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Sample records for eye irritants category

  1. CON4EI: Development of serious eye damage and eye irritation testing strategies with respect to the requirements of the UN GHS/EU CLP hazard categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-06-16

    The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation). Project management decided to not include the ICE data in this project since the execution showed relevant, and not predictable, deviations from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 438 and Guidance Document 160. At this stage, the outcome of these deviations has not been fully assessed. In addition to these alternative test methods, the computational models Toxtree and Case Ultra were taken into account. This project assessed the relevance of these test methods, their applicability domains and limitations in terms of 'drivers of classification', and their strengths and weaknesses. In this way, methods were identified that fit into a tiered-testing strategy for serious eye damage/eye irritation assessment to distinguish United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) Category 1 (Cat 1) chemicals from non-Cat 1 chemicals and address the gap namely distinguish between Category 2 (Cat 2) and Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Eye irritation: updated reference chemicals data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, D M; Gardner, J R; Holland, G; Lewis, R W; Vrijhof, H; Walker, A P

    1999-06-01

    A list of 55 chemicals for which comprehensive rabbit eye irritation data were available was published by ECETOC in 1992. Similar data for a further 77 chemicals are now available. The total of chemicals included in the enlarged data bank is 132, assessed in 149 in vivo studies in rabbits. 28 of the chemicals were tested as solids, 24 as aqueous solutions. No new in vivo testing was carried out in order to qualify a chemical for inclusion in the data bank. The chemicals are available at known, high, consistent purity and are expected to be stable in storage. The in vivo data have been generated since 1981 in studies carried out according to OECD Test Guideline 405 and following the principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The data were obtained from tests normally using at least three animals evaluated at the same time, involving instillation of 0.1ml (or equivalent weight) into the conjunctival sac, and in which observations were made at least 1, 2 and 3 days after instillation. The chemicals are ranked for eye irritation potential on the basis of a 'modified maximum average score'. The reference chemicals data bank should be of use in validation tests of promising alternatives to the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test.

  3. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  4. Second-phase validation study of short time exposure test for assessment of eye irritation potency of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Omori, Takashi; Otoizumi, Takuya; Sozu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Mayumi; Toyoda, Akemi; Goto, Haruka; Watanabe, Shinichi; Ahiko, Kyoko; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Morimoto, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test that uses SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) to assess eye irritation potency following a 5-min chemical exposure. This second-phase validation study assessed the predictive capacity of the STE test using 40 coded test substances at three laboratories. A Validation Management Team (VMT) then evaluated the predictivity of the STE test for United Nation (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) categories using 63 test substances including the results of the first-phase validation study. The STE test can assess not only the severe or corrosive ocular irritants (corresponding to the UN GHS Category 1) but also non-irritant (corresponding to UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. The predictivity by STE test, however, was insufficient for identification of UN GHS categories (Category 1, Category 2, or Non Category). These results suggest that the STE test can be recommended as an initial step in a top-down approach to identification of severe irritants and test substances that require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Category 1) as well as an initial step in a bottom-up approach to identification of test substances that do not require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. On the other hand, the STE test is not considered adequate for the identification of mild or moderate irritants (i.e., UN GHS Categories 2A and 2B) and severe irritants (UN GHS Category 1).

  5. Predictive performance of the Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using 118 chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We recently developed a novel Vitrigel-eye irritancy test (EIT) method. The Vitrigel-EIT method is composed of two parts, i.e., the construction of a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model in a collagen vitrigel membrane chamber and the prediction of eye irritancy by analyzing the time-dependent profile of transepithelial electrical resistance values for 3 min after exposing a chemical to the HCE model. In this study, we estimated the predictive performance of Vitrigel-EIT method by testing a total of 118 chemicals. The category determined by the Vitrigel-EIT method in comparison to the globally harmonized system classification revealed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90.1%, 65.9% and 80.5%, respectively. Here, five of seven false-negative chemicals were acidic chemicals inducing the irregular rising of transepithelial electrical resistance values. In case of eliminating the test chemical solutions showing pH 5 or lower, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were improved to 96.8%, 67.4% and 84.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, nine of 16 false-positive chemicals were classified irritant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the disappearance of ZO-1, a tight junction-associated protein and MUC1, a cell membrane-spanning mucin was immunohistologically confirmed in the HCE models after exposing not only eye irritant chemicals but also false-positive chemicals, suggesting that such false-positive chemicals have an eye irritant potential. These data demonstrated that the Vitrigel-EIT method could provide excellent predictive performance to judge the widespread eye irritancy, including very mild irritant chemicals. We hope that the Vitrigel-EIT method contributes to the development of safe commodity chemicals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  7. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500.42 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 1 The guide will contain color...

  8. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  9. Eye and respiratory irritants in jet engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y

    1986-11-01

    It has been noted that eye and respiratory irritation frequently occurred in the ground crews and pilots working on the field behind an aircraft with a low smoke combustor (LSC) engine. This study was attempted to analyze the exhaust sampled at about 50 m behind the LSC J79 engines at idle power setting by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Nine kinds of lower aliphatic carbonyl compound (seven aldehydes and two ketones) were identified. The concentration of formaldehyde was the highest among them, showing the value above the threshold reported by previous investigators. Concentration of NOx was simultaneously measured by a gas detector tube in the same sample. The exhaust of a conventional J79 engine, which has rarely caused irritation, was also analyzed by the same technique and the results were compared. It was concluded that formaldehyde plays a major role in causing irritation.

  10. Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1991-08-01

    We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols.

  11. The EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test is the Method of Choice for the In Vitro Eye Irritation Testing of Agrochemical Formulations: Correlation Analysis of EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test and BCOP Test Data According to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Mayer, Winfried; van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test is commonly used for the identification of severe ocular irritants (GHS Category 1), but it is not recommended for the identification of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2). The incorporation of human reconstructed tissue model-based tests into a tiered test strategy to identify ocular non-irritants and replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been suggested (OECD TG 405). The value of the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for the prediction of ocular non-irritants (GHS No Category) has been demonstrated, and an OECD Test Guideline (TG) was drafted in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BCOP test, in conjunction with corneal histopathology (as suggested for the evaluation of the depth of the injury( and/or the EpiOcular-EIT, could be used to predict the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations according to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA classification schemes. We have assessed opacity, permeability and histopathology in the BCOP assay, and relative tissue viability in the EpiOcular-EIT, for 97 agrochemical formulations with available in vivo eye irritation data. By using the OECD TG 437 protocol for liquids, the BCOP test did not result in sufficient correct predictions of severe ocular irritants for any of the three classification schemes. The lack of sensitivity could be improved somewhat by the inclusion of corneal histopathology, but the relative viability in the EpiOcular-EIT clearly outperformed the BCOP test for all three classification schemes. The predictive capacity of the EpiOcular-EIT for ocular non-irritants (UN GHS No Category) for the 97 agrochemical formulations tested (91% sensitivity, 72% specificity and 82% accuracy for UN GHS classification) was comparable to that obtained in the formal validation exercise underlying the OECD draft TG. We therefore conclude that the EpiOcular-EIT is currently the best in vitro method for the prediction

  12. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  13. Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A; Hopfinger, A J; Osborne, R; Bruner, L H; Thompson, E D

    2001-02-01

    Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.

  14. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  15. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  16. Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about 6.8min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34mg/m(3) for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  17. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  18. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives.

  19. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  20. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...... to as simple agonism. Finally, the authors addressed the comparability of two methods to measure sensory irritation intensity (visual analogue scale and a comparative scale). The results indicated that the two rating methods produced highly comparable results....

  1. Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. B. R. Freitas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.

  2. Determination of eye irritation potential of low-irritant products: comparison of in vitro results with the in vivo draize rabbit test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Martins da Nóbrega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to build the evaluation strategies to assess the human eye irritation, a reassessment of some in vitro tests is necessary, particularly concerning the non-irritants, mild and moderate irritants. Thus, the correlations between results obtained from the Draize test with the in vitro methods HET-CAM (Hens Egg Test-Chorion Allantonic Membrane and RBC haemolysis assay to assess the ocular irritancy potential of 20 eye drops were examined. Parameters such as accuracy (% and specificity (% were determined. All results were correlated with RBC correctly with the results obtained in the Draize test. The HET-CAM presented four false-positive results, showing a tendency of data overestimation. Despite the high specificity provided mainly by the RBC, it would be necessary to test a wider range of products representing all the scales of irritation to confirm its ability to be used as a first alternative to test products that could be presumptive non-irritants.

  3. Quantification of contributions of molecular fragments for eye irritation of organic chemicals using QSAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2014-05-01

    The eye irritation potential of chemicals has largely been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test for a very long time. The Draize eye-irritation data on 38 compounds established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has been used in the present quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in order to predict molar-adjusted eye scores (MES) and determine possible structural requisites and attributes that are primarily responsible for the eye irritation caused by the studied solutes. The developed model was rigorously validated internally as well as externally by applying principles of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The test for applicability domain was also carried out in order to check the reliability of the predictions. Important fragments contributing to higher MES values of the solutes were identified through critical analysis and interpretation of the developed model. Considering all the identified structural attributes, one can choose or design safe solutes with low eye irritant properties. The presented approach suggests a model for use in the context of virtual screening of relevant solute libraries. The developed QSAR model can be used to predict existing as well as future chemicals falling within the applicability domain of the model in order to reduce the use of animals.

  4. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    In general, irritation is a physiological response to a chemical or physical stimulus involving objective changes (e.g., local redness and edema) and subjective sensations (e.g., pruritus and pain). The perception of an irritating stimulus in the eyes and the upper airways is called sensory......) in their eyes only. Eight subjects participated in study 1. Each subject was exposed to three different mixtures of VOCs. A total of 16 subjects participated in study 2. Half of the subjects were exposed to 1-octene and the other half, to n-butanol. In both studies, photographs of bulbar conjunctiva were taken...

  5. Predictive performance of the Vitrigel‐eye irritancy test method using 118 chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; KOJIMA Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We recently developed a novel Vitrigel‐eye irritancy test (EIT) method. The Vitrigel‐EIT method is composed of two parts, i.e., the construction of a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model in a collagen vitrigel membrane chamber and the prediction of eye irritancy by analyzing the time‐dependent profile of transepithelial electrical resistance values for 3 min after exposing a chemical to the HCE model. In this study, we estimated the predictive performance of Vitrigel‐EIT method by te...

  6. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Prinsen, M.K.; McNamee, P.M.; Roggeband, R.

    2009-01-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken

  7. Sensory properties of selected terpenes. Thresholds for odor, nasal pungency, nasal localization, and eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H; Kumarsingh, R

    1998-11-30

    We tested four normosmics and four anosmics in detection thresholds for six terpenes commonly found indoors: cumene, p-cymene, delta-3-carene, linalool, 1,8-cineole and geraniol. Normosmics provided odor thresholds and anosmics provided nasal pungency thresholds. All subjects provided nasal localization (i.e., right/left nostril) and eye irritation thresholds. Each type of threshold was measured eight times per subject-stimulus combination. Stimuli were presented from squeeze bottles in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure via an ascending method of limits. Odor thresholds ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 parts per million (ppm, by volume). Nasal pungency thresholds lay about three orders of magnitude above odor thresholds. Nasal localization and eye irritation thresholds did not differ between normosmics and anosmics, and fell close to nasal pungency thresholds. Olfactory thresholds could be obtained for all stimuli in all repetitions using the criterion of five correct choices in a row. Trigeminal thresholds (i.e., pungency, localization and eye irritation) could be obtained on all repetitions only for some terpenes using that same criterion. Carene and cineol produced nasal pungency and eye irritation on all repetitions. None of the terpenes could be localized on all repetitions, but cineol was localized a higher percentage of instances than were the other stimuli. At the other extreme, geraniol failed to evoke any of the three trigeminal responses in most instances. Overall, the results indicate that the three trigeminal thresholds produce a uniform view of the potency of these terpenes, with nasal pungency and eye irritation being slightly more sensitive than nasal localization. Furthermore, application of a previously derived linear solvation energy relationship to the results reinforced the view that physicochemical properties can predict the chemesthetic impact of volatile organic compounds.

  8. [Irritative effect of aclacinomycin A on the eye mucous membrane, skin and muscle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H

    1980-04-01

    Aclacinomycin A, a new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, was given to rabbits by single instillation or single intracutaneous injection and to guinea pigs by single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection to examine the irritative effect. Slight dilatation of blood vessel and swelling in the conjunctiva and nictitating membrane were observed in the eyes of rabbits given 1% solution. Edema in the bulbar conjunctiva, iris and cornea was histologically noted. Washing of the eyes after drug instillation prevented these damages. Subcutaneous and intracutaneous injections of 1% solution (0.2 ml) gave hyperemia, swelling and necrosis at injection site. Cellular infiltration, fibrosis and necrosis were histologically detected. Intramuscular injection of 1% solution (0.2 ml) also provided induration and swelling at injection site. Histologically cellular infiltration and necrosis were observed. These irritative effects were much slighter in administration of 0.1% solution. No change was observed with 0.01% solution.

  9. Comparison of in vitro eye irritation potential by bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay to erythema scores in human eye sting test of surfactant-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Kathleen C; Harbell, John W

    2008-01-01

    The bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay can be used to predict relative eye irritation potential of surfactant-based personal care formulations relative to a corporate benchmark. The human eye sting test is typically used to evaluate product claims of no tears/no stinging for children's bath products. A preliminary investigation was conducted to test a hypothesis that the BCOP assay could be used as a prediction model for relative ranking of human eye irritation responses under conditions of a standard human eye sting test to surfactant-based formulations. BCOP assays and human eye sting tests were conducted on 4 commercial and 1 prototype body wash (BW) developed specifically for children or as mild bath products. In the human eye sting test, 10 mul of a 10% dosing solution is instilled into one eye of each panelist (n = 20), and the contralateral eye is dosed with sterile water as a control. Bulbar conjunctival erythema responses of each eye are graded at 30 seconds by an ophthalmologist. The BCOP assay permeability values (optical density at 490 nm [OD(490)]) for the 5 BWs ranged from 0.438 to 1.252 (i.e., least to most irritating). By comparison, the number of panelists exhibiting erythema responses (mild to moderately pink) ranged from 3 of 20 panelists for the least irritating BW to 10 of 20 panelists for the most irritating BW tested. The relative ranking of eye irritation potential of the 5 BWs in the BCOP assay compares favorably with the relative ranking of the BWs in the human eye sting test. Based on these findings, the permeability endpoint of the BCOP assay, as described for surfactant-based formulations, showed promise as a prediction model for relative ranking of conjunctival erythema responses in the human eye. Consequently, screening of prototype formulations in the BCOP assay would allow for formula optimization of mild bath products prior to investment in a human eye sting test.

  10. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay as an in vitro alternative to the Draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Jacobs, An; De Wever, Bart; Vanparys, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Measurement of ocular irritancy is a necessary step in the safety evaluation of both industrial and consumer products. Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is therefore part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay is generally accepted as a valid in vitro alternative method to the Draize eye irritation test to detect corrosive and severe eye irritants (category 1), but has not proven sensitive enough to discriminate accurately moderate (category 2A/2B) to mild and non-irritating compounds. In the currently accepted BCOP assay, opacity is determined by the amount of light transmission through the cornea, and permeability is determined by the amount of sodium fluorescein dye that passes through all corneal cell layers. Both measurements are used to assign an In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS) for prediction of the in vivo ocular irritation potential of a test substance. Nowadays, opacity is measured by an OP-KIT opacitometer providing a center-weighted reading of light transmission by measuring changes in voltage when the transmission of white light passes through the cornea alters. As a consequence, this may underestimate opacity that develops as spots or heterogeneous opaque areas on the periphery of an isolated cornea. A prototype of a laser light-based opacitometer (PLLBO) allowing better measurement of opacities was developed by Van Goethem et al. (2010). This new device showed improved sensitivity to detect subtle changes in corneal transparency. Furthermore, the new opacitometer allowed the analysis of the complete corneal surface and was able to detect more efficiently opaque spots located along the sides of the excised corneas. A further improved prototype of the PLLBO was constructed in combination with a camera and a speckle noise reducer. Treatment conditions of the corneas in the cornea holders were optimized in order to mimic more the real in vivo situation

  12. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  13. In vitro eye irritation testing using the open source reconstructed hemicornea - a ring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Karsten R; Engelke, Maria; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Brandner, Johanna M; Petersohn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present ring trial was to test whether two new methodological approaches for the in vitro classification of eye irritating chemicals can be reliably transferred from the developers' laboratories to other sites. Both test methods are based on the well-established open source reconstructed 3D hemicornea models. In the first approach, the initial depth of injury after chemical treatment in the hemicornea model is derived from the quantitative analysis of histological sections. In the second approach, tissue viability, as a measure for corneal damage after chemical treatment, is analyzed separately for epithelium and stroma of the hemicornea model. The three independent laboratories that participated in the ring trial produced their own hemicornea models according to the test producer's instructions, thus supporting the open source concept. A total of 9 chemicals with different physicochemical and eye-irritating properties were tested to assess the between-laboratory reproducibility (BLR), the predictive performance, as well as possible limitations of the test systems. The BLR was 62.5% for the first and 100% for the second method. Both methods enabled to discriminate Cat. 1 chemicals from all non-Cat. 1 substances, which qualifies them to be used in a top-down approach. However, the selectivity between No Cat. and Cat. 2 chemicals still needs optimization.

  14. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  15. Comparative evaluation of five in vitro tests for assessing the eye irritation potential of hair-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P A; Budynsky, E; Cooper, K J; Decker, D; Griffiths, H A; Fentem, J H

    2001-01-01

    This study compared five methods, the isolated rabbit eye (IRE), bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP), EpiOcular, fluorescein leakage (FL) and neutral red release (NRR) assays, for predicting the eye irritation potential of hair-care formulations. Ten shampoo and seven conditioner formulations of known ocular irritation potential were tested. Each group included a market-acceptable formulation as a comparative benchmark. Predictions of ocular irritation were made by using classification models (IRE, BCOP and EpiOcular assays) or by direct comparison with benchmarks (IRE, EpiOcular, FL and NRR assays). The BCOP assay was less sensitive than the IRE test in discriminating between formulations of different irritation potentials, and did not perform as well as the other assays in identifying mild formulations. All of the assays appeared to be better at discriminating correctly between the shampoos than between the conditioners. The EpiOcular assay showed the closest concordance between the in vivo results and the in vitro data from cell-based assays (particularly for shampoos). The FL assay also showed a high concordance (particularly for conditioners). There was a tendency for these in vitro assays to over-predict eye irritation potential, but there was no under-prediction and they were particularly successful at identifying mild formulations. The NRR assay was less predictive with both shampoos and conditioners. The results from this comparative evaluation fully support the continued use of the IRE test as a suitable alternative to in vivo eye irritation testing in rabbits, although it also over-predicted the irritancies of several of the formulations. The value of using concurrent benchmarks (reference standards), appropriate to the materials being tested, in interpreting the data obtained from in vitro tests, was also demonstrated. Overall, the results indicate that further comparisons of the IRE, EpiOcular and FL assays are warranted using much larger

  16. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 75 workers employed in a tobacco factory producing cheroots we measured cellular contents of tear fluid, redness of eyes, discomfort, total (0–5.7 mg/m3) and respirable dust in the breathing zone and total ambient dust by stationary sampling (0.08–1.0 mg/m3). A matched group of 50 o...

