a decrease in eye position stability (PS). The positions of both eyes were recorded simultaneously in three viewing conditions: binocular, monocular fellow eye viewing (right eye for controls), and monocular amblyopic eye viewing (left eye for controls). For monocular conditions, movements of the covered eye were also recorded (open-loop testing). Bivariate contour ellipses (BCEAs), representing the region over which eye positions were found 68.2% of the time, were calculated and normalized by log transformation. For controls, there were no differences between eyes. Binocular PS (log(10)BCEA = -0.88) was better than monocular PS (log(10)BCEA = -0.59) indicating binocular summation, and the PS of the viewing eye was better than that of the covered eye (log(10)BCEA = -0.33). For patients, the amblyopic eye exhibited a significant decrease in PS during amblyopic eye (log(10)BCEA = -0.20), fellow eye (log(10)BCEA = 0.0004), and binocular (log(10)BCEA = -0.44) viewing. The PS of the fellow eye depended on viewing condition: it was comparable to controls during binocular (log(10)BCEA = -0.77) and fellow eye viewing (log(10)BCEA = -0.52), but it decreased during amblyopic eye viewing (log(10)BCEA = 0.08). Patients exhibited binocular summation during fellow eye viewing, but not during amblyopic eye viewing. Decrease in PS in patients was mainly due to slow eye drifts. Deficits in spatiotemporal vision in amblyopia are associated with poor PS. PS of amblyopic and fellow eyes is differentially affected depending on viewing condition.

  7. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruijl, Tanja D. de [Department of Dermatology Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: s.gibbs@acta.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  8. Review article: intestinal serotonin signalling in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawe, G M; Coates, M D; Moses, P L

    2006-04-15

    Alterations in motility, secretion and visceral sensation are hallmarks of irritable bowel syndrome. As all of these aspects of gastrointestinal function involve serotonin signalling between enterochromaffin cells and sensory nerve fibres in the mucosal layer of the gut, potential alterations in mucosal serotonin signalling have been explored as a possible mechanism of altered function and sensation in irritable bowel syndrome. Literature related to intestinal serotonin signalling in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been searched and summarized. Elements of serotonin signalling that are altered in irritable bowel syndrome include: enterochromaffin cell numbers, serotonin content, tryptophan hydroxylase message levels, 5-hydroxyindoleacedic acid levels, serum serotonin levels and expression of the serotonin-selective reuptake transporter. Both genetic and epigenetic factors could contribute to decreased serotonin-selective reuptake transporter in irritable bowel syndrome. A serotonin-selective reuptake transporter gene promoter polymorphism may cause a genetic predisposition, and inflammatory mediators can induce serotonin-selective reuptake transporter downregulation. While a psychiatric co-morbidity exists with IBS, changes in mucosal serotonin handling support the concept that there is a gastrointestinal component to the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Additional studies will be required to gain a more complete understanding of changes in serotonin signalling that are occurring, their cause and effect relationship, and which of these changes have pathophysiological consequences.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  10. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  11. Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.

    2015-01-01

    Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts. PMID:24142126

  12. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 ... link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye ...

  15. Eye muscle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child may go home. You should have a follow-up visit with the eye surgeon 1 to 2 weeks after the surgery. To prevent infection, you will probably need to put drops or ointment in your child's eyes.

  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low ... iris adjusts the size of the pupil and controls the amount of light that can enter the ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ... When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines ...

  18. Eye Drop Tips

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    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  19. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many ... make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  2. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye (scratching your cornea, for example) with a mascara wand or other applicator. Even a slight scratch ... containers of eye cosmetics. Manufacturers usually recommend discarding mascara two to four months after purchase. Discard dried- ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  6. Cultivating the Third Eye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holden, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Zoologist Om Prakash Jangir and his colleagues found that if the removed tadpoles' eyes and raised the animals in a medium enriched with vitamin A, a new eye developed within ten days over the site of the pineal gland...