  17. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 75 workers employed in a tobacco factory producing cheroots we measured cellular contents of tear fluid, redness of eyes, discomfort, total (0–5.7 mg/m3) and respirable dust in the breathing zone and total ambient dust by stationary sampling (0.08–1.0 mg/m3). A matched group of 50...... office workers in a telephone company (total ambient dust concentration between 0.08–0.13 mg/m3) was similarly examined as referents. We found a difference between the two companies with regard to cell counts, with tobacco workers having the largest numbers except for lymphocytes. Among tobacco workers...... we furthermore found that the number of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells increased during the day. The increase of cuboidal cells, however, occurred mainly in a small group of tobacco workers exposed to the highest concentrations of tobacco dust (mean =1.26 mg/m3). No difference...

  18. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test.

  19. Principal Component Analysis of Tissue Scores from Substances used in the COLIPA Eye Irritation Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, D P

    1999-06-01

    Principal component analyses (PCA) have been carried out on the tissue scores from Draize eye irritation tests on the 55 formulations and chemical ingredients included in the COLIPA Eye Irritation Validation Study. A PCA was carried out on the tissue scores 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation of the substances. The first Principal Component (PC I) explained 77% of the total variation in the tissues scores and showed a high negative correlation (r=-0.971) with the scores used to derive the Modified Maximum Average Score (MMAS). The second component (PC II) explained 7% of the total variability and contrasted corneal and iris damage with conjunctival damage as in a similar analysis carried out previously on the ECETOC databank. The third component (PCIII), while only explaining about 3% of the variability, identified individuals treated with formulations that were observed to have low corneal opacity but large corneal area scores. This may represent some particular manner of scoring at the laboratory administering the Draize test or a specific effect of some formulations. A further PCA was carried out on tissue scores from observations at 1hr to 21 days. PC I in this analysis explained 62% of the variability and there was a high negative correlation with the sum of all the tissue scores, while PC II explained 14% of the variability and contrasted damage up to 72 hours with damage after 72 hours. A number of formulations were identified with relatively low MMAS scores but tissue damage that persisted. PCA analysis is thus shown to be a powerful method for exploring complex datasets and for identification of outliers and subgroups. It has shown that the MMAS score captures most of the information on tissue scores in the first 72 hours following exposure, and it is unlikely to be of any advantage in using individual tissue scores for comparisons with alternative tests. The relationship of the classifications schemes used by three alternative methods in the COLIPA

  20. The categories, frequencies, and stability of idiosyncratic eye-movement patterns to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Walsh, Vincent; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I

    2016-12-16

    The spatial pattern of eye-movements to faces considered typical for neurologically healthy individuals is a roughly T-shaped distribution over the internal facial features with peak fixation density tending toward the left eye (observer's perspective). However, recent studies indicate that striking deviations from this classic pattern are common within the population and are highly stable over time. The classic pattern actually reflects the average of these various idiosyncratic eye-movement patterns across individuals. The natural categories and respective frequencies of different types of idiosyncratic eye-movement patterns have not been specifically investigated before, so here we analyzed the spatial patterns of eye-movements for 48 participants to estimate the frequency of different kinds of individual eye-movement patterns to faces in the normal healthy population. Four natural clusters were discovered such that approximately 25% of our participants' fixation density peaks clustered over the left eye region (observer's perspective), 23% over the right eye-region, 31% over the nasion/bridge region of the nose, and 20% over the region spanning the nose, philthrum, and upper lips. We did not find any relationship between particular idiosyncratic eye-movement patterns and recognition performance. Individuals' eye-movement patterns early in a trial were more stereotyped than later ones and idiosyncratic fixation patterns evolved with time into a trial. Finally, while face inversion strongly modulated eye-movement patterns, individual patterns did not become less distinct for inverted compared to upright faces. Group-averaged fixation patterns do not represent individual patterns well, so exploration of such individual patterns is of value for future studies of visual cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstituted human corneal epithelium: a new alternative to the Draize eye test for the assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, O; Lanvin, M; Thillou, C; Linossier, C; Pupat, C; Merlin, B; Zastrow, L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of a new three-dimensional epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells to replace animal testing in the assessment of eye tolerance. To this end, 65 formulated cosmetic products and 36 chemicals were tested by means of this in vitro model using a simplified toxicokinetic approach. The chemicals were selected from the ECETOC data bank and the EC/HO International validation study list. Very satisfactory results were obtained in terms of concordance with the Draize test data for the formulated cosmetic products. Moreover, the response of the corneal model appeared predictive of human ocular response clinically observed by ophthalmologists. The in vitro scores for the chemicals tested strongly correlated with their respective scores in vivo. For all the compounds tested, the response of the corneal model to irritants was similar regardless of their chemical structure, suggesting a good robustness of the prediction model proposed. We concluded that this new three-dimensional epithelial model, developed from human corneal cells, could be promising for the prediction of eye irritation induced by chemicals and complex formulated products, and that these two types of materials should be tested using a similar protocol. A simple shortening of the exposure period was required for the chemicals assumed to be more aggressively irritant to the epithelial tissues than the cosmetic formulae.

  2. A proposed eye irritation testing strategy to reduce and replace in vivo studies using Bottom-Up and Top-Down approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, L.; Eskes, C.; Hoffmann, S.; Adriaens, E.; Alepée, N.; Bufo, M.; Clothier, R.; Facchini, D.; Faller, C.; Guest, R.; Harbell, J.; Hartung, T.; Kamp, H.; Varlet, B.L.; Meloni, M.; McNamee, P.; Osborne, R.; Pape, W.; Pfannenbecker, U.; Prinsen, M.; Seaman, C.; Spielmann, H.; Stokes, W.; Trouba, K.; Berghe, C.V.d.; Goethem, F.V.; Vassallo, M.; Vinardell, P.; Zuang, V.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of over 20 years of effort, no single in vitro assay has been developed and validated as a full regulatory replacement for the Draize Eye Irritation test. However, companies have been using in vitro methods to screen new formulations and in some cases as their primary assessment of eye irri

  3. Eye Irritation Caused by Formaldehyde as an Indoor Air Pollution——A Controlled Human Exposure Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Obejective The present study focuses on health assessment of wood based panels which are widely used in interior decoration practices over the recent years in China. Formaldehyde has been identified as chemical indicator of (IAO) and an indoor air pollutant. To test its health effects experiment was undertaken. Method A small environmental test chamber (60/L) was used as the generator of emission gas from new panels, and was operating at a temperature of 22.7±0.6℃ and a humidity of 44.4±2.5 % with an air exchange rate of 1.0±0.15h-1. On the three experimental days the values of product loading in chamber were 4, 2 and 6 m2/m3, respectively. Eight people were selected randomly from the students and employees of Wuhan Health and Anti-epidemic Station as subjects, with an average age of 21.9±5.9 years, and a gender ratio of 1:1, and two of them were smokers (one male and one female). The subjects' eyes were exposed to formaldehyde through a pair of goggles. Each goggle had its flow inlet and outlet, and connected to chamber exhaust of emission gas and to an exhaust from the room. The exposure time was very short, just 5 minutes and the formaldehyde doses were at 1.65±0.01, 2.99±0.07 and 4.31±0.02 ppm. A 60-mm linear visual analogue rating scales was used to measure the intensity of sensory eye irritation and a video tape recorder was used to record eye blinking frequency. Results The results demonstrated that tests of sensory eye irritation and eye blinking can be used for materials testing, and that a dose-effect as well as a time-variance of the effect can be measured. Conclusion The tests showed that eye irritation was perceived at all of the three levels.

  4. Irritants and allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Irritants – in this article to be understood as being chemical irritants – are substances that may cause injuries to the skin, the eyes or the airways after a single exposure. These injuries may range from small, initially invisible injuries after exposure to weak irritants up to chemical burns afte

  5. Category processing and the human likeness dimension of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis: Eye-tracking data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eCheetham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (Mori, 1970 predicts that perceptual difficulty distinguishing between a humanlike object (e.g., lifelike prosthetic hand, mannequin and its human counterpart evokes negative affect. Research has focussed on affect, with inconsistent results, but little is known about how objects along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DHL are actually perceived. This study used morph continua based on human and highly realistic computer-generated (avatar faces to represent the DHL. Total number and dwell time of fixations to facial features were recorded while participants (N=60 judged avatar vs. human category membership of the faces in a forced choice categorisation task. Fixation and dwell data confirmed the face feature hierarchy (eyes, nose and mouth in this order of importance across the DHL. There were no further findings for fixation. A change in the relative importance of these features was found for dwell time, with greater preferential processing of eyes and mouth of categorically ambiguous faces compared with unambiguous avatar faces. There were no significant differences between ambiguous and human faces. These findings applied for men and women, though women generally dwelled more on the eyes to the disadvantage of the nose. The mouth was unaffected by gender. In summary, the relative importance of facial features changed on the DHL’s nonhuman side as a function of categorisation ambiguity. This change was indicated by dwell time only, suggesting greater depth of perceptual processing of the eyes and mouth of ambiguous faces compared with these features in unambiguous avatar faces.

  6. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  7. Total flight hours, irritated and burning eye and risk of mild myopia in civilian pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Maya Savitri

    2016-07-01

    .Methods: This cross-sectional study using using purposive sampling. Subjects answered the questionaire.Data was extracted from the medical record. Cox regression analyses using Stata 10.Results: The subject consisted of 21-45 years old male civilian pilots who performing scheduled medicalcheck up at the Civil Aviatian Medical Centre. We found that 36% of the pilots had mild myopia, and thedominant risk factors were total flight time for 1000 hours or more, parental myopia, as well as irritatedand burning eyes. Those who had compared to did have total flight hours for 1000 hours or more had 28%more risk to have mild myopia [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.00 to1.64; P = 0.047]. In term of parential myopia, those who had compared who did not have parential myopiahad 32% more risk to have mild myopia (RRa = 1.32; 95% CI = 3.75-7.55; P = 0.000. Moreover, thosewho had compared to who did have irritated and burning eyes had 48% more risk to have mild myopia(RRa = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.83; P = 0.009.Conclusions: Total flight 1000 hours or more, parental myopia, as well as irritated and burning eyes were dominantrisk factors for mild myopia in civilian pilots in Indonesia. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:49-53Key words: mild myopia, civilian aviator, total flight time, Indonesia.

  8. The chicken enucleated eye test (CEET) : a practical (pre)screen for the assessment of eye irritation/corrosion potential of test materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The enucleated eye test with chicken eyes (CEET) obtained from an abattoir proved to be a valuable and practical alternative for the 'traditional' enucleated eye test with eyes of laboratory rabbits. Since 1992, the CEET has been incorporated in standard contract toxicity testing at the Toxicology D

  9. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals.

  10. Total flight hours, irritated and burning eye and risk of mild myopia in civilian pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Maya Savitri

    2016-07-01

      in civilian aviator and other populatian. This study aims to identify risk factors that affect the incidence of mild myopia in  civilian pilot in Indonesia. Methods: This study using cross-sectional method with purposive sampling. Subjects answered the questionaire.  Subject of this study are 21-45 years old male civilian aviators which performs scheduled medical check up at Civil Aviatian Medical Centre at May 5 – 21, 2014. The researcher using the medical record to get data about visual acuity. Cox regression analyses using Stata 9. Mild myopia in this study is defect distant visual acuity with corrected lens power -0.25 s/d -0.30. Results: The percentage of mild myopia in this study was 36%. Subjects with a total of 1000 hours of flying hours or more had a 28% higher risk of experiencing mild myopia [relative risk (RRa = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.00 to 1.64; P = 0.047]. A history of parental myopia will increase the risk of mild myopia 5 times (RRa = 5.32, P = 0.000. Subjects with symptoms of difficulty focus has 48% higher risk of experiencing mild myopia (RRa = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.85, P = 0.001. Subjects with symptoms such as eye irritation, gritty, burning has a 54% lower risk of experiencing mild myopia (RRa = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.83, P = 0.009. Conclusions: Total flight time, parental myopia, visual fatigue; difficulty in focusing and foggy letters are influenced risk factors for mild myopia in civilian aviator in Indonesia. Key words: mild myopia, civilian aviator, total flight time, Indonesia.

  11. Prevalidation of a new in vitro reconstituted human cornea model to assess the eye irritating potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goethem, F; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Straube, F; De Wever, B; Cappadoro, M; Catoire, S; Hansen, E; Wolf, A; Vanparys, P

    2006-02-01

    This multicentre study aimed at evaluating the reliability (reproducibility) and relevance (predictivity) of a new commercially available human corneal epithelial (HCE) model (SkinEthic Laboratories, Nice, France) to assess acute ocular irritation. A prevalidation approach (protocol optimisation, transfer and performance) was followed and at each of the four participating laboratories, 20 coded reference chemicals, covering the whole range of irritancy, were tested. The compounds were applied topically to the HCE cultures and the level of cytotoxicity (tissue viability and histological analysis) was determined. Once a standardised protocol was established, a high level of reproducibility between the laboratories was observed. In order to assess the capability of the HCE model to discriminate between irritants (I) and non-irritants (NI), a classification prediction model (PM) was defined based on a viability cut-off value of 60%. The obtained in vitro classifications were compared with different in vivo classifications (e.g. Globally Harmonised System) which were calculated from individual rabbit data described in the ECETOC data bank. Although an overall concordance of 80% was obtained (sensitivity = 100% and specificity = 56%), the predictivity of the HCE model substantially increased when other sources of in vivo and in vitro data were taken into account.

  12. Bran: may irritate irritable bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M J; Whorwell, P J

    1998-05-01

    The irritable gut is known to be hypersensitive, and it is reasonable to suspect that patients with the disorder might be hyperreactive to agents that stimulate or irritate it. This appears to be a possible explanation for the adverse effects of bran on hospital patients with this disorder, but we do not yet know how this product affects community IBS sufferers. We cannot ignore the fact that fiber and bran have major beneficial effects in other areas, not least in the reduction of colonic carcinoma. In conclusion, it is probably best to recommend that patients with IBS be left to judge for themselves whether bran helps or exacerbates their symptoms, but there is enough evidence to suggest that the current dogma of routinely treating all IBS sufferers with bran should be challenged. Proprietary sources of fiber, such as ispaghula, may be more appropriate for those IBS subjects (for example, constipated) for whom fiber supplementation is believed justified.

  13. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    and nasal mucosal irritation. Although methods to evaluate mouth, throat mucosal, and dermal irritation are also relevant, they are seldom used in actual practice. Measurements for eye irritation include tear film stability, epithelial damage, foam formation, blinking frequency, tear flow, inflammation......Sensory irritant responses to chemical exposures are measured by a variety of methods; however, studies can be influenced from biases associated with study design and subject responses. This article reviews the different methods used to quantitate irritation. These methods primarily focus on eye...... method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  14. Lacking applicability of in vitro eye irritation methods to identify seriously eye irritating agrochemical formulations: Results of bovine cornea opacity and permeability assay, isolated chicken eye test and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 method to classify according to UN GHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In vitro methods have gained regulatory acceptance for the prediction of serious eye damage (UN GHS Cat 1). However, the majority of in vitro methods do not state whether they are applicable to agrochemical formulations. This manuscript presents a study of up to 27 agrochemical formulations tested in three in vitro assays (three versions of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP, OECD TG 437) assay, the isolated chicken eye test (ICE, OECD TG 438) and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 assay). The results were compared with already-available in vivo data. In the BCOP only one of the four, one of five in the ICE and six of eleven tested formulations in the EpiOcular™ ET-50 Neat Protocol resulted in the correct UN GHS Cat 1 prediction. Overpredictions occurred in all assays. These data indicate a lack of applicability of the three in vitro methods to reliably predict UN GHS Cat 1 of agrochemical formulations. In order to ensure animal-free identification of seriously eye damaging agrochemical formulations testing protocols and/or prediction models need to be modified or classification rules should be tailored to in vitro testing rather than using in vivo Draize data as a standard. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Categories of categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    A certain amount of category theory is developed in an arbitrary finitely complete category with a factorization system on it, playing the role of the comprehensive factorization system on Cat. Those aspects related to the concepts of finality (in particular terminal objects), discreteness and components, representability, colimits and universal arrows, seem to be best expressed in this very general setting. Furthermore, at this level we are in fact doing not only (E,M)-category theory but, in a sense, also (E,M)-topology. Other axioms, regarding power objects, duality, exponentials and the arrow object, are considered.

  16. Standardization and Prospect of Alternative Methods to Cosmetics Eye Irritation%化妆品眼刺激试验替代方法标准化与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖华英; 程树军; 潘芳; 谈伟君

    2012-01-01

    Eye irritation test is a major field for cosmetics safety assessment. Many different in vitro methods were designed to replace traditional animal testing, these methods are in the process of development, validation and acception with different stages. It is no single in vitro methods can completely replace the rabbit eye test, but with reasonable evaluation the scientific principle, relevance and standardization of alternative methods, which will contribute to select and guide the application of alternative methods including mechanism study, classification and labeling, quality control and product development for cosmetics .%眼刺激试验是化妆品安全评价的主要测试项目,目前正尝试建立代替传统动物实验的体外方法,这些方法处于研发、验证和认可的不同阶段.尽管还没有单一体外试验能完全替代兔眼实验,但系统分析替代方法建立的原理、科学相关性和标准化程度的不同,有助于合理选择运用体外方法指导化妆品眼刺激的标识分类、质量检验、产品开发和机制研究.

  17. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2017-02-01

    /or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Most important, the DRD is an invaluable tool for any future activity involving the selection of reference chemicals.

  18. Defining and measuring irritability: Construct clarification and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Michael J; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 眼针疗法对D-IBS模型大鼠结肠VIPR1表达的影响%Effects of eye-acupuncture therapy on VIPR1 expression in irritable bowel syndrome model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德山; 王艳杰; 刘慧慧; 刘旭东; 柴继严; 赵金茹

    2013-01-01

    Objective By observing effects of the eye-acupuncture therapy on VIP content and expression of VIPR1 in colon in rats with irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) ,in order to explore mechanism of action the eye-acupuncture therapy on IBS. Methods 30 male, SPF grade, Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, IBS model, eye-acupuncture groups. IBS rat model was established by chronic stress combined with constraint Eye-acupuncture group was treated by eye-acupuncture 7 d. The VIP content changes were detected by ELISA in serum and colon. Results The VIP contents in IBS model rats were significantly elevated in serum and colon than those of normal control group, and the VIP contents in eye-acupuncture group were significantly lower in serum and colon than those of IBS model group (P< 0.01). The expression of VIPR1 in IBS model rats was significantly elevated in colon than that in normal control group , the expression of VIPR1 in eye-acupuncture group was significantly lower in colon than that in IBS model group ( P < 0.01). Conclusions Eye-acupuncture could reduce the expression of VIPR1 in colon in IBS rat, which plays a therapeutic role in IBS.%目的 观测眼针对腹泻型肠易激综合征(D-IBS)模型大鼠血清、结肠组织中血管活性肠肽(VIP)含量及结肠组织VIP受体1(VIP-Rl)表达的变化,探讨眼针治疗D-IBS的作用机制.方法 30只雄性SPF级大鼠,分为对照组、IBS模型组和眼针组,采用慢性应激与束缚相结合的方法复制D-IBS模型后,进行眼针治疗7d.应用ELISA方法检测VIP含量;采用免疫组化、RT-PCR方法检测VIP-R1表达.结果 与对照组比较,模型组血清、结肠组织中VIP含量及VIP-R1表达明显增高和上调(P <0.01,P<0.05);与模型组比较,眼针组血清、结肠组织中VIP含量及VIP-R1表达明显下降和下调.结论 眼针治疗D-IBS的机制之一可能与抑制血清、结肠组织VIP释放、下调VIP-R1表达有关.

  20. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  1. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  2. 类别学习中人工语言标签相似性效应的眼动研究%Linguistic Labels Effect in Category Learning:Evidence from Eye Movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢强; 唐志文

    2012-01-01

    采用眼动仪,通过两个实验来探讨无语言标签、人工语言标签在类别学习中的影响。实验一,设计两种类型刺激:外观高相似、外观低相似。实验二,设计人工语言标签四种类型刺激:外观高相似、标签低相似,外观高相似、标签高相似,外观低相似、标签低相似,外观低相似、标签高相似。结果发现:基于客体高相似无标签下,被试根据外观相似性分类;基于人工语言标签下,人工语言标签促进分类。%There are mainly two traditional types of theories in category learning—similarity-based induction and category-based category.The effect of category,especially the labels,has been gradually discovered in category learning during the two theories' argument,but there is a lack of systematicness in analyzing of different linguistic labels.Linguistic labels take an important role in category learning.Their eye movements were recorded with a SR Research Eye Link II eye tracker that monitored the position of the right eye every two milliseconds.In experiment 1,three no labels stimulus were included:similarity-look and same species,similarity-look and different species,dissimilarity-look and same species.In experiment 3,we create four artificial linguistic labels:similarity-look and dissimilarity-label,similarity-look and similarity-label,dissimilarity-look and similarity-label,dissimilarity-look and dissimilarity-label.From above four experiment,we found no-labels that contribute to the perceived similarity of compared entities;artificial linguistic results corroborate the similarity-based account of adults.

  3. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to rewrit...

  4. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  5. Determining the Depth of Injury in Bioengineered Tissue Models of Cornea and Conjunctiva for the Prediction of All Three Ocular GHS Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zorn-Kruppa

    Full Text Available The depth of injury (DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response. Attempts to quantitatively determine the DOI in alternative tests have been limited to ex vivo animal eyes by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability in histological cross sections. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether DOI could also be measured by means of cell viability detected by the MTT assay using 3-dimensional (3D reconstructed models of cornea and conjunctiva. The formazan-free area of metabolically inactive cells in the tissue after topical substance application is used as the visible correlate of the DOI. Areas of metabolically active or inactive cells are quantitatively analyzed on cryosection images with ImageJ software analysis tools. By incorporating the total tissue thickness, the relative MTT-DOI (rMTT-DOI was calculated. Using the rMTT-DOI and human reconstructed cornea equivalents, we developed a prediction model based on suitable viability cut-off values. We tested 25 chemicals that cover the whole range of eye irritation potential based on the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS. Principally, the MTT-DOI test method allows distinguishing between the cytotoxic effects of the different chemicals in accordance with all 3 GHS categories for eye irritation. Although the prediction model is slightly over-predictive with respect to non-irritants, it promises to be highly valuable to discriminate between severe irritants (Cat. 1, and mild to moderate irritants (Cat. 2. We also tested 3D conjunctiva models with the aim to specifically address conjunctiva-damaging substances. Using the MTT-DOI method in this model delivers comparable results as the cornea model, but does not add additional information. However, the MTT-DOI method using reconstructed cornea models already provided good predictability that was superior to the already existing established in vitro/ex vivo

  6. Dermal, Eye, and Oral Toxicological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    produced no corneal opacity, iritis , hyperemia, chemosis, or discharge throughout the 72 hour observation period. This sample is non-irritating to...resolved in one eye by day 7 and in the other eye by day 14. Iritis was observed in all three eyes at 24 hours which resolved in one eye by 48 hours...other eye by day 7. Only one eye displayed iritis at 24 hours which resolved by the 72 hour observation period. Hyperemia, chemosis and discharge were

  7. Tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Nikshych, Dmitri; Ostrik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Is there a vector space whose dimension is the golden ratio? Of course not-the golden ratio is not an integer! But this can happen for generalizations of vector spaces-objects of a tensor category. The theory of tensor categories is a relatively new field of mathematics that generalizes the theory of group representations. It has deep connections with many other fields, including representation theory, Hopf algebras, operator algebras, low-dimensional topology (in particular, knot theory), homotopy theory, quantum mechanics and field theory, quantum computation, theory of motives, etc. This bo

  8. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  9. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limit

  10. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  11. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  12. Irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Iris S; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is the most common form of contact dermatitis. It represents the cutaneous response to the toxic/physical effects of a wide variety of environmental agents. Nowadays, it is recognized that irritancy does not represent a single monomorphous entity but rather a complex biologic syndrome with diverse pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. The clinical presentation is highly variable depending on several factors, including properties and strength of the irritant, dose, duration and frequency of exposure, environmental factors, and skin susceptibility. The pathophysiological mechanism depends on activation of the innate immune system and involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators that directly recruit and activate T lymphocytes. The diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is often clinical, and involves a comprehensive history and examination, as well as the exclusion of allergic contact dermatitis with patch testing. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis as well as better awareness of the clinical significance of ICD will lead to a improved care for our patients.

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  14. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  15. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  16. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids.

  17. [Irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocián, J

    1994-04-01

    Irritable bowel is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic or relapsing symptoms of abdominal pain and impaired frequency and consistency of the faeces caused by obscure structural or biochemical deviations. The frequency of the condition in civilized countries is estimated to amount to 15-20% of the population and it accounts for 25-50% of all patients in gastroenterological ambulatory departments. From the clinical aspect the type with dominant diarrhoea, typically in the morning and very compelling, and the type with pain and constipation are known but even combinations of the two types are encountered. A psychosomatic disorder of the motility of the large bowel and its tonus is involved associated with enhanced pain perception. Despite great efforts to find aetiopathogenetic factors, knowledge still is at the level of obscure theories. The diagnosis is still established per exclusion after all organic causes are ruled out, i.e. we always have to differentiate between an irritable bowel from an irritated one. In therapy the patient's confidence in his doctor is most important and it is essential to gain the patient's active cooperation. In case of diarrhoea a low-residue diet is used, calcium carbonate, codeine, loperamide, conversely in constipation adequate dietary fibre, intake metoclopramide or cisapride. Pain is relieved by spasmolytics or Ca channel blockers in the smooth musculature of the large bowel. The associated dysbiosis is transformed into eubiosis by Lactobacillus or other bacterial products.

  18. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...

  19. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  20. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  1. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  2. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    of 4 alleged AI (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) was studied on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers, and only glycerol showed dose-related response and effects potentially better than no treatment. The acute irritation model only allowed a small...

  3. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  4. 眼针对腹泻型肠易激综合征模型大鼠结肠P物质表达的影响%Effects of eye-acupuncture therapy on expression of SP rats with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳杰; 关洪全; 柴纪严; 赵金茹; 刘慧慧; 韩晓伟; 刘旭东; 王德山

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe effects of the eye-acupuncture therapy on expression of SP in colon in rats with irritable bowel syndrome, in order to explore mechanism of action the eye-acupuncture therapy on IBS; Methods: 30 male, SPF grade, wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, IBS model group, eye-acupuncture group. IBS rat model was established by chronic stress combined with constraint. Eye-acupuncture group were treated by eye-acupuncture 7d. Detect SP content changes by ELISA in serum and colon. SP mRNA expression level was detected by RT-PCR. SP protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: IBS model rats compared with normal control group SP were significantly elevated in serum and colon, expression of SP were significantly elevated eye-acupuncture group and Pinaverium bromide group compared with the IBS model group, SP were significantly lower in Serum and colon (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: Eye-acupuncture can reduce expression of SP in colon in IBS rat, which played a therapeutic role in IBS.%目的:观察眼针对腹泻型肠易激综合征( D-IBS)模型大鼠结肠组织中P物质(SP)表达的影响,探讨眼针治疗D-IBS的作用机制.方法:将30只SPF级雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为3组,每组10只:对照组、IBS组和服针组.采用慢性应激结合束缚方法建立D-IBS模型.然后采用眼针治疗.取下焦区、大肠区、肝区、脾区进行针刺,治疗7d.采用ELISA测定血清和结肠组织中SP含量的变化;采用RT-PCR测定结肠组织SP mRNA表达变化;采用免疫组化测定结肠组织SP蛋白表达变化.结果:与对照组比较,IBS组血清和结肠组织中S晗量显著升高(P<0.01),结肠组织中SP mRNA及蛋白表达水平显著升高(P<0.01,P<0.05);与IBS组比较,眼针组血清和结肠组织中SP含量显著降低(P<0.01),结肠组织中SP mRNA及蛋白表达水平显著降低(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论:眼针能够降低IBS模型大鼠血清和结肠

  5. Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Irritability Symptoms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Trepat, Esther; Domènech, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    This study traces the developmental course of irritability symptoms in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) from ages 3-5 and examines the psychopathological outcomes of the different trajectories at age 6. A sample of 622 3-year-old preschoolers (311 were boys), followed up until age 6, was assessed yearly with a semi-structured diagnostic interview with parents and at age 6 with questionnaires answered by parents, teachers and children. Growth-Mixture-Modeling yielded five trajectories of irritability levels for the whole sample (high-persistent 3.5%, decreasing 3.8%, increasing 2.6%, low-persistent 44.1% and null 46.0%). Among the children who presented with ODD during preschool age, three trajectories of irritability symptoms resulted (high-persistent 31.9%, decreasing 34.9% and increasing 33.2%). Null, low-persistent and decreasing irritability courses in the sample as a whole gave very similar discriminative capacity for children's psychopathological state at age 6, while the increasing and high-persistent categories involved poorer clinical outcomes than the null course. For ODD children, the high-persistent and increasing trajectories of irritability predicted disruptive behavior disorders, comorbidity, high level of functional impairment, internalizing and externalizing problems and low anger control at age 6. Irritability identifies a subset of ODD children at high risk of poorer longitudinal psychopathological and functional outcomes. It might be clinically relevant to identify this subset of ODD children with a high number of irritability symptoms throughout development with a view to preventing comorbid and future adverse longitudinal outcomes.

  6. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  7. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  8. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  9. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  10. Enriched model categories and diagram categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We collect in one place a variety of known and folklore results in enriched model category theory and add a few new twists. One twist is a new perspective on equivariant model categories. A central theme is a general procedure for constructing a Quillen adjunction, often a Quillen equivalence, between a given V-model category and a category of diagrams in V, where V is any good enriching category. From this perspective, we rederive the result of Schwede and Shipley that reasonable stable model categories are Quillen equivalent to diagram categories of spectra (alias categories of module spectra). The general theory will be applied to G-spectra in a sequel, and for that we need quite a few technical improvements and modifications of general model categorical results. We collect those here. They are bound to have applications in a variety of other contexts.

  11. IRRITABILITY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddard, Joel; Stringaris, Argyris; Brotman, Melissa A.; Montville, Daniel; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to compare self- and parent-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders, healthy youths, and those with mood disorders characterized by irritability. Irritability is a common but relatively understudied psychiatric symptom in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In anxious youths, little is known about the severity of irritability, its impact on functioning, or the effect of informant source on reports of irritability. Method: We compared parent- an...

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disease of unclear, complex pathophysiology characterised by abdominal pain and discomfort and altered bowel activity. It affects an estimated 10-15% of individuals worldwide and has a large impact on quality of life (QOL) and both direct and indirect healthcare costs. Symptoms of IBS are usually triggered by disruption of gastrointestinal (GI) function secondary to infection, dietary factors, lifestyle changes or psychological stress. While most currently available pharmacological treatments of IBS focus on symptomatic treatment of the syndrome, agents that attempt to address the pathophysiology of the disease, in particular the role of serotonin, have received much attention in recent years. However, there is growing concern that serotonergic agents as a class may be associated with rare, but serious, episodes of ischaemic colitis, with several cases of this complication having been reported in association with use of serotonergic agents that have reached the market. Thus, there remains an important need for safe and effective agents that treat the symptoms of IBS. Otilonium bromide, a spasmolytic agent, has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be effective and safe for managing abdominal pain. Clinical trials indicate that it improves baseline abdominal pain and distension, and is particularly effective in reducing diarrhoea. Combining otilonium bromide with benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, may improve the efficacy of the agent with respect to GI symptoms, while also treating underlying anxiety disorders. More research is required to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action associated with this combination therapy in IBS. Safety data from clinical trials and postmarketing sources indicate that otilonium bromide is well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to placebo in clinical trials and only two reported cases of adverse reactions (urticaria) among 10-year postmarketing data. This article reviews

  13. Atomical Grothendieck categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Năstăsescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of Gabriel dimension of a Grothendieck category, we introduce the concept of atomical Grothendieck category, which has only two localizing subcategories, and we give a classification of this type of Grothendieck categories.

  14. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  15. Irritation of a new specimen preservation solution on the skin,eye of rabbits and its effect for specimens preser-vation%新型保存液对家兔皮肤、眼的刺激性及标本保存的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁欣冬; 马文霞; 张优; 聂政

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct the preliminary toxicology tests and evaluate the preservation effect on a new specimen preservation solution in order to provide scientific basis for its application security. Methods Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly di-vided into the normal saline group, the formalin preservation group,the mixture group,and the new preservation solution group. Recorded the irritation of different solution on the skin,eye of rabbits,the effect of liver sample preservation in different solution,and the evaporation rate of these solution. And to find a set of preservative solution which is more suitable for preservation of specimens and can reduce the cost. Results The new preservation solution is stimulus on rabbit skin and eye,and it is stronger than the formaldehyde group. Compared with the other three groups,the mixture group has the best preservation effect, and the new preservation solution group has a better preservation effect than the formalin preservation solution group. Conclusion The 1∶1 mixture solution of the new preservation solution and formaldehyde is more suitable preservation solution and it can reduce the costs.%目的:对一种新型标本保存液进行初步的毒理学测试及保存效果评定,为该产品应用的安全实用性提供科学依据。方法24只新西兰大白耳兔随机平均分为生理盐水组、传统福尔马林保存液组、混合液组、新型保存液组,观察记录各组液体对新西兰大白耳兔的皮肤、眼的刺激性及肝脏标本保存效果以及各组液体的挥发率比较,期望找出更适用于保存标本和更低保存成本的一组保存液。结果新型保存液对家兔的皮肤和眼有一定的刺激性,且强于甲醛组。混合液组保存效果最好,而新型保存液优于甲醛。结论新型保存液和甲醛的1∶1混合液更适用于保存标本和降低保存液成本。

  16. Acute local irritative effect of (2''R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, a new antitumor antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, H; Kiyosaki, T; Cuthbert, J A; Carr, S M; Aitken, R

    1986-02-01

    (2"R)-4'-O-Tetrahydropyranyladriamycin hydrochloride (THP), a new antitumor antibiotic, was administered to rabbits at a concentration from 0.02 to 0.5% by instillation, or by intracutaneous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection to study its local irritative effect. The irritative effect of THP increased with concentration. At a concentration of 0.5%, THP was irritant to the eye, skin and muscle but at a concentration of 0.1% practically no effect was observed. The effect was equal to or lower than that of doxorubicin. An instillation of 0.5% THP caused reversible irritation effect on the eye. Slight conjunctival responses (redness and chemoisis) were observed. Rinsing reduced the irritative effect. Intracutaneous injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% THP caused well defined, moderate erythema, surface ulceration and dermal necrosis. Cutaneous muscle necrosis also occurred. At a concentration of 0.02%, dermal necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed. Erythema, as well as muscle necrosis and calcification with giant cell reaction and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed by an intramuscular injection at a concentration of 0.5%. Subcutaneous injection of 0.5% THP showed no irritative effect.

  17. Eye acupuncture therapy up-regulates aquaporin 3 expression in the colon of rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome%眼针对腹泻型肠易激综合征模型大鼠结肠水通道蛋白3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳杰; 刘慧慧; 刘旭东; 柴纪严; 赵金茹; 王德山

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of eye acupuncture against diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) by investigating the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in the colon of D-IBS rats.METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group,D-IBS model group, and eye acupuncture group.D-IBS was induced in rats of the D-IBS model group and eye acupuncture group by chronic stress and constraint. The eye acupuncture group underwent eye acupuncture therapy for 7 d. VIP mRNA expression in the colon was detected by RT-PCR. The mRNA and protein expression of AQP3 in the colon was detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, respectively.RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the mRNA expression level of VIP in the colon was increased significantly (0.94 ± 0.07 vs 0.64 ± 0.15,P < 0.01) and the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 in the colon were remarkably decreased (1.09 ± 0.09 vs 7.02 ± 1.25; 0.284 ± 0.020 vs 0.601 ± 0.027, both P < 0.01) in the D-lBS model group. Eye acupuncture therapy remarkably decreased the mRNA expression of VIP (0.78 ± 0.15 vs 0.94 ± 0.07, P < 0.01) but significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of AQP3 (2.33 ± 0.66 vs 1.09 ± 0.09; 0.374 ± 0.03 vs 10.284 ± 0.020, both P < 0.01) in D-IBS rats.CONCLUSION: Oversecretion of VIP and hyposerection of AQP3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of D-lBS. Eye acupuncture therapy exerts therapeutic effects against D-lBS in rats possibly by down-regulating VIP expression and up-regulating AQP3 expression in the colon.%目的:研究眼针对腹泻型肠易激综合征(D-IBS)模型大鼠结肠血管活性肠肽(VIP)和水通道蛋白3(AQP3)表达的影响,探讨眼针对D-IBS模型大鼠结肠水液代谢的调控作用和机制.方法:SPF级Wistar大鼠30只,随机分为对照组、D-IBS模型组和眼针组,每组10只.采用慢性应激结合束缚方法

  18. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  19. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  20. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O'Connor, Brian P; Stewart, Donna E

    2016-04-08

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition.