  7. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  9. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include: Mild swelling Saggy or loose skin Dark circles When to see a doctor You may not ... Rochester, Minn., July 22, 2014. Related Chemical peel Dark circles under eyes Bags under eyes Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & ...

  10. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  11. An approach for the delineation of a generic cut-off value for local respiratory tract irritation by irritating or corrosive substances as a pragmatic tool to fulfill REACH requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H

    2014-04-01

    Under the current European legislation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals (REACHs) a Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) has to be delineated for acute and chronic inhalation effects. The majority of available experimental studies are performed by the oral route of exposure. Route to route extrapolation poses particular problems for irritating or corrosive substances but the necessity for additional animal studies with inhalation exposure needs to be balanced with the regulatory information requirements. Existing occupational exposure limits (OEL) as surrogate for cut-off limits representing safe exposure under working conditions were grouped under certain criteria for substances that are legally classified in Europe as irritating or corrosive. As a result, it was shown that the OEL for irritating substances in this dataset is not lower than 10mg/m(3) and for corrosives not lower than 1mg/m(3). Under certain conditions these generic limits could be applied as a pragmatic, but still sufficiently reliable and protective upper cut-off limit approach to avoid additional animal tests with irritating or corrosive chemicals. The respective systemic toxicity profiles and physical-chemical properties need to be considered. Specific exclusion criteria for the discussed concept apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eyes Wide Open

    OpenAIRE

    Zoi Manesi; Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory...

  13. Tutorial on Biostatistics: Statistical Analysis for Correlated Binary Eye Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen G; Glynn, Robert; Rosner, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    To describe and demonstrate methods for analyzing correlated binary eye data. We describe non-model based (McNemar's test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test) and model-based methods (generalized linear mixed effects model, marginal model) for analyses involving both eyes. These methods were applied to: (1) CAPT (Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial) where one eye was treated and the other observed (paired design); (2) ETROP (Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity) where bilaterally affected infants had one eye treated conventionally and the other treated early and unilaterally affected infants had treatment assigned randomly; and (3) AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) where treatment was systemic and outcome was eye-specific (both eyes in the same treatment group). In the CAPT (n = 80), treatment group (30% vision loss in treated vs. 44% in observed eyes) was not statistically significant (p = 0.07) when inter-eye correlation was ignored, but was significant (p = 0.01) with McNemar's test and the marginal model. Using standard logistic regression for unfavorable vision in ETROP, standard errors and p-values were larger for person-level covariates and were smaller for ocular covariates than using models accounting for inter-eye correlation. For risk factors of geographic atrophy in AREDS, two-eye analyses accounting for inter-eye correlation yielded more power than one-eye analyses and provided larger standard errors and p-values than invalid two-eye analyses ignoring inter-eye correlation. Ignoring inter-eye correlation can lead to larger p-values for paired designs and smaller p-values when both eyes are in the same group. Marginal models or mixed effects models using the eye as the unit of analysis provide valid inference.

  14. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and differential diagnosis of the red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granet, David

    2008-01-01

    Red eye is a common presentation in clinical practice with conjunctivitis being the most common cause of red eye. Most commonly, conjunctivitis is infective (bacterial and viral) or allergic in origin although other forms of conjunctivitis including toxic and irritative conjunctivitis and conjunctivitis related to systemic conditions or dry eye are prevalent enough to warrant consideration in diagnosis. This article aims to provide a guide for generalists and allergists in the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis allowing the inclusion of eye treatment into their current practice. With a discussion of important aspects to include in the patient history as well as a systematic guide to examination of the eye for generalists and allergists, this article provides a "plan of action" in the examination protocol for red eye patients. A differential diagnosis table and flowchart are provided as a useful chair-side reference for practitioners. With a particular focus on the more prevalent types of conjunctivitis, typical features, signs, and symptoms of each type are detailed. A general discussion of prognosis and treatment options and conditions that require ophthalmologic referral is included.