  1. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  2. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  3. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  4. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  5. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  6. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  7. Irritation durch Waschen und Desinfizieren

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Caroline Maria

    2006-01-01

    Ziel dieser Studie war die Irritation der Haut, hervorgerufen durch alkoholische Desinfektionsmittel und das Detergens Natriumlaurylsulfat (0,5% NLS) in einem repetitiven Testdesign zu untersuchen. Mittels nicht invasiver Untersuchungsmethoden quantifizierten wir die irritativen Effekte von Sterillium®, 2-Propanol 45% v/v, 1-Propanol 30% v/v, welches die alkoholische Grundlage von Sterillium® darstellt sowie von Wasser und NLS 0,5...

  8. Skew-closed categories

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the new examples found by Kornel Szlach\\'anyi of a form of lax monoidal category, the author felt the time ripe to publish a reworking of Eilenberg-Kelly's original paper on closed categories appropriate to the laxer context. The new examples are connected with bialgebroids. With Stephen Lack, we have also used the concept to give an alternative definition of quantum category and quantum groupoid. Szlach\\'anyi has called the lax notion {\\em skew monoidal}. This paper defines {\\em skew closed category}, proves Yoneda lemmas for categories enriched over such, and looks at closed cocompletion.

  9. An in vitro tier evaluation for the identification of cosmetic ingredients which are not ocular irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Shigenobu; Okazaki, Yuuko; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    A tier evaluation system was assessed as an alternative method for the identification of cosmetic ingredients which are not ocular irritants. The system employed monolayer cultures of SIRC cells, an established cell line originally derived from the rabbit cornea, and a three-dimensional living dermal model (LDM), MATREXtrade mark, which consists of human dermal fibroblasts in a contracted collagen lattice. Effects on the cell monolayer cultures were determined by using SIRC cell-Crystal Violet staining (SIRC-CVS), and effects on the LDM were assessed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A non-irritating ingredient was defined as a compound having a maximal average total score (MAS) of 5 or less in the Draize eye test, as this is the criterion used in the Japanese draft guidance for evaluating cosmetic ingredients. Among 34 test substances with known characteristics, 30 were classified accurately. Based on these encouraging results, the possibility of simplifying the MTT assay on the LDM for more-practical use, by selecting only three concentration levels to discriminate non-irritants from irritants, was assessed. The simplified method, involving a three-dose set (the three-dose method), was confirmed as being suitable for the identification of non-irritating ingredients, with triethanolamine used as a negative reference standard. Finally, the LDM was used to evaluate compounds at similar concentrations to those tested in vivo, aiming to predict the concentration at which an ingredient can be formulated into products without causing eye irritation. On the basis of previous validation data and our additional results, it was found that test samples that resulted in a cell viability of 50% or more in this model, could be classified as non-irritating ingredients. In all, these results indicate that the tier evaluation system may be suitable for the evaluation of ingredients intended to be used in cosmetics and medicated

  10. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON ACUPOINT DIGITAL PRESSING FOR TREATING IRRITABLE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POSTOPERATION OF MYOPORTHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓阳

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore a new effective approach for treatment of the local irritable symptoms and signs resulted from myoporthosis operation.Methods:263 cases of radial keratotomy outpatients were divided into control group (n=49,90 eyes) and treatment group (n=214,412 eyes).Patients of control group were treated with 0.5% Chloramphenicol eye drops,3 times daily,1-2 drops/time,and with 0.5% Erythromycine eye ointment every night.In treatment group,patients were treated with acupoint and hand reflection area digital pressing method except with the same eye drops and eye ointment.Body acupoints used were Cuanzhu (BL 2),Yuyao (EX-HN 4),Sizhukong (TE 23),Sibai (ST 2) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5).The hand reflex areas used were Eye Area,Liver Area,Kidney Area,Spleen Area,Heart Area and Lung Area.Five days constituted a therapeutic course.Results:Following 3 courses (15 days) of treatment,the markedly effective rate and total effective rate of treatment group and control group were 74.51% and 38.89%,94.17% and 66.67% respectively.There was a significant difference between two groups in the total effective rate (P<0.05),showing the therapeutic effect of treatment group being better than that of control group.Conclusion:Acupoint digital pressing is rather effective in treatment of myoporthosis post-operation irritable symptoms and signs.

  11. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON ACUPOINT DIGITAL PRESSING FOR TREATING IRRITABLE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POSTOPERATION OF MYOPORTHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new effective approach for treatment of the local irritable symptoms and signs resulted from myoporthosis operation. Methods: 263 cases of radial keratotomy outpatients were divided into control group (n=49, 90 eyes) and treatment group (n=214, 412 eyes). Patients of control group were treated with 0.5%Chloramphenicol eye drops, 3 times daily, 1 -2 drops/time, and with 0.5% Erythromycine eye ointment every night.In treatment group, patients were treated with aoupoint and hand reflection area digital pressing method except with the same eye drops and eye ointment. Body acupoints used were Cuanzhu (BL 2), Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Sizhukong (TE 23), Sibai (ST 2) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5). The hand reflex areas used were Eye Area, Liver Area, Kidney Area,Spleen Area, Heart Area and Lung Area. Five days constituted a therapeutic course. Results: Following 3 courses ( 15days) of treatment, the markedly effective rate and total effective rate of treatment group and control group were 74.51% and 38.89%, 94.17% and 66.67% respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in the total effective rate ( P < 0.05), showing the therapeutic effect of treatment group being better than that of control group. Conclusion: Acupoint digital pressing is rather effective in treatment of myoporthosis post-operation irritable symptoms and signs.

  12. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation.

  13. [Non-irritating skin protector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago Fornells, Manuel; García González, R Fernando; Gaztelu Valdés, Victoriana

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the authors describe the multiple uses a non irritating cutaneous protector has as an effective tool against the aggressions which peri-lesion skin and other at risk skins suffer when they are subject to constant and direct contact with secretions and liquids resulting from the use of dressings based on wet cures, or systems of continence related to ostomias, or in those patients who suffer mixed incontinence where diaper rash makes it difficult to maintain and care for the skin.

  14. [Surface changes in glass eye prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härting, F; Flörke, O W; Bornfeld, N; Trester, W

    1984-10-01

    The exposed surface of new glass eye protheses becomes rough and is destroyed in use. The changes in the exposed surfaces have been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and with thin sections under optical microscopes. The alteration process depends on the length of time the artificial eye is worn. The main cause is chemical attack of the glass surface in the tear fluid, which is usually slightly alkaline. Chronic conjunctival inflammation, appearing after a long period of wearing the same artificial eye, may be caused by mechanical irritation from the surface roughness.

  15. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  16. Categories of Fractions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.

  17. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosbaum, Audrey; Vocanson, Marc; Rozieres, Aurore; Hennino, Anca; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are common inflammatory skin diseases induced by repeated skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals, called xenobiotics or haptens. Although both diseases may have similar clinical presentations, they can be differentiated on pathophysiological grounds. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-specific inflammatory dermatitis brought about by activation of the innate immune system by the pro-inflammatory properties of chemicals. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) corresponds to a delayed-type hypersensitivity response with a skin inflammation mediated by hapten-specific T cells. Recent progress in the pathophysiology of chemical-induced skin inflammation has shown that ICD and ACD are closely associated and that the best way to prevent ACD is to develop strategies to avoid ICD. The immunological diagnosis of ICD or ACD requires investigation of the presence (ACD) or absence (ICD) of antigen-specific T cells. The detection of T cells can be performed in the skin (collected from ACD lesions or positive patch tests) and/or in the blood, particularly by using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). This method, recently developed in ACD to metals, offers a new biological tool enabling the immunobiological diagnosis of ACD.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of mucous membrane irritations in a community near a cement factory in Zambia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-16

    Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15-59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  19. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  20. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  1. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  3. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  4. Representation of categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.

  5. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. A strategy for skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future.

  8. Variation within categories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of variation within categories, relating to different models of categorization, were investigated - frequency of dimensional values and typicality differences within values. The influence of range of typicality experienced during learning and of informational value of feedback was also

  9. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  10. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  12. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  13. Tvorba konceptu category managementu

    OpenAIRE

    Lepař, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define proces of creating the concept of category management and to apply the proces via existing assortment concept of certain retail company. The theoretical part covers basics of category management, merchandising and other related disciplines and its influence to creating concepts. Practical part includes detailed description of creating the concept, realized by retail company, selling Do it yourself products. Creation proces will start by anylysing current s...

  14. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  15. Assessment of recovery from ocular irritancy using a human tissue equivalent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espersen, R J; Olsen, P; Nicolaisen, G M; Jensen, B L; Rasmussen, E S

    1997-01-01

    The SKIN(2) ZK1200 tissue equivalent model has been used in an exploratory study of recovery from ocular irritation. Nine substances from the ECETOC eye irritation reference chemicals data bank were tested. The cellular viability of the tissue model was measured using the MTT assay immediately after chemical exposure and after incubation periods corresponding to observation times used in the Draize tests. The cellular viability of the tissue specimens exposed to moderate irritants, with modified maximum average score (MMAS) values between 15 and 40 (= 5), returned to control levels within 1-7 days. Tissue specimens exposed to 1 and 10% benzalkonium chloride showed significantly reduced MTT activities at day 14 and day 21. Mild ocular irritants, with MMAS values below 3 (n = 2), did not induce significant depressions of the MTT activities of the tissue specimens after 60 min exposure. A relatively good correlation (r = 0.73) was obtained between the exposure times used in vitro and Draize MMAS values. Moreover, the incubation periods needed for the exposed SKIN(2) ZK1200 to regain control MTT activities showed a good agreement (r > 0.90) with days-to-clear ocular irritancy in the Draize test.

  16. Therapy of corneal erosions and 'dry eye' with Solcoseryl and Vitasic eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannig, H M; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl eye drops versus Vitasic eye drops has been carried out under controlled conditions (randomized and double-blind) on a total of 94 patients. 52 had corneal erosion, 30 had dry eye syndrome, 8 cases could not be evaluated. In addition, 2 eyes with photophthalmia were treated with Vitasic and 2 showing keratitis with Solcoseryl. There were no adverse reactions other than 2 instances of stinging with Solcoseryl and 1 case of severe irritation after Vitasic. The patients were examined on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Results showed a consistent superiority of Solcoseryl eye drops in respect to speed of healing of corneal erosions and moistening of the cornea in the 'dry eye' syndrome which reached statistical significance in some parameters.

  17. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2...... and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive...

  18. A convenient differential category

    CERN Document Server

    Blute, Richard; Tasson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the category of Mackey-complete, separated, topological convex bornological vector spaces and bornological linear maps is a differential category. Such spaces were introduced by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, where they were called convenient vector spaces. While much of the structure necessary to demonstrate this observation is already contained in Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl's book, we here give a new interpretation of the category of convenient vector spaces as a model of the differential linear logic of Ehrhard and Regnier. Rather than base our proof on the abstract categorical structure presented by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, we prefer to focus on the bornological structure of convenient vector spaces. We believe bornological structures will ultimately yield a wide variety of models of differential logics.

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion...

  20. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome What is IBS? ... physical and mental causes and isn’t a product of a person’s imagination. What are the four ...

  1. Serotonin, visceral sensation in irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jia-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is highly prevalent and can affect up to 20% of the population.1 It is a common gastrointestinal(GI) disorder associated with alterations in motility,secretion and visceral sensation.

  2. Focus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, A; Loguercio, C

    2012-09-01

    The Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic abdominal dis-comfort associated with changes in bowel habits and these symptoms can't be explained by any biochemical or organic abnormalities. The review summarizes the relevant findings that have emerged in recent years on the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The most important mechanisms recently implicated in the genesis of IBS symptoms are the abnormal intestinal motility, the incongruous intestinal gas production and the enhanced intestinal nociception. A lot evidence confirms the presence of dysfunction of the intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS) as demonstrated by the presence of altered expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), putinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3r), tetrodoxin-sensitive receptor 2 (TTRX2), protease activated receptors (PPARs) and others. There are different assumption that explain these phenomena, and the impairment of the immune system is one of the most reliable. In IBS subjects it was found that the immune system is altered in both the cellular composition and its activation. Many studies have shown that inflammation and immune dysregulation affect the sensitivity of nerve fibers so it is vital to build on this argument for the development of effective therapies to control the symptoms of this syndrome.

  3. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  4. Irritated Method for Flat warts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBingxu

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background The relation between spontaneous regression of Flat warts and T cells depended immunity was confirmed. Cells immunity against HPV was induced by presenting of HPV related antigens, and thrived by cytokine and some chemistry agent. So how to make HPV which incubated in keratinocyte to present PHV antigens and keratinocyte to secret cytokine or chemistry agents should be a pursuance for dermatologist who are looking for a efficient method to deal with flat warts. Present research had exhibited inflammable agents can induce dermatitis when apply to the skin surface, so it might bring flat warts to spontaneous regression. Objective To observe the effectiveness of irritant drugs on flat warts, and at same time to understand more on the mechanism of the regression. Methods Compared with Control we treat 88 case of flat warts with retinoid gel or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution plus 5 % salicylic acid cream (HPSC). Results Both retinoid gel and HPSC reveal significant effect on flat warts. Conclusion Retinoid gel or SPHC was effective on the treatment of flat warts. The possible explanation for this is the drugs when put on the skin will induce dermatitis and dissolve or denude keratin.

  5. Simplicial Descent Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2008-04-01

    Much of the homotopical and homological structure of the categories of chain complexes and topological spaces can be deduced from the existence and properties of the 'simple' functors Tot : {double chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and geometric realization : {sSets} -> {Top}, or similarly, Tot : {simplicial chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and | | : {sTop} -> {Top}. The purpose of this thesis is to abstract this situation, and to this end we introduce the notion of '(co)simplicial descent category'. It is inspired by Guillen-Navarros's '(cubical) descent categories'. The key ingredients in a (co)simplicial descent category D are a class E of morphisms in D, called equivalences, and a 'simple' functor s : {(co)simplicial objects in D} -> D. They must satisfy axioms like 'Eilenberg-Zilber', 'exactness' and 'acyclicity'. This notion covers a wide class of examples, as chain complexes, sSets, topological spaces, filtered cochain complexes (where E = filtered quasi-isomorphisms or E = E_2-isomorphisms), commutative differential graded algebras (with s = Navarro's Thom-Whitney simple), DG-modules over a DG-category and mixed Hodge complexes, where s = Deligne's simple. From the simplicial descent structure we obtain homotopical structure on D, as cone and cylinder objects. We use them to i) explicitly describe the morphisms of HoD=D[E^{-1}] similarly to the case of calculus of fractions; ii) endow HoD with a non-additive pre-triangulated structure, that becomes triangulated in the stable additive case. These results use the properties of a 'total functor', which associates to any biaugmented bisimplicial object a simplicial object. It is the simplicial analogue of the total chain complex of a double complex, and it is left adjoint to Illusie's 'decalage' functor.

  6. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  8. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  10. Hand disinfection: how irritant are alcohols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Harald; Kampf, Günter

    2008-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is commonly found on hands of healthcare employees and is often explained by contact to water and detergents. Studies on the dermal tolerance clearly show that the degree of skin irritation is significantly lower after application of alcohol in comparison to detergents. It has also been shown in standardised wash tests using a foam roller that the application of alcohol or water immediately after a detergent-based wash can significantly decrease the degree of skin irritation, probably due to a wash-off of residual detergent. If evidence-based hand hygiene is taught early during nurses training it can substantially reduce irritant contact dermatitis supporting initiatives of primary prevention among healthcare employees. The irritant potential of commonly used alcohols in hand antiseptics is very low. If the skin is pre-irritated, e.g. by detergents or water, alcohols can cause a burning sensation which is, however, not an allergic reaction and does not further harm the skin. True allergic reactions to alcohols have so far not been confirmed. From the dermatological point of view the use of alcohols for hand hygiene has clear advantages over washing with water and detergents.

  11. The slug mucosal irritation (SMI) assay: development of a screening tool for the evaluation of ocular discomfort caused by shampoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Joke; Claerhout, Ilse; Kestelyn, Philippe; Klomp, Andre; Remon, Jean-Paul; Adriaens, Els

    2011-12-01

    In this research, the slug mucosal irritation (SMI) assay was applied to predict ocular discomfort caused by shampoos to investigate the correlation between responses in slugs and humans. Several SMI experiments and a human eye irritation test (HEIT) were performed with 1 artificial tear solution (ArtTear) and 5 shampoos (A-E; 5%-dilution). In the HEIT, evaluation was performed by participants and an ophthalmologist at several time points. Analyses reveal that (1) a significant positive association existed between immediate stinging reaction reported by the participants and the mean total mucus produced by the slugs (MTMP) (Spearman's Rank correlation=0.986, pSMI assay is a promising evaluation method for discomfort in the human eye. Screening prototype (eye) formulations with this assay allows formula optimization prior to a HEIT.

  12. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  13. Treatment of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome with mesalazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bafutto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Recent studies support the hypothesis that postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and some irritable bowel syndrome patients display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation. Mesalazine has intestinal anti-inflammatory properties including cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin inhibition. The effects of mesalazine on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome patients are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of mesalazine on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea patients. METHODS: Based on Rome III criteria, 61 irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea patients (18 years old or more were included in the evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups: postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, with 18 patients medicated with mesalazine 800 mg 3 times a day for 30 days; noninfective irritable bowel syndrome group, with 43 patients medicated with mesalazine 800 mg 3 times a day for 30 days. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a four-point Likert scale including stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol Stool Scale, abdominal pain and distension (maximum score: 16; minimum score: 4. RESULTS: Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group presented a statistically significant reduction of the total symptom score (P<0.0001. The stool frequency was significantly reduced (P<0.0001, and stool consistency, improved (P<0.0001. Abdominal pain (P<0.0001 and abdominal distension were significantly reduced (P<0.0001. Noninfective irritable bowel syndrome group presented a statistically significant reduction of total symptom score (P<0.0001. Also, the stool frequency was significantly reduced (P<0.0001 and stool consistency, improved (P<0.0001. Abdominal pain (P<0.0001 and abdominal distention were significantly reduced (P<0.0001. There was no statistical difference between

  14. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  15. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  16. [Migraine and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Paradowski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    The association between migraine and functional gastrointestinal disorders has been confirmed by many clinical observations and epidemiological studies. In most patients during the attacks of migraine, apart from various neurological and vascular symptoms, gastrointestinal disturbances occur including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are reported in migraine patients in periods between the attacks as well. On the other hand 23-53% of IBS patients have frequent headaches. Migraine and IBS often coexist with fibromyalgia and other chronic pain syndromes and functional disorders. Migraine and IBS affect approximately 10-20% of the general population, usually young adults. Both diseases are more prevalent in women, perhaps due to the role of estrogen in their pathogenesis. Looking for the common pathogenetic mechanisms of IBS and migraine the role of the brain-gut axis, neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions are being considered. The influence of stress on symptom occurrence and severity seems to be associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The enteric nervous system as a source of numerous neurotransmitters and visceral reflexes is a plausible common pathogenic link between IBS and migraine. In particular serotonin being the main neurotransmitter of the gastrointestinal tract plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of IBS as well as migraine. Nowadays, agonists and antagonists of serotoninergic receptors are the most efficacious drugs for IBS and migraine therapy. Some side effects of triptans, 5-HT(1B/D) agonists, used in migraine treatment may be connected with the influence of triptans on the gastrointestinal functions. A better understanding of the relationship between migraine and IBS may result in more effective treatment of both diseases.