  15. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  17. Common eye emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... Common eye emergencies may present as an acute red eye, sudden visual loss or acute ocular trauma. Most eye emergencies will require referral to an ophthalmologist after initial basic examination and primary management. A relevant history of onset and symptoms of the current problem must be ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News ... For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2017 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery ... Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  19. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  20. [Incidence of irritant dermatosis among employees of the shipbuilding industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H; Kühne, G; Kröger, D

    1983-10-01

    Irritant dermatosis is a non-specific reactive change on the skin. In most cases it represents the summated effects induced by various agents. Not only the shortened recovery phases of the skin but also a dispositional factor are important. Such changes, which are relatively common in some vocations but are usually only slight, cannot, as a rule, be regarded as signs of illness. Nevertheless, attention should be drawn to the necessity of intensive skin care and observation of the recovery phases because the frequency of irritant dermatosis can increase with increasing length of employment.

  1. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D) Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chunqiu; Lu, Meiling; Pan, Qiuhui; Fichna, Jakub; Zheng, Lijun; Wang, Kesheng; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Li, Kun; Song, Aihong; Liu, Zhongchen; Song, Zhenshun; Kreis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ...) tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests. The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) symptoms...

  2. The central role of gastrointestinal-specific anxiety in irritable bowel syndrome: further validation of the visceral sensitivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Jennifer S; Mayer, Emeran A; Chang, Lin; Bolus, Roger; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2007-01-01

    The Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI) was developed as the first instrument to assess gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, the cognitive, affective, and behavioral response to fear of gastrointestinal sensations, symptoms, and the context in which these visceral sensations and symptoms occur. The purpose of the current study was to a) replicate the previously reported psychometric properties of the VSI, b) assess the known-groups and concurrent validity of the instrument, and c) test conceptual hypotheses regarding gastrointestinal-specific anxiety in comparison to other general measures of psychological distress as a crucial mechanism (mediator/moderator) underlying irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and its symptoms. Two undergraduate student samples (n > 500) were administered the VSI along with measures assessing presence of lower gastrointestinal symptoms, nongastrointestinal pain, health-service utilization, anxiety, depression, vitality, neuroticism, and anxiety sensitivity. Path analyses tested the hypothesis that gastrointestinal-specific anxiety mediates the relationship between affective variables and irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and symptoms. A 'known-groups' validity approach elucidated the relevance of gastrointestinal-specific anxiety across a spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Good concurrent, divergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated. Logistic regression revealed that gastrointestinal-specific anxiety is the key explanatory variable of irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic status. Path analysis demonstrated that gastrointestinal-specific anxiety mediates the relationship between general psychological distress measures and gastrointestinal symptom severity. The VSI was related to gastrointestinal, but not nongastrointestinal, symptom severity. Overall, the VSI demonstrated excellent psychometric properties providing further support for its use in mechanistic studies of the role of anxiety in irritable bowel syndrome

  3. Clinical assessment of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Luo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the application of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: From January 2011 to February 2012, 38 eyes of 37 patients, who underwent toric intraocular lens implantation in this hospital, were randomly divided into diclofenac sodium eye drops group(trial groupand control group. Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery and inflammation postoperation after 1 day, 3,7, days, 1 month and 3 months were evaluated. RESULTS: Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery in the trial group(1.53±0.62was significantly better than in the control group(2.40±0.88, P<0.05. Inflammation reaction was gentle in the trial group 1 day postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium eye drops used during toric intraocular lens implantation can obviously alleviate eye irritation, and increase the cooperation of patients.

  4. Eye Care: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute) Sports and Your Eyes (National Eye Institute) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Eye Care updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Eye Diseases Eye Infections Eye Injuries Eye Wear ...