  17. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  18. The Isolated Chicken Eye test to replace the Draize test in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Menk K; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Krul, Cyrille A M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2017-04-01

    In 1944, Draize et al., published a paper entitled "Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes". The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development published their first guideline on eye irritation in 1981, using rabbits. In the early eighties the development of alternative non-animal tests to replace the Draize eye test started. The first attempts to validate alternative tests for eye irritation were considered to be relatively simple by comparing in vitro and in vivo irritation index scores. In the early nineteen-eighties, we introduced the use of isolated eyes as an alternative test for the Draize eye irritation test. What was expected to be a process of several years, however, turned out to be a decades spanning process still not fully completed. For a large part, this can be attributed to the nature of the in vivo test in rabbits, which is more complicated and compromised than originally believed. This paper describes, most chronologically, the development, performance, validation and application of the Isolated Eye Test and, in broader perspective, the international validation and acceptance of this alternative test by regulatory authorities and agencies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  20. Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.J.L.; Lehé, C.L.; Hasegawa, H.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to

  1. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Dry Eye Patients With Chronic Pain Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Smitt-Kamminga, Nicole Sillevis; Kozareva, Diana; Nibourg, Simone A.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) patients with a chronic pain syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. study. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-five patients of a tertiary care DED patient cohort in the Netherlands were included. Chronic pain syndromes irritable bowel s

  3. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part II. Evaluation evaluation of skin irritation potential of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of skin irritation potential of chemicals is essential to secure the safety of individuals exposed to several substances designed for industrial, pharmaceutical or cosmetic use. Until recently, preclinical safety assessment of chemicals was largely based on animal experiments. Ethical concerns and the limited value of animal models in evaluating human skin irritation potential resulted in the development of alternative in vitro methods, such as EpiDerm, EPISKIN or SkinEthic, to assess irritation, i.e. cell cultures and human epidermis models. International organizations like the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) promotes and monitors the development of nonanimal tests. Human patch tests and use tests also provide an opportunity to identify substances with significant skin irritation potential without recourse to the use of animals. These tests are useful to assess skin irritation potential of cosmetics and detergents.

  4. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  7. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  9. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  10. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  11. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: selection of test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Cole, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Worth, Andrew; Cockshott, Amanda; Gerner, Ingrid; Zuang, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    The ECVAM-funded skin irritation validation study (SIVS) was initiated in 2003, with the aim to evaluate whether the EpiDerm, EPISKIN and the SIFT alternative methods were able to reliably identify skin irritant and non-irritant chemicals, and could therefore be candidates for replacing the rabbit Draize test for skin irritation. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the predictive capacity of the assays with regard to the EU classification system, which employs the risk phrases, "R38", for skin irritants, and "no label" for non-irritants. A secondary objective was the retrospective analysis of the data, to assess whether the in vitro tests would be able to discriminate between strong irritants (category 2), mild irritants (category 3) and non-irritants (no category), as defined by the OECD and United Nations proposal for a Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for the classification and labelling of dermal irritancy. A Chemicals Selection Sub-Committee (CSSC) was appointed to identify test chemicals to be used in the SIVS, for which existing, high quality in vivo data were available, with which to correlate the in vitro measurements. Since chemicals from the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) database of reference chemicals for skin irritation/skin corrosion had been extensively used in preceding studies, the CSSC made use of novel sources for potential test chemicals. The first source of chemicals screened was the New Chemicals Database (NCD), which is the central archive within the EU notification scheme for 'new' commercial chemicals. Data registered in the NCD originate from standard assays, submitted in compliance with the legislation which regulates the marketing of industrial chemicals, and are subject to quality assurance by the competent authorities of the EU Member States. In addition, to obtain 'existing' chemicals which were readily available from major manufacturing and/or distribution sources, additional

  12. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  13. Acupuncture treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, A; Enck, P; Streitberger, K; Weiland, C; Bagheri, S; Witte, S; Friederich, HC; Zipfel, S; Herzog, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Despite occasional positive reports on the efficacy of acupuncture (AC) on functions of the gastrointestinal tract, there is no conclusive evidence that AC is effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients and methods: Forty three patients with IBS accord

  14. Post-myelographic meningeal irritation with iohexol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, J.; Deloffre, D.; Vandresse, J.H.; Sintzoff, S. (Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. de Radiologie); Boucquey, J.P. (Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. de Neurologie)

    1991-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman developed signs of meningeal irritation after myelography with iohexol. Her condition improved very quickly (after antibiotic treatment). Rapid improvement, absence of pathogenic organisms in the pre-treatment CSF culture, the level of CSF pleocytosis and protein were in favor of chemical meningitis. (orig.).

  15. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who wo

  16. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  17. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  18. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  19. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S

    2001-02-01

    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  20. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  1. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  2. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administe...

  4. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  5. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  6. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  7. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  8. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  10. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  11. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  12. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  15. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  16. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  17. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  18. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  1. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  2. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  3. 眼针对肠易激综合征模型大鼠结肠组织和血清5-HT、5-HIAA的影响%Effect of Eye Acupuncture on Colonic and Serum 5-HT and 5-HIAA in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋士一; 王德山; 王艳杰; 李丹; 李任峰

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察肠易激综合征(Irritable bowel syndrome,IBS)模型大鼠远端结肠组织5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT)和5-羟吲哚乙酸(5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid,5-HIAA)的表达以及眼针干预的影响.方法 实验动物分成正常组、模型组、眼针组,采用束缚刺激与应激刺激相结合的方法建立IBS动物模型并进行眼针干预.各组采用ELISA法检测血清和远端结肠组织中5-HT和5-HIAA水平.结果 与正常组比较,模型组5-HT和5-HIAA水平均显著升高,5-HT转化率也显著升高,但5-HT的增加量明显高于5-HIAA的增加量,提示5-HT降解与合成分泌的不相匹配可能是模型组大鼠5-HT水平升高的重要原因;而与模型组比较,眼针组5-HT和5-HIAA水平明显下降,眼针组5-HT转化率显著降低.结论 5-HT降解与合成分泌的不相匹配可能是模型组大鼠5-HT水平升高的重要原因,眼针干预可有效改善IBS大鼠5-HT代谢,使5-HT恢复至正常水平.

  4. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  5. DG categories and exceptional collections

    CERN Document Server

    Bodzenta-Skibińska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Bondal and Kapranov describe how to assign to a full exceptional collection on a variety X a DG category C such that the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on X is equivalent to the bounded derived category of C. In this paper we show that the category C has finite dimensional spaces of morphisms. We describe how it behaves under mutations and present an algorithm allowing to calculate it for full exceptional collections with vanishing Ext^k groups for k > 1. Finally, we use it to describe an example of a non-commutative deformation of certain rational surfaces.

  6. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  7. The effect on human eye blink frequency of exposure to limonene oxidation products and methacrolein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Christensen, Karl Bang; Wolkoff, Peder

    2005-01-01

    to LOPs and methacrolein compared to the baseline of clean air, and the findings coincided with weak eye irritation symptoms. Lowest observed effect levels were 286 ppb methacrolein and a 10-min-old LOPs mixture of initially 92 ppb limonene and 101 ppb ozone (O3), which increased the BF comparably by 18......% (p=0.001) and 17% (p=0.003), respectively. The increase in BF was smaller, although not significantly different, during exposure to LOPs at 50% RH to 20% RH in mixtures prepared from ca. 350 ppb limonene and 300 ppb O3. LOPs may cause trigeminal stimulation and possibly eye irritation at O3...

  8. African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

    2010-01-01

    We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

  9. Effects of acupoint area and non-acupoint area of eye-acupuncture on expressions of VIP and AQP 8 in colonic tissues in rats with D-IBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the point specificity of eye-acupuncture and the mechanism of eye-acupuncture on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS).Methods Forty male Wistar rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group,a model group,a eye-acupuncture point(AA) group and

  10. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  11. Audiovisual recalibration of vowel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.K.M.; Eisner, F.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most daunting tasks of a listener is to map a continuous auditory stream onto known speech sound categories and lexical items. A major issue with this mapping problem is the variability in the acoustic realizations of sound categories, both within and across speakers. Past research has

  12. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...

  13. Dagger Categories of Tame Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an involutive monoidal category the notion of a comparison relation is identified. Instances are equality on sets, inequality on posets, orthogonality on orthomodular lattices, non-empty intersection on powersets, and inner product on vector or Hilbert spaces. Associated with a collection of such (symmetric) comparison relations a dagger category is defined with "tame" relations as morphisms. Examples include familiar categories in the foundations of quantum mechanics, such as sets with partial injections, or with locally bifinite relations, or with formal distributions between them, or Hilbert spaces with bounded (continuous) linear maps. Of one particular example of such a dagger category of tame relations, involving sets and bifinite multirelations between them, the categorical structure is investigated in some detail. It turns out to involve symmetric monoidal dagger structure, with biproducts, and dagger kernels. This category may form an appropriate universe for discrete quantum co...

  14. Abelian categories in dimension 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define a 2-dimensional version of abelian categories, where symmetric 2-groups play the role that abelian groups played in 1-dimensional algebra. Abelian and 2-abelian groupoid enriched categories are defined and it is proved that homology can be developed in them, including the existence of a long exact sequence of homology corresponding to an extension of chain complexes. This generalises known results for symmetric 2-groups. The examples include, in addition to symmetric 2-groups, the 2-modules on a 2-ring, which form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category. Moreover, internal groupoids, functors and natural transformations in an abelian category C (in particular, Baez-Crans 2-vector spaces) form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category if and only if the axiom of choice holds in C.

  15. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...... the structural variants attested across languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants to be useful for e.g. morphosyntactic typology. Furthermore, major typological word order studies after Greenberg (1966) have failed to keep formal and semantic categories apart......: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32-5, 429–92. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In Joseph H. Greenberg (ed.), Universals of Language, 73-113. Cambridge: MIT. Keesing...

  16. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    in the process of verbal communication (in the tradition of the Prague School). I will argue that (a) functional categorization is methodologically prior to formal and semantic categorization (functional categories include semantic and formal categories) and (b) functional categories give better cross...... in their attempt to account for cross-linguistic ordering tendencies (Rijkhoff 2009a).       Recent proposals to employ ‘concepts’ as the basis for cross-linguistic comparison (apparently conflating linguistic/semantic and non-linguistic/cognitive categories) have also met with considerable skepticism (Levinson......, Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13...

  17. Effects of benzydamine eye drops on the rabbit's eye reaction to surgical, physical, and chemical stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazzoli, L.; Bonora, A.; Luparini, M.R.; Durando, L.; Ciarniello, M.G.; Cioli, V.; Bonomi, L.

    The effects of benzydamine eye drops on the ocular reaction to different irritating stimuli in rabbits are reported. Benzydamine at the concentration of 0.1% reduces inflammatory tissue changes induced by AgNO3 burning of the cornea and inhibits the blood-aqueous barrier breakdown due to peripheral iridectomy or laser irradiation of the iris. Benzydamine reduces the aqueous PGE2 concentration to a similar extent as a 0.5% commercially available eye drop formulation of piroxicam. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro results demonstrating that benzydamine is devoid of any effects on PG synthesis. The possibility that PGE2 reduction is an indirect effect due to other biochemical activities of benzydamine is discussed. In the normal eye benzydamine manifests a local anaesthetic effect which is not accompanied by irritative changes in the anterior segment of the eye, changes in the intraocular pressure or pupillary size. It is suggested that in the clinical use of benzydamine eye drops the local anaesthetic activity may contribute to reducing both the neurogenic component of ocular inflammation and acute pain following injuries to the eye.

  18. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  19. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Seo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  20. Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement.

  1. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  2. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE...

  3. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design....

  4. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  5. What environmental factors irritate people with acquired brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie

    2004-08-19

    This study aims to determine the environmental factors nurses identify as being irritating to people with acquired brain injury. This was a qualitative study. An experienced interviewer used the Critical Decision Method to interview 28 nurses working in 10 inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units in Australia on a one to one basis for 1-1.5 h on two consecutive days. Transcripts of interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nurses identified five groups of irritants that acted as triggers for aggression: The nurses in this study identified many environmental factors that irritate people with acquired brain injury. Some irritants appeared unavoidable but others could be addressed by staff expertise.

  6. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted;

    2008-01-01

    . Wash test: induction of irritation by three daily washings for 6 days and maintenance of the dermatitis by two daily washings for 12 days with SLS 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% or NON 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally (transepidermal water loss, colorimetry...

  7. Causal categories: relativistically interacting processes

    CERN Document Server

    Coecke, Bob

    2011-01-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a `causal category'. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study t...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  11. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  12. Rigidification of quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction for rigidifying a quasi-category into a simplicial category, and prove that it is weakly equivalent to the rigidification given by Lurie. Our construction comes from the use of necklaces, which are simplicial sets obtained by stringing simplices together. As an application of these methods, we use our model to reprove some basic facts from Lurie's "Higher Topos Theory" regarding the rigidification process.

  13. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  14. Eye injuries in the extreme environment ultra-marathon runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Thomas Adam; Kropelnicki, Anna

    2015-06-02

    We present the case of an ultra-marathon runner who developed a painful irritated eye due to prolonged exposure to high wind speed and sub-zero temperatures causing transient freezing and subsequent abrasion of the cornea. We recommend that all ultra-marathon runners racing in windy or exposed conditions should wear wrap-around eye protection or goggles. If runners present to checkpoints or after the race to primary care or the emergency department with ocular pain, corneal freezing and abrasions should be considered. Management should include ocular examination and withdrawing the runner from harmful conditions.

  15. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  16. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management.

  17. Managing irritable bowel syndrome in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Maura; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    The classic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are abdominal pain, bloating and some form of bowel dysfunction. The pain is typically colicky in nature and can occur at any site although most commonly it is on the left side. The abdomen feels flat in the morning and then gradually becomes more bloated as the day progresses reaching a peak by late afternoon or evening. It then subsides again over night. Traditionally IBS is divided into diarrhoea, constipation or alternating subtypes. IBS patients frequently complain of one or more non-colonic symptoms, these include constant lethargy, low backache, nausea, bladder symptoms suggestive of an irritable bladder, chest pain and dyspareunia in women. The traditional view that IBS is a largely psychological condition is no longer tenable. Rectal bleeding, a family history of malignancy and a short history in IBS should always be treated with suspicion. Both pain and bowel dysfunction are often made worse by eating. It is recommended that a coeliac screening test is undertaken to rule out this condition. Other routine tests should include inflammatory markers such as CRP or ESR. Calprotectin is a marker for leukocytes in the stools and detects gastrointestinal inflammation. A negative test almost certainly rules out inflammatory bowel disease, especially in conjunction with a normal CRP. Fermentable carbohydrates can have a detrimental effect on IBS and this has led to the introduction of the low FODMAP diet.

  18. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  19. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  2. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  3. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  5. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  7. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  8. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  9. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  10. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eamonn MM Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the basic etiology of this disorder, in some subpopulations, at the very least. We look forward to a time when therapy will be addressed to pathophysiology and perhaps, even to primary etiology. In the meantime, a model based on a primary role for intestinal inflammation serves to integrate the various strands, which contribute to the presentation of IBS

  11. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: a management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W G

    1999-10-01

    In the development of a management strategy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients we must consider the great number of people with the condition, most of whom do not consult doctors for it. Furthermore, we must be aware of the hidden agenda of those that do. The cause of IBS is unknown, and consequently cure of this chronic recurrent condition is not likely. Moreover, the disorder is very costly, drawing precious resources from the care of more serious diseases. In this chapter I propose a management strategy based on a firm diagnosis of IBS using a minimum of tests, consideration of the patient's agenda, the use of dietary advice, the strategic use of drugs only in resistant cases, a graded therapeutic response and continuing care. There is no specific treatment. The doctor-patient interaction is most important to allay patients' fears and concerns, assist them with psychosocial difficulties, and provide the caring support known to maximize the 'placebo' effect of any treatment.

  13. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marroon Thabane; John K Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients' demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PIIBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  14. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  15. [The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Mekki Lilia; Karoui, Sami; Boubaker, Jalel; Fekih, Monia; Mechmeche, Rachid; Filali, Azza

    2006-05-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder (10 -15% of the population). It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain with modification in the bowel habits. The diagnosis is based of ROME II criteria. The pathophysiology of the SII remains unknown . It result from visceral hypersensitivity with anomalies of the digestive motility. These anomalies are secondary of dysfunction of the brain - gut axis modulated by environmental and the psychosocial factors. The understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the SII and in particular the function of the brain-gut axis will permit a better handling of the patients. Indeed, the present knowledge of the neurotransmitter implied in the communication between the central nervous system and the digestive tract are currently the basis of the new therapies aimed to modulate the mechanisms implicated in the causation of the several symptoms of IBS. These novel pharmacotherapy should reduce the indirect societal and costs of IBS.

  16. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F;

    2014-01-01

    to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  17. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  18. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  19. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-01-01

    Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder.

  20. An eye for the I: Preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kerry; Williams, Amanda; Sidhu, David; Choma, Becky L; Rodriguez-Bailón, Rosa; Cañadas, Elena; Chung, Derek; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Human faces, and more specifically the eyes, play a crucial role in social and nonverbal communication because they signal valuable information about others. It is therefore surprising that few studies have investigated the impact of intergroup contexts and motivations on attention to the eyes of ingroup and outgroup members. Four experiments investigated differences in eye gaze to racial and novel ingroups using eye tracker technology. Whereas Studies 1 and 3 demonstrated that White participants attended more to the eyes of White compared to Black targets, Study 2 showed a similar pattern of attention to the eyes of novel ingroup and outgroup faces. Studies 3 and 4 also provided new evidence that eye gaze is flexible and can be meaningfully influenced by current motivations. Specifically, instructions to individuate specific social categories increased attention to the eyes of target group members. Furthermore, the latter experiments demonstrated that preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members predicted important intergroup biases such as recognition of ingroup over outgroup faces (i.e., the own-race bias; Study 3) and willingness to interact with outgroup members (Study 4). The implication of these findings for general theorizing on face perception, individuation processes, and intergroup relations are discussed.

  1. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development. PMID:22490623

  2. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  3. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  4. Relative Mal'tsev categories

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We define relative regular Mal’tsev categories and give an overview of conditions which are equivalent to the relative Mal’tsev axiom. These include conditions on relations as well as conditions on simplicial objects. We also give various examples and counterexamples.