  5. Concerns of anophthalmic patients wearing artificial eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    To identify the concerns of experienced artificial eye wearers and investigate whether these had changed since they lost their eye. A retrospective study of private practice patients. Sixty-three experienced artificial eye wearers. An anonymous questionnaire was posted to participants. Paired Wilcoxon tests were used to investigate changes to concern levels over time. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate associations of demographic variables with concern levels. Changes in level of concern over time. At the time of initial eye loss, participants were mainly concerned about the health of their remaining eye, coping with monocularity and receiving good advice. Between initial eye loss and the present, reductions in concern occurred with judging distance, peripheral vision, appearance, receiving good advice, comfort, retention, colour and movement of the artificial eye, fullness of orbit, loss of balance and postoperative pain. Patients whose jobs involved the public were more concerned about appearance and reduced visual range than those in other occupations. Participants' chief present-day concerns were health of the remaining eye and watering, crusting and discharge. All results above had a probability vision and appearance all decrease over time may help clinicians in counselling these patients. Watering, crusting and discharge was the chief present-day concern after health of the remaining eye. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF WATERING EYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Drnovšek Olup

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Watering eye is in the population a very common eye phenomenon. Watering eye is presented with excessive amount of tears on the surface of the eye that are spilled over the edge of the eyelid on the skin of the eyelids and face. Basically, watering eye is divided into excessive tearing or lacrimation and on the lack of drainage of tears or epiphora. Only correct identification of both phenomena can lead to successful treatment of several patients.Methods: The article presents the anatomy and physiology of lacrimal system causes for lacrimation and epiphora, diagnostic tests and types of treatment. Laser treatment method for epiphora which is performed at the Eye Hospital in Ljubljana is presented.Results: The most common cause for epiphora is nasolacrimal duct occlusion, which is treated by dacryocystorhinostomy. With the minimally invasive version of this treatment method, transcanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy, we are able to treat epiphora in 85% of cases.Conclusions: Proper diagnosis and treatment of watering eye is important because of the impact of tearing on a number of eye processes. Incorrectly identified causes and treatment deteriorate patients' quality of life with decreased visual acuity and disrupted social contacts. In the article we show the contribution of the Eye Hospital in Ljubljana to the successful treatment of epiphora with transcanalicular diode laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy.

  7. An interlaboratory study of the reproducibility and relevance of Episkin, a reconstructed human epidermis, in the assessment of cosmetics irritancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguet, R; Cohen, C; Robles, C; Courtellemont, P; Tolle, M; Guillot, J P; Pouradier Duteil, X

    1998-06-01

    Reconstructed epidermal models are particularly suited to assessing the tolerance of cosmetic and dermatological products in vitro. Their production in kit form makes them available for screening both raw ingredients and finished products since a large amount of material can be tested whatever their physicochemical properties. However, two conditions must first be fulfilled: they must give reproducible results and be relevant to data obtained in vivo. We tested the reproducibility of data obtained using the Episkin(R) model [cytotoxicity evaluated by the MTT conversion and the release of one of the most active proinflammatory mediator, interleukin 1alpha(ILalpha)] on different batches and in various research laboratories. After topical application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) the overall variability of the IC(50) results was 14% of the mean value. Within a given centre and a given batch, the coefficient of variation attributable to the dispersion between kits was 6% for the SDS IC(50) determination and 7% for IL1alpha release measurement. The results obtained with Episkin were then compared with data from primary human skin irritancy testing (48-hr occlusion test and clinical assessment) and rabbit irritancy evaluation (Draize cutaneous test). Analysis of the results obtained with 38 cosmetic products (oils, gels, emulsions, mascaras and shaving foam, including 19 irritants) revealed good concordance with data obtained in humans. Considering the release of IL1alpha as in vitro parameter, the test sensitivity, specificity and concordance were 68, 79 and 74%, respectively.

  8. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  9. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Wei; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2016-12-21

    To estimate annual direct and indirect costs for patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and subtypes. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire concerning usage of healthcare resources, travel costs, meals, and productivity loss of patients when seeking treatment for IBS. Total annual costs per patient were calculated as the sum of direct (including medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs. Total annual costs per patient among various IBS subtypes were compared. Analysis of variance and bootstrapped independent sample t-tests were performed to determine differences between groups after controlling for IBS subtypes. A total of 105 IBS patients (64.80% female), mean age of 57.12 years ± 10.31 years), mean disease duration of 4.31 years ± 5.40 years, were included. Total annual costs per patient were estimated as CNY18262.84 (USD2933.08). Inpatient and outpatient healthcare use were major cost drivers, accounting for 46.41%and 23.36% of total annual costs, respectively. Productivity loss accounted for 25.32% of total annual costs. The proportions of direct and indirect costs were similar to published studies in other countries. Nationally, the total costs of managing IBS would amount to CNY123.83 billion (USD1.99 billion). Among the IBS subtypes, total annual costs per patient of IBS-M was highest at CNY18891.18 (USD3034). Furthermore, there was significant difference in productivity loss among IBS subtypes (P = 0.031). IBS imposes a huge economic burden on patients and healthcare systems, which could account for 3.3% of the total healthcare budget for the entire Chinese nation. More than two-thirds of total annual costs of IBS consist of inpatient and outpatient healthcare use. Among the subtypes, IBS-M patients appear to have the greatest economic burden but require further confirmation.

  10. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge. Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis. More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification) appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing. We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the smooth action of the lids over the interpalpebral zone of the prosthesis and the cleansing action of tears. The presence of deposits in the retropalpebral zone may improve the lubricating properties of socket fluids which, in turn, may

  11. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge. Methods Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification) appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing. Conclusion We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the smooth action of the lids over the interpalpebral zone of the prosthesis and the cleansing action of tears. The presence of deposits in the retropalpebral zone may improve the lubricating properties of

  12. Possible association between subtypes of dry eye disease and seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaki M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Masahiko Ayaki, Motoko Kawashima, Miki Uchino, Kazuo Tsubota, Kazuno Negishi Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seasons on the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, case-control study, and participants were non-DED subjects (n=1,916, mean age 54.4±14.4 years and DED patients (n=684, 54.2±12.1 years visiting six eye clinics at various practices and locations in Japan. We evaluated the signs and symptoms of DED and the seasons with the most severe results were compared to those with the least severe results in both groups. Main outcome measures were differences in the severity of the signs and symptoms of DED between the most and least severe seasons. Results: The majority of DED symptoms were most severe during spring and least severe in summer. Significant differences between these two seasons were found for irritation (P=0.001, pain (P=0.007, blurring (P=0.000, and photophobia (P=0.007 in the DED group. Superficial punctate keratopathy (P=0.001 and tear break-up time (BUT; P=0.000 results also indicated that DED was most severe in spring. In contrast, fewer patients had low Schirmer test results in spring, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.061. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the severity of DED is seasonal, which may explain the increase of short BUT-type DED cases observed in spring when air pollen counts are highest. Keywords: dry eye disease, seasonality, tear break-up time, cornea, ocular surface, tear production, hay fever, air pollen, allergic conjunctivitis

  13. Relationship between symptoms and hypersensitivity to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, S. D.; Lindeboom, R.; Tytgat, G. N.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is considered an important pathophysiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome, yet its relationship to symptoms is unclear. Aim: To detect possible associations between symptoms and the presence of hypersensitivity to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel

  14. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  15. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Viñuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  16. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V.; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children. We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression. Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity]. Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet. PMID:26496269