  5. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effect...

  6. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  7. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  8. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  9. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  10. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Conjunctivitis) Eyes Corneal Abrasions Styes Activity: Eyes ...

  11. Irritant nail dermatitis of chemical depilatory product presenting with koilonychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Kalkan, Goknur

    2014-03-01

    Chemical hair removal products are available as creams, gels, powders, aerosols and roll-ons and all of these forms work in the same way by breaking chemical bonds between sulfur atoms in the protein. Currently, the common active ingredients of these products are calcium thioglycolate, potassium thioglycolate, arsenic and sulfur minerals. Sulfur and arsenic containing products are important toxic chemicals which are mainly used for removing hair in developing countries. Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis reactions which are often occupation-related. Toluene sulfonamide, formaldehyde resin, acrylates and ethylcyanoacrylate are the most common irritants. Irritant nail dermatitis with plants has been well defined with Lobelia richardii flower, Compositae family and garlic. Although allergic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis and irritant nail dermatitis have been well demonstrated with chemicals, koilonychia is unusual presentation of irritant dermatitis. Here we describe a case of nail irritant dermatitis due to application of chemical depilatory product for hair removal presented with koilonychias. To our knowledge this is the first case of such presentation with koilonychia in the English literature.

  12. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  13. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Marc E

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia. This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of

  14. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used

  15. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González-Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Santiago Varela, María; Pardo, María; Blanco-Méndez, José; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA)], and the Hen's Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used.

  16. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  17. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  18. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Veronica ALEXA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some elements of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order creating the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to demonstrate that every type of risk has to receive equal treatment and consideration.

  19. Fusion categories and homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Ostrik, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We apply the yoga of classical homotopy theory to classification problems of G-extensions of fusion and braided fusion categories, where G is a finite group. Namely, we reduce such problems to classification (up to homotopy) of maps from BG to classifiying spaces of certain higher groupoids. In particular, to every fusion category C we attach the 3-groupoid BrPic(C) of invertible C-bimodule categories, called the Brauer-Picard groupoid of C, such that equivalence classes of G-extensions of C are in bijection with homotopy classes of maps from BG to the classifying space of BrPic(C). This gives rise to an explicit description of both the obstructions to existence of extensions and the data parametrizing them; we work these out both topologically and algebraically. One of the central results of the paper is that the 2-truncation of BrPic(C) is canonically the 2-groupoid of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center Z(C) of C. In particular, this implies that the Brauer-Picard group BrPic(C) (i.e., the grou...

  20. Equivalences between Categories of Modules and Categories of Comodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joost VERCRUYSSE

    2008-01-01

    We show the close connection between apparently different Galois theories for comodules introduced recently in [J.Gómez-Torrecillas and J.Vercruysse,Comatrix corings and Galois Comodules over firm rings,Algebr.Represent.Theory,10 (2007),271-306]and [Wisbauer,On Galois comodules, Comm.Algebra 34 (2006),2683-2711].Furthermore we study equivalences between categories of comodules over a coring and modules over a firm ring.We show that these equivalences are related to Galois theory for comodules.

  1. Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166391.html Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says Researchers warn ... 8, 2017 THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change may increase people's exposure to an outdoor fungus ...

  2. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  3. Neurobiology of Depression and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Donat Eker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disabling functional disorder with a frequent comorbidity of depression though underlying mechanisms remain yet little understood. Various signs and symptoms have been determined as diagnostic criteria in recent years and standardized as Rome-III criteria. Irritable bowel syndrome can have constipation-dominant, diarrhea-dominant or mixed clinical presentations. Main features can be summarized as continuous and recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a change of stool frequency or consistency and usually relief of symptoms with defe-cation in the absence of physical or laboratory abnormalities indicative of an organic etiology. The frequency of major depressive disorder diagnosis reaches up to two thirds of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome among patients with major depression is highly frequent (30%. The mechanism underlying irritable bowel syndrome which have been considered as a kind of a somatization disorder for a long time and now as a functional bowel disease is in the brain-gut axis. Low grade mucosal inflammation and cytokines originating from mucosal inflammation have important functions in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and its comorbidity with major depression. Besides the inflammatory factors lumbosacral visceral hyperexcitability which is an individual variation is proposed as the main underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral hyper-excitability is mediated by cytokines and neuro-mediators and stress is known to increase the effect of this mechanism. Furthermore, molecules participating in this mechanism (e.g. cytokines, corticotrophin releasing factor, neurokinins and monoamines play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Increased activation in the pain matrix (thalamus – insula – prefrontal cortex and insufficiency of endogenous pain inhibitory system are regarded as possible

  4. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  5. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS.

  6. Psychosocial determinants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teodora Surdea-Blaga; Adriana Bǎban; Dan L Dumitrascu

    2012-01-01

    From a pure motor disorder of the bowel,in the past few years,irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has become a multifactorial disease that implies visceral hypersensitivity,alterations at the level of nervous and humoral communications between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system,alteration of the gut microflora,an increased intestinal permeability and minimum intestinal inflammation.Psychological and social factors can interfere with the communication between the central and enteric nervous systems,and there is proof that they are involved in the onset of IBS and influence the response to treatment and outcome.There is evidence that abuse history and stressful life events are involved in the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders.In order to explain clustering of IBS in families,genetic factors and social learning mechanisms have been proposed.The psychological features,such as anxiety,depression as well as the comorbid psychiatric disorders,health beliefs and coping of patients with IBS are discussed in relation to the symptoms and outcome.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized.

  8. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care.

  10. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suares, Nicole C; Ford, Alexander C

    2011-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause is unknown. The diagnosis should be made on clinical grounds, using symptom-based criteria such as the Manning or Rome criteria, unless symptoms are thought to be atypical. Excluding celiac disease in all patients consulting with symptoms suggestive of IBS is worthwhile, but evidence for performing other investigations to exclude organic disease is not convincing. No medical therapy for IBS has been shown to alter the disease course, and treatment has traditionally been directed towards symptom relief. The aim should be to improve the predominant symptom reported by the patient. Fiber, peppermint oil, or antispasmodic agents are beneficial as first-line therapies in some patients. Where these fail, emerging data have confirmed the efficacy of antidepressants, drugs acting on the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, and probiotics in the short-term treatment of IBS. There are a number of novel therapies under development that show promise, including non-absorbable antibiotics, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. This article will provide a summary of diagnostic criteria for IBS, evidence to support investigations to exclude organic disease, and current and emerging therapies in this field.

  12. Genetic determination of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Hotoleanu; Radu Popp; Adrian Pavel Trifa; Laurentiu Nedelcu; Dan L Dumitrascu

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder.According to the Rome Ⅲ criteria,IBS is defined as recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 3 d per month during the previous 3 mo associated with two or more of the following symptoms:improvement with defecation,onset associated with a change in the frequency of stool and/or onset associated with a change in form or appearance of stool.There is growing evidence regarding the genetic contribution in IBS,however the precise etiology of IBS is still unknown.The evaluation of the genetic influence is based on twin studies,familial aggregation and genetic epidemiological investigations.Most studies showed a concordance for IBS significantly greater in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins.The majority of the studies have shown that familial aggregation may represent exposures to a similar environment,as well as the influence of genetic factors.Whereas no specific gene has been identified in association with IBS,recent studies have noticed the importance of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene,G-protein beta 3 subunit gene (C825T),cholecystokinin receptor (CCKAR gene 779T>C),and high-producer tumornecrosis factor genotype.Further studies are necessary to determine how genetic factors influence the clinical manifestations and therapeutical response in IBS patients.

  13. Methylglyoxal Induces Systemic Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Zhang; Taiwei Jiao; Yushuai Chen; Nan Gao; Lili Zhang; Min Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water conte...

  14. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  15. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  16. A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively weak allergen, although it may rarely cause immunological contact urticaria and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. Octenidine is considered a safe and efficient antiseptic when used for superficial skin infections, however, aseptic tissue necrosis and chronic inflammation have been reported following irrigation of penetrating hand wounds. Polihexanide is an uncommon contact allergen as regards irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis but cases of anaphylaxis have been reported. Considering the data available comparing the irritant and allergenic properties of major antiseptics currently in use, it should be acknowledged that all antiseptics may induce cutaneous side-effects. The present article reviews the most recent safety data that can guide consumers' choice.

  17. Impact of topical bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% on conjunctival irritation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi B Ogundele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abayomi B Ogundele, Guangming Li, Joel J EllisAlcon Research, Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the conjunctival irritation (congestion, swelling, and discharge of topical bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% and bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% in rabbits.Methods: Six healthy New Zealand White rabbits were treated with either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03% (3 animals/group. One dose (2 drops/dose of study medication was administered to the right eye of each animal every 30 minutes for 4.5 hours. Approximately 1 hour after the last dose, conjunctival irritation was assessed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope to individually evaluate conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge.Results: The mean conjunctival congestion, swelling and discharge scores for bimatoprost 0.03% were 1.67, 0.33 and 0.33, respectively, and for bimatoprost 0.01% were 2.00, 0.33 and 1.33, respectively.Conclusions: Despite the lower drug concentration of the 0.01% formulation, bimatoprost 0.01% does not reduce conjunctival irritation, including conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge, in rabbits compared to bimatoprost 0.03%. Further studies would be needed to determine whether the increase in the mean conjunctival congestion and discharge scores may be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.Keywords: bimatoprost, conjunctiva, ocular toxicity, preclinical, prostaglandin analog, rabbits

  18. Comparative measurement of irritant properties of toilet bar soaps on human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten commonly used toilet bar soaps were tested for their respective irritancies usin Kligman.and Wooding′s technique of . 9 evaluation of mild irritants of human skin. Five per cent soap soulations were prepared and their pH measured, IT 50 and irritancy scores were calculated. There was to correlation between pH and IT 50 or irritancy scores and lux pink was least irritant followed by New Cinthol, Pears and lifebuoy.

  19. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  20. Mapping spaces in Quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Dwyer-Kan theory of homotopy function complexes in model categories to the study of mapping spaces in quasi-categories. Using this, together with our work on rigidification from [DS1], we give a streamlined proof of the Quillen equivalence between quasi-categories and simplicial categories. Some useful material about relative mapping spaces in quasi-categories is developed along the way.

  1. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids. Normally, our eyes constantly make tears ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  6. TUBERCULOSIS AND THE EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Mycobacteria; Tuberculosis; Eye ... of tuberculous eye disease or ocular tuberculosis has also been raised. Ocular ... patients with ocular complaints, compiled in an area ..... tuberculomas are usually solitary and may measure up.

  7. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  8. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  10. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  11. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  12. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  13. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  14. Updates on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher W Hammerle; Christina M Surawicz

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and discomfort in association with altered bowel habits.It is estimated to affect 10%-15% of the Western population,and has a large impact on quality of life and (in)direct healthcare costs.IBS is a multifactorial disorder involving dysregulation within the brain-gut axis,and it is frequently associated with gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunction,enteric and central nervous system irregularities,neuroimmune dysregulation,and postinfectious inflammation.As with other functional medical disorders,the treatment for IBS can be challenging.Conventional therapy for those with moderate to severe symptoms is largely unsatisfactory,and the development of new and effective drugs is made difficult by the complex pathogenesis,variety of symptoms,and lack of objective clinical findings that are the hallmark of this disorder.Fortunately,research advances over the past several decades have provided insight into potential mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of IBS,and have led to the development of several promising pharmaceutical agents.In recent years there has been much publicity over several of these new IBS medications (alosetron and tegaserod) because of their reported association with ischemic colitis and cardiovascular disease.While these agents remain available for use under restricted prescribing programs,this highlights the need for continued development of safe and effective medication for IBS.This article provides a physiologicallybased overview of recently developed and frequently employed pharmaceutical agents used to treat IBS,and discusses some non-pharmaceutical options that may be beneficial in this disorder.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: Diagnosis and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy El-Salhy

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that considerably reduces the quality of life.It further represents an economic burden on society due to the high consumption of healthcare resources and the non-productivity of IBS patients.The diagnosis of IBS is based on symptom assessment and the Rome Ⅲ criteria.A combination of the Rome Ⅲ criteria,a physical examination,blood tests,gastroscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies is believed to be necessary for diagnosis.Duodenal chromogranin A cell density is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS.The pathogenesis of IBS seems to be multifactorial,with the following factors playing a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS:heritability and genetics,dietary/intestinal microbiota,low-grade inflammation,and disturbances in the neuroendocrine system (NES) of the gut.One hypothesis proposes that the cause of IBS is an altered NES,which would cause abnormal GI motility,secretions and sensation.All of these abnormalities are characteristic of IBS.Alterations in the NES could be the result of one or more of the following:genetic factors,dietary intake,intestinal flora,or low-grade inflammation.Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease-associated IBS (IBD-IBS) represent a considerable subset of IBS cases.Patients with PI-and IBD-IBS exhibit low-grade mucosal inflammation,as well as abnormalities in the NES of the gut.

  16. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life.

  17. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Hongo, Michio; Fukudo, Shin

    2011-04-01

    Altered central processing, abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity may be possible major pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These factors affect each other and are probably associated with development of IBS symptoms. It has been confirmed that lower pain threshold to colonic distention was observed in most of patients with IBS than healthy subjects. We have investigated pain perception of the descending colon among different subtypes of IBS. There was no difference in pain threshold to colonic distention between IBS with diarrhea and constipation. Some brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may play a major role for generating pain and/or pain-related emotion in humans. IBS patients showed greater activation in the perigenual ACC during painful rectal distention compared with healthy subjects. Inflammation, stress and the combination of both stimuli can induce significant increase in visceral sensitivity in animal models. Serotonin (5-HT) can modulate visceral perception. It has been thought that 5-HT(3) receptors may play an important role for conveying visceral sensation from the gut. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) may also modulate visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS. CRH receptor-1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in gut sensitivity in rats. It has been demonstrated that non-specific CRH receptor antagonist α-helical CRH significantly reduced abdominal pain score during gut stimulus in patients with IBS. In conclusion, visceral hypersensitivity is common in IBS patients and probably plays a major role in development of the symptoms and both central and peripheral factors may enhance the pain sensitivity.

  18. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. The PV alone can be used for room ventilation when applied in conjunction with ceiling radiant cooling system, which removes sensible heat loads...

  19. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  20. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  4. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  5. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  6. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  7. Interior Operators and Topological Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Luna-Torres, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the categorical notion of closure operators has unified various important notions and has led to interesting examples and applications in diverse areas of mathematics (see for example, Dikranjan and Tholen (\\cite{DT})). For a topological space it is well-known that the associated closure and interior operators provide equivalent descriptions of the topology, but this is not true in general. So, it makes sense to define and study the notion of interior operators $I$ in the context of a category $\\mathfrak C$ and a fixed class $\\mathcal M$ of monomorphisms in $\\mathfrak C$ closed under composition in such a way that $\\mathfrak C$ is finitely $\\mathcal M$-complete and the inverse images of morphisms have both left and right adjoint, which is the purpose of this paper.

  8. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  9. Using fewer animals to identify chemical eye hazards: revised criteria necessary to maintain equivalent hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, Joseph K; Allen, David G; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; Truax, James F; Stokes, William S

    2011-10-01

    U.S. Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) regulations specify eye safety testing procedures and hazard classification criteria for substances regulated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Current regulations require up to three sequential 6-animal tests. Testing consistent with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline for eye irritation/corrosion, which specifies 3 animals, can also be submitted to US agencies. However, current FHSA regulations do not provide criteria to classify results from 3-animal tests. An analysis was conducted to determine criteria using results from 3-animal tests that would provide equivalent labeling to FHSA regulations. The frequency that FHSA requirements identify substances as ocular irritants was compared with the frequency that a criterion of either ≥ 1/3 or ≥ 2/3 positive animals would identify these substances. A database of rabbit eye tests was also used to estimate over- and underprediction rates for each criterion. In each instance, a criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals more closely matched the expected outcome based on FHSA requirements, while a criterion of ≥ 2/3 positive animals identified far fewer irritants. Using a classification criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals provided equivalent or greater eye hazard labeling as current FHSA requirements, while using 50-83% fewer animals.

  10. Clinical assessment of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Luo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the application of diclofenac sodium eye drops in toric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: From January 2011 to February 2012, 38 eyes of 37 patients, who underwent toric intraocular lens implantation in this hospital, were randomly divided into diclofenac sodium eye drops group(trial groupand control group. Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery and inflammation postoperation after 1 day, 3,7, days, 1 month and 3 months were evaluated. RESULTS: Patient's degree of cooperation during surgery in the trial group(1.53±0.62was significantly better than in the control group(2.40±0.88, P<0.05. Inflammation reaction was gentle in the trial group 1 day postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium eye drops used during toric intraocular lens implantation can obviously alleviate eye irritation, and increase the cooperation of patients.

  11. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  12. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  14. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  15. The configuration category of a product

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, Pedro Boavida; Weiss, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    A construction related to the Boardman-Vogt tensor product of operads allows us to describe the configuration category of a product manifold $M\\times N$ in terms of the configuration categories of the factors $M$ and $N$.

  16. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jie; ZHANG Guanglian; ZHU Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  17. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. METHODS: Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion. RESULTS: All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of

  18. Category of Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWan-cai; LIXiao-shen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, category GIFS of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy sets(GIF) is built up. Topoi properties of category GIFS axe studied. Firstly, it is proved that the category GIFS has all topoi properties except that it has no subobject classifiers, Secondly, it is proved that the category GIFS has middle object and consequently GIFS is a weak topos.Thirdly, by the use of theory of weak topos GIFS,the power object of an object in GIFS is studied.

  19. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  20. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  1. Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Valle Krieger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts.

  2. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  3. Weakly exact categories and the snake lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Amir

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of an exact category and introduce weakly exact categories. A proof of the snake lemma in this general setting is given. Some applications are given to illustrate how one can do homological algebra in a weakly exact category.

  4. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  5. Cascade category-aware visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen; Rui, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating image classification into image retrieval system brings many attractive advantages. For instance, the search space can be narrowed down by rejecting images in irrelevant categories of the query. The retrieved images can be more consistent in semantics by indexing and returning images in the relevant categories together. However, due to their different goals on recognition accuracy and retrieval scalability, it is hard to efficiently incorporate most image classification works into large-scale image search. To study this problem, we propose cascade category-aware visual search, which utilizes weak category clue to achieve better retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption. To capture the category and visual clues of an image, we first learn category-visual words, which are discriminative and repeatable local features labeled with categories. By identifying category-visual words in database images, we are able to discard noisy local features and extract image visual and category clues, which are hence recorded in a hierarchical index structure. Our retrieval system narrows down the search space by: 1) filtering the noisy local features in query; 2) rejecting irrelevant categories in database; and 3) preforming discriminative visual search in relevant categories. The proposed algorithm is tested on object search, landmark search, and large-scale similar image search on the large-scale LSVRC10 data set. Although the category clue introduced is weak, our algorithm still shows substantial advantages in retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption than the state-of-the-art.

  6. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  7. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation of cumene and n-propanol: mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, U; Hansen, L; Nielsen, G D; Holst, E

    1986-07-01

    Cumene and n-propanol, model substances for alcohols and alkylbenzenes, were investigated for sensory irritation in mice. The concentrations within the first 2 min. depressing the respiratory rate by 50% due to the effect in the upper respiratory tract were 2,058 p.p.m. and 22,080 p.p.m., respectively. Activation of the sensory irritant receptor followed the dynamics of reversible bimolecular reactions. The extrapolated maximum response and the apparent dissociation constant were 114.3% and 2,723 p.p.m. for cumene and 68.4% and 8,178 p.p.m. for propanol, respectively. Later on desensitization was observed. The effect was weak for cumene but conspicuous for propanol. For cumene desensitization had the origin in the rise of a threshold. No change in the dissociation constant or the maximum response was found. For propanol a decrease in the maximum response, which may be explained by an allosteric effect, was observed. The pulmonary irritation response was weak for cumene but was for propanol more important than sensory irritation at high concentrations. The following hypotheses are put forward: the effect of pulmonary irritation on the tidal volume is mediated via the stretch receptors while the effect on the respiratory frequency is mediated via the J-receptors.

  8. A history of chorological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper.

  9. It's not only in the eyes: nonlinear relationship between face orientation and N170 amplitude irrespective of eye presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuski, Mikołaj; Gola, Mateusz

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the interplay between face orientation, eye presence, and N170 amplitude by recording Event Related Potentials. To clarify previous reports of nonlinearity in N170 amplitude changes along rotation angle changes, we adopted Itier et al.'s model (Itier et al., 2007) which links N170 face inversion effects with the presence of eyes. Comparison of N170 amplitude and latency for five stimulus categories (Faces-with-eyes, Faces-without-eyes, Eyes, Cars-with-lights, Cars-without-lights) in five different rotations (0, 45, 90, 135, 180) resulted in mixed conclusions. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) a strong nonlinear relationship between N170 and angle of rotation that is specific to faces, distinguishing face from car category even when no significant differences were observed between these categories for upright and inverted orientations; and (2) the nonlinear relationship between N170 and angle of rotation does not depend on eye presence. We also propose an alternative model according to which N170 amplitude consists of two related aspects of face processing: (A) incompatibility (relative distance of the stimulus pattern from experience-based hypothetical prototype) and (B) integration (degree to which stimulus is integrated into holistic representation), with the former affecting the latter. Moreover, we suggest two possible neural events underlying these two aspects of face processing: neural population size activated by the stimulus, and synchronization within this population.

  10. [Psoas haematoma due to irritation of the psoas tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausmann, C; Mathonia, P; Plötz, W

    2013-10-01

    Irritation of the tendon of the musculus iliopsoas after total hip replacement is a rare complication. In connection with the irritation of the iliopsoas tendon only one case report of a psoas haematoma due to anticoagulation has been published. We assume that these kinds of haematomas are more frequent than described. We report on 2 cases of haematoma caused by an iliopsoas impingement after total hip replacement. In one case a lesion of the femoral nerve was observed. Surgical treatment was composed of the revision of the acetabular component. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The additive completion of the biset category

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Jesús; Raggi-Cárdenas, Alberto G.; Romero, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Let $R$ be a commutative unital ring. We construct a category $\\mathcal{C}_R$ of fractions $X/G$, where $G$ is a finite group and $X$ is a finite $G$-set, and with morphisms given by $R$-linear combinations of spans of bisets. This category is an additive, symmetric monoidal and self-dual category, with a Krull-Schmidt decomposition for objects. We show that $\\mathcal{C}_R$ is equivalent to the additive completion of the biset category and that the category of biset functors over $R$ is equiv...

  12. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  13. Personal Identification by Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinović, Dunja; Čoklo, Miran; Njirić, Sanja; Mužić, Vedrana

    2011-01-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems usi...

  14. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye- tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown...simultaneously on a high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye- tracking unit in order to optimize the human-machine interface. The IR Eye...system was flight tested using the Advanced system Research Aircraft (Bell 412 helicopter) from the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  17. A novel TRPM8 agonist relieves dry eye discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jee Myung; Li, Fengxian; Liu, Qin; Rüedi, Marco; Wei, Edward Tak; Lentsman, Michael; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; Kim, Seong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-06-26

    Physical cooling of the eye surface relieves ocular discomfort, but translating this event to drug treatment of dry eye discomfort not been studied. Here, we synthesized a water-soluble TRPM8 receptor agonist called cryosim-3 (C3, 1-diisopropylphosphorylnonane) which selectively activates TRPM8 (linked to cooling) but not TRPV1 or TRPA1 (linked to nociception) and tested C3 in subjects with mild forms of dry eye disease. A set of 1-dialkylphosphoryalkanes were tested for activation of TRPM8, TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors in transfected cells. The bioactivity profiles were compared by perioral, topical, and intravenous delivery to anesthetized rats. The selected lead candidate C3 or vehicle (water) was applied with a cotton gauze pad to upper eyelids of patients with dry eye disease (n = 30). Cooling sensation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), basal tear secretion, and corneal staining were evaluated. C3 was then applied four times daily for 2 weeks to patients using a pre-loaded single unit applicator containing 2 mg/mL of C3 in water (n = 20) or water only. TBUT, basal tear secretion, and corneal staining, and three questionnaires surveys of ocular discomfort (VAS scale, OSDI, and CVS symptoms) were analyzed before and at 1 and 2 weeks thereafter. C3 was a selective and potent TRPM8 agonist without TRPV1 or TRPA1 activity. In test animals, the absence of shaking behavior after C3 perioral administration made it the first choice for further study. C3 increased tear secretion in an animal model of dry eye disease and did not irritate when wiped on eyes of volunteers. C3 singly applied (2 mg/ml) produced significant cooling in irritation or pain were reported by any subject. C3 is a promising candidate for study of TRPM8 function on the eye surface and for relief of dry eye discomfort. ISRCTN24802609 and ISRCTN13359367 . Registered 23 March 2015 and 2 September 2015.

  18. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  19. Proficiency of eye drop instillation in postoperative cataract patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu,1 Amanda Murdoch,2 Ken Bassett,3 Shafik Dharamsi4 1Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Queen’s School of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 3Departments of Family Practice and Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative instruction on proficiency of eye drop instillation following cataract surgery, and to determine whether such proficiency correlates with the prevalence and/or duration of irritation and pain experienced in operated eyes. Design: This was a prospective, nonrandomized control trial with an educational intervention conducted via a single eye clinic in Accra, Ghana. Participants: The 218 subjects who completed the study were postoperative cataract surgery patients whose surgery had been funded by the nongovernmental organization Unite for Sight. Methods: Patients were evaluated on their ability to administer eye drops correctly on their first attempt on postoperative day one. If unsuccessful, patients were given an educational session that consisted of verbal instructions and an educational video. Both groups (successful and unsuccessful on the first postoperative day were tested again for proficiency on postoperative day 30. The baseline group was evaluated only on postoperative day 30 and consisted of 36 patients. Results: Of the 133 patients who received the educational session on eye drop instillation, 112 (84% exhibited proficiency on postoperative day 30 as compared with 29 of 49 patients (59% who did not receive the intervention. Additionally, there were fewer reports of pain and irritation following cataract extraction in the patients who received the educational session. Conclusion: This study supports the efficacy of patient

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Presentation and Treatment of Graves' Disease and Thyroid Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargason, Caroline W; Chelnis, James G; Barahimi, Behin I; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an inflammatory, autoimmune orbitopathy with multifactorial etiology. Clinical presentation of TED spans a range from mild surface irritation to vision threatening compressive optic neuropathy. Potential vision loss underscores the importance of understanding genetic and environmental factors influencing the severity of TED presentation. This review will describe the classic risk factors for TED, outline treatments for Graves' disease (GD) and TED, and describe newer evidence of socioeconomic disparities in TED presentation.

  1. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  2. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  3. Technologies in the evaluation of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, AJPM; Azpiroz, F; Brummer, RJ; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Stockbrugger, RM; Vatn, M; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    During a meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, the IBiS Club evaluated the most important techniques that can be used in the investigation of irritable bowel syndrome, either in the context of scientific research or as a clinical diagnostic tool. In each of these, the relevance of findings made in

  4. Non-pharmacological treatments in the irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Leahy; O Epstein

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characteried by chronic lower abdominal pain and disordered defaecation associated with bloating ,tenesmus and extra-intestinal symptoms including and functional upper gastrointestinal symptoms .Currently there is nounifying hypothesis which adepuately explains the pathogenesis of the disorder although a number of physiological and psychological abmormalites have been described.

  5. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Nyeong Lee; Oh Young Lee

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received mu...

  6. Identification of subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS by enterotypes a test sample derived from a subject

  7. Identificationof subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS by enterotypes a test sample derived from a subject

  8. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy.

  9. Towards an integrated psychoneurophysiological approach of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, Patrick Petrus Johannes van der

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by disturbed bowel habits. It is among the most frequently occurring functional bowel syndromes, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. A variety of mechanisms hav

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  12. Identification of subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from I

  13. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control pati

  14. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  15. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The ...

  16. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  17. An Automatic Identification System of Human Skin Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fadlil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative characterization of human skin irritation is an important but difficult task. Recently, identification of human skin is still doing manually. Furthermore, manual identification of the human skin irritation sample can be very subjective. The skin irritation analysis could conducted using biochemical test, but not simple. In this research, a new approach an automatic human skin identification system base on image recognition have been developed. Skin image processed using pattern recognition methods to obtain decision of skin sample test is skin irritation or not. System design is implementation of Gray Level Histogram (GLH feature or texture Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM features using classifier distance metric: Manhattan distance and Euclidean distance, or Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ neural network. Combination between feature extrator and classifier methods proposed to evaluate of performance system. The experimental results show that the best accuracy namely 83.33% obtained when design system is implementation of GLH or GLCM features using LVQ neural network classifier.

  18. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The low-FODMAP diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad; Barco, Kathy; Garg, Samita

    2016-09-01

    A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet's effect on intestinal microbiota is needed.

  19. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were...

  20. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  1. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and medical management of symptoms are increasingly based on IBS subtype, so it is important to accurately differentiate patients. Few studies have classified subtypes of pediatric IBS, and conclusions have been challenged by methodologic l...

  2. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  3. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  4. Carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations avoid professional exposure to irritants in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Carlsen, Berit C

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are associated with xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and early onset of hand eczema. Irritant exposure is a risk factor for occupational hand eczema, and FLG mutations increase the risk of occupational irritant contact dermatitis on the hands...... in hospital cohorts. It is unknown whether FLG mutations affect the level of irritant exposure....

  5. Local effects in the respiratory tract: Relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Heer, C.de; Woutersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration

  6. Local effects in the respiratory tract: Relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Heer, C.de; Woutersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration fo

  7. Comparison of objective and sensory skin irritations of several cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; An, Susun; Choi, Dongwon; Moon, Seongjoon; Chang, Ihseop

    2007-03-01

    There are many cosmetic ingredients, such as preservatives and fragrances, known to elicit adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the side-effects of cosmetic preservatives, by evaluating objective and subjective skin irritation. The method comprised of 2 parts. In part 1, we tried to compare 24-hr patch test results with the sensory irritation potential of several preservatives. In part 2, skin cumulative irritation test for 21 days and sensory irritation test were performed to compare various combinations of preservatives in 4 types of formulations. Our data showed that methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, phenoxyethanol (PE) and chlorphenesin (CPN) have similar objective skin irritation potential at the minimal inhibitory concentration of each preservative, but CPN has higher potential than other preservatives in subjective irritation. Sensory irritation of preservatives changed according to formulation type, and PE combined with CPN highly increased irritation. There was correlation between antimicrobial activity and skin objective irritation but not sensory irritation. Influence on skin sensory irritation varies with the combination of preservatives. Therefore, for the development of new preservatives and cosmetics, it is important to evaluate skin sensory irritation of preservatives used in cosmetic products according to the type of formulations.

  8. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.

  9. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  10. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  11. [Irritation of the iliopsoas tendon after total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessmann, M H; Hübschle, L; Tannast, M; Siebenrock, K A; Ganz, R

    2007-08-01

    Chronic irritation of the iliopsoas tendon is a rare cause of persistent pain after total joint replacement of the hip. In the majority of cases, pain results from a mechanical conflict between the iliopsoas tendon and the anterior edge of the acetabular cup after total hip arthroplasty. Pain can be reproduced by active flexion of the hip and by active raising of the straightened leg. In addition, painful leg raising against resistance and passive hyperextension are suggestive of an irritation of the iliopsoas tendon. Symptoms evolve from a mechanical irritation of the iliopsoas tendon and an oversized or retroverted acetabular cup, screws penetrating into the inner aspect of the ilium, or from bone cement protruding beyond the anterior acetabular rim. The diagnosis may be assumed on conventional radiographs and confirmed by CT scans. Fifteen patients with psoas irritation after total hip replacement are reported on. Eleven patients were treated surgically. The acetabular cup was revised and reoriented with more anteversion in six patients, isolated screws penetrating into the tendon were cut and leveled in three patients, and prominent bone cement in conflict with the tendon was resected once. A partial release of the iliopsoas tendon only was performed in another patient. Follow-up examination (range: 11-89 months) revealed that nine patients were free of pain and two patient had mild residual complaints. Psoas irritation in combination with total hip replacement can be prevented by a correct surgical technique, especially with proper selection of the cup size and insertion of the acetabular cup avoiding a rim position exceeding the level of the anterior acetabular rim.

  12. Sensitivity to environmental irritants and quality of life in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternesten-Hasséus E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Sven Larsson, Eva MillqvistDepartment of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: It is a common clinical experience that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD complain of airway symptoms provoked by environmental irritants like chemicals and scents, although few studies can confirm such connections. The aim was to study the prevalence of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents in a group of patients with newly diagnosed CPOD and to analyze any relation to illness severity and quality of life. Eighty-one patients with COPD were recruited to the study. By mail they were asked to answer three questionnaires regarding symptoms, quality of life, and social and emotional influence of airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants. A majority (62% of the COPD patients claimed to be hyperreactive to chemicals and scents. As a group they scored higher on a questionnaire measuring social and emotional influences of such environmental irritants compared to healthy control subjects. Further, high scores were more common among patients with a very severe form of COPD and among patients with regular use of β2-stimulants. High scores were also associated with significantly more airway symptoms and, in some aspects, with impaired quality of life. In conclusion, the results of this study show that airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants are common in patients with COPD and that this increased airway sensitivity follows the impairment of lung capacity. The mechanisms behind this remain unclear.Keywords: COPD, hyperresponsiveness, environmental irritants, sensory hyperreactivity, quality of life

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work ... Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ... Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  18. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  19. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  20. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  1. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  2. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  3. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  4. Symplectic structures from topological Fukaya categories

    OpenAIRE

    Shende, Vivek; Takeda, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The topological Fukaya category is the global sections of a certain sheaf of categories on a Lagrangian skeleton. Nadler has given a combinatorial description of this sheaf in the case of generic singularities. We show here that restriction to the boundary of this sheaf of categories determines a shifted Lagrangian morphism on the corresponding moduli spaces. Examples of such moduli spaces include wild character varieties, certain cluster varieties, multiplicative Nakajima varieties, and the ...

  5. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt Dienes

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients.Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar drops.In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05.Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment.

  6. Deconstructibility and Hill lemma in Grothendieck categories

    CERN Document Server

    Stovicek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    A full subcategory of a Grothendieck category is called deconstructible if it consists of all transfinite extensions of some set of objects. This concept provides a handy framework for structure theory and construction of approximations for subcategories of Grothendieck categories. It also allows to construct model structures and t-structures on categories of complexes over a Grothendieck category. In this paper we aim to establish fundamental results on deconstructible classes and outline how to apply these in the areas mentioned above. This is related to recent work of Gillespie, Enochs, Estrada, Guil Asensio, Murfet, Neeman, Prest, Trlifaj and others.

  7. Some remarks on groupoids and small categories

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Chi-Keung

    2007-01-01

    This unpublished note contains some materials taken from my old study note on groupoids and small categories. It contains a proof for the fact that any groupoid is a group bundle over an equivalence relation. Moreover, the action of a category $G$ on a category $H$ as well as the resulting semi-direct product category $H\\times_\\alpha G$ will be defined (when either $G$ is a groupoid or $H^{(0)} = G^{(0)}$). If both $G$ and $H$ are groupoids, then $H\\times_\\alpha G$ is also a groupoid. The reason of producing this note is for people who want to check some details in a recent work of Li.

  8. Comparison of human skin irritation patch test data with in vitro skin irritation assays and animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jírová, Dagmar; Basketter, David; Liebsch, Manfred; Bendová, Hana; Kejlová, Kristina; Marriott, Marie; Kandárová, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to replace the rabbit skin irritation test have been underway for many years, encouraged by the EU Cosmetics Directive and REACH. Recently various in vitro tests have been developed, evaluated and validated. A key difficulty in confirming the validity of in vitro methods is that animal data are scarce and of limited utility for prediction of human effects, which adversely impacts their acceptance. This study examines whether in vivo or in vitro data most accurately predicted human effects. Using the 4-hr human patch test (HPT) we examined a number of chemicals whose EU classification of skin irritancy is known to be borderline, or where in vitro methods provided conflicting results. Of the 16 chemicals classified as irritants in the rabbit, only five substances were found to be significantly irritating to human skin. Concordance of the rabbit test with the 4-hr HPT was only 56%, whereas concordance of human epidermis models with human data was 76% (EpiDerm) and 70% (EPISKIN). The results confirm observations that rabbits overpredict skin effects in humans. Therefore, when validating in vitro methods, all available information, including human data, should be taken into account before making conclusions about their predictive capacity.

  9. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naïve guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  10. Quantum subgroups of the Haagerup fusion categories

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Pinhas

    2011-01-01

    We answer three related questions concerning the Haagerup subfactor and its even parts, the Haagerup fusion categories. Namely we find all simple module categories over each of the Haagerup fusion categories (in other words, we find the `"quantum subgroups" in the sense of Ocneanu), we find all subfactors whose principal even part is one of the Haagerup fusion categories, and we compute the Brauer-Picard groupoid of Morita equivalences of the Haagerup fusion categories. In addition to the two even parts of the Haagerup subfactor, there is exactly one more fusion category which is Morita equivalent to each of them. This third fusion category has six simple objects and the same fusion rules as one of the even parts of the Haagerup subfactor, but has not previously appeared in the literature. We also find the full lattice of intermediate subfactors for every subfactor whose even part is one of these three fusion categories, and we discuss how our results generalize to Izumi subfactors.

  11. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  12. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  13. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  14. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  15. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  16. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  17. Whitney categories and the Tangle Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Smyth, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new notion of `n-category with duals', which we call a Whitney n-category. There are two motivations. The first is that Baez and Dolan's Tangle Hypothesis is (almost) tautological when interpreted as a statement about Whitney categories. The second is that we can functorially construct `fundamental Whitney n-categories' from each smooth stratified space X. These are obtained by considering the homotopy theory of smooth maps into X which are transversal to all strata. This makes concrete another idea of Baez and Dolan's which is that a suitable version of homotopy theory for stratified spaces should allow one to generalise the relationship between spaces and groupoids to one between stratified spaces and categories with duals.

  18. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  19. Personal identification by eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  20. [Facial and eye pain - Neurological differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, O; Diener, H-C; Gaul, C

    2011-12-01

    Head and facial pain are common in neurological practice and the pain often arises in the orbit or is referred into the eye. This is due to the autonomic innervation of the eye and orbit. There are acute and chronic pain syndromes. This review gives an overview of the differential diagnosis and treatment. Idiopathic headache syndromes, such as migraine and cluster headache are the most frequent and are often debilitating conditions. Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias (SUNCT and SUNA) have to be taken into account, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. Trigemino-autonomic headache after eye operations can be puzzling and often responds well to triptans. Every new facial pain not fitting these categories must be considered symptomatic and a thorough investigation is mandatory including magnetic resonance imaging. Infiltrative and neoplastic conditions frequently lead to orbital pain. As a differential diagnosis Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and Raeder syndrome are inflammatory conditions sometimes mimicking neoplasms. Infections, such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus are extremely painful and require rapid therapy. It is important to consider carotid artery dissection as a cause for acute eye and neck pain in conjunction with Horner's syndrome and bear in mind that vascular oculomotor palsy is often painful. All of the above named conditions should be diagnosed by a neurologist with special experience in pain syndromes and many require an interdisciplinary approach.

  1. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  2. Manual small incision cataract surgery in eyes with white cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Rengaraj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS in cases of white cataract with the use of trypan blue as an adjunct for performing continuous curvilinear capsulorthexis (CCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study on 100 consecutive eyes of 100 patients with white cataract who had undergone MSICS with trypan blue assisted CCC. The nucleus was prolapsed into anterior chamber by using a sinskey hook and extracted out of the eye using irrigating vectis. Intraoperative and postoperative findings (according to OCTET classification as well as postoperative visual outcomes were used as main measures to report the safety and efficacy of the surgery. RESULTS: Of the 100 eyes, 16 had intumescent, 67 had mature and 17 had hypermature cataract. Intraoperatively CCC was incomplete in 4 eyes (4% and had to be converted to canopener capsulotomy. None of the eyes had posterior capsular rupture or zonular dialysis and no eyes were converted to conventional Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE. Postoperatively, 6 eyes (6% developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and 7 eyes (7% had corneal oedema with < 10 Descemets folds. Mild iritis was seen in 6 eyes (6% and moderate iritis with fibrin membrane was seen in 3 eyes (3%. Iridodialysis was observed in 1 eye (1%. Of the 99 patients (99% categorised under good visual outcomes category, 94 patients (94% had a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/9 or better on the 40th post-operative day. CONCLUSION: In developing countries like India where phacoemulsification may not be affordable to a majority of those requiring cataract surgery, MSICS proves to be a safe and efficacious alternative for white cataracts especially with the adjunctive use of trypan blue dye.

  3. A Survey on Treatment of Dry Eye by Traditional Chinese Medicine and Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wan-yu; LI Yue-hong

    2006-01-01

    Dry eye is now one of the most common superficial disorders in ophthalmology at home and abroad, and more and more people attach importance to the study. The ideal approach for treatment of dry eye is to normalize the condition by rebuilding the superficial circumstance of the eye, and to make tear film work as well as possible so as to relieve the irritating symptoms in the eye. The authors are making a comprehensive discussion on the methods and curative effects of treating dry eye by traditional Chinese medicine and by integrative Chinese and Western medicine in recent years, so as to introduce the distinctive features of the traditional Chinese medicine and integrative Chinese and Western medicine in this field.

  4. The Grothendieck Construction and Gradings for Enriched Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, Dai

    2009-01-01

    The Grothendieck construction is a process to form a single category from a diagram of small categories. In this paper, we extend the definition of the Grothendieck construction to diagrams of small categories enriched over a symmetric monoidal category satisfying certain conditions. Symmetric monoidal categories satisfying the conditions in this paper include the category of $k$-modules over a commutative ring $k$, the category of chain complexes, the category of simplicial sets, the category of topological spaces, and the category of modern spectra. In particular, we obtain a generalization of the orbit category construction in [math/0312214]. We also extend the notion of graded categories and show that the Grothendieck construction takes values in the category of graded categories. Our definition of graded category does not require any coproduct decompositions and generalizes $k$-linear graded categories indexed by small categories defined by Lowen. There are two popular ways to construct functors from the...

  5. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  6. Culture shapes eye movements for visually homogeneous objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Culture affects the way people move their eyes to extract information in their visual world. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g., China display a disposition to process information holistically, whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g., Britain process information analytically. In terms of face processing, adults from Western cultures typically fixate the eyes and mouth, while adults from Eastern cultures fixate centrally on the nose region, yet face recognition accuracy is comparable across populations. A potential explanation for the observed differences relates to social norms concerning eye gaze avoidance/engagement when interacting with conspecifics. Furthermore, it has been argued that faces represent a ‘special’ stimulus category and are processed holistically, with the whole face processed as a single unit. The extent to which the holistic eye movement strategy deployed by East Asian observers is related to holistic processing for faces is undetermined. To investigate these hypotheses, we recorded eye movements of adults from Western and Eastern cultural backgrounds while learning and recognizing visually homogeneous objects: human faces, sheep faces and greebles. Both group of observers recognized faces better than any other visual category, as predicted by the specificity of faces. However, East Asian participants deployed central fixations across all the visual categories. This cultural perceptual strategy was not specific to faces, discarding any parallel between the eye movements of Easterners with the holistic processing specific to faces. Cultural diversity in the eye movements used to extract information from visual homogenous objects is rooted in more general and fundamental mechanisms.

  7. [Splenic flexure and irritable colon syndromes: conjugate conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenko, M F; Bikbulatova, E A; Mut-Gusaim, V I

    2008-01-01

    To investigate phenotypical and clinical characteristics in individuals with high fixation of the splenic angle (HFSA). The study group included 82 patients with HFSA, the comparison group--76 patients with irritable colon syndrome (ICS), control group--19 patients without colon pathology. the results of the following examinations were analysed: the disease history, detailed intestinal investigation, rectal sensitivity, constitution, connective tissue weakness, vegetative dysfunction and regulation. HFSA is encountered mainly in persons with hyperstenic constitution. Some HFSA patients have pain on the left side--splenic flexure syndrome (SFS). The pain corresponds most to clinical criteria of irritable colon syndrome diagnosis and is accompanied with reduced threshold of pain sensitivity to balloon extension. Provoking factors of the symptoms are stress situations in childhood. SFS can be considered as a variant of ICS arising in HFSA. The treatment should be based on the principles of ICS treatment.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vision in the morning? Jun 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping ... Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  9. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  10. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  14. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  18. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanomas. Melanomas develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes . When melanoma develops in the eye, it is ... cells make the same kind of pigment as melanocytes in the skin, so it’s not surprising that ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ...

  1. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may put you at high risk for eye injuries. Baseball Basketball Water Sports Boxing Hockey Paintball Racquetball Softball Squash Fencing Lacrosse Wrestling Football Golf Badminton Soccer Tennis Fishing Bicycling Gymnastics Track ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye May 03, 2012 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  6. The ageing eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... With an increasing elderly population, age-related eye diseases are becoming the leading causes of ... and social health and overall quality of life. Enormous strides are ..... hip fractures, accidents and depression. Conclusion.

  7. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  9. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If your eye is cut or punctured : • ... CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910. (Edward C. Sullivan is president of ...

  10. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  13. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects exposed to cat feces (cockroaches, flies, etc.). Immunocompromised ... rash. Eye symptoms vary, but may include blurred vision or floaters during active disease. The diagnosis can ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  15. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  16. Evaluation Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms Amongst Warsaw University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemyjska Sylwia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS belongs to functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain and change in stool consistency and/or bowel habits. Etiological factors include gastrointestinal peristalsis disturbances, visceral hypersensitivity, chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane, dysbacteremia, intestinal infections, psychosomatic and nutritional factors. Gastrointestinal motility disturbances in case of IBS are manifested by the inhibition of the intestinal passage, which favors the development of constipation or occurrence of diarrhea.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius; Patricia K Nel

    2003-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an individualized holistic psychotherapy and synergistic stress management programme for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and stress, both of which are common disorders in this present day and age. IBS is a functional bowel disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that leads to change in bowel habits with the additional features of abdominal pain and distension (Drossman, 1994b). This functional disorder has been ...

  18. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  19. Severe irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit uncommon occurrence, irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as an antiseptic. We hereby present the case report of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to povidone iodine, employed as an antiseptic during spinal anesthesia. On conservative management with soframycin ointment, the lesions resembling chemical burns healed in a month without extensive scarring or other complications.

  20. Severe irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine solution

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy Mangala; Krishnamurthy Bhaskar

    2009-01-01

    Albeit uncommon occurrence, irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as an antiseptic. We hereby present the case report of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to povidone iodine, employed as an antiseptic during spinal anesthesia. On conservative management with soframycin ointment, the lesions resembling chemical burns healed in a month without extensive scarring or other complications.

  1. Simmering Innards: Does Irritable Bowl Syndrome Have an Immunological Basis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Andrews

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Not so long ago, physicians construed the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as being a neurotic trait: it was all in the head. Today most clinicians believe that the main abnormality lies in the brain (and spinal cord, which reacts abnormally to stimuli from the gut. Recent studies are identifying a basis for these neural changes - low grade inflammation in the gut - which may play a key role in IBS.

  2. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs incre...

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and the microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review aims to update the reader on current developments in our understanding of how the gut microbiota impact on inflammatory bowel disease and the irritable bowel syndrome. It will also consider current efforts to modulate the microbiota for therapeutic effect. Recent findings Gene polymorphisms associated with inflammatory bowel disease increasingly suggest that interaction with the microbiota drives pathogenesis. This may be through modulation of the immune response,...

  4. Overgrowth of the indigenous gut microbiome and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Culture-independent molecular techniques have demonstrated that the majority of the gut microbiota is uncultivable. Application of these molecular techniques to more accurately identify the indigenous gut microbiome has moved with great pace over recent years, leading to a substantial increase in understanding of gut microbial communities in both health and a number of disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Use of culture-independent molecular techniques already employed to char...

  5. The microbiota link to irritable bowel syndrome: An emerging story

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which is likely to involve a number of causative factors. The contribution of altered intestinal microbiota composition or function to this disorder is controversial, and is the subject of much current research. Until recently, the technical limitations of the methodologies available have not permitted an adequate survey of low-abundance microbial species. Recent technological developments have enabled the analysis of the g...

  6. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The...

  7. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut mic...

  8. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of...

  9. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K.; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2973007

  10. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible cau...

  11. [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with dicetelium and spasmomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedogoda, S V; Parshev, V V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical efficacy of new spasmolytics--pinaverium bromide (dicetel, Solvay Pharma) and otilonium bromide (spasmomen, Menarini-Berlin-Chemie)--in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Effects appearing during the treatment with anxiolytic drug tofisopam (grandaxin, Egis) after using dicetel and spasmomen were also studied. The results indicate marked clinical efficiency of dicetel and spasmomen which improve vegetative functions and psychoemotional status. Grandaxin provides further improvement of clinical symptoms and additionally corrects psychoemotional status.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter; Thien, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to ...

  13. An Irritable Infant and the Runaway Redback: An Instructive Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The envenomation syndrome of Redback spider bites, lactrodectism, is distinctive. However diagnosis can be difficult due to an atypical presentation. We describe the case of a 1 year old boy with irritability, diaphoresis and reduced oral intake, in whom a diagnosis was made of redback spider bite. Successful resolution of symptoms was achieved following treatment with antivenom. The symptoms and management of redback spider bites is discussed.

  14. Biomimetic proopiomelanocortin suppresses capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is a frequently mentioned cosmetic complaint. Addition of a biomimetic of neuromediator has recently appeared as a promising new way to cure skin care product problems. This study was aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of a biomimetic lipopeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (bPOMC on capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in human volunteers and also to compare its protective effect with that of the well-known anti irritant strontium chloride. The effect of each test compound was studied on 28 selected healthy volunteers with sensitive skin in accordance with a double-blind vehicle-controlled protocol. From day 1 to day 13 each group was applied the test compound (bPOMC or strontium chloride to one wing of the nose and the corresponding placebo (vehicle to the other side twice daily. On days 0 and 14, acute skin irritation was induced by capsaicin solution and quantified using clinical stinging test assessments. Following the application of capsaicin solution, sensory irritation was evaluated using a 4-point numeric scale. The sensations perceived before and after treatment (on days 0 and 14 was calculated for the two zones (test materials and vehicle. Ultimately the percentage of variation between each sample and the placebo and also the inhibitory effect of bPOMC compared to that of strontium chloride were reported. Clinical results showed that after two weeks treatment, the levels of skin comfort reported in the group treated with bPOMC were significantly higher than those obtained in the placebo group and the inhibitory effect of bPOMC was about 47% higher than that of strontium chloride. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that biomimetic peptides may be effective on sensitive skin.

  15. Current and Novel Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Management

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut-axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocia...

  16. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, d...

  17. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  18. Seeing emotions in the eyes - inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT) coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories "fear," "disgust," "happiness," and "neutral." A general valence effect for positive words was observed: responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs. Reduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  19. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  20. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  1. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  2. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  3. Calcium polycarbophil compared with placebo in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toskes, P P; Connery, K L; Ritchey, T W

    1993-02-01

    Calcium polycarbophil was compared with placebo in 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a six-month, randomized double-blind crossover study. Patients received polycarbophil tablets at a dosage of 6 g/day (twelve 0.5-g tablets) or matching placebo tablets. At study end, among patients expressing a preference, 15 of 21 (71%) chose polycarbophil over placebo for relief of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Statistically significant differences favouring polycarbophil were found among the following patient subgroups: 15 (79%) of 19 with constipation: all six with alternating diarrhoea and constipation; 13 (87%) of 15 with bloating: and 11 (92%) of 12 with two or more symptoms. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo in monthly global responses to therapy. Patient diary entries showed statistically significant improvement for ease of passage with polycarbophil. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo for relief of nausea, pain, and bloating. The data suggest that calcium polycarbophil can benefit irritable bowel syndrome patients with constipation or alternating diarrhoea and constipation and may be particularly useful in patients with bloating as a major complaint.

  4. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  5. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical...... experimental designs will be discussed that can be recommended for eye-tracking studies in consumer science. The application potential will then be demonstrated in four case presentations, focusing on different product categories (from dairy products to alcoholic beverages), measurement contexts (laboratory...... versus point of purchase) and study goals (appearance studies, package design, identification of food choice motives). Furthermore, the presentations will discuss how different components of attention can be distinguished based on eye-tracking data (stimulus-driven versus task-driven processes) and how...

  6. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  7. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  8. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  9. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  10. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  11. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  12. Incidence of a clinical diagnosis of the irritable bowel syndrome in a United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, G R; Yawn, B P; Wollan, P C; Melton, L J; Lydick, E; Talley, N J

    2004-05-01

    The incidence of irritable bowel syndrome is uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of clinically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome in the community. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, all diagnoses of irritable bowel syndrome made among adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, over a 3-year period were identified. The complete medical records of a random sample of the potential subjects were reviewed for the 10 years prior to the irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and any patient who had received a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was excluded (prevalent cases). The diagnostic index listed 1245 possible irritable bowel syndrome patients; 416 patient charts were reviewed and, of these, 149 were physician diagnosed incident cases of irritable bowel syndrome. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 196 per 100,000 person-years and increased with age (P = 0.006). The age-adjusted annual incidence per 100,000 in women was higher than in men: 238 vs. 141 (ratio 3:2; P = 0.005). The overall symptom frequency at the time of diagnosis was abdominal pain (73%), diarrhoea (41%) and constipation (16%). The incidence of a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome in adults was estimated to be two per 1000 per year, increased with age and was higher in women than men. As many people with irritable bowel syndrome do not seek care, the true incidence of irritable bowel syndrome is likely to be higher.

  13. Evaluation of a human corneal epithelial cell line as an in vitro model for assessing ocular irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszewski, F H; Walker, T L; DiPasquale, L C

    1997-04-01

    A human corneal epithelial cell line, 10.014 pRSV-T (HCR-T cells), has been used to develop a three-dimensional in vitro model of the human corneal epithelium (HCE-T model). HCE-T cells form a stratified culture when grown at the air-liquid interface on a collagen membrane in serum-free medium. This model served as the basis for assays which supported the ocular irritancy assessment of water-soluble test substances. Cellular alterations in the HCE-T model were measured following 5-min topical exposures to 20 chemicals [listed in the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Reference Chemicals Data Bank] and 25 surfactant-based product formulations [utilized in the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Alternatives Program Phase III]. In vitro assays used were transepithelial permeability to sodium fluorescein (TEP) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). These measured alterations in the barrier function of this corneal epithelial equivalent. Barrier function is a well-developed property in the HCE-T model that supports the mechanistic relevance of these assays. In vitro data, averaged from replicate assays, were compared to respective Draize rabbit eye irritation data from the publicly available ECETOC and CTFA databases using linear regression with Pearson's correlation analysis. For chemicals, Pearson's correlation coefficients, r, from comparisons of Draize maximum average scores (MAS) to TEP and TER data were 0.71 and 0.55, respectively. For product formulations, Pearson's correlation coefficients from comparisons of Draize MAS to TEP and TER data were 0.86 and 0.80, respectively. Data indicated that barrier function alterations in the HCE-T model correlated with ocular irritancy and corneal toxicity. While the irritancy of the chemicals tested was effectively assessed only by the TEP assay, that for the surfactant-based product formulations was effectively assessed by both the TEP and TER assays. Results

  14. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  15. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  16. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies......Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...

  17. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  18. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation......This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...

  19. Review of adverb category in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Satorre Grau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Among all word classes, the adverb is the worst defined and studied grammatical category. All grammarians accept that this category includes very heterogeneous elements, which come from very different origins and have very different functions. There is thus an urgent need to review this grammatical category. With this work, I intend to find an answer to the following questions: How the grammatical theory on the adverb has been developed? Which have been the mistakes of the grammatical tradition by producing a theory on the adverb? What should we actually understand by an adverb? How can we order, in a proper and reasonable way, the elements which are presently grouped in the so called «adverb» category? And finally, is the grammatical theory on the adverb also applicable to adverbial phrases? The result is a rearrangement of the words which have been considered as adverbs by the grammatical tradition so far.

  20. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.