  17. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Sjors A; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-05-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed on patients with previously positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate (Cr), nickel sulfate (Ni), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), or p-phenylenediamine. Moreover, a control (pet.) patch and an irritant (SLS) patch were applied. After 3 days, the stratum corneum from tested sites was collected, and NMF levels and corneocyte morphology, expressed as the amount of circular nanosize objects, quantified according to the Dermal Texture Index (DTI), were determined. Among allergens, only MCI/MI reduced NMF levels significantly, as did SLS. Furthermore, only MCI/MI caused remarkable changes at the microscopic level; the corneocytes were hexagonal-shaped with pronounced cell borders and a smoother surface. The DTI was increased after SLS exposure but not after allergen exposure. MCI/MI significantly decreased NMF levels, similarly to SLS. The altered corneocyte morphology suggests that skin barrier damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of MCI/MI contact allergy. The DTI seems to differentiate reactions to SLS from those to the allergens tested, as SLS was the only agent that caused a DTI increase. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy.Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion.All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction.We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of patches and outcomes of occlusion treatment

  19. Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Jessica; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study tested whether group gut-focused hypnotherapy would improve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several possible outcome predictors were also studied. Before treatment, 75 patients completed a Symptom Severity Scale, a Mind-Body attribution questionnaire, and a Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI). The symptom scale was completed posttreatment, 3, 6, and 12 months later. There was significant symptom reduction at each data point (p hypnotherapy, while attribution of symptoms to mind (emotional) causation was inversely correlated (p = .0056). The authors conclude that group hypnotherapy is effective in patients with IBS.

  20. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  1. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central

  2. Technologies in the evaluation of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, AJPM; Azpiroz, F; Brummer, RJ; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Stockbrugger, RM; Vatn, M; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    During a meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, the IBiS Club evaluated the most important techniques that can be used in the investigation of irritable bowel syndrome, either in the context of scientific research or as a clinical diagnostic tool. In each of these, the relevance of findings made in

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. A holistic approach to the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a holistic intervention approach to the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The sample consisted of 70 South African women who were diagnosed with IBS. The sample was divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 13) received IBS medication and holistic ...

  5. Prevalence and predictors of irritable bowel syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent, costly, and potentially disabling gastrointestinal disorder. Medical education is among the most challenging and the most stressful education, and this may predispose to high rates of IBS. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of IBS among medical ...

  6. Frequency of irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis made by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/aim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, it is not known how frequently this diagnosis is made by physicians in. Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency with which the diagnosis of IBS is made by physicians ...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome as a biopsychosocial disease (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova I.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research work is devoted to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as an independent nosological unity of modern gas-troenterology. Risk factors, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of IBS have been analyzed. Psychological and social characteristics in the development of IBS have been examined

  8. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The low-FODMAP diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad; Barco, Kathy; Garg, Samita

    2016-09-01

    A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet's effect on intestinal microbiota is needed. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  9. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal microbiomes of healthy children and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are not well defined. Studies in adults have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota could be involved in IBS. We analyzed 71 samples from 22 children with IBS (pediatric Rome III criteri...

  10. Quality of life and illness costs in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simren, M; Brazier, J; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Smout, AJPM; Stockbrugger, RW; Vatn, MH; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life is reduced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and the costs for this disease are substantial to society. During a meeting in London, UK, the IBiS club reviewed the literature on these subjects. Drawbacks and advantages with existing instruments to assess quality of life and

  11. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  12. Towards an integrated psychoneurophysiological approach of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, Patrick Petrus Johannes van der

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by disturbed bowel habits. It is among the most frequently occurring functional bowel syndromes, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. A variety of mechanisms

  13. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  14. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Objective: The objective was to assess the dietary intake of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare it to that of ... The hypothesising assumption of this study was that a situation in which subjects insist that diet or trigger .... The relationship between continuous response variables and.

  15. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal illness characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbance, which may either be constipation or diarrhea with no detectable organic pathologic process. About 70-90% of patients with IBS have psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression, ...

  16. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  17. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The MeSH...

  18. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability...

  19. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  20. Eye Health in Sports and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racquet sports, soccer and field hockey. Choose eye protectors that have been tested to meet the American ... health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ...