WorldWideScience

Sample records for eye imaginal disc

  1. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xianhui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae possess highly-exaggerated, sexually dimorphic eye-stalks that play an important role in the mating system of these flies. Eye-stalks are increasingly being used as a model system for studying sexual selection, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms producing variation in these ornamental traits. Therefore, we constructed an EST database of genes expressed in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc of the highly dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni. We used this set of genes to construct microarray slides and compare patterns of gene expression between lines of flies with divergent eyespan. Results We generated 33,229 high-quality ESTs from three non-normalized libraries made from the developing eye-stalk tissue at different developmental stages. EST assembly and annotation produced a total of 7,066 clusters comprising 3,424 unique genes with significant sequence similarity to a protein in either Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae. Comparisons of the transcript profiles at different stages reveal a developmental shift in relative expression from genes involved in anatomical structure formation, transcription, and cell proliferation at the larval stage to genes involved in neurological processes and cuticle production during the pupal stages. Based on alignments of the EST fragments to homologous sequences in Drosophila and Anopheles, we identified 20 putative gene duplication events in T. dalmanni and numerous genes undergoing significantly faster rates of evolution in T. dalmanni relative to the other Dipteran species. Microarray experiments identified over 350 genes with significant differential expression between flies from lines selected for high and low relative eyespan but did not reveal any primary biological process or pathway that is driving the expression differences. Conclusion The catalogue of genes identified in the EST database provides a valuable

  2. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX6...RX026744,SRX152099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX1...RX131079,SRX182777,SRX131083,SRX131084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal wing disc SR...X026743,SRX026742,SRX182775,SRX661503 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal wing disc http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX661498...00 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal wing disc SR...X026743,SRX661503,SRX026742,SRX182775 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal wing disc SR...X026743,SRX661503,SRX026742,SRX182775 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX661498...00 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal wing disc http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX661498...00 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal wing disc http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX6...RX187588,SRX026744,SRX131079,SRX131080 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX6...RX182774,SRX131083,SRX661500,SRX187588 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal wing disc SR...X026742,SRX661503,SRX026743,SRX182775 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal wing disc http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX661498...00 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062282,SRX062281 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062281,SRX062282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX...040614,SRX040616,SRX040618,SRX131084,SRX131083,SRX026744 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX...040616,SRX040614,SRX040618,SRX026744,SRX131084,SRX182777,SRX182774,SRX131083 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062281,SRX062282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062282,SRX062281 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062282,SRX062281 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal wing disc ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062281,SRX062282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal wing disc ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal wing disc ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062282,SRX062281 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX...040616,SRX040614,SRX040618,SRX026744,SRX182774,SRX182777,SRX131083,SRX131084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 No description Larvae Imaginal wing disc ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc SRX062281,SRX062282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc dm3 Input control Larvae Imaginal wing disc SRX...040614,SRX040616,SRX040618,SRX182777,SRX182774,SRX131084,SRX131083,SRX026744 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_wing_disc.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Imaginal brain win...g led disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.10.AllAg.Imaginal_brain_wing_led_disc.bed ...

  17. A Survey of 6,300 Genomic Fragments for cis-Regulatory Activity in the Imaginal Discs of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Jory

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 6,000 fragments from the genome of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed for their ability to drive expression of GAL4 reporter genes in the third-instar larval imaginal discs. About 1,200 reporter genes drove expression in the eye, antenna, leg, wing, haltere, or genital imaginal discs. The patterns ranged from large regions to individual cells. About 75% of the active fragments drove expression in multiple discs; 20% were expressed in ventral, but not dorsal, discs (legs, genital, and antenna, whereas ∼23% were expressed in dorsal but not ventral discs (wing, haltere, and eye. Several patterns, for example, within the leg chordotonal organ, appeared a surprisingly large number of times. Unbiased searches for DNA sequence motifs suggest candidate transcription factors that may regulate enhancers with shared activities. Together, these expression patterns provide a valuable resource to the community and offer a broad overview of how transcriptional regulatory information is distributed in the Drosophila genome.

  18. Towards long term cultivation of Drosophila wing imaginal discs in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster is a prominent experimental system for research on control of cell growth, proliferation and death, as well as on pattern formation and morphogenesis during organogenesis. The precise genetic methodology applicable in this system has facilitated conceptual advances of fundamental importance for developmental biology. Experimental accessibility and versatility would gain further if long term development of wing imaginal discs could be studied also in vitro. For example, culture systems would allow live imaging with maximal temporal and spatial resolution. However, as clearly demonstrated here, standard culture methods result in a rapid cell proliferation arrest within hours of cultivation of dissected wing imaginal discs. Analysis with established markers for cells in S- and M phase, as well as with RGB cell cycle tracker, a novel reporter transgene, revealed that in vitro cultivation interferes with cell cycle progression throughout interphase and not just exclusively during G1. Moreover, quantification of EGFP expression from an inducible transgene revealed rapid adverse effects of disc culture on basic cellular functions beyond cell cycle progression. Disc transplantation experiments confirmed that these detrimental consequences do not reflect fatal damage of imaginal discs during isolation, arguing clearly for a medium insufficiency. Alternative culture media were evaluated, including hemolymph, which surrounds imaginal discs during growth in situ. But isolated larval hemolymph was found to be even less adequate than current culture media, presumably as a result of conversion processes during hemolymph isolation or disc culture. The significance of prominent growth-regulating pathways during disc culture was analyzed, as well as effects of insulin and disc co-culture with larval tissues as potential sources of endocrine factors. Based on our analyses, we developed a culture protocol that

  19. Polycomb silencing of the Drosophila 4E-BP gene regulates imaginal disc cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Tie, Feng; Yan, Christopher; Harte, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are best known for their role in maintaining stable, mitotically heritable silencing of the homeotic (HOX) genes during development. In addition to loss of homeotic gene silencing, some PcG mutants also have small imaginal discs. These include mutations in E(z), Su(z)12, esc and escl, which encode Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunits. The cause of this phenotype is not known, but the human homologs of PRC2 subunits have been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, are over-expressed in many tumors, and appear to be required for tumor proliferation. Here we show that the small imaginal disc phenotype arises, at least in part, from a cell growth defect. In homozygous E(z) mutants, imaginal disc cells are smaller than cells in normally proliferating discs. We show that the Thor gene, which encodes eIF4E-Binding Protein (4E-BP), the evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of cap-dependent translation and potent inhibitor of cell growth, is involved in the development of this phenotype. The Thor promoter region contains DNA binding motifs for transcription factors found in well-characterized Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), including PHO/PHOL, GAGA Factor, and others, suggesting that Thor may be a direct target of Polycomb silencing. We present chromatin immunoprecipitation evidence that PcG proteins are bound to the Thor 5’ region in vivo. The Thor gene is normally repressed in imaginal discs, but Thor mRNA and 4E-BP protein levels are elevated in imaginal discs of PRC2 subunit mutant larvae. Deletion of the Thor gene in E(z) mutants partially restores imaginal disc size toward wild-type and results in an increase in the fraction of larvae that pupariate. These results thus suggest that PcG proteins can directly modulate cell growth in Drosophila, in part by regulating Thor expression. PMID:23523430

  20. Cell proliferation control by Notch signalling during imaginal discs development in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signalling pathway is evolutionary conserved and participates in numerous developmental processes, including the control of cell proliferation. However, Notch signalling can promote or restrain cell division depending on the developmental context, as has been observed in human cancer where Notch can function as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Thus, the outcome of Notch signalling can be influenced by the cross-talk between Notch and other signalling pathways. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila has been proven to be very valuable to understand the developmental role of the Notch pathway in different tissues and its relationship with other signalling pathways during cell proliferation control. Here we review recent studies in Drosophila that shed light in the developmental control of cell proliferation by the Notch pathway in different contexts such as the eye, wing and leg imaginal discs. We also discuss the autonomous and non-autonomous effects of the Notch pathway on cell proliferation and its interactions with different signalling pathways.

  1. Local Cell Death Changes the Orientation of Cell Division in the Developing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc Without Using Fat or Dachsous as Orienting Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Abhijit; Rimesso, Gerard; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit preferred cell division orientations according to location within the disc. These orientations are altered if cell death occurs within the epithelium, such as is caused by cell competition or by genotypes affecting cell survival. Both normal cell division orientations, and their orientations after cell death, depend on the Fat-Dachsous pathway of planar cell polarity (PCP). The hypothesis that cell death initiates a planar polarity signal was investigated. When clones homozygous for the pineapple eye (pie) mutation were made to initiate cell death, neither Dachsous nor Fat was required in pie cells for the re-orientation of nearby cells, indicating a distinct signal for this PCP pathway. Dpp and Wg were also not needed for pie clones to re-orient cell division. Cell shapes were evaluated in wild type and mosaic wing discs to assess mechanical consequences of cell loss. Although proximal wing disc cells and cells close to the dorso-ventral boundary were elongated in their preferred cell division axes in wild type discs, cell shapes in much of the wing pouch were symmetrical on average and did not predict their preferred division axis. Cells in pie mutant clones were slightly larger than their normal counterparts, consistent with mechanical stretching following cell loss, but no bias in cell shape was detected in the surrounding cells. These findings indicate that an unidentified signal influences PCP-dependent cell division orientation in imaginal discs. PMID:28030539

  2. Local Cell Death Changes the Orientation of Cell Division in the Developing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc Without Using Fat or Dachsous as Orienting Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Abhijit; Rimesso, Gerard; Baker, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit preferred cell division orientations according to location within the disc. These orientations are altered if cell death occurs within the epithelium, such as is caused by cell competition or by genotypes affecting cell survival. Both normal cell division orientations, and their orientations after cell death, depend on the Fat-Dachsous pathway of planar cell polarity (PCP). The hypothesis that cell death initiates a planar polarity signal was investigated. When clones homozygous for the pineapple eye (pie) mutation were made to initiate cell death, neither Dachsous nor Fat was required in pie cells for the re-orientation of nearby cells, indicating a distinct signal for this PCP pathway. Dpp and Wg were also not needed for pie clones to re-orient cell division. Cell shapes were evaluated in wild type and mosaic wing discs to assess mechanical consequences of cell loss. Although proximal wing disc cells and cells close to the dorso-ventral boundary were elongated in their preferred cell division axes in wild type discs, cell shapes in much of the wing pouch were symmetrical on average and did not predict their preferred division axis. Cells in pie mutant clones were slightly larger than their normal counterparts, consistent with mechanical stretching following cell loss, but no bias in cell shape was detected in the surrounding cells. These findings indicate that an unidentified signal influences PCP-dependent cell division orientation in imaginal discs.

  3. Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulates Growth Coordination During Drosophila melanogaster Imaginal Disc Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Jacob S; Wolpe, Jacob B; Dao, Anh Q; Halme, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms that coordinate growth during development are essential for producing animals with proper organ proportion. Here we describe a pathway through which tissues communicate to coordinate growth. During Drosophila melanogaster larval development, damage to imaginal discs activates a regeneration checkpoint through expression of Dilp8. This both produces a delay in developmental timing and slows the growth of undamaged tissues, coordinating regeneration of the damaged tissue with developmental progression and overall growth. Here we demonstrate that Dilp8-dependent growth coordination between regenerating and undamaged tissues, but not developmental delay, requires the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the prothoracic gland. NOS limits the growth of undamaged tissues by reducing ecdysone biosynthesis, a requirement for imaginal disc growth during both the regenerative checkpoint and normal development. Therefore, NOS activity in the prothoracic gland coordinates tissue growth through regulation of endocrine signals.

  4. A cellular memory module conveys epigenetic inheritance of hedgehog expression during Drosophila wing imaginal disc development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurange, Cédric; Paro, Renato

    2002-10-15

    In Drosophila, the Trithorax-group (trxG) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins interact with chromosomal elements, termed Cellular Memory Modules (CMMs). By modifying chromatin, this ensures a stable heritable maintenance of the transcriptional state of developmental regulators, like the homeotic genes, that is defined embryonically. We asked whether such CMMs could also control expression of genes involved in patterning imaginal discs during larval development. Our results demonstrate that expression of the hedgehog gene, once activated, is maintained by a CMM. In addition, our experiments indicate that the switching of such CMMs to an active state during larval stages, in contrast to embryonic stages, may require specific trans-activators. Our results suggest that the patterning of cells in particular developmental fields in the imaginal discs does not only rely on external cues from morphogens, but also depends on the previous history of the cells, as the control by CMMs ensures a preformatted gene expression pattern.

  5. Prevalence of disc cupping in non-glaucomatous eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Chiappe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter 1.5 times (respectively the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81% were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg. There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p < 0.001; therefore, for simplicity only the data for right eyes are presented. According to our definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7% small, 141 (76.6% medium and 16 (8.7% large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.

  6. Gene expression following induction of regeneration in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Expression profile of regenerating wing discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Enrique

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regeneration is the ability of an organism to rebuild a body part that has been damaged or amputated, and can be studied at the molecular level using model organisms. Drosophila imaginal discs, which are the larval primordia of adult cuticular structures, are capable of undergoing regenerative growth after transplantation and in vivo culture into the adult abdomen. Results Using expression profile analyses, we studied the regenerative behaviour of wing discs at 0, 24 and 72 hours after fragmentation and implantation into adult females. Based on expression level, we generated a catalogue of genes with putative role in wing disc regeneration, identifying four classes: 1 genes with differential expression within the first 24 hours; 2 genes with differential expression between 24 and 72 hours; 3 genes that changed significantly in expression levels between the two time periods; 4 genes with a sustained increase or decrease in their expression levels throughout regeneration. Among these genes, we identified members of the JNK and Notch signalling pathways and chromatin regulators. Through computational analysis, we recognized putative binding sites for transcription factors downstream of these pathways that are conserved in multiple Drosophilids, indicating a potential relationship between members of the different gene classes. Experimental data from genetic mutants provide evidence of a requirement of selected genes in wing disc regeneration. Conclusions We have been able to distinguish various classes of genes involved in early and late steps of the regeneration process. Our data suggests the integration of signalling pathways in the promoters of regulated genes.

  7. Size-normalized Robustness of Dpp Gradient in Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, A D; Nie, Q; Vargas, B; Wan, F Y M

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous environmental changes are known to affect the intrinsic characteristics of biological organizms. For instance, the synthesis rate of the morphogen decapentaplegic (Dpp) in a Drosophila wing imaginal disc has been found to double with an increase of 5.9°C in ambient temprerature. If not compensated, such a change would alter the signaling Dpp gradient significantly and thereby the development of thewing imaginal disc. To learn how flies continue to develop "normally" under such an exogenous change, we formulate in this paper a spatially two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system of partial differential equations (PDE) that accounts for the biological processes at work in the Drosophila wing disc essential for the formation of signaling Dpp gradient. By way of this PDE model, we investigate the effect of the apical-basal thickness and antero-posterior span of the wing on the shape of signaling gradients and the robustness of wing development in an altered environment (including an enhanced morphogen synthesis rate). Our principal result is a delineation of the role of wing disc size change in maintaining the magnitude and shape of the signaling Dpp gradient. The result provides a theoretical basis for the observed robustness of wing development, preserving relative but not absolute tissue pattern, when the morphogen synthesis rate is significantly altered. A similar robustness considerqation for simultaneous changes of multiple intrinsic system characteristics is also discussed briefly.

  8. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-08-01

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  9. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-08-09

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  10. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Eye-antennal discs SR...X457600 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  5. DNA synthesis in the imaginal wing discs of the American bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Josephrajkumar; B Subrahmanyam

    2002-03-01

    The effect of two insect growth regulators of plant origin viz. plumbagin and azadirachtin and the ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone, makisterone A and a phytoecdysteroid on DNA synthesis in imaginal wing discs of day 4 final instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae was studied. DNA synthesis increased with increase in time of incubation up to 8 h and decreased later without the addition of moulting hormone. Addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone supported long term acquisition of competence for DNA synthesis in the wing discs. Both DNA synthesis and protein content were drastically reduced in plumbagin and azadirachtin-treated insects. Under in vitro conditions, plumbagin had a more pronounced inhibitory effect than azadirachtin. All the ecdysteroids tested, viz. makisterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the ecdysteroidal fraction from the silver fern Cheilanthes farinosa enhanced DNA synthesis.

  6. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, and eyes with childhood glaucoma.Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH or peripapillary atrophy (PPA change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD, horizontal disc diameter (HDD, and maximum PPA width (PPW were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed.Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001. The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612. However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1% were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1% were

  7. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  8. Essential roles for stat92E in expanding and patterning the proximodistal axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc

    OpenAIRE

    Hatini, Victor; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Nusinow, David; Del Signore, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila wing imaginal disc is subdivided along the proximodistal axis into the distal pouch, the hinge, the surrounding pleura, and the notum. While the genetic pathways that specify the identity of each of these domains have been well studied, the mechanisms that coordinate the relative expansion of these domains are not well understood. Here we investigated the role of the stat92E signal transducer and activator of transcription in wing proximodistal development. We find that Stat92E...

  9. Imagined motor action and eye movements in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eDelerue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual exploration and planning of actions are reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. Most of the studies monitoring eye movements in patients with schizophrenia have been performed under free-viewing condition. The present study was designed to assess whether mentally performing an action modulates the visuomotor behavior in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls.Visual scan paths were monitored in eighteen patients with schizophrenia and in eighteen healthy controls. Participants performed two tasks in which they were asked either to (1 look at a scene on a computer screen (free viewing, or (2 picture themselves making a sandwich in front of a computer screen (active viewing. The scenes contained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant objects. Temporal and spatial characteristics of scan paths were compared for each group and each task.The results indicate that patients with schizophrenia exhibited longer fixation durations, and fewer fixations, than healthy controls in the free viewing condition. The patients’ visual exploration improved in the active viewing condition. However, patients looked less at task-relevant objects and looked more at distractors than controls in the active viewing condition in which they were asked to picture themselves making a sandwich in moving their eyes to task-relevant objects on an image.These results are consistent with the literature on deficits in motor imagery in patients with schizophrenia and it extends the impairment to visual exploration in an action imagery task.

  10. File list: InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Evaluation of peripapillary choroidal and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with tilted optic disc

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    Muammer Ozcımen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and peripapillary choroidal thickness in eyes with tilted optic disc in order to identify characteristic RNFL and peripapillary choroid patterns verified by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients with tilted optic discs were studied with spectral-domain (SD-OCT and compared with age and sex-matched control subjects in a prospective design. The imaging of RNFL was performed using circular scans of a diameter of 3.4 mm around the optic disc using OCT. For measurements of peripapillary choroidal thickness, the standar d protocol for RNFL assessment was performed. Results: SD-OCT indicated significantly lower superotemporal (p<0.001, superonasal (p=0.001, and global (p=0.005 RNFL thicknesses in the tilted disc group than those of the control group. Peripapillary choroid was significantly thicker at the site of the elevated rim of eyes with tilted disc (p<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a clinical characterization of the main tilted disc morphologies that may be helpful in differentiating a tilted disc from other altered disc morphologies. Further studies are recommended to study the comparison between glaucoma and tilted disc groups.

  19. Essential roles for stat92E in expanding and patterning the proximodistal axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatini, Victor; Kula-Eversole, Ela; Nusinow, David; Del Signore, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    The Drosophila wing imaginal disc is subdivided along the proximodistal axis into the distal pouch, the hinge, the surrounding pleura, and the notum. While the genetic pathways that specify the identity of each of these domains have been well studied, the mechanisms that coordinate the relative expansion of these domains are not well understood. Here we investigated the role of the stat92E signal transducer and activator of transcription in wing proximodistal development. We find that stat92E is active ubiquitously in early wing imaginal discs, where it acts to inhibit the induction of ectopic wing fields. Subsequently, stat92E activity is down regulated in the notum and distal pouch. These dynamics coincide with and contribute to the proportional subdivision and expansion of these primordia. As development proceeds, stat92E activity becomes restricted to the hinge, where it promotes normal expansion of the hinge, and restricts expansion of the notum. We also find that stat92E is required autonomously to specify dorsal pleura identity and inhibit notum identity to properly subdivide the body wall. Our data suggest that stat92E activity is regulated along the proximodistal axis to pattern this axis and control the relative expansion of the pouch, hinge, and notum.

  20. Role of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling in the wound healing and regeneration of a Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Jaakko; Omelyanchuk, Leonid; Kyttälä, Satu; Turunen, Heikki; Nokkala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    When a fragment of a Drosophila imaginal disc is cultured in growth permissive conditions, it either regenerates the missing structures or duplicates the pattern present in the fragment. This kind of pattern regulation is known to be epimorphic, i.e. the new pattern is generated by proliferation in a specialized tissue called the blastema. Pattern regulation is accompanied by the healing of the cut surfaces restoring the continuous epithelia. Wound healing has been considered to be the inductive signal to commence regenerative cell divisions. Although the general outlines of the proliferation dynamics in a regenerating imaginal disc blastema have been well studied, little is known about the mechanisms driving cells into the regenerative cell cycles. In this study, we have investigated the role of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling in the wound healing and regeneration of a Drosophila wing imaginal disc. By utilizing in vivo and in vitro culturing of incised and fragmented discs, we have been able to visualize the dynamics in cellular architecture and gene expression involved in the healing and regeneration process. Our results directly show that homotypic wound healing is not a prerequisite for regenerative cell divisions. We also show that JNK signaling participates in imaginal disc wound healing and is regulated by the physical dynamics of the process, as well as in recruiting cells into the regenerative cell cycles. A model describing the determination of blastema size is discussed.

  1. Activation of JNK signaling links IgI mutations to disruption of the cell polarity and epithelial organization in Drosophila imaginal discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-wei Zhu; Tian-chi Xin; Shun-yan Weng; Yin Gao; Ying-jie Zhang; Qi Li; Ming-fa Li

    2010-01-01

    Dear Editor, Identification of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for cancer research has facilitated the exploration of human tumor malignancy. In Drosophila, lossof-function mutations in the neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (nTSGs) lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), discs large (dlg) or scribble (scrib) cause a malignant tumor-like phenotype characteristic of disrupted cell polarity and overgrowth in epithelial tissues such as imaginal discs [1].

  2. A Model of the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Drosophila Eye Disc Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Patrick; Sánchez-Aragón, Máximo; Lehtinen, Birgitta; Casares, Fernando; Iber, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Patterning and growth are linked during early development and have to be tightly controlled to result in a functional tissue or organ. During the development of the Drosophila eye, this linkage is particularly clear: the growth of the eye primordium mainly results from proliferating cells ahead of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a moving signaling wave that sweeps across the tissue from the posterior to the anterior side, that induces proliferating cells anterior to it to differentiate and become cell cycle quiescent in its wake. Therefore, final eye disc size depends on the proliferation rate of undifferentiated cells and on the speed with which the MF sweeps across the eye disc. We developed a spatio-temporal model of the growing eye disc based on the regulatory interactions controlled by the signals Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Hedgehog (Hh) and the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth) and explored how the signaling patterns affect the movement of the MF and impact on eye disc growth. We used published and new quantitative data to parameterize the model. In particular, two crucial parameter values, the degradation rate of Hth and the diffusion coefficient of Hh, were measured. The model is able to reproduce the linear movement of the MF and the termination of growth of the primordium. We further show that the model can explain several mutant phenotypes, but fails to reproduce the previously observed scaling of the Dpp gradient in the anterior compartment. PMID:27626238

  3. Characterisation of functional and insecticidal properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from flesh fly (Sacrophaga peregrina) involved in differentiation of imaginal discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Sacrophaga peregrina (flesh fly), which is involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. The protein has a potential insecticidal activity, since recombinant baculoviruses engineered to express ScathL have an enhanced ability to kill lepidoptera...

  4. Central retinal venous pressure in eyes of normal-tension glaucoma patients with optic disc hemorrhage.

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    Ko Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH.In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH, group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH, and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP.Intraocular pressure (IOP measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008. The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001, but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409. A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043 and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003 were associated with ODH.CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH.

  5. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation of the Fellow Eyes in Non-Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

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    Medine Yılmaz Dağ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the fellow eyes in unilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and to compare their optic disc parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness with age-and refraction-matched normal controll subjects, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 2 (HRT II. Materials and Methods: The fellow eyes of 40 patients with typical unilateral NAION (study group and one randomly chosen eye of 42 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Optic disc morphologic features (average disc area, cup area, rim area, disc volume, rim volume, cup/disc area ratio, cup depth and peripapillary RNFL thickness were evaluated using HRT II, a confoal scanning ophtalmoscopy. Results: In the study group, there were 26 (65% men and 14 (35% women, whereas there were 27 (64% men and 15 (36% women in the control group (Chi square test, p=0.89. Mean age of the patients in the study and control groups was 59.4±10.3 and 57.7±9.1 years, respectively (T test, p=0.72. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding mean spheric equivalent between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.203. The NAION unaffected fellow eyes had significantly smaller disc areas, cup areas, cup volumes, cup-disc area ratios (vertical and lineer, and cup depths than the control eyes (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference in the RNFL thickness between the two. Conclusion: A comparison of the fellow eyes in patients with unilateral NAION and the control eyes showed a significant difference in optic disc parameters and the morphology of RNFL. These differences could be important in the pathogenesis of NAION and needs to have further investigated. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 111-114

  6. Relationship Between Peripapillary Atrophy and Optic Disc Parameters in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Tamer Takmaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the relationship between peripapillary atrophy and optic disc parameters measured by Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT and visual field findings in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were included in this study. In addition to routine ophthalmic examination, optic disc parameters were evaluated with HRT and visual field was evaluated with Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. Peripapillary atrophy area was measured by drawing contour of the border of the peripapillary atrophy (Beta zone: chorioretinal atrophy area in which sclera and big choroid blood vessels were seen in HRT. The relationship between this atrophy area and both visual field findings and optic disc parameters was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and statistical significance were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4±8.9 years. Measured beta zone area was 0.65±0.40 mm2. Mean deviation measured with Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was -8.6±8.2 dB and pattern standard deviation was 6.4±4.6. Statistically significant correlation between peripapillary atrophy area and age (PC=0.495, p=0.005, mean deviation (PC=-0.554, p=0.001, cup area (PC=0.382, p=0.037, cup/disc area ratio (PC=0.562, p=0.001, linear cup/disc area ratio (PC=0.422, p=0.020 and mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (PC=-0.360, p=0.047 was found. There was not a significant relationship between other optic disc parameters and peripapillary atrophy area (p>0.05. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between peripapillary beta zone atrophy area and some important optic disk parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma patients. More meaningful information would have been obtained if sectoral investigation of the optic disc was performed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 291-4

  7. Mutations in the polycomb group gene polyhomeotic lead to epithelial instability in both the ovary and wing imaginal disc in Drosophila.

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    Pierre Gandille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most human cancers originate from epithelial tissues and cell polarity and adhesion defects can lead to metastasis. The Polycomb-Group of chromatin factors were first characterized in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes during development, while studies in mammals indicate a conserved role in body plan organization, as well as an implication in other processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. We have analyzed the function of the Drosophila Polycomb-Group gene polyhomeotic in epithelial cells of two different organs, the ovary and the wing imaginal disc. RESULTS: Clonal analysis of loss and gain of function of polyhomeotic resulted in segregation between mutant and wild-type cells in both the follicular and wing imaginal disc epithelia, without excessive cell proliferation. Both basal and apical expulsion of mutant cells was observed, the former characterized by specific reorganization of cell adhesion and polarity proteins, the latter by complete cytoplasmic diffusion of these proteins. Among several candidate target genes tested, only the homeotic gene Abdominal-B was a target of PH in both ovarian and wing disc cells. Although overexpression of Abdominal-B was sufficient to cause cell segregation in the wing disc, epistatic analysis indicated that the presence of Abdominal-B is not necessary for expulsion of polyhomeotic mutant epithelial cells suggesting that additional polyhomeotic targets are implicated in this phenomenon. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that polyhomeotic mutations have a direct effect on epithelial integrity that can be uncoupled from overproliferation. We show that cells in an epithelium expressing different levels of polyhomeotic sort out indicating differential adhesive properties between the cell populations. Interestingly, we found distinct modalities between apical and basal expulsion of ph mutant cells and further studies of this phenomenon should allow

  8. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

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    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd, or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth, known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  9. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki) pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd), or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth), known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  10. act up controls actin polymerization to alter cell shape and restrict Hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila eye disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlali, A; Draskovic, I; Hazelett, D J; Treisman, J E

    2000-04-28

    Cells in the morphogenetic furrow of the Drosophila eye disc undergo a striking shape change immediately prior to their neuronal differentiation. We have isolated mutations in a novel gene, act up (acu), that is required for this shape change. acu encodes a homolog of yeast cyclase-associated protein, which sequesters monomeric actin; we show that acu is required to prevent actin filament polymerization in the eye disc. In contrast, profilin promotes actin filament polymerization, acting epistatically to acu. However, both acu and profilin are required to prevent premature Hedgehog-induced photoreceptor differentiation ahead of the morphogenetic furrow. These findings suggest that dynamic changes in actin filaments alter cell shape to control the movement of signals that coordinate a wave of differentiation.

  11. Apposition of iroquois expressing and non-expressing cells leads to cell sorting and fold formation in the Drosophila imaginal wing disc

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    González-Pérez Esther

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organization of the different tissues of an animal requires mechanisms that regulate cell-cell adhesion to promote and maintain the physical separation of adjacent cell populations. In the Drosophila imaginal wing disc the iroquois homeobox genes are expressed in the notum anlage and contribute to the specification of notum identity. These genes are not expressed in the adjacent wing hinge territory. These territories are separated by an approximately straight boundary that in the mature disc is associated with an epithelial fold. The mechanism by which these two cell populations are kept separate is unclear. Results Here we show that the Iro-C genes participate in keeping the notum and wing cell populations separate. Indeed, within the notum anlage, cells not expressing Iro-C tend to join together and sort out from their Iro-C expressing neighbours. We also show that apposition of Iro-C expressing and non-expressing cells induces invagination and apico-basal shortening of the Iro-C- cells. This effect probably underlies formation of the fold that separates the notum and wing hinge territories. In addition, cells overexpressing a member of the Iro-C contact one another and become organized in a network of thin strings that surrounds and isolates large groups of non-overexpressing cells. The strings appear to exert a pulling force along their longitudinal axis. Conclusion Apposition of cells expressing and non-expressing the Iro-C, as it occurs in the notum-wing hinge border of the Drosophila wing disc, influences cell behaviour. It leads to cell sorting, and cellular invagination and apical-basal shortening. These effects probably account for keeping the prospective notum and wing hinge cell populations separate and underlie epithelial fold formation. Cells that overexpress a member of the Iro-C and that confront non-expressing cells establish contacts between themselves and become organized in a network of thin strings

  12. Drosophila lipophorin receptors mediate the uptake of neutral lipids in oocytes and imaginal disc cells by an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

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    Esmeralda Parra-Peralbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are constantly shuttled through the body to redistribute energy and metabolites between sites of absorption, storage, and catabolism in a complex homeostatic equilibrium. In Drosophila, lipids are transported through the hemolymph in the form of lipoprotein particles, known as lipophorins. The mechanisms by which cells interact with circulating lipophorins and acquire their lipidic cargo are poorly understood. We have found that lipophorin receptor 1 and 2 (lpr1 and lpr2, two partially redundant genes belonging to the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR family, are essential for the efficient uptake and accumulation of neutral lipids by oocytes and cells of the imaginal discs. Females lacking the lpr2 gene lay eggs with low lipid content and have reduced fertility, revealing a central role for lpr2 in mediating Drosophila vitellogenesis. lpr1 and lpr2 are transcribed into multiple isoforms. Interestingly, only a subset of these isoforms containing a particular LDLR type A module mediate neutral lipid uptake. Expression of these isoforms induces the extracellular stabilization of lipophorins. Furthermore, our data indicate that endocytosis of the lipophorin receptors is not required to mediate the uptake of neutral lipids. These findings suggest a model where lipophorin receptors promote the extracellular lipolysis of lipophorins. This model is reminiscent of the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that occurs at the mammalian capillary endothelium, suggesting an ancient role for LDLR-like proteins in this process.

  13. Covalent Binding of Antibodies to Cellulose Paper Discs and Their Applications in Naked-eye Colorimetric Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanfen; Gelder, Victor Van; Amaladoss, Anburaj; Patel, Kadamb Haribhai

    2016-10-21

    This report presents two methods for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies on cellulose filter paper grade No. 1 (medium-flow filter paper) discs and grade No. 113 (fast-flow filter paper) discs. These cellulose paper discs were grafted with amine functional groups through a silane coupling technique before the antibodies were immobilized on them. Periodate oxidation and glutaraldehyde cross-linking methods were used to graft capture antibodies on the cellulose paper discs. In order to ensure the maximum binding capacity of the capture antibodies to their targets after immobilization, the effects of various concentrations of sodium periodate, glutaraldehyde, and capture antibodies on the surface of the paper discs were investigated. The antibodies that were coated on the amine-functionalized cellulose paper discs through a glutaraldehyde cross-linking agent showed enhanced binding activity to the target when compared to the periodate oxidation method. IgG (in mouse reference serum) was used as a reference target in this study to test the application of covalently immobilized antibodies through glutaraldehyde. A new paper-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was successfully developed and validated for the detection of IgG. This method does not require equipment, and it can detect 100 ng/ml of IgG. The fast-flow filter paper was more sensitive than the medium-flow filter paper. The incubation period of this assay was short and required small sample volumes. This naked-eye, colorimetric immunoassay can be extended to detect other targets that are identified with conventional ELISA.

  14. Association of Myopic Deformation of Optic Disc with Visual Field Progression in Paired Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Masanori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The influence of myopia on glaucoma progression remains unknown, possibly because of the multifactorial nature of glaucoma and difficulty in assessing a solo contribution of myopia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of myopia with visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma using a paired-eye design to minimize the influence of confounding systemic factors that are diverse among individuals. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 144 eyes of 72 subjects with open-angle glaucoma, with similar intra-ocular pressure between paired eyes, spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -2 diopter (D), and axial length ≥ 24 mm. Paired eyes with faster and slower VF progression were grouped separately, according to the global VF progression rate assessed by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. The SE, axial length, tilt ratio and torsion angle of optic discs, Bruch’s membrane (BM) opening area, and gamma zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) width were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with faster VF progression were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean follow-up duration was 8.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean value of SE and axial length were -6.31 ± 1.88 D and 26.05 ± 1.12 mm, respectively. The mean global visual field progression rate was -0.32 ± 0.38 dB/y. Tilt ratio, BM opening area, and gamma zone PPA width were significantly greater in the eyes with faster VF progression than those with slower progression. In multivariate analysis, these factors were significantly associated with faster VF progression (all P < 0.05), while SE and axial length were not associated with it. Conclusion In myopic glaucoma subjects, tilt of the optic disc and temporal shifting and enlargement of the BM opening were associated with faster rate of VF progression between paired eyes. This suggests that myopia influences VF progression in glaucomatous eyes via optic disc deformations rather than via refractive error itself

  15. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

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    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  16. Wingless signalling alters the levels, subcellular distribution and dynamics of Armadillo and E-cadherin in third instar larval wing imaginal discs.

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    Ildiko M L Somorjai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armadillo, the Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate ss-catenin, plays a dual role as the key effector of Wingless/Wnt1 signalling, and as a bridge between E-Cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton. In the absence of ligand, Armadillo is phosphorylated and targeted to the proteasome. Upon binding of Wg to its receptors, the "degradation complex" is inhibited; Armadillo is stabilised and enters the nucleus to transcribe targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the relationship between signalling and adhesion has been extensively studied, few in vivo data exist concerning how the "transcriptional" and "adhesive" pools of Armadillo are regulated to orchestrate development. We have therefore addressed how the subcellular distribution of Armadillo and its association with E-Cadherin change in larval wing imaginal discs, under wild type conditions and upon signalling. Using confocal microscopy, we show that Armadillo and E-Cadherin are spatio-temporally regulated during development, and that a punctate species becomes concentrated in a subapical compartment in response to Wingless. In order to further dissect this phenomenon, we overexpressed Armadillo mutants exhibiting different levels of activity and stability, but retaining E-Cadherin binding. Arm(S10 displaces endogenous Armadillo from the AJ and the basolateral membrane, while leaving E-Cadherin relatively undisturbed. Surprisingly, DeltaNArm(1-155 caused displacement of both Armadillo and E-Cadherin, results supported by our novel method of quantification. However, only membrane-targeted Myr-DeltaNArm(1-155 produced comparable nuclear accumulation of Armadillo and signalling to Arm(S10. These experiments also highlighted a row of cells at the A/P boundary depleted of E-Cadherin at the AJ, but containing actin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence for a complex non-linear relationship between Armadillo levels, subcellular distribution and

  17. 5D imaging via light sheet microscopy reveals cell dynamics during the eye-antenna disc primordium formation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Shan; Ku, Hui Yu; Tsai, Yun Chi; Chang, Chin Hao; Pao, Sih Hua; Sun, Y. Henry; Chiou, Arthur

    2017-03-01

    5D images of engrailed (en) and eye gone (eyg) gene expressions during the course of the eye-antenna disc primordium (EADP) formation of Drosophila embryos from embryonic stages 13 through 16 were recorded via light sheet microscopy and analyzed to reveal the cell dynamics involved in the development of the EADP. Detailed analysis of the time-lapsed images revealed the process of EADP formation and its invagination trajectory, which involved an inversion of the EADP anterior-posterior axis relative to the body. Furthermore, analysis of the en-expression pattern in the EADP provided strong evidence that the EADP is derived from one of the en-expressing head segments.

  18. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  19. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Masayuki Hata, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Akio Oishi, Yugo Kimura, Satoko Nakagawa, Takahiro Horii, Nagahisa Yoshimura Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE, ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON, and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT and OCT (OCT-RNFLT measurements among different etiologies were investigated. Results: No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01 or ON (P=0.02 patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001 or ON (P=0.001 patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01 and ON (P<0.01 patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026. The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001 patients. Conclusion: In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss. Keywords: optic disc swelling, scanning laser polarimetry, optical coherence tomography

  20. Managerial Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Savvas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the links between imagination and human resource management. The concept imagination has received little scholarly attention within the field of management, despite its potential to inform a number of lines of inquiry. At the present time, much of the research literature on imagination is confined to the visual arts, literature, and education. Human resource (HR professionals could play a part in aligning employees with organizational goals and bring about organizational change if they developed their thinking in a more imaginative way. Developing managerial imagination can help solve the dilemmas and contradictions they face. A diagram is developed, which maps the development of the personnel function and offers four possibilities within a framework. They are biography, personal framing, history, and social structure. The outcome of this analysis provides a development of the personnel function one of which is a globally imaginative HR management. Within such a framework, the concept of “the imaginative performer” is discussed. The implications of combining imagination with management may provide a theoretical and practical way to understanding HR management.

  1. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Oishi, Akio; Kimura, Yugo; Nakagawa, Satoko; Horii, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation) and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE), ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON), and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT) and OCT (OCT-RNFLT) measurements among different etiologies were investigated. No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01) or ON (P=0.02) patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001) or ON (P=0.001) patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01) and ON (P<0.01) patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026). The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001) patients. In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss.

  2. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  3. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  4. The expression of the T-box selector gene midline in the leg imaginal disc is controlled by both transcriptional regulation and cell lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia C. Svendsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Tbx20 homologs midline and H15 act as selector genes for ventral fate in Drosophila legs. midline and H15 expression defines the ventral domain of the leg and the two genes are necessary and sufficient for the development of ventral fate. Ventral-specific expression of midline and H15 is activated by Wingless (Wg and repressed by Decapentaplegic (Dpp. Here we identify VLE, a 5 kb enhancer that drives ventral specific expression in the leg disc that is very similar to midline expression. Subdivision of VLE identifies two regions that mediate both activation and repression and third region that only mediates repression. Loss- and gain-of-function genetic mosaic analysis shows that the activating and repressing regions respond to Wg and Dpp signaling respectively. All three repression regions depend on the activity of Mothers-against-decapentaplegic, a Drosophila r-Smad that mediates Dpp signaling, and respond to ectopic expression of the Dpp target genes optomoter-blind and Dorsocross 3. However, only one repression region is responsive to loss of schnurri, a co-repressor required for direct repression by Dpp-signaling. Thus, Dpp signaling restricts midline expression through both direct repression and through the activation of downstream repressors. We also find that midline and H15 expression are both subject to cross-repression and feedback inhibition. Finally, a lineage analysis indicates that ventral midline-expressing cells and dorsal omb-expressing cells do not mix during development. Together this data indicates that the ventral-specific expression of midline results from both transcriptional regulation and from a lack of cell-mixing between dorsal and ventral cells.

  5. Imagined Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Nørgaard, Mie; Laursen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to this book focuses on the human responses to objects that change shape in response to input from users, environment, or other circumstances. In this chapter we discuss the term "imagined physics", meaning how actuated devices are in one sense tied to their physical form, yet through the use of actuators...

  6. Harassment: Imaginings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Judith

    1993-01-01

    Imagines the role of the male college professor in view of the erotic and sexual nature of his subjectivity and the glaring possibilities of sexual misconduct with students. Outlines some experiences related to the sexual harassment policies of one private college. (HB)

  7. Imagined Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Nørgaard, Mie; Laursen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    to this book focuses on the human responses to objects that change shape in response to input from users, environment, or other circumstances. In this chapter we discuss the term "imagined physics", meaning how actuated devices are in one sense tied to their physical form, yet through the use of actuators...

  8. Embodied Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Kozel, Susan

    2007-01-01

    ituated in the domain of research into mobile, wireless, networked and wearable computing, this exploratory paperintroduces the embodied imagination method and explains how it can contribute to the design process by creating an elastic space of performance that incorporates daily life and persona...... within human existence, and suggest that shared use of mobile technologies has the potential to be situated there....

  9. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The actors of the building industry have access to a range of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and are constantly presented with new software and new communications platforms. Through case studies, and inspired by sociotechnical approaches to the study of emerging technologies......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role...

  10. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    , this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references......The actors of the building industry have access to a range of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and are constantly presented with new software and new communications platforms. Through case studies, and inspired by sociotechnical approaches to the study of emerging technologies...... to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role...

  11. Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nicholas E

    2013-01-01

    When cell cycle withdrawal accompanies terminal differentiation, biosynthesis and cellular growth are likely to change also. In this study, nucleolus size was monitored during cell fate specification in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc using fibrillarin antibody labeling. Nucleolus size is an indicator of ribosome biogenesis and can correlate with cellular growth rate. Nucleolar size was reduced significantly during cell fate specification and differentiation, predominantly as eye disc cells entered a cell cycle arrest that preceded cell fate specification. This reduction in nucleolus size required Dpp and Hh signaling. A transient enlargement of the nucleolus accompanied cell division in the Second Mitotic Wave. Nucleoli continued to diminish in postmitotic cells following fate specification. These results suggest that cellular growth is regulated early in the transition from proliferating progenitor cells to terminal cell fate specification, contemporary with regulation of the cell cycle, and requiring the same extracellular signals.

  12. Correlation between cup-to-disc ratio and cup/retrobulbar optic nerve diameter proportion assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in glaucomatous eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian Silva Queiroz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between the measurements of the cup/retrobulbar optic nerve diameter (C/OND proportion obtained by high-resolution 20-MHz B-mode ultrasound (US and those of the cup/disc ratio (C/D obtained by fundus biomicroscopy (BIO and optical coherence tomography (OCT. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 15 glaucomatous patients with any C/D proportion were studied. All patients underwent examination of the vertical C/D by BIO with a 78D lens and time-domain OCT analysis, as well as the vertical C/OND proportion using 20-MHz US measurements. All data were analyzed by correlation and agreement tests. RESULTS: The Spearman test showed a strong correlation between C/D results obtained by BIO and the measurements of C/OND (US (r=0.788, p<0.0001, and with C/D obtained by OCT (r=0.8529, p<0.0001. However, comparison of C/D results obtained with OCT to those obtained by with C/OND (US showed only a moderate correlation (r=0.6727, p<0.0001. Bland-Altman analysis did not show good agreement between C/D (BIO and C/OND (US. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that B-mode ultrasound examination with a 20 MHz probe can be a good additional method for the evaluation of the C/D ratio in glaucomatous patients, and may be considered as an alternative gross tool in glaucomatous patients with optic media opacities.

  13. Niger - Threshold (IMAGINE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The IMAGINE program was designed to improve educational outcomes of girls in Niger. The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) funded IMAGINE as a component of its...

  14. Capulet and Slingshot share overlapping functions during Drosophila eye morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chiao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAP/Capulet (Capt, Slingshot (Ssh and Cofilin/Twinstar (Tsr are actin-binding proteins that restrict actin polymerization. Previously, it was shown that low resolution analyses of loss-of-function mutations in capt, ssh and tsr all show ectopic F-actin accumulation in various Drosophila tissues. In contrast, RNAi depletion of capt, tsr and ssh in Drosophila S2 cells all affect actin-based lamella formation differently. Whether loss of these three related genes might cause the same effect in the same tissue remains unclear. Methods Loss-of-function mutant clones were generated using the MARCM or EGUF system whereas overexpression clones were generated using the Flip-out system. Immunostaining were then performed in eye imaginal discs with clones. FRAP was performed in cultured eye discs. Results Here, we compared their loss-of-function phenotype at single-cell resolution, using a sheet of epithelial cells in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc as a model system. Surprisingly, we found that capt and ssh, but not tsr, mutant cells within and posterior to the morphogenetic furrow (MF shared similar phenotypes. The capt/ssh mutant cells possessed: (1 hexagonal cell packing with discontinuous adherens junctions; and (2 largely complementary accumulation of excessive phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC and F-actin rings at the apical cortex. We further showed that the capt/ssh mutant phenotypes depended on the inactivation of protein kinase A (PKA and activation of Rho. Conclusions Although Capt, Ssh and Tsr were reported to negatively regulate actin polymerization, we found that Capt and Ssh, but not Tsr, share overlapping functions during eye morphogenesis.

  15. The Theatre of Imagining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Ulla

    performance with the audience as active co-players. The dissertation’s examination of the cultural history of imagination via three selected periods uncovers a very complex, variable and diverse conception of imagination: From the perception of imagination in the Renaissance as a reproductive but potentially...

  16. Niger - Threshold (IMAGINE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This impact evaluation uses random assignment at the village level to estimate impacts of the IMAGINE program on enrollment, attendance, learning and other education...

  17. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  18. Gettysburg re-imagined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chronis, Athinodoros; Arnould, Eric J.; Hampton, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    narrative of the American Civil War and we explore ethnographically the ways in which this historical episode is (re)imagined and articulated in tourism at Gettysburg. Our research provides an alternative account to mental imagery theory that is based on restrictive cognitive conceptions of imagination...

  19. Imagination et incarnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas de Warren

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Il n’est pas inhabituel de considérer l’imagination comme une conscience d’objets non réels, ayant la forme d’images internes ou de représentations privées de toute incarnation spatiale. Dans cet article j’interroge la phénoménologie de l’imagination de Husserl à partir de deux questions : l’imagination est-elle un type de conscience d’image ? L’imagination, est-elle privée de toute incarnation spatiale ? Après avoir reconstruit la distinction nette opérée par Husserl entre imagination et conscience d’image (l’imaginaire n’est pas une image mentale interne, j’explore la thèse de Husserl, fort suggestive, selon laquelle toute imagination implique la projection du corps vécu. Loin d’être entièrement dépourvu de spatialité, l’imaginaire exhibe des caractéristiques quasi-spatiales, et il est fondé sur ce qui est « le plus propre » de mon corps vécu – cela même que, pour ainsi dire, j’amène toujours avec moi, même dans les envols les plus éloignés de mon imagination.It is not uncommon to consider the imagination as a consciousness of non-real objects in the form of internal images or representations that are bereft of spatial incarnation. In this paper, I develop Husserl's phenomenology of the imagination along two questions: Is the imagination a type of image-consciousness? Is the imagination entirely bereft of spatial incarnation? After reconstructing Husserl's trenchant decoupling of the imagination from image-consciousness  (the imaginary is not an internal mental image, I explore Husserl's suggestive thesis that the imagination involves the projection of the lived-body. Rather than consider the imaginary as entirely bereft of spatiality, the imaginary exhibits quasi-spatial characteristics, and is grounded in the "ownmost" of my lived-body, which, as it were, I always take with me, even to the farthest reaches of my imagination.

  20. ten-a overexpression causes abnormal pattern in the Drosophila compound eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LERTLUK NGERNSIRI; NORA FASCETTI; SUPPALUK ROMRATANAPAN; STEFAN BAUMGARTNER

    2006-01-01

    Ten-a is one of the two Drosophila proteins that belong to the Ten M protein family. This protein is a type Ⅱ transmembrane protein and is expressed mainly in the embryonic CNS, in the larval eye imaginal disc and in the compound eye of the pupa. Here,we investigate the role of ten-a during development of the compound eye by using the Gal4/UAS system to induce ten-a overexpression in the developing eye. We found that overexpression of ten-a can perturb eye development during all stages examined. In an early stage, overexpression of ten-a in eye primordial cells caused small and rough eyes and interfered with photoreceptor cell recruitment, resulting in some ommatidia having fewer or extra photoreceptor cells. Conversely, ten-a overexpression during ommatidial formation caused severe eye defects due to absence of many cellular components. Interestingly,overexpression of ten-a in the late stage developing ommatidial cluster affected the number of pigment cells, caused cone cells proliferation in many ommatidia, and caused some photoreceptor cell defects. These results suggest that ten-a may be a novel gene required for normal eye morphogenesis.

  1. Imaginer, disloquer, reconstruire

    OpenAIRE

    Didi-Huberman, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Les procédures historiques et anthropologiques nécessaires à l’approche des images ne vont pas sans un montage particulier des champs de savoir. Or, il n’y a pas d’image sans imagination (comme il n’y a pas de forme sans formation), ce qui implique la coalescence, en toute procédure vouée aux images, du montage et de l’imagination. Mais qu’entendre ici par imagination ? À titre d’exemple, on interrogera la manière dont fascination, dislocation et construction se trouvent liées dans l’expérien...

  2. Imagination and the imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2006-02-01

    This paper argues that real imagination depends on the capacity to acknowledge the absence of what is imagined from the world of material actuality. This leads on to a view of symbol formation as the operation of the transcendent function between the opposites of presence and absence. 'The imaginary' is contrasted with this as a defensive misuse of imagination that attempts to deny 'negation' where negation is defined as all those aspects of the world that constitute a check to the omnipotence of fantasy--e.g., absence, loss, difference, otherness etc. Parallels are drawn with theoretical antecedents in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, with particular attention to papers published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology (JAP) in the 1960s on the relation between active imagination, transference and ego development. A clinical example is given to show the use of the imaginary as a means of warding off the unbearable pain of Oedipal disappointment.

  3. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  4. After Imagining/ Après l'imaginer: Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Managing Editors

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We welcome you to Imaginations: Journal of Cross-Cultural Image Studies / Revue d’études interculturelles de l’image, an open-access online peer-reviewed journal born out of research and developments in cross-cultural and intersecting epistemological fields that have at their root a determined focus on the role and power of the image in contemporary culture and in cultural communications. Nous vous souhaitons la bienvenue à Imaginations: Journal of Cross-Cultural Image Studies / Revue d’études interculturelles de l’image, un journal en ligne à accès libre dont les contributions sont préalablement soumises à un comité de révision par les pairs. Cette publication est le fruit d’un vif intérêt pour la recherche et la pratique au croisement de multiples champs épistémologiques et interculturels autour du rôle et de la puissance de l’image dans la société et les média contemporains.

  5. Physics imagination and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Philip Russell

    1991-01-01

    Physics: Imagination and Reality introduces the reader to major ideas and the conceptual structure of modern physics, by tracing its development from the introduction of fields into physics by Faraday and Maxwell in the last century. Because the approach is historical, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the subjects. It should appeal to anyone interested in a basic understanding of the contemporary physicists view of the physical world. It avoids all but the simplest mathematics and presents ideas and concepts in everyday language.Physics: Imagination and Reality attempts to provide

  6. Narrative Imagination: a Design Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Tully

    2012-01-01

    Each generation entrusts the collective future to the next. Just like the oral traditions of our past continue to manifest in our consciousness, we need to tell stories today that will free the imagination. Designers in particular need to develop the ability to articulate the imagined possibilities that the narrative imagination can create. In order to appreciate the complexity of interactions that are occurring in a spatial or object orientated context we need to think about the imagination ...

  7. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  8. Imagined futures, present lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line; Wildermuth, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    is discussed centrally in this attempt to contribute to an empirically grounded understanding of the role that media play for youth in their striving to ‘find a place in life'. In the empirical context presented in the article, imaginations, expanded and circulated by a globalized media circuit...

  9. Mettle and Imagination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students show their talent at international technology competition Chinese participants battled their way to glory at this year’s Imagine Cup Student Competition.Their achievements,including two sec- ond-place and one third-place trophies,gave

  10. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  11. Authenticity and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Central to development of authenticity in teaching is self-understanding and self-awareness. Using a Jungian perspective, the author suggests that the imaginative dimensions of the self play a critical role in our journey and experience as teachers, and in developing self-awareness and authenticity in our teaching.

  12. Imagination in Creative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This paper unpacks the notion of imagination presented in the I5-system of knowledge creation along several theoretical contributions and process models from “knowledge science”, creativity research and design studies. It aims at conceptual clarification and integration around the key notion of “...... research and interview accounts from first, second and third person perspectives....

  13. Imagination Embodied: The Sacraments Reappropriated

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the 2015 REA Atlanta conference theme, "The Power of Imagining: The Life Giving Possibilities of Education in Faith," this article proposes a postmodern reclamation of imagination as the human bridge to sacramentally encounter the Divine. It re-examines sacramental religious education retrieving imagination from material…

  14. Bar represses dPax2 and decapentaplegic to regulate cell fate and morphogenetic cell death in Drosophila eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkyun Kang

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of cell fate and cell survival is crucial for normal pattern formation in developing organisms. In Drosophila compound eye development, crystalline arrays of hexagonal ommatidia are established by precise assembly of diverse cell types, including the photoreceptor cells, cone cells and interommatidial (IOM pigment cells. The molecular basis for controlling the number of cone and IOM pigment cells during ommatidial pattern formation is not well understood. Here we present evidence that BarH1 and BarH2 homeobox genes are essential for eye patterning by inhibiting excess cone cell differentiation and promoting programmed death of IOM cells. Specifically, we show that loss of Bar from the undifferentiated retinal precursor cells leads to ectopic expression of Prospero and dPax2, two transcription factors essential for cone cell specification, resulting in excess cone cell differentiation. We also show that loss of Bar causes ectopic expression of the TGFβ homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp posterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the larval eye imaginal disc. The ectopic Dpp expression is not responsible for the formation of excess cone cells in Bar loss-of-function mutant eyes. Instead, it causes reduction in IOM cell death in the pupal stage by antagonizing the function of pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Taken together, this study suggests a novel regulatory mechanism in the control of developmental cell death in which the repression of Dpp by Bar in larval eye disc is essential for IOM cell death in pupal retina.

  15. Imagining a better future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is the outcome of work done on utopias of mobility, discussing different utopian visions from architects, planners, activists and mobility researchers. The work has raised a number of questions on why utopias are important in activating and building different futures. Though...... it is crucial to address the increasing social and environmental problems of contemporary urban societies with a certain element of ‘realism’ (whatever that may mean), the position taken in this paper is rather that we must find new ways of imagining ‘that which is not’. Within mobilities research only recently...... work on imagining better futures have been practiced. Dennis and Urry sets out in 2009 by constructing three scenarios of possible, probable, and preferable futures. These three scenarios are in each their own way illustrative of a somewhat depressing future. However, in his most recent book Urry...

  16. Differentiation of glaucomatous optic discs with different appearances using optic disc topography parameters: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Nitta, Koji; Katai, Maki; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Yu; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study (GSAS) is a multicenter collaborative study of the characteristics of glaucomatous optic disc morphology using a stereo fundus camera. Using GSAS dataset, the formulas for predicting different glaucomatous optic disc appearances were established. The GSAS dataset containing three-dimensionally-analyzed optic disc topographic parameters from 187 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma was assessed with discrimination analyses to obtain formulas predictive of glaucomatous optic disc appearances: focal ischemic (FI); generalized enlargement (GE), myopic glaucomatous (MY), and senile sclerotic (SS). Using 38 optic disc parameters-substituted discrimination analyses with a stepwise forward-selection method, six parameters (temporal and nasal rim-disc ratios, mean cup depth, height variation contour, disc tilt angle, and rim decentering absolute) were selected into the formulas. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting the four disc types with established formulas were 0.88, 0.91, 0.93, and 0.86 for FI, MY, SS, and GE, respectively. Age, visual acuity, refractive error, glaucoma (normal or high-tension glaucoma), and baseline intraocular pressure differed significantly among the four optic disc types, suggesting the appearances represent different clinical glaucoma phenotypes. Using six optic disc topographic parameters obtained by stereo fundus camera, the GSAS classification formulas predicted and quantified each component of different optic disc appearances in each eye and provided a novel parameter to describe glaucomatous optic disc characteristics. PMID:28178303

  17. Seeing Imagination as Resistance and Resistance as Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    with the objects of experience that can then resist our actions and thus become Gegenstand. Directionality and resistance are fundamental parts of any developmental process and characterize such relationships with the phenomenon of Gegenstand. Finally, I argue that imaginative processes are the distinctive...... features that enable humans to deal with uncertainty and change. Imagination is related to the creation of Gegenstand from non-existing objects. Imagination is also the faculty to go beyond problems in order to solve them. That is the reason why imagination is so dangerous for every dictatorship....

  18. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  19. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  20. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  1. Imagining a Better Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Jensen, Ole B.

    it is crucial to address the increasing social and environmental problems of contemporary urban societies with a certain element of ‘realism’ (whatever that may mean), the position taken in this paper is rather that we must find new ways of imagining ‘that which is not’. Within mobilities research only recently...... 2011: 132). ‘Fun’ is the key word here that we wish to elaborate on. By using different examples from architecture, arts, and activism we wish to elaborate on how ‘fun’ may provide the opportunity for people to activate the hope, the good heartedness, the generosity, the need for communities...

  2. Mathematics for the imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Mathematics for the Imagination provides an accessible and entertaining investigation into mathematical problems in the world around us. From world navigation, family trees, and calendars to patterns, tessellations, and number tricks, this informative and fun new book helps you to understand the maths behind real-life questions and rediscover your arithmetical mind.This is a follow-up to the popular Mathematics for the Curious, Peter Higgins's first investigation into real-life mathematical problems.A highly involving book which encourages the reader to enter into the spirit of mathematical ex

  3. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  4. A new allele uncovers the role of echinus in the control of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrasio, Silvia; Mlodzik, Marek; Fanto, Manolis

    2007-10-01

    The precise orientation of the ommatidia in the Drosophila eye is achieved through a specialized process of cell migration taking place in the third-instar eye imaginal disc when ommatidial clusters rotate by 90 degrees. This process is strictly coordinated with the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP), but it relies on a specific set of genes that control its mechanism independently from PCP signaling. Recently, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been implicated in determining ommatidial rotation. We have isolated a new allele of echinus, a gene known to control the patterning and number of interommatidial cells. We show that echinus displays defects in the rotation of ommatidia that are not evident until mid-pupal stages, and we propose that echinus action is that of opposing EGFR by an unknown mechanism and that this can explain both its influence in ommatidial rotation and lattice programmed cell death (PCD).

  5. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that nonlinear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote the breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimen...

  6. An Unbiased Analysis of Candidate Mechanisms for the Regulation of Drosophila Wing Disc Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Jannik; Iber, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The control of organ size presents a fundamental open problem in biology. A declining growth rate is observed in all studied higher animals, and the growth limiting mechanism may therefore be evolutionary conserved. Most studies of organ growth control have been carried out in Drosophila imaginal discs. We have previously shown that the area growth rate in the Drosophila eye primordium declines inversely proportional to the increase in its area, which is consistent with a dilution mechanism for growth control. Here, we show that a dilution mechanism cannot explain growth control in the Drosophila wing disc. We computationally evaluate a range of alternative candidate mechanisms and show that the experimental data can be best explained by a biphasic growth law. However, also logistic growth and an exponentially declining growth rate fit the data very well. The three growth laws correspond to fundamentally different growth mechanisms that we discuss. Since, as we show, a fit to the available experimental growth kinetics is insufficient to define the underlying mechanism of growth control, future experimental studies must focus on the molecular mechanisms to define the mechanism of growth control. PMID:27995964

  7. The Imagined Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Drahos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis of the Australian Outback as an imagined space is informed by theories describing a separation from the objective physical world and the mapping of its representative double through language, and draws upon a reading of the function of landscape in three fictions; Joseph Conrad’s novella Heart of Darkness (1899, Greg Mclean’s 2005 horror film Wolf Creek and Ted Kotcheff’s 1971 cinematic adaptation of Kenneth Cook’s novel Wake in Fright2. I would like to consider the Outback as a culturally produced text, and compare the function of this landscape as a cultural ‘reality’ to the function of landscape in literary and cinematic fiction.

  8. Narrative Imagination: a Design Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tully

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each generation entrusts the collective future to the next. Just like the oral traditions of our past continue to manifest in our consciousness, we need to tell stories today that will free the imagination. Designers in particular need to develop the ability to articulate the imagined possibilities that the narrative imagination can create. In order to appreciate the complexity of interactions that are occurring in a spatial or object orientated context we need to think about the imagination as a vehicle to discover and explore these new possibilities. To do this we need to enhance our capacity to access the imagination and use it as a constructive and formative tool for generating concepts. This paper sets out to consider storytelling in design education as a vehicle for imaginative exploration. The narrative is used as the vehicle to stimulate and manage this imagination. Reference is made to a design education intervention where the focus of activity is on developing a narrative approach within a three-dimensional design module. The process is described in this paper as well as student observations of the experience.

  9. Imagination as expansion of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Cerchia, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a developmental view on imagination: from this perspective, imagination can be seen as triggered by some disrupting event, which generates a disjunction from the person's unfolding experience of the "real" world, and as unfolding as a loop, which eventually comes back to the actual experience. Examining recent and classical theorization of imagination in psychology, the paper opposes a deficitary view of imagination to an expansive notion of imagination. The paper explores Piaget, Vygotsky, Harris and Pelaprat & Cole consider: 1) What does provoke a "rupture" or disjunction? 2) What are the psychological processes involved in the imaginary loop? 3) What nourishes such processes? 4) What are the consequences of such imaginary loop, or what does it enable doing? The paper proposes to adopt an expansive view of imagination, as Vygotsky proposed-a perspective that has been under-explored empirically since his seminal work. To stimulate such sociocultural psychology of imagination, two empirical examples are provided, one showing how children make sense of metaphor in an experimental setting, the other showing a young person using a novel met at school as symbolic resource.

  10. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    lives. These complex and often conflicting imagined potentialities lead to inflicted burden on designers, policy makers and healthcare practitioners who are faced with different realities on the ground. The conflicting notions have real life effects as these impact our present understanding of...... improvement in care keeps people engaged in continuous efforts of reproducing the project instantiations. Gradually, what the EHR technologies actually do or do not do become to some degree less significant. In other words, that which is imagined can be transformed into real. Finally, imagined potentialities...

  11. On the use of imagination by entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars acknowledge that entrepreneurs use their imagination. What entrepreneurs use their imagination for is known. However, what imagination is, and how entrepreneurs can use their imagination most effectively remain unknown. The goal of this research is to increase our understanding of the

  12. The Catholic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ojeda Aureus

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available First of all, what this paper is not: This is not a paper that will analyze the works of Catholic writers. This journal is not the proper venue for that. Too, this is not a study of the doctrinal and propositional Church we call Catholic. Again, this journal is not the venue for that. Instead, I want to present a conceptual framework, an aesthetic theory, if you will, of a particular imagination I’d like to describe as Catholic. After this little “housecleaning,” I’d like to begin by diagnosing the illness of our secular society. (Later, I shall introduce an approach that I discovered—or rather re-discovered—which might allow us to heal the illness. I use the metaphor of illness because I believe our secular society is sick. We need no special talent to be convinced of this condition. The symptoms of this sickness can be found everywhere. Every time you turn on the radio, or browse the newspapers, or flick on the TV set, you find yourself assaulted by a daily goulash of incestuous rapes, murders, drug-related crimes, fraternity-related violence, bombings, kidnappings, graft and corruption, and so on and so forth, the catalogue of abuses is legion. Every one of us is convinced that the planet is gravely ill and needs healing—on a grand scale. Few of us know exactly where the problem lies.

  13. Imagining the Imaginative: An Analysis and Its Implications for Arts Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, Sheryle Bergmann

    1998-01-01

    Artistic activities are frequently called imaginative or valuable in developing students' imagination. However, it is not always clear what imagination means. This paper examines questions related to what imagination is, describes the importance of imaginative thinking, and presents educational implications. The paper concludes that imaginative…

  14. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  15. School, Earth and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  16. Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on optic disc size and cup/disc ratio in healthy eyes. Methods: A sample of 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic healthy twin pairs aged 20-46, all having the same sex within pairs (47 pairs were male) had optic discs......: 20-45%). For cup/disc ratio, additive genetic and unshared environmental factors explained 66% (95% CI: 48-77%) and 34% (95% CI: 23-52%) of the variations, respectively. Discussion: In this healthy twin sample, we found that three quarters of the variations in vertical optic disc and optic cup...... measured from colour fundus photographs according to the Wisconsin Protocol. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the phenotype. Results: Disc dimensions did not vary significantly by age or sex. After adjusting for age and sex...

  17. Dynamos in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; von Rekowski, B.

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that accretion discs in young stellar objects may have hot coronae that are heated by magnetic reconnection. This is a consequence of the magneto-rotational instability driving turbulence in the disc. Magnetic reconnection away from the midplane leads to heating of the corona which, in turn, contributes to driving disc winds.

  18. Methodology for optic disc localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Leiva-Vasconcellos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital images in many areas of society is an activity that has reached a remarkable growth in recent years mainly due to the great development that has occurred in technology around the world. These images have a great use in many branches of medicine because they facilitate the diagnosis by specialists and thus help patients to be diagnosed long before symptoms of the disease begin to manifest. For Ophthalmology, one of the most used images are the digital retinography, If it is used properly will allow the occurrence of eye diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. One of the main elements shown on retinal images are the optic disc, the location and detection is of vital importance for working with different parts of the structure o f the eye. This paper proposes two techniques for locating the optic disc in retinal images based on the combination of multiple filters and applying logical operators. To test the algorithms diaretDB0v11 and DRIVE database were used , as a result of the tests are correctly located the 99.091 % of the images from both repo sitories, and were successfully detected 85 % and 87.143 % of images of DRIVE database and diaretDB0v11 respectively.

  19. Gaston Bachelard's Philosophy of Imagination: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Kaplan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bachelard’s works on imagination have been used primarily by literary critics interested in the archetypal imagery of writers. His treatment of the imagination of matter has led to a method of classifying poets according to their favorite substances, based on a view of Bachelard as a “psychoanalyst” of the elements. But the phenomena of imagination, the images themselves, are not his fundamental concern. Bachelard’s physics and chemistry of imagination also imply a metaphysics. Definition of the contents and function of imagination illustrating a philosophy of imagination in itself is the purpose of the present essay.

  20. Imagination inflation in the mirror: Can imagining others' actions induce false memories of self-performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Isabel; Echterhoff, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Imagining oneself performing a simple action can trigger false memories of self-performance, a phenomenon called imagination inflation. However, people can, and often do, imagine others' behavior and actions. According to a visual-similarity account, imagining another person's actions should induce the same kind of memory error, a false memory of self-performance. We tested this account in three experiments, in which performance was followed by imagination. In the imagination phase, participants were asked to either imagine themselves or to imagine another person performing actions, some of which were not previously performed. Two weeks later, a surprise source-memory test was administered in which participants had to decide whether a depicted action had been performed or not performed. Results revealed that imagining another person can trigger false memories of self-performance. However, visual similarity between performance and imagination predicted the amount of false memories only for other-imagination but not for self-imagination. These findings are consistent with research suggesting that other- and self-imagination rely on different mechanisms: While other-imagination primarily involves visual imagery, self-imagination primarily involves motor imagery. Accordingly, false action memories from other-imagination may result from visual similarity, whereas false action memories from self-imagination may result from motor simulation.

  1. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  2. OPTIC DISC MELANOCYTOMA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiba Bedi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytoma of the optic disc is a rare ophthalmic tumour that arises from melanocytes and is a variant of the melanocytic nevus. It occurs on the optic disc and often extends into the peripapillary retina and choroid. It appears as a dark brown or black lesion, typically small and is almost always unilateral. Although traditionally believed to be a relatively stationary lesion, it is now known to exhibit minor enlargement in 10–15% of cases and can cause minor visual loss by a variety of mechanisms. 1-2% cases can transform to malignant melanoma. We present a case report of a 65-year-old female whose dilated fundus examination of the right eye revealed a circular, pigmented and elevated lesion about 1.5 mm in size covering almost whole of the optic nerve head except for the superior rim, suggestive of optic disc melanocytoma.

  3. Mathematical Imagination and Embodied Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Ferrara, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore qualities of mathematical imagination in light of a classroom episode. It is based on the analysis of a classroom interaction in a high school Algebra class. We examine a sequence of nine utterances enacted by one of the students whom we call Carlene. Through these utterances Carlene illustrates, in our view,…

  4. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  5. Jane Addams, Stories, and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Early twentieth-century social activist Jane Addams is best known for her work at Hull House, the settlement house she founded with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889. Adams was also a pacifist, storyteller, writer and philosopher. Through her actions, stories, and writing, Addams modeled a philosophy of democracy-in-action based in imagination and…

  6. Jane Addams, Stories, and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Early twentieth-century social activist Jane Addams is best known for her work at Hull House, the settlement house she founded with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889. Adams was also a pacifist, storyteller, writer and philosopher. Through her actions, stories, and writing, Addams modeled a philosophy of democracy-in-action based in imagination and…

  7. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  8. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  9. The Touchstone Center: A Way of Imagining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A New York-based nonprofit educational organization, the Touchstone Center, creates interdisciplinary arts programs in public schools that stimulate the imaginative process. When the natural world is used as a context for imaginative thought, and when children use their innate capacity for wonder and imagination, a new interest in learning often…

  10. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  11. MHD disc winds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J

    2006-01-01

    This is a doctorate level lecture on the physics of accretion discs driving magnetically self-confined jets, usually referred to in the literature as disc winds. I will first review the governing magnetohydrodynamic equations and then discuss their physical content. At that level, necessary conditions to drive jets from keplerian accretion discs can already be derived. These conditions are validated with self-similar calculations of accretion-ejection structures. In a second part, I will critically discuss the biases introduced when using self-similarity as well as some other questions such as: Are these systems really unstable? Can a standard accretion disc provide the conditions to launch jets in its innermost parts? What is the difference between X-winds and disc-winds? Finally, the magnetic interaction between a protostar and its circumstellar disc will be discussed with a focus on stellar spin down.

  12. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  13. [Differentiation of concomitant glaucomatous optic neuropathy in optic disc drusen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian, V R; Galoian, N S; Sheremet, N L; Kazarian, E E; Kharlap, S I; Shemeleva-Demir, O A; Tatevosian, A A; Andzhelova, D V; Eksarenko, O V

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of ocular blood flow (OBF) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in eyes with optic disc drusen have been investigated. The study enrolled 21 patient (35 eyes) with optic disc drusen, of which 7 (8 eyes) were diagnosed with POAG. Besides the standard tests, the ophthalmological assessment included evaluation of OBF (flowmetry) and an individual normal range of intraocular pressure (IOP). The results showed that optic disc drusen are not associated with OBF changes. Concomitant POAG might be suspected in a patient with optic disc drusen whose OBF is significantly decreased and IOP is above the individual normal range. Differentiation of morphofunctional changes in chronic optic neuropathy, which might be due to either glaucomatous optic neuropathy or optic disc drusen, is complicated when actual IOP lies within the average normal range. Ocular blood flow evaluation by means of flowmetry with calculation of an individual normal range of IOP has been demonstrated as a highly effective predictor of concomitant POAG in patients with optic disc drusen.

  14. Imagined Transcultural Histories and Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Winter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, an assumption prevails that the nation has somehow lost its power to regulate our lives, being undermined by other forces, either top-down through the impact of global capitalism or bottom-up through migrations, transnational religious, ethnic or social movement communities or other transversal politics. A related idea is that ‘culture’ is now irrevocably hybridised and border-zoned, that we no longer live in a world of discrete, located, identifiable and historically grounded cultures but in some unstable and for-the-moment insterstitiality, a sort of cultural interlanguage that sits outside well-mapped structures of power. Yet, just as the nation and the boundaries it sets around culture are being conceptually chased from our maps of the world, they come galloping back to reassert themselves. They do so politically, economically, legally, symbolically. Amidst all the noise of our transnationalisms, hybridities and interstitialities, the idea of what it is to be ‘Australian’ or ‘French’ or ‘Filipino’ or ‘Asian’ reaffirms itself, in mental geographies and constructed histories, as our ‘imagined community’ (to use Benedict Anderson’s famous term [Anderson 1983], or indeed, ‘imagined Other’, even if it is an imagined ‘Other’ that we would somehow wish to incorporate into our newly hybridised Self. Using the notion of transcultural mappings, the articles in this special issue investigate this apparent paradox. They look at how the Self and Other have been mapped through imagined links between geography, history and cultural location. They interrogate the tension between the persistence of mappings of the world based on discrete national or cultural identities on one hand, and, on the other hand, the push to move beyond these carefully guarded borders and problematise precise notions of identity and belonging.

  15. Corporate imagination and expeditionary marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, competitive success came mostly from achieving cost and quality advantages over rivals in existing markets. In the 1990s, it will come from building and dominating fundamentally new markets. Core competencies are one prerequisite for creating new markets. Corporate imagination and expeditionary marketing are the keys that unlock them. McKinsey Award winners Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad argue that corporate imagination quickens when companies escape the tyranny of their served markets. (Motorola, for example, sees itself as a leader in wireless communications, not just as a maker of beepers and mobile phones). Think about needs and functionalities instead of marketing's more conventional customer-product grid. Overturn traditional price/performance assumptions. (Fidelity Investments unlocked a vast new market by packaging sophisticated investment vehicles for middle-income investors.) And lead customers rather than simply follow them. Creating new markets is a risky business, however--a lot like shooting arrows into the mist. Imaginative companies minimize the risk not by being fast followers but through the process the authors call expeditionary marketing: low-cost, fast-paced market incursions designed to bring the target quickly into view. Toshiba introduced laptop computers to the market at such a blistering pace that it could explore every conceivable niche--and afford an occasional failure without compromising its credibility with customers. To stimulate corporate imagination, top management needs to redefine failure and develop new time- and risk-adjusted yardsticks for managerial performance. Managers must be encouraged to stretch their company's opportunity horizon well beyond the boundaries of its current businesses.

  16. Imagination in Avicenna and Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Bäck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In comparing the views of Avicenna and Kant on the imagination, we find a striking congruence of doctrine. Kant's doctrines of the syntheses of the imagination in his Transcendental Deduction (both A and B have remarkable similarities with Avicenna's views. For both Avicenna and Kant, the imagination serves to connect the phenomenal and the noumenal. At the least this comparison has the dual use of placing Kant's doctrines in the context of the Aristotelian tradition and of illuminating the modern significance of the thought of Avicenna. Since Kant's thought is more familiar to us than Avicenna's (although perhaps not as evident in itself, we can use Kant also to help us understand the claims of Avicenna, On the other hand, this comparison may help to support the claim that an understanding of Kant lies to a large extent in his medieval and post-medieval roots –just as Copernicus, in his own "Copernican revolution", was following certain earlier traditions.

  17. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  18. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  1. Relationship of disc damage likelihood scale nomogram and optical coherence tomogram for primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma: report of 73 eyes%视盘分级法评估原发性慢性闭角型青光眼视神经损害与OCT视神经纤维检查的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海军; 谢琳; 贺翔鸽; 乐莉; 王原

    2011-01-01

    目的 用视盘损害分级(disc damage likelihood scale,DDLS)方法 评估原发性慢性闭角型青光眼(primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma,PCACG)视神经损害,探讨其与光学断层相干扫描仪(optical coherence tomography,OCT)检测视神经纤维厚度参数的相关性.方法 收集2009年10月至2010年8月我院眼科PCACG患者共38例(73眼),通过双面Volk 90D前置镜在裂隙灯下对视盘直径及其盘沿最窄处宽度测量,按DDLS分级标准进行分级;Stratus OCT 3000成像仪、RNFL3.4程序获取象限位、钟点位及自选参数的视网膜神经纤维(retina nerve fiber layer,RNFL)厚度.运用SPSS 15.0统计软件分析DDLS分级与OCT视盘周围3.4 mm处RNFL检测参数的相关性.结果 共38例(73眼)中大直径视盘17眼(占23.3%),中等直径视盘41眼(占56.2%),小直径视盘15眼(占20.6%);上方、下方、颞侧象限RNFL厚度均值与DDLS分级评分相关(r=-0.673,P=0.0001;r=-0.605,P=0.0001,r=-0.499,P=0.0014),鼻侧方象限RNFL厚度均值与DDLS分级评分不相关(r=-0.352,P=0.0602);11、7、6、10、12钟点位RNFL厚度与DDLS分级评分具有相关性(r=-0.673,P=0.0001; r=-0.605,P=0.0001; r=-0.531,P=0.0006;r=-0.525,P=0.0007;r=-0.520,P=0.0008),而3、2、8点位无统计学意义(r=-0.320,P=0.0501;r=-0.320,P=0.0510;r=-0.297,P=0.0702);DDLS分级评分与OCT检查自选参数Avg、Smax、Imax的RNFL厚度也呈中度相关(r=-0.582,P=0.0001;r=-0.504,P=0.0012;r=-0.478,P=0.0024).结论 DDLS分级方法 对PCACG视神经损害的评估与OCT视网膜神经纤维厚度主要检查参数检查具有相关性,DDLS分级方法 适用于PCACG视神经损害的评估.%Objective To evaluate relationships between the results of disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS) and the parameters of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Methods Thirty-eight primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma patients (73 eyes) who admited in our department from October 2009 to August 2010 were

  2. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  3. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  4. Science, Art and Geometrical Imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Luminet, J -P

    2009-01-01

    From the geocentric, closed world model of Antiquity to the wraparound universe models of relativistic cosmology, the parallel history of space representations in science and art illustrates the fundamental role of geometric imagination in innovative findings. Through the analysis of works of various artists and scientists like Plato, Durer, Kepler, Escher, Grisey or the present author, it is shown how the process of creation in science and in the arts rests on aesthetical principles such as symmetry, regular polyhedra, laws of harmonic proportion, tessellations, group theory, etc., as well as beauty, conciseness and emotional approach of the world.

  5. Science, art and geometrical imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    From the geocentric, closed world model of Antiquity to the wraparound universe models of relativistic cosmology, the parallel history of space representations in science and art illustrates the fundamental rôle of geometric imagination in innovative findings. Through the analysis of works of various artists and scientists like Plato, Dürer, Kepler, Escher, Grisey or the author, it is shown how the process of creation in science and in the arts rests on aesthetical principles such as symmetry, regular polyhedra, laws of harmonic proportion, tessellations, group theory, etc., as well as on beauty, conciseness and an emotional approach of the world.

  6. Imagination as poetics of cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Pulvirenti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOur work bases on the hypothesis of an existing interconnection between the symbolic and the metaphoric elements of the text responding to a series of mind patterns compressing perception and experience through the emerging process of conceptual blending triggering the semantic process during the creative act of poiesis. This enquiry focuses on the use of a peculiar rhetorical figure in an exemplar literary text of the famous German poet Goethe. We will try to point out the allegorical function of the scene dedicated to the «Mothers’ Kingdom», in his Faust II as a powerful poetical meta-reflection on imagination, cognition and poetics itself.

  7. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

  8. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical ... disc is the soft cushioning structure located between the individual bones of the spine, called “vertebra.” It is made of cartilage-like tissue and ...

  9. Optical coherence tomography findings and retinal changes after vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery. Materials and Methods : Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009. Results : Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80. The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD in 19 (79.17% eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5% eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33% eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68% of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43% and single layer in 6 (28.57% eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14% injection. Five (45.45% of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36% eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72% of 11 eyes. Conclusion : Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  10. Imagining value, imagining users: academic technology transfer for health innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fiona Alice; Sanders, Carrie B; Lehoux, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Governments have invested heavily in the clinical and economic promise of health innovation and express increasing concern with the efficacy and efficiency of the health innovation system. In considering strategies for 'better' health innovation, policy makers and researchers have taken a particular interest in the work of universities and related public research organizations: How do these organizations identify and transfer promising innovations to market, and do these efforts make best use of public sector investments? We conducted an ethnographic study of technology transfer offices (TTOs) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, to consider the place of health and health system imperatives in judgments of value in early-stage health innovation. Our analysis suggests that the valuation process is poorly specified as a set of task-specific judgments. Instead, we argue that technology transfer professionals are active participants in the construction of the innovation and assign value by 'imagining' the end product in its 'context of use'. Oriented as they are to the commercialization of health technology, TTOs understand users primarily as market players. The immediate users of TTOs' efforts are commercial partners (i.e., licensees, investors) who are capable of translating current discoveries into future commodities. The ultimate end users - patients, clinicians, health systems - are the future consumers of the products to be sold. Attention to these proximate and more distal users in the valuation process is a complex and constitutive feature of the work of health technology transfer. At the same time, judgements about individual technologies are made in relation to a broader imperative through which TTOs seek to imagine and construct sustainable innovation systems. Judgments of value are rendered sensible in relation to the logic of valuation for systems of innovation that, in turn, configure users of health innovation in systemic ways.

  11. William Carlos Williams, Literacy, and the Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemak, Francis E.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the cultivation of the imagination in schools and colleges is largely ignored because of utilitarian biases in the education system, where achievement is determined by quantitative measures of cognitive skills. Discusses Williams' view that acts of the imagination transform reality and applies view to English education. (JG)

  12. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  13. On Application of Imagination in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓颖

    2012-01-01

    Image, imagination and manifestation are the three specific forms of imagery thinking. Links in the process of imagery thinking, i.e. identification, creation and representation of image, correspond to the process of understanding and expression in translating. As one important thinking form in the descriptive process in image language, the function of imagination will be mainly discussed in this paper.

  14. Interpreting Tools by Imagining Their Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    By prompting imagined or actual bodily experience, we can guide interpretation of tools to emphasize the action that those tools perform. The technique requires little more than an extension from looking at an object, to imagining how the body engages with it, perhaps even trying out those specialist postures, to nourish an interpretation centered…

  15. Imagination "First": Unleash the Power of Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Manoj Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The creativity program, "imagination 'first': unleash the power of possibility," implemented in public primary and secondary schools in Northern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, deals with the power of imagination in unleashing creativity among gifted students and teachers. Following an in-depth literature review on creativity for…

  16. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Imagine Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    Imagine Homes, working with the DOE's Building America research team member IBACOS, has developed a system that can be replicated by other contractors to build affordable, high-performance homes. Imagine Homes has used the system to produce more than 70 Builders Challenge-certified homes per year in San Antonio over the past five years.

  17. Supporting imagination in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    looks into a specific working practice for problem solving called Proactive Review which was developed and implemented in a global IT company over a period of seven years. This working practice requires imagination from individuals, the teams in which the individuals belong, and the management at all......This chapter explores imagination in the context of work. When we work, we meet challenges and problems that we are obliged to solve. Most often we utilize well-defined work processes for the problem-solving, but now and then we run into new problems that need something else. This “something else......” includes imagination as we have to identify and describe the problem, imagine a path for problem solving, obstacles on this path and finally the possibilities for implementing the solution in the organization. Consequently, imagination involves not only one person, but also the colleagues that collaborated...

  18. Giambattista Vico and the psychological imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This special issue originates from an international workshop on “Vico and imagination,” that took place at Aalborg University in 2014, within a research project on Giambattista Vico and the epistemology of psychology. Imagination has inexplicably been relegated to the background in contemporary...... psychology, despite the fact that imaginative processes are involved in even the most mundane activities. In this editorial, I first present the rationale and the content of the articles and commentaries. Then I outline a brief history of the concept of imagination before Vico, drawing some consequences...... for contemporary psychology. Finally, I provide the proposal for a new research program on imagination as a higher psychological function that enables us to manipulate complex meanings of both linguistic and iconic forms in the process of experiencing....

  19. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  20. Artistic Imagination in the Illuminationist Theosophy of Suhrawardi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Shafiei

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this article is, first, to explain the faculty of imagination and its function as epistemological realm (continuous imagination and also analyze ontological aspects of imagination, known as imaginational world or plan of ideal (discrete imagination, and then describe the role of these imaginations in founding the early and most important theosophical theories in the realm of Islamic art, literature and architecture (especially mosque.

  1. Vitrectomy for bilateral macular schisis without apparent optic disc anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonegui, José; Maya, José Ramón; Echeverría, Marta; Alcaine, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old man complained of bilateral visual acuity loss. Optical coherence tomography examination showed bilateral macular schisis with fluid accumulation in the external retinal layers without vitreous traction. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography were normal in both eyes. Both eyes were treated by phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and vitrectomy without laser, gas exchange, or retinal fenestration. Slow and progressive fluid resorption and improvement in VA were observed in both eyes. Macular schisis similar to the one associated with optic disc anomalies is a possibility in patients without apparent disc anomalies. Vitrectomy without laser, gas, or retinal fenestration may be a good therapeutic option even in patients with a PVD preoperatively. PMID:27703873

  2. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  3. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  4. Optic disc size and progression of visual field damage in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayamizu F

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fukuko Hayamizu, Yoshio Yamazaki, Takako Nakagami, Kenji MizukiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Division of Visual Science, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Our goal was to evaluate the influence of optic disc size on the progression of visual field damage in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG.Subjects and methods: Eighty-two eyes of 82 NTG patients who had been receiving topical antiglaucoma medications and followed-up for more than 4 years were enrolled in this study. The patients were allocated to two groups, according to the mean size of their optic discs. The data were analyzed using regression analysis, based on the Cox proportional hazard model.Results: The probability of visual field stability was significantly lower in eyes with large discs than in those with small discs (log rank test, P = 0.007. Progression of visual field damage was significantly associated with the optic disc area (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.812, P = 0.018, occurrence of disc hemorrhage (HR: 2.116, P = 0.028, and intraocular pressure reduction ratio (HR: 0.957, P = 0.014.Conclusion: The optic disc area correlates with progression of visual field damage in patients with NTG.Keywords: Cox proportional hazards model, disc hemorrhage, disc size, intraocular pressure, Kaplan–Meier life-table analysis

  5. During Drosophila disc regeneration, JAK/STAT coordinates cell proliferation with Dilp8-mediated developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Tomonori; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko; Cabuy, Erik; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding. We found that JAK/STAT signaling becomes activated at the wound site and promotes regenerative cell proliferation in cooperation with Wingless (Wg) signaling. In addition, we showed that the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8), which encodes a paracrine peptide to delay the onset of pupariation, is controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in early regenerating discs. Our findings suggest that JAK/STAT signaling plays a pivotal role in coordinating regenerative disc growth with organismal developmental timing.

  6. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  7. Unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in a case with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2014-01-01

    Background This case is unique because it is the first reported case of Down syndrome with morning glory optic disc anomaly in literature. Case presentation A 15-year-old girl with features of Down syndrome presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology for a regular ophthalmologic examination. Her best corrected visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The fundus examination revealed findings compatible with unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in the right eye. T...

  8. Innervation of ''painful'' lumbar discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, MH; Marani, E; Thomeer, RTWM; Groen, GJ

    1997-01-01

    Study Design. The authors investigated the innervation of discographically confirmed degenerated and ''painful'' human intervertebral discs. Objective. To determine the type and distribution patterns of nerve fibers present in degenerated human intervertebral discs. Summary of Background Data. The i

  9. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  10. Notch inhibits Yorkie activity in Drosophila wing discs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Djiane

    Full Text Available During development, tissues and organs must coordinate growth and patterning so they reach the right size and shape. During larval stages, a dramatic increase in size and cell number of Drosophila wing imaginal discs is controlled by the action of several signaling pathways. Complex cross-talk between these pathways also pattern these discs to specify different regions with different fates and growth potentials. We show that the Notch signaling pathway is both required and sufficient to inhibit the activity of Yorkie (Yki, the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH pathway terminal transcription activator, but only in the central regions of the wing disc, where the TEAD factor and Yki partner Scalloped (Sd is expressed. We show that this cross-talk between the Notch and SWH pathways is mediated, at least in part, by the Notch target and Sd partner Vestigial (Vg. We propose that, by altering the ratios between Yki, Sd and Vg, Notch pathway activation restricts the effects of Yki mediated transcription, therefore contributing to define a zone of low proliferation in the central wing discs.

  11. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  12. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...

  13. Imagination as the crank of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    and the imagination of the preferred present or future. Imagination is the foundation of problem solving, in this case the problems identified in the PR. The role of imagination cannot be underestimated in this collaborative process in which the interface between the individual and the collective dimensions merge...... and encourage the participants’ imagination to flow freely in order to redefine reality at work. I see different paths for this exploration: I could look into cultural practices and values concerning relations and interactions among colleagues who have solved a task together (Branco & lopes). Or I could dig...... into who “says” or “decides” what is preferred or favored in the sense of who seems to get the power in the team (Latour, Dunne & Raby). Or I could concentrate on the term “dialogue” (Bakhtin, Bohm, Oliveira). I hope the winterschool will add more view angles to this study.My premature research question is...

  14. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  15. Integrating Project Portfolio With Business Strategy: Imagineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Buaes Dal Maso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aligning project management to the strategy of a big company is a difficult job. Through Imagineering (the business department and project management program, The Walt Disney Company has done this alignment in an exemplary way. Using a theoretical investigation, this study analyzed the Imagineering as a reference in strategic management of global projects through Disney´s business portfolio, a global benchmarking and with Malmberg et al. (2010 as a company guide. As the main results of the correlations carried out, it was noted that the Imagineers who work in project teams apply tools and techniques with a strategic vision focused on differentiation, generating value, and mixing imagination with technical capacity. The Blue Sky department and its integrated units make possible the creation and deployment of the attractions, the theme parks, hotels, resorts and the Disney sea cruises, demonstrating in this way, to be a highly effective project management office.

  16. Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs with Magnetically Driven Disc Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs hereafter) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We consider an initially massive disc with ~0.1 Msun to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solve the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of the mass and the angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard alpha model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass loss, and disc wind torque, which are adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux remaining, surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combinatio...

  17. Reproducibility of Perfusion Parameters of Optic Disc and Macula in Rhesus Monkeys by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.

  18. The Imagined Audience on Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Litt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When people construct and share posts on social network sites like Facebook and Twitter, whom do they imagine as their audience? How do users describe this imagined audience? Do they have a sub-audience in mind (e.g., “friends who like reality television”? Do they share more broadly and abstractly (e.g., “the public”? Do such imaginings fluctuate each time a person posts? Using a mixed-methods approach involving a 2-month-long diary study of 119 diverse American adults and their 1,200 social network site posts, supplemented with follow-up interviews (N = 30, this study explores the imagined audience on social network sites. The findings reveal that even though users often interacted with large diverse audiences as they posted, they coped by envisioning either very broad abstract imagined audiences or more targeted specific imagined audiences composed of personal ties, professional ties, communal ties, and/or phantasmal ties. When people had target imagined audiences in mind, they were most often homogeneous and composed of people’s friends and family. Users’ imaginings typically fluctuated among these audience types as they posted even though the potential audience as per their posts’ privacy settings often did not change. The findings provide a list of audience types, as well as detailed descriptions, examples, and frequencies on which future research can build. With people’s online presence playing an important role for their reputations, these findings provide more insight into for whom people are managing their privacy and whom they have in mind as they share.

  19. Antimetropia in a 10-year-old boy with unilateral tilted disc syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinji MakinoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Antimetropia is a condition in which one eye is myopic, while the fellow eye is hyperopic. This report describes a case of antimetropia associated with unilateral tilted disc syndrome. A 10-year-old boy presented with the complaint of diminished vision for distant objects in his right eye for several months. His uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.15 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 1.0, with -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D in the left eye. The cover test revealed right esotropia and hypertropia. Bifoveal fixation was achieved using a 14 prism diopter (PD base at 220° in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a tilted disc with inferior staphyloma in the right eye, but no abnormal findings were observed in the left eye. In addition, the patient occasionally experienced diplopia under casual viewing conditions. A cycloplegic refraction revealed -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D/-2.00 D 5° in the left eye. Thus, prism glasses were prescribed. While wearing the prism glasses, the patient has shown no diplopia and maintains good binocular function.Keywords: amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, staphyloma

  20. Entanglement of Imaging and Imagining of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivenkamp, Martin; Rip, Arie

    2011-08-01

    Images, ranging from visualizations of the nanoscale to future visions, abound within and beyond the world of nanotechnology. Rather than the contrast between imaging, i.e. creating images that are understood as offering a view on what is out there, and imagining, i.e. creating images offering impressions of how the nanoscale could look like and images presenting visions of worlds that might be realized, it is the entanglement between imaging and imagining which is the key to understanding what images do. Three main arenas of entanglement of imag(in)ing and the tensions involved are discussed: production practices and use of visualizations of the nanoscale; imag(in)ing the future and the present; and entanglements of nanoscience and art. In these three arenas one sees struggles about which images might stand for nanotechnology, but also some stabilization of the entanglement of imag(in)ing, for example in established rules in the practices of visualizing the nanoscale. Three images have become iconic, through the combination of their wide reception and further circulation. All three, the IBM logo, the Foresight Institute's Nanogear image, and the so-called Nanolouse, depict actual or imagined technoscientific objects and are thus seen as representing technoscientific achievements - while marking out territory.

  1. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...

  2. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  3. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Johns, Philip M; Metheny, Jackie D; Baker, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually

  4. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  5. Vibration analysis of atomising discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H; Ouyang, H, E-mail: H.Ouyang@liverpool.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The centrifugal atomisation of metallic melts using a spinning disc is an important process for powder production and spray deposition. In the manufacturing process the high-temperature melt flows down to the surface of the atomising disc spinning at very high speed. It is observed that there is a hydraulic jump of the melt flow prior to atomisation. In this paper, the dynamic model of the atomising disc as a spinning Kirchhoff plate with this hydraulic jump is established. The flowing melt is modelled as moving mass and weight force in the radial direction. Using a Galerkin method, it is found that the vibration properties of the atomising disc vary with the disc clamping ratio. The amplitude of the vibration is largely raised when the clamping ratio is smaller than the critical jump radius ratio. It is also found that the disc vibration is non-stationary before becoming steady and the amplitude decreases with increasing disc speed.

  6. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  7. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  9. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  10. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  11. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  12. Accretion Discs in Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, E. J. D.; Kuncic, Z.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, S.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic properties of blazars (rapid variability, strong polarization, high brightness) are widely attributed to a powerful relativistic jet oriented close to our line of sight. Despite the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) being strongly jet-dominated, a "big blue bump" has been recently detected in sources known as flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). These new data provide a unique opportunity to observationally test coupled jet-disc accretion models in these extreme sources....

  13. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. RESULTS: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......PURPOSE: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. METHODS: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  14. Therapeutic surprise! Photodynamic therapy for cavernous haemangioma of the disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. Methods and Patients: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count. Results: Complete regression of the cavernous haemangioma was noted as early as the second week itself and remained regressed for 4 months. Conclusion: PDT can be safe option for patients presenting with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the disc or retina.

  15. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaginative science education the central role of imagination in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2016-01-01

    This book is about imaginative approaches to teaching and learning school science. Its central premise is that science learning should reflect the nature of science, and therefore be approached as an imaginative/creative activity. As such, the book can be seen as an original contribution of ideas relating to imagination and creativity in science education. The approaches discussed in the book are storytelling, the experience of wonder, the development of ‘romantic understanding’, and creative science, including science through visual art, poetry and dramatization. However, given the perennial problem of how to engage students (of all ages) in science, the notion of ‘aesthetic experience’, and hence the possibility for students to have more holistic and fulfilling learning experiences through the aforementioned imaginative approaches, is also discussed. Each chapter provides an in-depth discussion of the theoretical background of a specific imaginative approach (e.g., storytelling, ‘wonder-full’ s...

  17. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  18. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  19. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Price, Daniel J; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three - dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the $\\alpha$ viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is nonzero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations we find disc breaking.

  20. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  1. Estrogens and the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Muscat-Baron, Y; Brincat, M P

    2009-09-01

    Intervertebral discs are an integral part of the vertebral column. It has been shown that menopause has a negative effect on bone and on intervertebral discs. Estrogen has a beneficial effect of preserving the health of collagen-containing tissues, including the intervertebral disc. The intervertebral disc allows for mobility of the spine, and maintains a uniform stress distribution of the area of the vertebral endplates. Also, the disc influences spinal height. The disc tissue is adapted for this biomechanical function. The function of the spine is impaired if there is a loss of disc tissue. Narrowing of the disc space due to degeneration of intervertebral discs is associated with a significantly increased risk of vertebral fractures. Estrogen should be seen as the first-choice therapy for bones and other collagen-rich tissues, such as intervertebral discs, because it maintains homeostasis of the bone-remodelling unit. Unlike bisphosphonates, estrogen is unique in its ability to regenerate bone collagen after its disintegration, apart from suppressing osteoclastic activity. Besides, there is insufficient data on deterioration in bone qualities and micro-cracks in patients on long-term bisphosphonates.

  2. Imagine math 3 between culture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Imagine mathematics, imagine with the help of mathematics, imagine new worlds, new geometries, new forms. This volume in the series “Imagine Math” casts light on what is new and interesting in the relationships between mathematics, imagination, and culture. The book opens by examining the connections between modern and contemporary art and mathematics, including Linda D. Henderson’s contribution. Several further papers are devoted to mathematical models and their influence on modern and contemporary art, including the work of Henry Moore and Hiroshi Sugimoto. Among the many other interesting contributions are an homage to Benoît Mandelbrot with reference to the exhibition held in New York in 2013 and the thoughts of Jean-Pierre Bourguignon on the art and math exhibition at the Fondation Cartier in Paris. An interesting part is dedicated to the connections between math, computer science and theatre with the papers by C. Bardainne and A. Mondot.  The topics are treated in a way that is rigorous but capt...

  3. Vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruta M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta, Rika Kamada, Yumi Umeno, Ryoji YamakawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment.Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of four consecutive patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy in one eye for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy, with an emphasis on the preoperative condition of the posterior hyaloid membrane.Results: Two of four eyes were confirmed to have an attached posterior hyaloid membrane, which was subsequently removed during surgery. Following vitrectomy, these two eyes experienced an improvement in visual acuity with complete retinal attachment of the macula. However, the other two eyes, which already had a posterior vitreous detachment at the time of surgery, showed a decrease in visual acuity with persistent maculopathy postoperatively.Conclusion: Pars plana vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy was beneficial for improving visual acuity in two eyes without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment but not in two eyes with preoperative posterior vitreous detachment. Our study suggests that preoperative assessment of a posterior hyaloid membrane is clinically important in predicting the surgical outcome of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy.Keywords: gas tamponade, internal limiting membrane, macular hole, optical coherence tomography, posterior hyaloid membrane, retinal detachment

  4. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  5. A case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankurt, Murat; Aslan, Lokman; Aksoy, Adnan; Başkan, Ahmet M

    2015-03-01

    To report a case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit. A 29-year-old male patient followed up because of the left established and right subclinical keratoconus presented with blurred vision on the left eye that occurred within days. In addition to a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, computerized corneal topography (CT), corneal pachymetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination were performed. The corneal CT showed a mild keratoconus pattern, with a minimum corneal pachymetry of 472 in the right eye and moderate keratoconus pattern with a minimum pachymetry of 435 micron in the left eye. The OCT scans showed the presence of the optic disc pit and related maculopathy. This is the second report of the coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit in the literature. The association of these two entities is therefore less likely to be accidental. Further histopathological studies will be necessary to explain this relationship between two entities.

  6. Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rhiannon N; Crisp, Richard J

    2010-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that imagining intergroup contact can be sufficient to reduce explicit prejudice directed towards out-groups. In this research, we examined the impact of contact-related mental imagery on implicit prejudice as measured by the implicit association test. We found that, relative to a control condition, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards elderly people in general. In a second study, we demonstrated that, relative to a control condition, non-Muslim participants who imagined talking to a Muslim stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards Muslims in general. We discuss the implications of these findings for furthering the application of indirect contact strategies aimed at improving intergroup relations.

  7. On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Frauley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy.

  8. Engaging students’ imaginations in second language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Judson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Imagination is rarely acknowledged as one of the main workhorses of learning. Unfortunately, disregarding the imagination has some clearly negative pedagogical impacts: Learning is more ineffective than it should be and much schooling is more tedious than it need be. In this paper, we outline a somewhat new way of thinking about the process of students’ language education. We focus on the kinds of “cognitive tools” or learning “toolkits” human beings develop as they grow up, which connect emotion and imagination with knowledge in the learning process. We show how employing these tools—indeed, how their central employment in all aspects of planning—can make learning other languages engaging and meaningful.

  9. Dynamics of warped accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Tremaine, Scott; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-01-01

    Accretion discs are present around both stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. A wide variety of circumstantial evidence implies that many of these discs are warped. The standard Bardeen--Petterson model attributes the shape of the warp to the competition between Lense--Thirring torque from the central black hole and viscous angular-momentum transport within the disc. We show that this description is incomplete, and that torques from...

  10. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  11. The Classification and Indexing of Imaginative Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2005-01-01

    With the indexing of imaginative literature included in an expanding number of bibliographic databases, the overall representation of this kind of literature has definitely been improved. Still, in terms of information retrieval and being able to judge the relevance of the titles, it seems...... that the usefulness of classification and indexing alike are still being restricted by some old romantic and objectivistic, or even positivistic, ideas and ideals. In order to argue that point the paper firstly re-examines the classification of imaginative literature in early editions of the Dewey Decimal...

  12. Optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine long-term data on optic disc drusen (ODD) from an outpatient hospital series that indicated more cases with advanced visual field constriction than is apparent from other clinical reports. The underlying pathophysiology is discussed, also with regard to enlarged blind spot...... neurosurgery for an arachnoid cyst. CONCLUSIONS: We found more cases of marked visual field constriction than reported in other clinical series. A few such cases appeared acute and vascular, but the main trend was clinically quiet over time. All 49 patients could manage visually in daily life....

  13. [Temporomandibular joint disc surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, J; Maes, J-M; Nicot, R; Dumousseau, T; Cotelle, M; Ferri, J

    2016-09-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are a common disease and may be responsible for major functional and painful repercussions. Treatment is not consensual. The literature highlights the role of conservative treatments (physiotherapy, analgesics, splints) in a first attempt. Minimally invasive surgical techniques (arthroscopy, arthrocentesis) have developed rapidly in recent decades. They have proven effective and reliable, especially in patients suffering from irreducible or reducible anterior disc dislocation or presenting with arthopathies. The goal of our work was to make an update about disk surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativistic Disc lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Parker, M L

    2014-01-01

    Broad emission lines, particularly broad iron-K lines, are now commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of luminous AGN and Galactic black hole binaries. Sensitive NuSTAR spectra over the energy range of 3-78 keV and high frequency reverberation spectra now confirm that these are relativistic disc lines produced by coronal irradiation of the innermost accretion flow around rapidly spinning black holes. General relativistic effects are essential in explaining the observations. Recent results are briefly reviewed here.

  15. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics of poet

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  18. Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Holmes, Emily; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Four studies investigated the effect of imagining intergroup contact on prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a neutral imagined contact task can have negative effects, compared to a control condition, even when paired with incidental positive information (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated, however, that an integrated positive imagined contact scenario does result in less intergroup anxiety and more positive attitudes, even toward this challenging group. Analyses of participants’ descriptions of the imagined interactions in and across the first three studies confirm that positive and high quality imagined contact is important for reducing prejudice, but failing to ensure that imagined contact is positive may have deleterious consequences. We emphasize the importance of investigating the quality of the imagined contact experience, and discuss the implications for using imagined contact as a prejudice-reducing intervention. PMID:26435686

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  20. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  1. Interactive dynamics of imagination in a science classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Hilppö, Jaakko Antero; Rajala, Antti; Zittoun, Tania; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework for researching the dynamics of imagination in science classroom interactions. While educational interest in imagination has recently increased, prior research has not adequately accounted for how imagination is realized in and through classroom interactions, nor has it created a framework for its empirical investigation. Drawing on a theory of imagination situated in cultural psychology (Zittoun et al., 2013; Zittoun & Gillespie, 2016), we p...

  2. School Safety: Real or Imagined Fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    2008-01-01

    The image of schooling tends to be benign, lulling parents and guardians into an assumption of safety for at least 6 hours each weekday. The complement to safety as an imagined state of schooling contains incidents of school violence and tragedy that feed communities' and parents' primeval fears about the well being of their children. The…

  3. Higgs into the heart of imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Bergh, Hannie

    2010-01-01

    Higgs is the documentary about the quest for the Higgs particle, also known as "The God Particle". It is considered the missing link in particle physics. Higgs is a film about the curiosity, the passion, and the imaginative power of silence.

  4. Reading as Experience: Literature, Response and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Klaudia Hiu Yen; Patkin, John

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the findings from an empirical study on Hong Kong students' reading practices as collected through face-to-face interviews on major university campuses in Hong Kong to argue for the importance of "affective" and "imaginative" engagement with literary texts if students are to develop an interest in reading.…

  5. Theoretical Concerns: Vygotsky on Imagination Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdamaschko, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Lev Vygotsky (1986-1934) was an educational theorist and psychologist of extraordinarily wide knowledge whose major writings deal with the entire learning-teaching-development experience. Despite a wide-ranging interest in Vygotskian theory, the issue of imagination remains outside of the main line of general inquiries into his work. Thus, there…

  6. Hard Times: Philosophy and the Fundamentalist Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2005-01-01

    A close reading of Gradgrind's opening monologue of Hard Times by Charles Dickens will provide the starting off point for an examination of the role and place of philosophy in the music curriculum. The Gradgrind philosophy finds easy parallel to current thinking in American education. In the fundamentalist imagination, sources of ambiguity must be…

  7. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self-worth ...

  8. Imagine: Texas Boasts Net Zero School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Just imagine...a school designed and constructed to produce as much energy on site as that which is consumed from the electric grid. The electricity and gas bills would be 10% or less of that of a typical building; there would be no water bills for site and landscaping irrigation. What was merely a conceptual thought as little as five years ago is…

  9. Imagine: Texas Boasts Net Zero School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Just imagine...a school designed and constructed to produce as much energy on site as that which is consumed from the electric grid. The electricity and gas bills would be 10% or less of that of a typical building; there would be no water bills for site and landscaping irrigation. What was merely a conceptual thought as little as five years ago is…

  10. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  11. Just Imagine...Improving the Band Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerull, David S.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of imagination as a tool to improve students' musicianship. Suggests that imagery can be used to teach intonation, tone color, sight-reading, and expression. Describes active listening in which the students must use musical memory and participate in musical expression to produce a certain sound that may be difficult to describe.…

  12. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  13. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  14. Temporal control of glial cell migration in the Drosophila eye requires gilgamesh, hedgehog, and eye specification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Attix, Suzanne; Gunning, Dorian; Zipursky, S Lawrence

    2002-01-17

    In the Drosophila visual system, photoreceptor neurons (R cells) extend axons towards glial cells located at the posterior edge of the eye disc. In gilgamesh (gish) mutants, glial cells invade anterior regions of the eye disc prior to R cell differentiation and R cell axons extend anteriorly along these cells. gish encodes casein kinase Igamma. gish, sine oculis, eyeless, and hedgehog (hh) act in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration. Targeted expression of Hh in this region rescues the gish phenotype, though the glial cells do not require the canonical Hh signaling pathway to respond. We propose that the spatiotemporal control of glial cell migration plays a critical role in determining the directionality of R cell axon outgrowth.

  15. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  16. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  17. Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous. Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous. Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion.

  18. Interactive Dynamics of Imagination in a Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Rajala, Antti; Zittoun, Tania; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework for researching the dynamics of imagination in science classroom interactions. While educational interest in imagination has recently increased, prior research has not adequately accounted for how imagination is realized in and through classroom interactions, nor has it created a framework for its…

  19. Principles or Imagination? Two Approaches to Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    What does it mean to introduce the notion of imagination in the discussion about global justice? What is gained by studying the role of imagination in thinking about global justice? Does a focus on imagination imply that we must replace existing influential principle-centred approaches such as that

  20. Intrinsic Motivation as a Mediator on Imaginative Capability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored which environmental and psychological variables influenced the imagination of video/film major university students, and the effects these variables had on their imaginative capability development. The hypothesis of the study--that "intrinsic motivation" played a mediating role in imaginative capability development--was…

  1. Differential cortical activation during observation and observation-and-imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H. I.; Wolkorte, R.; Ijzerman, M. J.; van Putten, M. J. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the brain during observation or imagination of movements might facilitate the relearning of motor functions after stroke. The present study examines whether there is an additional effect of imagination over observation-only. Eight healthy subjects observed and observed-and-imagined a

  2. Differential cortical activation during observation and observation-and-imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.I.; Wolkorte, R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the brain during observation or imagination of movements might facilitate the relearning of motor functions after stroke. The present study examines whether there is an additional effect of imagination over observation-only. Eight healthy subjects observed and observed-and-imagined a

  3. Differential cortical activation during observation and observation-and-imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H. I.; Wolkorte, R.; Ijzerman, M. J.; van Putten, M. J. A. M.

    The activity of the brain during observation or imagination of movements might facilitate the relearning of motor functions after stroke. The present study examines whether there is an additional effect of imagination over observation-only. Eight healthy subjects observed and observed-and-imagined a

  4. Introduction: Victorian Fiction and the Material Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mills

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available How should we deal with the ‘stuff' in books? This is the question addressed in the lead articles of the Spring 2008 issue of 19, all of which focus on some aspect of the material in relation to Victorian fiction. Gas, rocks, jewellery, automata and the entire contents of houses are examined in essays that explore the material imagination of Dickens, Hardy, George Eliot and Thackeray, among others. Moving forward from the previous edition, which different types of collected object, here contributors examine how the material is brought into collision with literature. The phrase 'material imagination' can be traced to the work of Gaston Bachelard who identifies two types of imagination, the formal and the material. Whereas the former focuses on surfaces and the visual perception of images, the latter consists of '…this amazing need for penetration which, going beyond the attractions of the imagination of forms, thinks matter, dreams in it, lives in it, or, in other words, materializes the imaginary'. As Bachelard suggests, the material imagination involves more than just a focus on the representation of objects and the contributions to this edition explore such wide ranging subjects as the gender politics of ownership, dispossession, the body as object, the politics of collecting and display and the dichotomy between the material and immaterial. In addition, this edition features a forum on digitisation and materiality. We are particularly pleased to be able to make use of 19's digital publishing format to further debates about digital media. In the forum, five contributors respond to a series of questions about the nature of the virtual object. All five have worked or are working on nineteenth-century digitisation projects so they are uniquely placed to consider issues surrounding representation and the nature of digital space.

  5. Intraoral micro-identification discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R W

    1991-12-01

    Intraoral micro-identification discs have recently been utilized to provide a more permanent method of personal identification. A wafer of plastic or metal with a surface area of 2.5 to 5 mm2 and carrying identifying numbers and/or letters (indicia) is bonded to the buccal enamel surface of the posterior teeth. Personal identification can occur after the I.D. disc is identified and the indicia is read. Reading of photoreduced indicia requires the aid of a microscope subsequent to the removal of the microdisc. In situ reading of disc indicia is possible using low power handheld magnifiers if the size of the indicia approximates 0.3 mm. Computerization is an integral part of non-custom alpha/numeric type designs, but a custom disc carries a name, address, and other specific information unique to the manufacturer. The use of a computer improves access to the database and it decreases the amount of data placed on the disc. Microdisc bases may be fabricated using a mylar type plastic or they may be manufactured from a stainless steel blank. Plastic discs are constructed with an internal sandwich containing the photo-reduced indicia. Metal discs are marked with a photochemical etch or engraved with a computer driven YAG laser. Attachment of the disc to the enamel surface is accomplished by conventional etching and bonding techniques and are typically bonded to the buccal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar or the second primary molar. Clear composite bonding material covers the disc so that salivary contamination does not result in degradation of the indicia. Orthodontic style discs with a mesh back carry laser written information that may be cemented with conventional orthodontic bonding cement. Standardization of the indicia and overall design is considered to be an important aspect of patient and professional acceptance.

  6. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author’s aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrence in the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text.Keywords: Old Testament; Proverbs; Hermeneutics; The fear of the Lord/Yahweh;  Walter Brueggemann; Paul Ricoeur;  Ignatius of Loyola; Imaginal engagement

  7. Evaluation of Anterior Segment's Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Ercan; Demirel, Ersin Ersan; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (p = 0.625, p = 0.830, p = 0.234, and p = 0.850). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (p = 0.130, p = 0.910, and p = 0.057). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. PMID:27648303

  8. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  9. High levels of dRYBP induce apoptosis in Drosophila imaginal cells through the activation of reaper and the requirement of trithorax, dredd and dFADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inma Gonzátlez; Ana Busturia

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila RYBP (dRYBP; Ringl and YY1 Binding Protein) is a Polycomb and trithorax interacting protein, whose homologous RYBP/DEDAF mammalian counterparts exhibit tumor cell-specific killing activity. Here we show that although endogenous dRYBP is not involved in developmental apoptosis, high levels of exogenous dRYBP induce apoptosis in all the imaginal discs of the fly, indicating that dRYBP apoptotic activity is not specific to tumor cells. We also show that dRYBP-induced apoptosis is inhibited by high levels of either p35 or DIAPI (Drosophila Inhibi-tor of Apoptosis Protein 1), and requires the function of the pro-apoptotic REAPER, HID and GRIM proteins, the apical caspase DREDD, the adaptor dFADD protein as well as TRITHORAX (TRX), an epigenetic transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of TRX also induces apoptosis in the imaginal discs. Fi-nally, we show that the expression of reaper-lacZ is upregulated both upon dRYBP-induced apoptosis and upon TRX-induced apoptosis in imaginal discs and that the reaper gene is a direct target of dRYBP in Drosophila embryos. Our results indicate that dRYBP triggers in a receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway that also includes TRX-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  10. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  11. “狼之子”的正反想象:杰克·伦敦眼中的中国移民%The Pros and Cons of Imagination of 'the Son of Wolves':the Chinese Immigrants in the Eyes of Jack London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤立媛

    2014-01-01

    Jack London created altogether six China and Chinese immigrants related works, which show his completely different views to China, uglification as well as understanding and sympathy. Although in the shadow of racism, Jack London made great contributions to the communication between Chinese and Western culture for a more rational thinking and more objective description. This paper will explore Jack London's reasons of his pros and cons of imagination toward Chinese immigrants' images from his psychological factors and the social, historical background.%杰克·伦敦一生共创作了六部有关中国和中国移民形象的作品,既有对中国丑化的一面,也有对中国理解、同情的一面。虽然摆脱不了种族主义的阴影,但其更为理性的思考与更为客观的描述使得他对中国、对中西文化之间的交流做出了巨大的贡献。本文将从杰克·伦敦自身的心理因素和所处的社会历史背景来探讨他对中国移民形象正反想象的原因。

  12. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bishop

    Full Text Available Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1 while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2 while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  13. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  14. Following Sadra in the Realm of Imagination and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piravivanak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imagination and death are two mysterious areas of the truth that serve as a buffer zone between sense and reason, world and afterworld. By imagination, we mean imaginary forms, the world of imagination and faculty of imagination. With faculty of imagination, man in the world is able to imagine the transcendental truths and meaning in guise of appropriate imaginary forms, given that imagination relates itself to higher foundation of Being, not to the common sense.Death, which is a buffer zone between the world and afterworld, enables man to observe ideal truths. Abundance of paradise graces is realized through imagination according to the will of paradise people in the ideal world which is the field of spiritualization of bodies and corporealization of spirits.Death and imagination are transcendence from the sensual and entering the abstraction of limbo, from a lower to a higher stage. Then, man reaches an openness in the realm of death and imagination which can never be grasped in sensual stage. Art , the field of imagination , is a death toward divine Beauty. Sadra, in the 7th volume of Asfar Arbae, believes that chaste love of artists helps them gain a clear mind, compassionate spirit and fine view that develop a beauty which is manifestation of divine Beauty.In fact, the artist’s imaginary forms are medium of transcendence to the name of Allah. Then, art, in its original sense, is the death of whatever than God and the manifestation of God’s beauty.

  15. Musical Expertise and the Ability to Imagine Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant’s imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  16. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  17. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  18. Robotic art, culture and cultural imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an ongoing debate about the notion and (possible) function of robotic culture; with the development of the new generation of drones, as well as the advancement in social and health robotics, questions about robot culture seem to open a variety of discussions...... – beginning with the inquiry of how can we grasp the notion of culture, as an umbrella term for the range of habitual and technological practices, in relation to equally heterogeneous field of robotics. This article aims to accentuate the importance of cultural imagination of robots in situating the robotic...... research, observing it 'as a mixed register of fantasy and an actual practice' (Kakoudaki, 2007). The emphasis will be put on the robotic art which, I argue, is in the fluid state of exchange with other areas of robotic research, equally benefiting from the larger context of cultural imagination of robots...

  19. Orientalist Imaginations and Touristification of Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2005-01-01

    promotion in the city-state. The tourism authorities in Singapore have found that the city destination has become too modern and western for many tourists, and the destination has embarked on a campaign to make Singapore more oriental. The creation of the museums is one strategy to orientalize Singapore......; these museums assert different layers of Singapore's oriental identities. Each museum appropriates the tourist orientalist imagination in different ways. This paper argues that the orientalist imagination can be understood as a set of knowledge resources for the construction of local identities to enhance...... a destination's uniqueness and attractiveness. Besides reviewing Said's orientalism, this paper visits criticisms of the theory, within the context of the orientalization process of museums in Singapore.Keywords: orientalism, Singapore Art Museum, Singapore History Museum, Asian Civilizations Museum, Singapore...

  20. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination.......Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...

  1. A linguagem do imaginário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda, Francimar Duarte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A linguagem do imaginário constitui, hoje, uma questão situada na arena de debates sobre as possibilidades da comunicação. É digna de reflexão essa busca tumultuada de pistas para compreender a forma como os seres lidam com a sua competência comunicativa e as suas frustrações pela não comunicação concreta. Admite-se atualmente, cada vez mais, a necessidade de se desvendarem os mistérios de uma linguagem com base ontológica, deixando antever o prenúncio de um novo paradigma. Este terá que incorporar novas regras num modelo mais amplo e generoso, onde a linguagem simbólica e, portanto, imaginária mostre sua importância e concretude. Este texto pretende percorrer os labirintos dessa proposta mostrando uma comunicação pelo imaginário como con-sentimento e esclarecer alguns de seus pressupostos

  2. David Hume, Scepticism, Imagination and Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of my presentation is to explore some possible links between Hume’s philosophy of history and imagination. My point is that although Hume has clearly rejected narratives about human history and politics based on modern and rationalist versions of Natural Law, his own accounts on the matter were positively based on arguments that went well beyond some sort of retreat into bare empiricism or scattered historicism. Hume’s stance on the matter of history and politics, to my mind, can be interpreted as an effort to build a natural history of morals, justice and government in which imagination plays a non-negligible role. His criticism of rationalistic natural law theories does not entail the acceptance of empiricist or institutionalist points of view. Of course, empiricist and institutionalist languages are in the use, across Hume’s arrays of arguments, but it seems to me that these languages appear as submitted to the supremacy of imagination. In that sense, we may face in Hume’s theory of justice an alternative view, in the form of a breach between pure rationalistic and empiricist views.

  3. Postmodern imaginative constructivism for STSE understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christian

    The influences of science and technology on society and the environment (STSE) have been an integral component of the formal educational curricula for four decades, and yet industrialized countries frequently struggle to balance the benefits of science and technology with the social justice and environmental issues inherent to contemporary society. Canadian citizens often fail to connect scientific and technological understandings with the subtle and yet ubiquitous personal, political, cultural, environmental, and social consequences that result from these understandings. This phenomenological research will explore potential discourses of control within education and society that may preclude authentic, contextual, and meaningful understandings of science and technology relative to their significant consequences, and an imaginative adaptation of Egan's Ironic Understanding and McGinn's Foreground and Background Dimensions to imaginatively express an awareness of postmodern STSE understandings. This research is designed to explore student understandings of how the diverse and complex influences of science and technology affect students through postmodern, imaginative, and constructivist photography. Participants demonstrated a limited Ironic Understanding of STSE, a critical awareness of specific modernist influences, increased personal and affective connections to science and technology, and an awareness of the duality of STSE. Participants' photographic artifacts can be utilized to inform teaching and learning strategies in order to purposefully craft curriculum and lesson plan design for personalized and engaging learning opportunities that incorporate students' awareness of STSE.

  4. [The role of imagination in modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In Renaissance and early modern times, the concept of imagination (Latin imaginatio) was essential for the (natural) philosophical explanation of magic processes, especially in the anthropology of Paracelsus. He assumed that imagination was a natural vital power including cosmic, mental, phychical, and physical dimensions. The Paracelsians criticized traditional humor pathology ignoring their theory of' 'natural magic'. On the other hand, they were criticized by their adversaries as charlatans practicing 'black magic'. About 1800, in between enlightenment and romanticism, the healing concept of, animal magnetism' (Mesmerism) evoked an analogous debate, whether, magnetic' phenomena originated from a real (physical) power (so-called, fluidum') or were just due to fantasy or imagination (German Einbildungskraft). At the end of the 19th century, the French internist Hippolyte Bernheim created-against the background of medical hypnosis (hypnotism') as a consequence of Mesmerism - his theory of suggestion and autosuggestion: a new paradigm of psychological respectively psychosomatic medicine, which became the basis for the concept of, placebo' in modern biomedicine. From now on, all the effects of, alternative medicine' could easily be explained by the, placebo-effect', more or less founded - at least unconsciously - on fraud.

  5. Influence of automated disc margin determination on Stratus OCT optic nerve head measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares de Camargo A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available André Soares de Camargo, Luiz Alberto Soares Melo Jr, Flavio Eduardo Hirai, Ivan Maynart Tavares Glaucoma Service, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: To analyze the influence of manual correction of the automatically determined edge of the optic nerve head (ONH in optic disc measurements in cases in which the optical coherence tomography did not identify the disc limits correctly. Methods: The study included 127 eyes from 127 consecutive patients with glaucoma, suspects, and healthy individuals. In a retrospective analysis, eyes that underwent testing with the Stratus OCT (software version 4.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA Fast Optic Disc protocol were evaluated. Forty-seven eyes in which either the manual assignment was not necessary or the signal strength was below six were excluded. After image acquisition and processing, one expert examiner manually corrected the determination of the edge of the ONH, identified as the end of the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris complex. Disc area, cup area, rim area, and cup/disc area ratio results were compared before and after the optic disc margin manually corrected determination. Paired t-test was performed to evaluate the differences, and Bland–Altman plots were used to display the relationships between measurements. Results: Eighty eyes from 80 individuals were included in the analyses. No statistically significant difference (P=0.538 was found when analyzing results obtained with automated and manual determination of rim area (mean ± standard deviation; 1.30±0.45 mm2 and 1.29±0.39 mm2, respectively. Cup area (1.39±0.58 mm2 and 1.31±0.55 mm2, respectively, cup/disc area ratio (0.50±0.16 mm2 and 0.49±0.15 mm2, respectively, and disc area results (2.69±0.55 mm2 and 2.60±0.51 mm2, respectively were significantly different. Conclusion: The Stratus OCT ONH Report results were

  6. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc through its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  7. Vortex migration in protoplanetary discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaloizou John C. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vortices embedded in protoplanetary discs can act as obstacles to the unperturbed disc flow. The resulting velocity perturbations propagate away from the vortex in the form of density waves that transport angular momentum. Any asymmetry between the inner and the outer density wave means that the region around the vortex has to change its angular momentum. We find that this leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Asymmetric waves always arise except in the case of a disc with constant pressure, for isothermal as well as non-isothermal discs. Depending on the size and strength of the vortex, the resulting migration time scales can be as short as a few thousand orbits.

  8. Modelling Neutral Hydrogen Discs of Spiral Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟鹏; 洪碧海

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical model of a neutral hydrogen disc in a spiral galaxy. The gas disc of the spiral galaxy isassumed to have an exponential surface density profile and to be ionized by the cosmic ultraviolet background.To compare with observations, we consider the disc position angle and inclination angle for a line of sight goingthrough the galaxy disc. The HI column densities depend on the strength of ionizing field and disc position andinclination. The model was applied to NGC 3198 and the results were compared with observational data. TheHI disc profile at large disc radii can be tested by further HI observations using radio telescopes with a largeraperture than the present facilities. This HI disc model can be used to predict quasar absorption line systems bygalaxy discs if quasar lines of sight go through the discs.

  9. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that ...

  10. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  11. Self-gravitating accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, G.

    2008-01-01

    I review recent progresses in the dynamics and the evolution of self-gravitating accretion discs. Accretion discs are a fundamental component of several astrophysical systems on very diverse scales, and can be found around supermassive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and also in our Galaxy around stellar mass compact objects and around young stars. Notwithstanding the specific differences arising from such diversity in physical extent, all these systems share a common feature whe...

  12. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  13. Resonances in retrograde circumbinary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interaction of an eccentric binary with a circular coplanar circumbinary disc that rotates in a retrograde sense with respect to the binary. In the circular binary case, no Lindblad resonances lie within the disc and no Lindblad resonant torques are produced, as was previously known. By analytic means, we show that when the binary orbit is eccentric, there exist components of the gravitational potential of the binary which rotate in a retrograde sense to the binary orbit and so rotate progradely with respect to this disc, allowing a resonant interaction to occur between the binary and the disc. The resulting resonant torques distinctly alter the disc response from the circular binary case. We describe results of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to explore this effect and categorise the response of the disc in terms of modes whose strengths vary as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity. These mode strengths are weak compared to the largest mode strengths expected in the prog...

  14. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  15. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  18. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  20. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  1. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  2. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  3. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  5. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  6. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  7. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  8. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  9. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations. The Beijing eye study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sheng You

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess prevalence, size and location of peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs and their associations in a population-based sample. . METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination included enhanced depth imaging of the choroid by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography. PICCs were defined as triangular thickening of the choroid with the base at the optic disc border and a distance between Bruch's membrane and sclera of ≥ 200 μm. Parapapillary large choroidal vessels were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 94 subjects with high myopia (refractive error 26.5mm in right eyes, OCT images were available for 89 (94.7% participants. A PICC was detected in 15 out of these 89 highly myopic subjects (prevalence:16.9 ± 4.0% and in none of hyperopic, emmetropic or medium myopic subgroups each consisting of 100 randomly selected subjects. Mean PICC width was 4.2 ± 2.3 hours (30° of disc circumference and mean length was 1363 ± 384 μm. PICCs were located most frequently (40% at the inferior disc border. On fundus photos, a typical yellow-orange lesion was found in 8 (53% eyes with PICCs. In binary regression analysis, presence of PICCs was significantly associated with optic disc tilting (P=0.04 and presence of posterior staphylomata (P=0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of PICCs in the adult Chinese population was 16.9 ± 4.0% in the highly myopic group, with no PICCs detected in non-highly myopic eyes. PICCs were located most frequently at the inferior optic disc border. Only half of the PICCs detected on OCT images showed a yellow-orange lesion on fundus photos. Presence of PICC was significantly associated only with an increased optic disc tilting and presence of posterior staphylomata, while it was not associated with axial length, refractive error or other ocular or systemic parameters.

  10. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  11. Lamina cribrosa defects and optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma with high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Kimura

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG eyes with high myopia. METHODS: A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior, tilt angle (vertical and horizontal, and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs, disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. RESULTS: LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2% POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8% control eyes (P < 0.001. Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01 and control eyes (P = 0.02. POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004, longer temporal PPA without BM (P < 0.001, and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P < 0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01, and transverse diameter (P = 0.01. In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P < 0.001 and vertical tilt angle (P < 0.001 were identified as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high

  12. Science and the imagination in the age of reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, R

    2001-12-01

    The eighteenth century is commonly thought of as the "age of reason", an age in which the imagination was not given a central role in the arts, far less in science. But in Hume's attempts to account for our belief in a continuing external world he is forced into invoking the activity of the imagination. His views on the activity of the imagination greatly influenced Adam Smith, who adapted them to fashion a theory of the psychology of scientific discovery. In this theory the imagination is shown to be active in creating systematic explanations of the phenomena of nature, to the extent that Smith depicts the aim of scientific theory as that of satisfying the imagination. Smith's account of the logic of scientific theory can be defended even in contemporary philosophy of science. In particular, it can be maintained that all scientific theories are works of the imagination and that the concept of truth does not directly apply to them.

  13. A Case Report of Unilateral Severe Visual Loss Along with Bilateral Optic Disc Cupping Secondary to Metastatic Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahdavi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of unilateral severe visual loss and bilateral optic disc cupping secondary to brain metastasis of bronchogenic carcinoma Patient and findings: A 48 year-old woman presented with severe visual loss of left eye without redness or pain or any systemic findings .Clinical findings included decreased visual acuity of left eye to 4 m CF and (+3 positive Marcus-Gunn reflex .There was asymmetric optic disc cupping associated with visual field defect in left eye The neurologic investigations showed a secondary metastatic tumor in the brain from bronchogenic carcinoma. Conclusion: Before making a diagnosis of normal -tension glaucoma in asymmetric optic disc cupping and normal intraocular pressure, ophthalmologists should rule out neurologic defects and brain tumors.

  14. Memory and Imagination: Epistemological Perspectives from British Empiricists to Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ofengenden, Tzofit

    2016-01-01

    The dissertation studies the epistemology of memory and whether we can distinguish memory from imagination. I argue that the neuroscience of memory undermines the traditional view that memory is a source of factual truth and challenges our ability to distinguish it from imagination. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part reviews and challenges criteria philosophers have provided to distinguish between memory and imagination. The second part deals with how current neuroscien...

  15. Prosthetic Lumbar disc replacement for degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Arvind

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical articulated device to replace intervertebral disc as a treatment for low back pain secondary to disc degeneration has emerged as a promising tool for selected patients. The potential advantages are prevention of adjacent segment degeneration, maintenance of mobility as well as avoidance of all the complications associated with fusion. The short-term results have been comparable to that of fusion, a few mid-term results have shown mixed outcome, but information on long-term results and performance are not available at present. The rationale for lumbar disc arthroplasty, indications, contraindications, the various artificial devices in the market and the concepts intrinsic to each of them, basic technique of insertion, complications are discussed and a brief summary of our experience with one of the devices is presented.

  16. Det imaginære rum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Poulsen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Radioens rum er imaginære, altså noget lytteren forestiller sig ud fra det hørte. Artiklen har tre spørgsmål som omdrejningspunkt: Hvordan etableres rum i radioen, hvad er det særlige ved disse radiofonisk formidlede rum, og hvordan kan man begribe radioens rum teoretisk? Undervejs inddrages en række eksempler fra radiomontager – en genre der om nogen har udforsket mulighederne for at skabe radiofoniske rum. Artiklen skitserer afslutningsvist hvorledes man kan forankre beskrivelser af radioens rum teoretisk ved hjælp af Peirces tegnbegreb med de tre aspekter: indeks, ikon og symbol.

  17. Acquiring Visual Classifiers from Human Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    tvmonitor P re di ct ed C at eg or y Probability of Retrieval tvmonitor 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 bird cow firehydrant bottle chair motorbike bicycle horse dog...person P re di ct ed C at eg or y Probability of Retrieval person 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 bird cat chair cow dog motorbike horse sheep bottle person P re di...imagine. However, everyone does not necessarily share the same bias with each other. We found that people from India and the United States may have

  18. Analyses of the temporomandibular disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirman, R; Fricová, M; Horák, Z; Krystůfek, J; Konvicková, S; Mazánek, J

    2007-01-01

    This project is the beginning of a large research work with a goal to develop a new total replacement of temporomandibular (TM) joint. First aim of this work was to determine the relative displacement of the TM disc and the mandible during mouth opening. The movement of the TM disc was studied using a magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal static images in revolved sections of the TM joint were obtained in various positions of jaw opening from 0 to 50 mm. The results provided a description of the TM disc displacements as a function of jaw opening. The displacements of the mandible and TM disc were about 16 mm and 10 mm respectively at mouth opening of 50 mm, maximum rotation of the mandible was 34s. The results of these measurements can be used for clinical diagnostics and also they were used as inputs for the follows finite element analysis (FEA). Second aim of this work was to create stress and strain analysis of TM joint using non-linear FEA. Complex of TM joint consists of mandibular disc, half skull and half mandible during normal jaw opening. The results illustrate the stress distributions in the TMJ during a normal jaw opening.

  19. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  20. Vygotsky on Imagination: Why an Understanding of the Imagination Is an Important Issue for Schoolteachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdamaschko, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Lev Vygotsky was an educational theorist and psychologist of extraordinarily wide knowledge whose major writings deal with the entire learning-teaching-development enterprise. Despite wide-ranging interests towards Vygotskian theory, the issue of imagination remains outside of the main line of the general inquiries. Thus there is a gap in that…

  1. The Multidimensional Spectrum of Imagination: Images, Dreams, Hallucinations, and Active, Imaginative Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J.T. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of the structure and cognitive function of the human imagination that attempts to do justice to traditional intuitions about its psychological centrality is developed, largely through a detailed critique of the theory propounded by Colin McGinn. Like McGinn, I eschew the highly deflationary views of imagination, common amongst analytical philosophers, that treat it either as a conceptually incoherent notion, or as psychologically trivial. However, McGinn fails to develop his alternative account satisfactorily because (following Reid, Wittgenstein and Sartre he draws an excessively sharp, qualitative distinction between imagination and perception, and because of his flawed, empirically ungrounded conception of hallucination. His arguments in defense of these views are rebutted in detail, and the traditional, passive, Cartesian view of visual perception, upon which several of them implicitly rely, is criticized in the light of findings from recent cognitive science and neuroscience. It is also argued that the apparent intuitiveness of the passive view of visual perception is a result of mere historical contingency. An understanding of perception (informed by modern visual science as an inherently active process enables us to unify our accounts of perception, mental imagery, dreaming, hallucination, creativity, and other aspects of imagination within a single coherent theoretical framework.

  2. Dynamic interpretation of hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nahmad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphogens are classically defined as molecules that control patterning by acting at a distance to regulate gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, secreted Hedgehog (Hh forms an extracellular gradient that organizes patterning along the anterior-posterior axis and specifies at least three different domains of gene expression. Although the prevailing view is that Hh functions in the Drosophila wing disc as a classical morphogen, a direct correspondence between the borders of these patterns and Hh concentration thresholds has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence that the interpretation of Hh signaling depends on the history of exposure to Hh and propose that a single concentration threshold is sufficient to support multiple outputs. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that at steady state, only two domains can be defined in response to Hh, suggesting that the boundaries of two or more gene expression patterns cannot be specified by a static Hh gradient. Computer simulations suggest that a spatial "overshoot" of the Hh gradient occurs, i.e., a transient state in which the Hh profile is expanded compared to the Hh steady-state gradient. Through a temporal examination of Hh target gene expression, we observe that the patterns initially expand anteriorly and then refine, providing in vivo evidence for the overshoot. The Hh gene network architecture suggests this overshoot results from the Hh-dependent up-regulation of the receptor, Patched (Ptc. In fact, when the network structure was altered such that the ptc gene is no longer up-regulated in response to Hh-signaling activation, we found that the patterns of gene expression, which have distinct borders in wild-type discs, now overlap. Our results support a model in which Hh gradient dynamics, resulting from Ptc up-regulation, play an instructional role in the establishment of patterns of gene expression.

  3. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  4. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  5. Atomic gas in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  6. O imaginal público: prolegómenos a uma abordagem comunicacional do imaginário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho procuramos delinear alguns aspectos que evidenciama dimensão comunicacional do imaginário. Isso significa que precisamos de prestar atenção ao modo como o imaginar colectivo modela a realidade social e como a publicidade colabora nesse processo. Sugerindo uma ligação estreita entre o imaginário, a sociedade e a publicidade, nomeamos “imaginal público” ao conjunto dinâmico, simbólico e complexo de imaginários diversos e heterogéneos quepermeiam as sociedades.

  7. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  8. Associative dreaming: reverie and active imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, August J

    2011-02-01

    The idea of countertransference has expanded beyond its original meaning of a neurotic reaction to include all reactions of the therapist: affective, bodily, and imaginal. Additionally, Jung's fundamental insight in 'The psychology of the transference' was that a 'third thing' is created in the analysis, but he failed to demonstrate how this third is experienced and utilized in analysis. This 'analytic third', as Ogden names it, is co-created by analyst and analysand in depth work and becomes the object of analysis. Reverie, as developed by Bion and clinically utilized by Ogden, provides a means of access to the unconscious nature of this third. Reverie will be placed on a continuum of contents of mind, ranging from indirect to direct associative forms described as associative dreaming. Active imagination, as developed by Jung, provides the paradigm for a mode of interaction with these contents within the analytic encounter itself. Whether the analyst speaks from or about these contents depends on the capacity of the patient to dream. Classical amplification can be understood as an instance of speaking about inner contents. As the ego of the analyst, the conscious component, relates to unconscious contents emerging from the analytic third, micro-activations of the transcendent function constellate creating an analytic compass.

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  10. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  11. Case Report of Optic Disc Drusen with Simultaneous Peripapillary Subretinal Hemorrhage and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zhiwei Law

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with right eye floaters and photopsia over one week. His visual acuities were 20/20 bilaterally. Posterior segment examination showed a right eye swollen optic disc and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO associated with an area of subretinal hemorrhage adjacent to the optic disc. Fundus fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiographies (ICGA of the right eye did not demonstrate choroidal neovascularization (CNV, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, or retinal ischemia. Ultrasound B-scan revealed optic disc drusen (ODD. In view of good vision and absence of CNV, he was managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution after two months. Commonly, ODD may directly compress and mechanically rupture subretinal vessels at the optic disc, resulting in peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, as was likely the case in our patient. Mechanical impairment of peripapillary circulation also results in retinal ischemia and may trigger the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, leading to subretinal haemorrhage. Compromise in central venous outflow with increased retinal central venous pressure from the direct mechanical effects of enlarging ODD results in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Patients with subretinal hemorrhage and CRVO from ODD should be monitored closely for the development of potentially sight-threatening complications.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  15. Literary Practice and Imagined Community in Christian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarter, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Imagined communities are not bound by space or time, they exist in opposition to other communities, and the members perceive themselves as existentially similar. Multiple case studies and interviews revealed that the seven Christian schools in this study functioned as imagined communities, and their literary practices served to establish,…

  16. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward

  17. Accessing Imagined Communities and Reinscribing Regimes of Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sherrie; Motha, Suhanthie; Price, Jeremy N.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we explore the complex and nebulous terrain between two theoretical concepts, imagined communities (Norton, 2000, 2001), that is, individuals' imagined affiliations with certain groups, and regimes of truth (Foucault, 1980), dominant images inscribed and reinscribed into individual consciousness until they become normative. Using…

  18. Imaginative Interaction with Internet Games. For Children and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    This article explores children's imaginative interaction with Internet games in the belief that an understanding of children's life experiences is essential to effective teaching and learning within the classroom. It is underpinned by the idea that imaginative play is, at least in some part, the work of children undertaking identity practice. It…

  19. The role of the imagination in museum visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The imagination plays an important role in museums, today more than ever. Visitors use their repositories of imagination or repertoires to make sense of their encounters with objects and exhibits. In this article, I argue that this initial meaning making, rather than being the end goal of museum ...

  20. EFL Young Learners: Their Imagined Communities and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Su Yon

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how South Korean primary school students approach learning English, using the notion of an "imagined community". Twenty students from two primary schools were selected for semi-structured interviews. The data analysis shows that the construction of South Korean students' imagined communities seems to be influenced…

  1. Ethical Imagination in Peace Studies: Beyond the Seville Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivage-Seul, M.

    1989-01-01

    Asks reader to look beyond Seville Statement, Social Darwinism, and utopian ideals and come to understand ethical imagination more fully as it relates to peace studies. Examines Seville Statement and its opposition to Social Darwinism. Explains how ethical imagination serves to provide radical alternative to biological determinism. (Author/NB)

  2. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  3. Teaching Mills in Tokyo: Developing a Sociological Imagination through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Here I emphasize the applicability of the sociological imagination to an international audience by sharing my journey of teaching sociology in Japan. I found my own sociological imagination helpful in critically evaluating the literature on Japanese higher education and the construction of the Japanese student as a form of Orientalism. As I…

  4. The Mediating Effects of Generative Cognition on Imagination Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yuling; Liang, Chaoyun; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study, based in Taiwan, aims to explore what psychological factors influence imagination stimulation of education major students, and what the relationship is between these factors and imagination. Both principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to determine the most appropriate structure of the developed…

  5. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  6. Developing Creativity in Social Studies II: Imagining Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Paul H.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes activities in which K-12 social studies students (1) imagine the consequences of decisions and policies, and (2) imagine the consequences of new personal and social possibilities. Sample activities are offered for geography, world history, sociology, U.S. history, and civics. The authors include suggestions for student evaluation and…

  7. The role of the imagination in museum visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The imagination plays an important role in museums, today more than ever. Visitors use their repositories of imagination or repertoires to make sense of their encounters with objects and exhibits. In this article, I argue that this initial meaning making, rather than being the end goal of museum...

  8. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward ta

  9. Imagining Romance: Young People's Cultural Models of Romance and Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachen, Christine M.; Illouz, Eva

    1996-01-01

    Shows that long before it translates into actual behavior, the content and forms that romance assumes in the postmodern nexus of media and the market shape children's romantic imagination. Explores how children's imagined vision of romance moved from one molded by media to one characterized by a tension between what media promised and their…

  10. Photoevaporating transitional discs and molecular cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Sui, Ning

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of photoevaporating protoplanetary discs including mass influx from molecular cloud cores. We examine the influence of cloud core properties on the formation and evolution of transitional discs. We use one-dimensional thin disc assumption and calculate the evolution of the protoplanetary disc. The effects of X-ray photoevaporation are also included. Our calculations suggest that most discs should experience the transitional disc phase within 10 Myr. The formation time of a gap and its initial location are functions of the properties of the cloud cores. In some circumstances, discs can open two gaps by photoevaporation alone. The two gaps form when the gas in the disc can expand to large radius and if the mass at large radius is sufficiently small. The surface density profile of the disc determines whether the two gaps can form. Since the structure of a disc is determined by the properties of a molecular cloud core, the core properties determine the formation of two gaps in the disc. We further find that even when the photoevaporation rate is reduced to 10 per cent of the standard value, two gaps can still form in the disc. The only difference is that the formation time is delayed.

  11. Radiation of accretion discs: the eclipses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    1984-05-01

    Light curves have been calculated for eclipses of the accretion disc in a cataclysmic binary. The Roche geometry of the cool component was taken into account and the stellar atmospheres were interpolated to provide the local spectrum of the radiation from the disc. The dependence of the light curve on the parameters of the disc is discussed.

  12. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  13. The future of memory: remembering, imagining, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Addis, Donna Rose; Hassabis, Demis; Martin, Victoria C; Spreng, R Nathan; Szpunar, Karl K

    2012-11-21

    During the past few years, there has been a dramatic increase in research examining the role of memory in imagination and future thinking. This work has revealed striking similarities between remembering the past and imagining or simulating the future, including the finding that a common brain network underlies both memory and imagination. Here, we discuss a number of key points that have emerged during recent years, focusing in particular on the importance of distinguishing between temporal and nontemporal factors in analyses of memory and imagination, the nature of differences between remembering the past and imagining the future, the identification of component processes that comprise the default network supporting memory-based simulations, and the finding that this network can couple flexibly with other networks to support complex goal-directed simulations. This growing area of research has broadened our conception of memory by highlighting the many ways in which memory supports adaptive functioning.

  14. "Minding the gap": imagination, creativity and human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaprat, Etienne; Cole, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Inquiry into the nature of mental images is a major topic in psychology where research is focused on the psychological faculties of imagination and creativity. In this paper, we draw on the work of L.S. Vygotsky to develop a cultural-historical approach to the study of imagination as central to human cognitive processes. We characterize imagination as a process of image making that resolves "gaps" arising from biological and cultural-historical constraints, and that enables ongoing time-space coordination necessary for thought and action. After presenting some basic theoretical considerations, we offer a series of examples to illustrate for the reader the diversity of processes of imagination as image making. Applying our arguments to contemporary digital media, we argue that a cultural-historical approach to image formation is important for understanding how imagination and creativity are distinct, yet inter-penetrating processes.

  15. New GES DISC Services Shortening the Path in Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Shie, Chung-Lin; Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Teng, William; Liu, Zhong; Bryant, Keith; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Wei, Jennifer; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    The Current GES DISC available services only allow user to select variables from a single dataset at a time and too many variables from a dataset are displayed, choice is hard. At American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2016 Fall Meeting, Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) unveiled a new service: Datalist. A Datalist is a collection of predefined or user-defined data variables from one or more archived datasets. Our science support team curated predefined datalist and provided value to the user community. Imagine some novice user wants to study hurricane and typed in hurricane in the search box. The first item in the search result is GES DISC provided Hurricane Datalist. It contains scientists recommended variables from multiple datasets like TRMM, GPM, MERRA, etc. Datalist uses the same architecture as that of our new website, which also provides one-stop shopping for data, metadata, citation, documentation, visualization and other available services.We implemented Datalist with new GES DISC web architecture, one single web page that unified all user interfaces. From that webpage, users can find data by either type in keyword, or browse by category. It also provides user with a sophisticated integrated data and services package, including metadata, citation, documentation, visualization, and data-specific services, all available from one-stop shopping.

  16. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  17. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  18. Optical Disc Applications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Pamela Q. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a variety of library applications of optical disc storage technology, including CD-ROM, digital videodisc, and WORM. Research and development projects at the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library are described, products offered by library networks are reviewed, and activities in academic and…

  19. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  20. Constraints on Slim Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhen-Yi; GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that when the gravitational force in the vertical direction is correctly calculated, the well-known Sshaped sequence of thermal equilibrium solutions can be constructed only for small radii of black hole accretion flows, such that slim accretion discs can possibly exist only in the inner regions of these flows.

  1. Magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Salmeron, Raquel; Wardle, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the linear growth and vertical structure of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in weakly ionised, stratified accretion discs. The magnetic field is initially vertical and dust grains are assumed to have settled towards the midplane, so charges are carried by electrons and ions only. Solutions are obtained at representative radial locations from the central protostar for different choices of the initial magnetic field strength, sources of ionisation, and disc surface density. The MRI is active over a wide range of magnetic field strengths and fluid conditions in low conductivity discs. For the minimum-mass solar nebula model, incorporating cosmic ray ionisation, perturbations grow at 1 AU for B < 8 G. For a significant subset of these strengths (0.2 - 5 G), the growth rate is of order the ideal MHD rate (0.75 Omega). Similarly, when cosmic rays are assumed to be excluded from the disc by the winds emitted by the magnetically active protostar, unstable modes grow at this radius for B less...

  2. Correlation of central corneal thickness and axial length to the optic disc and peripapillary atrophy among healthy individuals, glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Moschos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available George Tomais1, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea2, Michalis Moschos21University of Athens, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, Greece; 2Athens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: Clinical observational study for the correlation between the central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AXL, optic disc area (D, cupping area (C and peripapillary atrophy (PPA, in healthy eyes (group A, eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG (group B and eyes with ocular hypertension (OH (group C, in order to assess the possible contribution of this correlation to the diagnosis or prognosis of glaucoma.Methods: Ninety eyes of 90 persons participated in the study (30 eyes of 30 persons in each group. All eyes underwent intraocular pressure measurement, visual field testing, endothelial cell count (ECC, measurement of the CCT and AXL, and gonioscopy. After dilation of the pupil, a digital photograph of each optic disc was performed, followed by PPA, D area and C area measurements.Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the C/D area ratio between healthy and POAG eyes and a moderate negative relationship between AXL and D in healthy eyes. We also found a moderate negative relationship between CCT and C/D area ratio in POAG eyes and a strong negative relationship between PPA and D in OH eyes.Conclusions: CCT was not correlated with PPA and AXL in any one of the three groups. OH eyes seem to have more tolerant and stable disc and peripapillary area compared to healthy and POAG eyes.Keywords: glaucoma, peripapillary, cupping, corneal thickness, axial length, optic disc

  3. Unilateral optic disc swelling in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokroy, Russell; Barenboim, Erez; Carter, Dan; Assa, Amit; Alhalel, Amir

    2009-10-01

    Optic disc swelling occurs when there is an obstruction to axonal transport at the level of the lamina cribrosa. This may result from compression, ischemia, inflammation, or metabolic and toxic etiologies. Some of these etiologies may be life threatening and others may be self-limited. Thus, differentiating the different etiologies is important, albeit often difficult. We present a case of a 25-yr-old high-performance fighter aviator who presented with unilateral optic disc swelling 2 d after an F-16 flight, in which decompression was suspected. Visual acuity of the affected eye was decreased to 20/25, with enlarged blind spot and shallow arcuate scotomata on visual field testing. Pupil function, brightness intensity, and color vision were normal. Marked swelling of the entire optic disc, retinal flame-shaped hemorrhages, and engorgement of the retinal veins were seen. Since decompression sickness with nitrogen bubbles obstructing the optic nerve head vasculature was suspected, he was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. He rapidly improved, recovering full vision function within 6 d. No concurrent disease was found on extensive investigation. He returned to high-performance aviation 3 mo after onset of symptoms. No recurrence was seen during 3 yr of follow-up.

  4. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  5. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  8. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  9. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  11. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  12. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  13. Medium-term outcomes of artificial disc replacement for severe cervical disc narrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Acceptable clinical outcome for treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing with cervical disc replacement technique has been performed in current study. Most patients maintained good postoperative mobility and no significant adjacent level degeneration were found. Cervical disc replacement may be applicable in treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing; however, longer follow-ups are required for ensuring the long-term efficacy of cervical disc replacement.

  14. Intervertebral disc calcifications in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluffi, G; Fiori, P; Sileo, C

    2009-03-01

    This study was done to assess the presence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic intervertebral disc calcifications in a large paediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the radiographs taken during the past 26 years in children (age 0-18 years) undergoing imaging of the spine or of other body segments in which the spine was adequately depicted, to determine possible intervertebral disc calcifications. The following clinical evaluation was extrapolated from the patients' charts: presence of spinal symptoms, history of trauma, suspected or clinically evident scoliosis, suspected or clinically evident syndromes, bone dysplasias, and pre- or postoperative chest or abdominal X-rays. We detected intervertebral disc calcifications in six patients only. Five calcifications were asymptomatic (one newborn baby with Patau syndrome; three patients studied to rule out scoliosis, hypochondroplasia and syndromic traits; one for dyspnoea due to sunflower seeds inhalation). Only one was symptomatic, with acute neck pain. Calcifications varied in number from one in one patient to two to five in the others. Apart from the calcification in the patient with cervical pain, all calcifications were asymptomatic and constituted an incidental finding (particularly those detected at the thoracic level in the patient studied for sunflower-seed inhalation). Calcification shapes were either linear or round. Our series confirms that intervertebral disc calcifications are a rare finding in childhood and should not be a source of concern: symptomatic calcifications tend to regress spontaneously within a short time with or without therapy and immobilisation, whereas asymptomatic calcifications may last for years but disappear before the age of 20 years. Only very few cases, such as those of medullary compression or severe dysphagia due to anterior herniation of cervical discs, may require surgical procedures.

  15. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  16. Topographical distribution of retinal and optic disc neovascularization in early stages of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Ragnhild W; Frøystein, Torbjørn; Krohn, Jørgen

    2012-12-17

    We analyzed the topography of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and visualized the distribution of neovascularization of the optic disc (NVD) and elsewhere in the retina (NVE). The study included 174 eyes of 106 patients with early PDR. Data on the size and location of 391 NVE and 73 NVD were converted into a database of two-dimensional retinal and optic disc charts. The geometric centers of the neovascular lesions were plotted into corresponding areas of the charts, and the topographic distributions of the NVE and NVD were visualized by merging the charts and displaying the number of overlapping lesions on color-coded contour maps. A total of 141 (36%) NVE was located in the temporal and 250 (64%) in the nasal hemisphere (P distribution of the NVD in the temporal and nasal half of the optic disc was 46 (63%) and 27 (37%), respectively (P = 0.03). NVE in type 1 diabetes were located significantly farther from the fovea and optic disc, and were more numerous and larger than in type 2 diabetes. The number and diameter of the NVE were also significantly higher when the time from the last examination to the appearance of PDR exceeded 12 months. The majority of NVE lesions are located inferonasal to the optic disc and along the superior vascular arcades, while NVD have a predilection for the upper temporal disc rim. More extensive PDR is found in patients with type 1 diabetes and those with examination intervals longer than one year.

  17. Imaginative critique of the contemporary city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Di Masso Tarditti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce the contributions of different authors to a critique of contemporary urban phenomena. We begin pinpointing both the relevance and the epistemic limits of the city in the frame of the social sciences. We then develop a series of arguments that stress the main limitations of the dominant trend in environmental psychology dedicated to the study of urban phenomena. Consequently, we advocate an interdisciplinary, critique, reflexive and comprehensive approach to the study of the city. Finally, we synthesise the texts composing the monograph. The aim is to provide some materials for an epistemological, theoretical and methodological critique of urban environmental psychology, on the one hand, and to promote the imagination as a powerful and thorough instrument of knowledge, on the other hand.

  18. Geophysics: creativity and the archaeological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ferraby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper article explores archaeology as a creative practice by engaging specifically with the processes and visuals of geophysics. An area of archaeology considered highly scientific, a different way of looking reveals geophysics to be a poetic form of landscape study. The processes used to collect, alter, interpret and visualize visualise the data are creative acts that have parallels with more easily recognizable recognisable arts practices such as painting, drawing or photography. The paper article explores the ideas behind ways of seeing, the archaeological imagination, technologies and process. The section that follows explores the different elements of work and the ways of seeing and thinking they inspire. The paper article ends by showcasing how other arts practices can give alternative perspectives on geophysics and how these can in turn influence fine art.

  19. Bakhtin and Buber: Problems of Dialogic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Perlina

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications of biographical materials on Mikhail Bakhtin demonstrate that he was familiar with the writings of Martin Buber. The philosophical and aesthetic verbal expression of Buber's ideas within the time-spatial universe of Bakhtin's own awareness allows us to discuss this obvious biographical evidence in a wider cultural context. The central opposition of Buber's and Bakhtin's systems is the dialogic dichotomous pair: "Ich und Du" (I and Thou, or "myself and another." Bakhtin's dialogic imagination is rooted in the binaries of the subject-object relations which he initially formulated as "responsibility" and "addressivity," that is to say, as individual awareness and its responsiveness of life. The basic words of Bakhtin's philosophical aesthetics can be understood as the "relation to the other," and their semantics and terminological meaning are directly related to Martin Buber (his work, Ich und Du , 1923. In the 1930s-60s Bakhtin developed the concepts of responsibility and addressivity into his universal dialogic theory of speech-genres. His hierarchy of speech-genres was built in order to establish relations between different sub-genres of the novel (various types of poetic utterances and different species of individual discourse. However, the entire edifice of this dialogic system remained unfinished, and several types of dialogic relations between individual pronouncements of the characters and individual novelistic genres were not discussed by him. Buber's ideas on the dialogue can be used as a clue to one possible interpretation of the function of authoritative and internally persuasive discourses in different sub-genres of the novel (the novel of confession, the Bildungsroman , the autobiographical novel. In this article, Buber's philosophical cycle is used as an aid in reconstructing the integral whole of Bakhtin's "dialogic imagination," as this dialogic mode of thinking goes through his unfinished works: "Author and

  20. Imagining nice and nasty events in childhood or adulthood: recent positive events show the most imagination inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Stefanie J; Barnier, Amanda J

    2008-10-01

    We explored whether event recency and valence affect people's susceptibility to imagination inflation. Using a three-stage procedure, subjects imagined positive and negative events happening in their distant or recent past. First, subjects rated how confident they were that they had experienced particular positive and negative events in childhood or adulthood using a Life Events Inventory (LEI). Two weeks later, they imagined two positive and two negative events from the LEI. Finally, they rated their confidence on the LEI a second time. For positive events, subjects showed more imagination inflation for adulthood than childhood events. For negative events, they showed no difference in imagination inflation for adulthood and childhood events. We discuss factors that may influence source confusions for memories of the past and highlight directions for future research.

  1. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  2. Planetary migration in weakly magnetized turbulent discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, C.; Fromang, S.; Nelson, R. P.; Masset, F.

    2011-12-01

    In laminar viscous disc models, the migration of protoplanets embedded in their nascent protoplanetary discs may be directed inwards or outwards, depending on the relative magnitude of the Lindblad and corotation torques. The long-term evolution of the corotation torque is intimately related to diffusion processes inside the planet's horseshoe region. This communication examines the properties of the corotation torque in discs where magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence develops as a result of the magnetorotational instability (MRI), considering a weak initial toroidal magnetic field. We show that the differential Lindblad torque takes very similar values in MHD turbulent and laminar viscous discs, and there exists an unsaturated corotation torque in MHD turbulent discs.

  3. Radiation from optically thin accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylenda, R. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Torun. Pracownia Astrofizyki)

    1981-01-01

    Accretion discs in cataclysmic variables with low rates of mass transfer, M < or approx. 10/sup 16/g s/sup -1/, have outer regions optically thin in continuum. A simple approach that allows one to calculate the radiation spectra from such discs is presented. A great number of disc models has been obtained in order to study the influence of various parameters (accretion rate, outer radius of the disc, inclination angle, mass of the accreting degenerate dwarf, viscosity parameter) of discs on the outgoing continuous spectra, emission lines and the UBV colours.

  4. The artificial disc: theory, design and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q B; McCullen, G M; Higham, P A; Dumbleton, J H; Yuan, H A

    1996-06-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common medical conditions in the Western world. Disc degeneration, an inevitable process of aging, of variable rate and degree, is one of the major causes of low back pain. Currently, there are two major surgical interventions for treating conditions related to the degenerative disc: discectomy and fusion. Although discectomy and fusion produce a relatively good short-term clinical result in relieving pain, both these surgical treatments alter the biomechanics of the spine, possibly leading to further degeneration of the surrounding tissues and the discs at adjacent levels. Over the past 35 years, a tremendous effort has been made to develop an artificial disc to replace the degenerated disc. The goal is the restoration of the natural biomechanics of the segment after disc excision, thus relieving pain and preventing further degeneration at adjacent segments. However, the artificial disc faces a complex biomechanical environment which makes replication of the biomechanics difficult and long-term survival challenging to designs and materials. The purpose of this article is to examine the factors of importance in designing a disc replacement. Topics covered include the structure and function of the natural disc, the changes that occur with disc degeneration and existing methods of treatment for the degenerative spine. The progress in achieving a functional, long-lasting disc replacement is outlined.

  5. The properties of external accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, J.E. (Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-02-15

    The properties of external accretion discs (discs with a central source of angular momentum) are explored both analytically and numerically. An illustrative example of the effect of a disc of material around a binary star on the stellar separation is considered. We consider a Greens-function-type solution in which an initial ring of matter is put in orbit around the central binary. We find that the solution splits temporally into three parts. First, the disc evolves as a standard accretion disc unaware of the inner boundary condition. Secondly, the disc interacts with the inner boundary and changes its character to become, thirdly, an outflowing disc which is propelled outwards by the source of angular momentum at the centre. (author).

  6. Twisted accretion discs: Pt. 5; Viscous evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Astrophysik)

    1990-08-15

    The time-dependence of accretion discs with orbits tilted out of the symmetry plane is studied. The effects of mass inflow modulation, and tilt variation at the disc outer edge, are examined for both circumbinary discs and for discs around compact objects. The appendices extend the numerical work to some analytic examples of tilt diffusion and external forcing effects. It is also shown that the disc must not be treated as a rigid tilted object if global angular momentum is to be conserved. These results are relevant to the problem of long-term periodicities of the light curves in Her X1 and {epsilon} Aur, the S-type symmetry of radio jets, warped gas discs in galaxies and polar rings in Neptune. Twisted discs may also arise in star-forming regions. (author).

  7. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  8. Refraction and the axial length of the eyeball in patients with the optic disc drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between the optic disc drusen (ODD) and the axial length of the eyeball as well as refractive error. We examined prospectively 40 patients with ODD, 18 men and 22 women, age range from 34 to 69 years. All subjects underwent full ophthalmic examination, visual field testing and color-coded duplex sonography of the ocular vessels. Refraction was determined with an autorefractometer (Topcon RM-8000B) and further refined subjectively. Spherical equivalent refraction was calculated as the spherical dioptre plus one half of the cylindrical dioptre. Axial lengths were measured with a Sonomed ultrasound scanner model E-Z Scan AB5500. Clinical signs were observed in 65% of the eyes with drusen, among them, 38% had symptoms of visual acuity loss and all had visual fields defects. There were 21 eyes (18 eyes with and 3 without drusen), with a recorded refractive error. Significant differences in hyperopia were observed between the eyes with and without drusen (p = 0.048). The rate of occurrence of myopia did not differ significantly between affected and unaffected eyes (p = 0.06). The mean spherical equivalent refraction and axial dimensions of the eye differed significantly among the groups of eyes with and without drusen (p < 0.05). Significant differences in mean values of peak-systolic and end-diastolic velocities (p < 0.001) as well as in the resistivity index (p = 0.047) were observed between eyes with and without drusen. The optic disc drusen are often associated with shorter and hyperopic eyes. This anatomical conditions and vascular factors may contribute to pathogenesis of drusen.

  9. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  10. Centrifugally exhausting discs: an inverse process of disc-like accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaburaki, O.

    1989-03-01

    A disc-like mass-loss process from rapidly rotating, highly magnetized objects is investigated. Such a disc may be considered as an inverse-type of magnetized accretion discs. The disc plasma flows out radially with the Alfven velocity while it rotates, in the main part of the disc, with Keplerian velocity. The magnetic stress transfers angular momentum from the central spinner to the disc. A considerable fraction of the rotational energy extracted in association with the angular momentum is liberated in the disc through the (effective) Joule dissipation. An almost self-consistent set of analytic expressions is proposed as a solution to the steady-state, resistive MHD equations which are fairly simplified by the assumption of thin disc. The possibility of finding such discs around young neutron stars is briefly discussed with reference to SN 1987A.

  11. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  12. Superhumps, resonances and accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, R.; King, A. (Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1991-03-01

    The structure of accretion discs within binary systems is shown to be influenced by the excitation of resonances within the disc. Of particular importance is that near the 3:1 commensurability with the stars' orbit. This can be used to explain the superhump phenomenon of SU Ursae Majoris dwarf novae in superoutburst. This resonance can only appear for mass ratios which satisfy M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} < {approx equal} 0.25-0.33: for larger mass ratios the available resonances are weaker and of the wrong form to produce the superhump phenomenon. The mass-transfer stream is shown to be an important contributor to the growth rate of the resonance. (author).

  13. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature dist...

  14. Unsuccessful vitrectomy without gas tamponade for macular retinal detachment and retinoschisis without optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of subretinal fluid accumulation in optic disc pit maculopathy is unknown. A 67-year-old Japanese woman complaining of blurred vision in her right eye presented with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography examination showed maculopathy typically associated with optic disc pits, except that the patient had no optic disc pit. Long-acting gas tamponade was required to achieve reattachment of the retina and retinoschisis after initial failure of surgery using surgically induced vitreous detachment without either fluid-air exchange or gas injection. Vitreous traction may not have played a major role in introducing fluid into the submacular space in this case. Gas tamponade may be indispensable to achieve surgical success. This may also pertain to some cases of optic nerve pits.

  15. The dispersal of protoplanetary discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercolano Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protoplanetary discs are a natural consequence of the star formation process and as such are ubiquitous around low-mass stars. They are fundamental to planet formation as they hold the reservoir of material from which planets form. Their evolution and final dispersal and the timescales that regulate these process are therefore of particular interest. In this contribution I will review the observational evidence for the dispersal of discs being dominated by two timescales and for the final dispersal to occur quickly and from the inside out. I will discuss the current theoretical models, including X-ray photoevaporation, showing that the latter provides a natural explanation to the observed behaviour and review supporting and contrasting evidence. I will finally introduce a new mechanism based on the interaction between planet formation and photoevaporation that may explain a particular class of transition discs with large inner holes and high accretion rates that are problematic for photoevaporation models and planet formation models alone.

  16. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  17. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Conjunctivitis) Eyes Corneal Abrasions Styes Activity: Eyes ...

  18. Rousseau's Imaginary Friend: Childhood, Play, and Suspicion of the Imagination in "Emile"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Amy Shuffelton considers Jean-Jacques Rousseau's suspicion of imagination, which is, paradoxically, offered in the context of an imaginative construction of a child's upbringing. First, Shuffelton articulates Rousseau's reasons for opposing children's development of imagination and their engagement in the sort of imaginative play…

  19. In Search of an Index of Imagination for Virtual Experience Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Li-Jhong

    2013-01-01

    Imagination is a gift to humans, and a creative faculty of the mind. Although early studies in the fields of philosophy and psychology appreciated the value of imagination, little work has been done pertaining to indicators of imagination. This study synthesized early works on imagination carried out between 1900 and 2012 to clarify its meaning…

  20. In Search of an Index of Imagination for Virtual Experience Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Li-Jhong

    2013-01-01

    Imagination is a gift to humans, and a creative faculty of the mind. Although early studies in the fields of philosophy and psychology appreciated the value of imagination, little work has been done pertaining to indicators of imagination. This study synthesized early works on imagination carried out between 1900 and 2012 to clarify its meaning…

  1. Um imaginário ativo na cultura nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Sodré, Muniz; UFRJ

    2009-01-01

    O texto aponta, dentre outras questões, que não há no Brasil ativos pesquisadores do imaginário. Talvez isso se deva à dificuldade em separar real de imaginário num país de longa tradição patrimonialista, pois, como bem se sabe, a cultura patrimonial apela fortemente para o imaginário da família ampliada em seu movimento de preservação e transmissão do capital. Ou esteja relacionado aos vários tipos de imaginário social que concorrem para constituir relações sociais originalíssimas no nível d...

  2. The Farfaring Imagination: Recent Fantasy and Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Beth; Nelms, Ben

    1985-01-01

    Reviews books of fantasy and science fiction for young adults. Points out that fantasy exercises the imagination, helps readers clarify genuine problems, and allows for escape from everyday reality at the same time that it generates hope. (EL)

  3. Moral imagination in simulation-based communication skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruth P

    2011-01-01

    Clinical simulation is used in nursing education and in other health professional programs to prepare students for future clinical practice. Simulation can be used to teach students communication skills and how to deliver bad news to patients and families. However, skilled communication in clinical practice requires students to move beyond simply learning superficial communication techniques and behaviors. This article presents an unexplored concept in the simulation literature: the exercise of moral imagination by the health professional student. Drawing from the works of Hume, Aristotle and Gadamer, a conceptualization of moral imagination is first provided. Next, this article argues that students must exercise moral imagination on two levels: towards the direct communication exchange before them; and to the representative nature of simulation encounters. Last, the limits of moral imagination in simulation-based education are discussed.

  4. Geografias do mundo imaginário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Alegria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographies of the imagined world. The idea that Geography ismore about the construction of images of the world than about a given “objective reality” inspired this study of the mental representations of several countries. Among the multiple possible representations of 12 countries (Portugal, France, Norway, Egypt,Mauritania, Mozambique, United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, we began by charting their location in a world map as indicated by over 300 respondents with at least high school attendance. Then, the compilation of a vast number of mental images (three per country and respondent led to the definition ofsix general categories that bring together mental images of a similar kind: nature, culture and history, tourism and gastronomy, economy and society, specific places and no answer/wrong answers. In each category, we have highlighted the dominant (most frequentidea. Location, the relative frequency of the no answer/wrong answerscategory and the dominant images for each country all proved significant when it comes to dividing the countries into groups, and serve as indicators of the richness and variety of the mental representations. The study provided answers to some of the original research questions, but leaves many others unanswered.

  5. Rhapsodic Inquiry and the Methodological Imaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Levy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on, and examines some issues sidelined during the writing of a doctoral dissertation that was completed at the end of 2011. The study investigated the potential of the mobile phone as a pedagogic tool in a senior secondary technical school. While the methods employed for data collection and analysis were conventional and uncontentious, a certain boldness and imaginative engagement with the empirical findings was deemed necessary in order generate a thesis that was both sufficiently substantial and original. However, an underlying tension operated wherein fundamentally philosophical impulses of the researcher had to be balanced against simultaneously present institutional expectations and practical imperatives. In particular, some key remarks of Heidegger concerning technology and thinking, vied for attention and prominence within the research project agenda. An articulation and elaboration of this underlying tension between the philosophical and the practical only became possible after the work was completed. The return and manifestation of these marginalised and latent issues are here given closer attention.

  6. Unilateral Optic Disc Papilloedema following Administration of Carboplatin Chemotherapy for Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman with a positive BRCA1 gene mutation was diagnosed with stage 3b high-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. She was treated with adjuvant carboplatin at a dose of 740 mg (AUC 6 in 3-weekly cycles. Five days after her fifth cycle of carboplatin, she awoke with new-onset blurred vision in her left eye. An ophthalmology review showed left-sided disc oedema with normal optic nerve function tests and 6/24 visual acuity. A CT scan of the head and orbits was performed which showed no evidence of metastasis or raised intracranial pressure. An autoimmune screen was performed which did not reveal any explanation for her visual symptoms. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed bilateral intense late disc leakage with no evidence of vasculitis. Her chemotherapy was stopped in view of a radiological and biochemical remission and her visual symptoms were monitored. She was also started on a tapering dose of prednisolone 40 mg daily. Five months after the initial review, she has developed left optic disc atrophy with 6/18 visual acuity, while the right eye remains asymptomatic. The diagnosis was felt to be that of carboplatin-induced unilateral disc oedema, a very rare side effect of this chemotherapy.

  7. American television fiction transforming Danish teenagers' religious imaginations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that American television fiction with supernatural themes offers Danish teenage audiences a playground for exploring different religious imaginations in a continuous process of internal negotiations; thereby transforming their imaginations. This process of the mediatization...... narratives. This essay presents the findings of an empirical qualitative study of seventy-two Danish teenagers and considers two primary parameters for the case-based reception study: the teenagers' levels of fandom and their connection with institutionalized religion. In other words, how are religious...

  8. Dynamic changes in optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, anterior chamber parameters, and intraocular pressure during Valsalva maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Mete

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. Methods: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, anterior chamber volume (ACV, pupil diameter (PD, axial length (AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP, were measured at rest and during VM. Results: VM did not have any significant influence on AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc area, rim area, cup area, cup-to-disc area ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, rim volume, cup volume, and nerve head volume measurements (for all; p >0.05. IOP and PD significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.001. VM significantly decreased CCT, ACD, ACA, and ACV values (for all; p <0.001. Moreover, the optic nerve cup volume decreased and the horizontal cup-to-disc ratio significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.05. Conclusions: VM may cause transient changes in IOP, optic disc morphology, and anterior chamber parameters.

  9. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Guven

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD. She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  10. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Dilek; Acar, Zeynep; Demir, Mehmet; Sendul, Yekta; Demir, Atilla Gokce; Ergen, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD). She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  11. Pedagogy of the possible: Imagination, autonomy, and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold Murray

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores pedagogical practices which can support the role of imagination in foreign language learning. Over the past decade, work on self and identity in motivation research—most notably Norton’s (2001 imagined communities and Dörnyei’s (2009 L2 motivational self system—has suggested that teachers might foster students’ motivation by helping them imagine themselves as L2 speakers and envisage contexts or communities in which they might use the target language. If teachers are to help students create and sustain visions of L2 identities, they need to employ a pedagogy which incorporates and facilitates the work of the imagination. In order to provide guidelines for pedagogical practice, this paper examines the experiences of Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language in a selfdirected learning course. Prior analysis of the data revealed several affordances which supported the participants’ metacognitive development and the role of imagination in their learning. Using these affordances as a conceptual framework, this paper builds on previous work by identifying elements in the learning environment which appear to support the role of imagination in the students’ language learning. The paper concludes by suggesting guidelines for pedagogical practice and considering the implications for further inquiry.

  12. The Technological Expansion of Sociability: Virtual Communities as Imagined Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Grădinaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reception of Benedict Anderson’s ideas was very fruitful in many disciplines, and his work provided key concepts that can now throw a clarifying light in some blurry matters. The expression “imagined community” has known a remarkable proliferation, a situation that led to both the formation of a research direction and to the perpetuation of a cliché. In this respect, my article pointed out some suggestive characteristics of virtual communities, explaining why the imagined community is a valuable subject for the theorists of new media. The impossibility to know in person all the members of a big community is just one factor that determines its imagined face. Moreover, the set of values and inner presuppositions that guide the members are important bricks in the construction of community. In my opinion, the virtual community is imagined as a multi-layered experience (technological, conversational, relational etc.. The dynamic of a virtual community contains the tension amongst these layers and the degree of its imagined side depends on multiple factors. In order to illustrate these aspects, I gave a brief example by analysing a Romanian virtual community, using the triad common language – temporality – high centers. In spite of its limitations, the perspectives offered by this concept are still useful for understanding the nature of online communities. Thus, the imagined community is a valuable set of beliefs and practices that underlie and bolster the effective meaning and functioning of the virtual communities.

  13. Hussars Approach to Transcendental Imagination under Ocularcentrism -Analysis of the relation between perception and imagination%胡塞尔的感知和想象——从视觉中心主义的视角看

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继

    2012-01-01

    Ocularcentrism is a general term which is called by modem scholars to mark the feature of western traditional philosophy.It implies that starting from ancient Greek western philosophers strength the medium function of ocular view in the way human beings obtain knowledge and search for the truth.Plato actually distinguishes two kinds of "eye" in the partition of sensible world and intelligible world.One is corporeal eye,the other is mind's eye.This dualism affects that later philosophers hold on either empiricism which strengths the view of corporeal eye,or rationalism which strengths the importance of mind's eye.Husserl,under the impression of Hume,Kant and Brentano, begins with making a distinction between perception and imagination,and attempts to transcend the opposition between empiricism and rationalism which strength the view of either corporeal eye or mind's eye,and with the attitude to face to thing-in-itself he wants to reach to the intuition of Eidos.When he considers the priority of this two kind of intuitional action,perception and imagination,he favors the perception and remains the inclination toward empiricism,but he ceaselessly explores the function of the two intuitional action in intentional construction,and we can see his inclination to try to transcend the empirical partition between perception and imagination and then slip into transcendental imagination,Actually,the transcendcntality of phenomenology will necessarily lead to transcend the presence of perception,and meanwhile it's not completely departed from the presence.So perception and imagination have constitutive relevance in Husserl's philosophy.%视觉中心主义(Ocularcentr[sm)是现代学者对西方传统形而上学主要特征的一种统称,意指由古希腊哲学所开启的重视视觉的观看在人类获取知识、通达真理之途中的中介作用。胡塞尔在休谟、康德和布伦塔诺等人的影响下.从将直观区分为感知和想象两

  14. Biomechanical study of intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    González Guitiérrez, Ramiro Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Degeneration and age affect the biomechanics of the intervertebral disc, by reducing its stiffness, flexibility and shock absorption capacities against daily movement and spinal load. The biomechanical characterization of intervertebral discs is achieved by conducting mechanical testing to vertebra-disc-vertebra segments and applying axial, shear, bend and torsion loads, statically or dynamically, with load magnitudes corresponding to the physiological range. However, traditional testing does...

  15. DSC Study of Collagen in Disc Disease

    OpenAIRE

    S. Skrzyński; Sionkowska, A.; Marciniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to estimate the effect of disc disease on the collagen helix-coil transition and morphology for tissue extracted from patients during surgical operation. Forty discs were obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease undergoing surgery for low back pain. The patients were in the age between 20 and 70 years old. The specimens were kept wet during DSC experiment. The data allow the comparison between thermal stability of collagen ti...

  16. Biomechanical study of intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    González Guitiérrez, Ramiro Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Degeneration and age affect the biomechanics of the intervertebral disc, by reducing its stiffness, flexibility and shock absorption capacities against daily movement and spinal load. The biomechanical characterization of intervertebral discs is achieved by conducting mechanical testing to vertebra-disc-vertebra segments and applying axial, shear, bend and torsion loads, statically or dynamically, with load magnitudes corresponding to the physiological range. However, traditional testing does...

  17. The Roles of Discs for Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, L C; Yeh, Li-Chin; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the discs are detected for some of the extra-solar planetary systems. It is also likely that there was a disc mixing with planets and small bodies while our Solar System was forming. From our recent results, we conclude that the discs play two roles: the gravity makes planetary systems more chaotic and the drag makes planetary systems more resonant.

  18. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects u...

  19. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography morphology in optic disc pit associated maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Michalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our purpose was to study the clinical manifestation and course of optic pit maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD- OCT images. Materials and Methods: We used SD-OCT to examine 20 eyes of 19 patients with a macular detachment in combination with an optic. Results: We observed five different fovea appearances in regard to fluid localization. In five eyes, we recorded changes in the fluid distribution with SD-OCT. In 17/20 eyes, we noted a communication between the perineural and subretinal and/or intraretinal space at the margin of the optic disc. Conclusion: 3-dimensional SD-OCT (3D-SDOCT scans revealed a three-fold connection, between subretinal and intraretinal space, perineural space, and the vitreous cavity. Therefore, we suppose that intraretinal or subretinal fluid in optic pit maculopathy may have both a vitreous and cerebrospinal origin. A membrane, covering the optic nerve was noted in 14 cases. Even if it seems intact in some B-scans, it is not complete in others several micrometers apart. Additionally, we observed fluid accumulation below the margin of the optic disc and hyperreflective porous tissue in the optic disc excavation. Those findings do not influence the course of maculopathy.

  20. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  1. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  2. DSC Study of Collagen in Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Skrzyński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has been used to estimate the effect of disc disease on the collagen helix-coil transition and morphology for tissue extracted from patients during surgical operation. Forty discs were obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease undergoing surgery for low back pain. The patients were in the age between 20 and 70 years old. The specimens were kept wet during DSC experiment. The data allow the comparison between thermal stability of collagen tissue from healthy patients and from patients suffering from disc disease. In the paper the comparison between thermal helix-coil transition for collagen fibers from patients suffering from disc disease and collagen fibers from healthy organisms has been discussed. The heating rate has an influence on the position on denaturation temperatures of collagen in disc tissues. Higher helix-coil transition temperature of collagen in degenerated disc suggests that additional intermolecular cross linking of collagen fibers occurs. Denaturation temperatures of collagen in degenerated male disc possess smaller values than in female ones. Disc disease induces changes in collagen structure and leads to formation of additional crosslinks between collagen fibers.

  3. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...... a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  4. Glaucoma detection using novel optic disc localization, hybrid feature set and classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khalid, Shehzad; Javed, M Younus; Abbas, Sarmad; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic and irreversible neuro-degenerative disease in which the neuro-retinal nerve that connects the eye to the brain (optic nerve) is progressively damaged and patients suffer from vision loss and blindness. The timely detection and treatment of glaucoma is very crucial to save patient's vision. Computer aided diagnostic systems are used for automated detection of glaucoma that calculate cup to disc ratio from colored retinal images. In this article, we present a novel method for early and accurate detection of glaucoma. The proposed system consists of preprocessing, optic disc segmentation, extraction of features from optic disc region of interest and classification for detection of glaucoma. The main novelty of the proposed method lies in the formation of a feature vector which consists of spatial and spectral features along with cup to disc ratio, rim to disc ratio and modeling of a novel mediods based classier for accurate detection of glaucoma. The performance of the proposed system is tested using publicly available fundus image databases along with one locally gathered database. Experimental results using a variety of publicly available and local databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach as compared to the competitors.

  5. Evolution of linear warps in accretion discs and applications to protoplanetary discs in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The existence of warped accretion discs is expected in a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including circumstellar discs in binaries and discs around binary protostars. A common feature of these discs is that they are perturbed by a misaligned external potential. In this paper, we study the long-term evolution of the disc warp and precession in the case of thick discs (with the dimensionless thickness $H/r$ larger than the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$) in which bending waves can propagate. For small warps, such discs undergo approximately rigid-body precession with a coherent global frequency. We derive the analytical expressions for the warp/twist profiles of the disc and the alignment timescale for a variety of disc models/parameters. Applying our results to circumbinary discs, we find that these discs align with the orbital plane of the binary on a timescale comparable to the global precession time of the disc, and typically much smaller than its viscous timescale. The development of parametric instab...

  6. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  7. Comparative study of optic disc measurement by Copernicus optical coherence tomography and Heidelberg retinal tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Song; Yu, Ya-Jie; Li, Shu-Ning; Liu, Juan; Hao, Ying-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Copernicus optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new, ultra high-speed and high-resolution instrument available for clinical evaluation of optic nerve. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreements between SOCT and Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT). A total of 44 healthy normal volunteers were recruited in this study. One eye in each subject was selected randomly. Agreement between SOCT and HRT-3 in measuring optic disc area was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Relationships between measurements of optic nerve head parameter obtained by SOCT and HRT-3 were assessed by Pearson correlation. There was no significant difference in the average cup area (0.306 vs. 0.355 mm, P = 0.766), cup volume (0.158 vs. 0.130 mm, P = 0.106) and cup/disc ration (0.394 vs. 0.349 mm, P = 0.576) measured by the two instruments. However, other optic disc parameters from SOCT were significantly lower compared with HRT-3. The Bland-Altman plot revealed good agreement of cup area and cup volume measured by SOCT and HRT-3. Bad agreement of disc area, rim area, rim volume and cup/disc ratio were found between SOCT and HRT-3. The highest correlations between the two instruments were observed for cup area (r(2) = 0.783, P = 0.000) and cup/disc ratio (r(2) = 0.669, P = 0.000), whereas the lowest correlation was observed for disc area (r(2) = 0.100, P = 0.037), rim area (r(2) = 0.275, P = 0.000), cup volume (r(2) = 0.005, P = 0.391) and rim volume (r(2) = 0.021, P = 0.346). There were poor agreements between SOCT and HRT-3 for measurement of optic nerve parameters except cup area and cup volume. Measurement results of the two instruments are not interchangeable.

  8. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wastnidge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  9. How Novelle May Have Shaped Visual Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Emison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artists figure fairly frequently in novelle, so it is not unreasonable to suppose that they may have taken more than a passing interest in the genre. Although much scholarly effort has been dedicated to the task of exploring how Horace’s adage “ut pictura poësis” affected the course of the visual arts during the Italian Renaissance and vast scholarly effort has been assigned to the study of Boccaccio’s literary efforts (much more so than the efforts of his successors, relatively little effort has been spent on the dauntingly interdisciplinary task of estimating how the development of prose literary imagination may have affected habits of perception and may also have augmented the project of integrating quotidian observations into pictorial compositions. In contrast to these issues of “realism”, the essay also addresses questions of how the literary conventions of novelle, although they may have been created in deliberate defiance of current social norms, may eventually have helped to shift those norms. More specifically, the gender norms of the novelle offer intriguing precedents for characterizations that we find in the visual arts, from Botticelli to Leonardo to Michelangelo, ones that rarely match what we know of societal expectations of the day. The argument, though necessarily speculative, is addressed as much to the question of how readers and viewers might have had their thinking shaped by their combined aesthetic experiences as by the more traditional question of identifying artists’ sources. Did theorizing about style, or simply thinking about what made for vividness or impressiveness, shift readily between the verbal and the visual, and perhaps more easily then than now? Can we create a history of art that seeks evidence from the whole literary record rather than consistently prioritizing poetry and the “poetic”?

  10. [Standardized terminology for disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, M; Gil Sierra, A; Sánchez Martín, A; Gallego Gómez, P; Pereira Boo, D

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the terminology used to describe morphological alterations in the intervertebral discs. Radiologists must be able to communicate information about the type, location, and severity of these alterations to medical and surgical clinicians. It is crucial to use simple, standard, and unified terminology to ensure comprehension not only among radiologists but also with professionals from the different specialties for whom the radiology reports are written (fundamentally traumatologists and neurosurgeons). This terminology will help ensure a more accurate diagnosis and better patient management.

  11. Sealing Penetrating Eye Injuries Using Photo-activated Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    needle into the posterior segment ~ 1 cm from the incision site but still within ~ 5 mm of the limbus. The needle point was placed directly behind the...incision. An aqueous solution containing a blue dye (for visualization) was infused into the posterior segment and the pressure measured. The...thresholds for damage. This information is needed because the small opaque disc that blocks green light from entering the eye through the pupil does not

  12. BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL OF THE DISC–LINE SPECTRAL PROFILES FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjaceslav Sochora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The strong gravitational field of a black hole has distinct effects on the observed profile of a spectral line from an accretion disc near a black hole. The observed profile of the spectral line is broadened and skewed by a fast orbital motion and redshifted by a gravitational field. These effects can help us to constrain the parameters of a system with a black hole, both in active galactic nuclei and in a stellar-mass black hole. Here we explore the fact that an accretion disc emission can be mathematically imagined as a superposition of radiating accretion rings that extend from the inner edge to the outer rim of the disc, with some radially varying emissivity. In our work, we show that a characteristic double-horn profile of several radially confined (relatively narrow accretion rings or belts could be recognized by the planned instruments onboard future satellites (such as the proposed ESA Large Observatory for X-ray Timing.

  13. Audile Eyes and Imaginative Ears-Audio System in Robert Frost’s Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文正

    2014-01-01

    Frost's poems enjoy great popularity among people worldwide. He has written a large number of poems with rich rhyme throughout his career. Frost uses metre and sound devices to reinforce the theme, giving a sense of beauty, and modifying the crude reality. People love his poems, and admire him for his clever using of audio system.

  14. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahed, Hamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farshi, Behrooz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: farshi@iust.ac.ir; Bidabadi, Jalal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far.

  15. Translator’s inferential excursions, with imagination in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a literary work, signals that trigger reader’s inferential excursions allow the reader’s imagination to identify with and control the represented world. They constitute an important element of sense-generating mechanism. Thanks to imagination, the translator imitates the inferential mechanism of the original on various level’s of the text’s structure, activating the imagination of the reader. The translator’s imagination is bi- or multivalent in having the linguistic-semiotic, literary, and cultural quality. Although it manifests itself in language, it goes beyond the boundaries of language. Imagination is a form of consciousness which has no object of its own, and a medium connecting a specific non-imaginary knowledge with representations. It constitutes a mind faculty shaped on the basis of sensory and mental perception. It is derived from individual principles of perception and cognition data processing. It usually requires a stymulus to activate the capabilities of the imagining subject. As a mind faculty, imagination is based on the mental capability common to all people, which is the ability to create chains of associations.Translator’s respect for inferential excursions in the original text is necessary for retaining the original meaning, regardless of whether they occur on the phonetic-phonological level (as in Ionesco’s The Chairs, or on the level of image-semantic and syntactic relations (as in translation of Apollinaire’s Zone, or on the level of syntax (as in translation of Mrożek’s short stories into Slovenian, or on the level of cultural communication (as in Slovenian translation of Gombrowicz’s Trans-Atlantic.

  16. ICA-Based Imagined Conceptual Words Classification on EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Ehsan; Pourmohammad, Ali; Bagheri, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Vida

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been used for detecting and removing the eye artifacts conventionally. However, in this research, it was used not only for detecting the eye artifacts, but also for detecting the brain-produced signals of two conceptual danger and information category words. In this cross-sectional research, electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded using Micromed and 19-channel helmet devices in unipolar mode, wherein Cz electrode was selected as the reference electrode. In the first part of this research, the statistical community test case included four men and four women, who were 25-30 years old. In the designed task, three groups of traffic signs were considered, in which two groups referred to the concept of danger, and the third one referred to the concept of information. In the second part, the three volunteers, two men and one woman, who had the best results, were chosen from among eight participants. In the second designed task, direction arrows (up, down, left, and right) were used. For the 2/8 volunteers in the rest times, very high-power alpha waves were observed from the back of the head; however, in the thinking times, they were different. According to this result, alpha waves for changing the task from thinking to rest condition took at least 3 s for the two volunteers, and it was at most 5 s until they went to the absolute rest condition. For the 7/8 volunteers, the danger and information signals were well classified; these differences for the 5/8 volunteers were observed in the right hemisphere, and, for the other three volunteers, the differences were observed in the left hemisphere. For the second task, simulations showed that the best classification accuracies resulted when the time window was 2.5 s. In addition, it also showed that the features of the autoregressive (AR)-15 model coefficients were the best choices for extracting the features. For all the states of neural network except hardlim discriminator

  17. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids. Normally, our eyes constantly make tears ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  2. TUBERCULOSIS AND THE EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Mycobacteria; Tuberculosis; Eye ... of tuberculous eye disease or ocular tuberculosis has also been raised. Ocular ... patients with ocular complaints, compiled in an area ..... tuberculomas are usually solitary and may measure up.

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  6. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  7. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  8. A Simulation Model of Focus and Radial Servos in Compact Disc Players with Disc Surface Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have been on the market in more than two decades.As a consequence most of the control servo problems have been solved. A large remaining problem to solve is the handling of Compact Discs with severe surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. This paper introduces a method...... for making the design of controllers handling surface defects easier. A simulation model of Compact Disc players playing discs with surface defects is presented. The main novel element in the model is a model of the surface defects. That model is based on data from discs with surface defects. This model...

  9. Post-Main Sequence Evolution of Debris Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, Amy; Wyatt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The population of debris discs on the main sequence is well constrained, however very little is known about debris discs around evolved stars. In this work we provide a theoretical framework that considers the effects of stellar evolution on debris discs; firstly considering the evolution of an individual disc from the main sequence through to the white dwarf phase, then extending this to the known population of debris discs around main sequence A stars. It is found that discs around evolved ...

  10. Thin, thick and dark discs in LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J I; Agertz, O; Debattista, Victor P

    2008-01-01

    In a LCDM cosmology, the Milky Way accretes satellites into the stellar disc. We use cosmological simulations to assess the frequency of near disc plane and higher inclination accretion events, and collisionless simulations of satellite mergers to quantify the final state of the accreted material and the effect on the thin disc. On average, a Milky Way-sized galaxy has 1.5 subhalos with vmax>80km/s; 5 with vmax>60km/s; and 13 with vmax>40km/s merge at redshift z>1. A third of these merge at an impact angle 20 degrees) are twice as likely as low inclination ones. These lead to structures that closely resemble the recently discovered inner/outer stellar halos. They also do more damage to the Milky Way stellar disc creating a more pronounced flare, and warp; both long-lived and consistent with current observations. The most massive mergers (vmax > 80km/s) heat t he thin disc enough to produce a thick disc. These heated thin disc stars are essential for obtaining a thick disc as massive as that seen in the Milky ...

  11. Hygroviscoelasticity of the Human Intervertebral Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    hernia - tion with age depends on the biochemical changes that occur in the material of the disc during its maturation process. However, a careful machanics...EFFORT One of the recurring pieces of information required in disc response is the intra- discal pressure when the spine is loaded axially. This

  12. Hydromagnetic Flow between Two Rotating Coaxial Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aleem Khan

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to the steady flow of an electrically incompressible viscous fluid between two parallel coaxial rotating discs with a transverse magnetic field when the discs are rotating in the same direction with the same velocity and there is a source at the centre.

  13. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans....

  14. Requirements for an artificial intervertebral disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, MF; van Donkelaar, CC; Veldhuizen, AG; van Horn, [No Value; Huyghe, JM; Verkerke, GJ

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is an important social and economic problem. Presently available artificial intervertebral discs (AIDs) are insufficient and the main surgical intervention is still spinal fusion. The objective of the present study is to present a list of requirements for the

  15. Feature Based Control of Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    Two servo control loops are used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track of the Compact Disc. These control servos have problems handling surface faults on the Compact Disc. In this Ph.D thesis a method is proposed to improve the handling of these surface...

  16. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  17. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously

  18. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  19. O Imaginário Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Oliveira Bueno

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estímulos envolvidos na "textura causal" da relação organismo-ambiente não são especificados simplesmente por características físicas externamente definidas, mas como parte de um processamento. Os diversos modos de processamento de estímulos que controlam o comportamento de organismos envolvem estímulos externos, mas também representações internas destes estímulos e de suas relações. A noção de representação está ligada ao processamento de informação codificada pelo organismo e à analise de suas próprias transformações. Estudos com procedimentos de condicionamento Pavloviano têm mostrado que animais operam representações complexas de relações inter-eventos. As propriedades associativas e combinatórias de representações neurais produzem um mecanismo de ativação de agrupamentos celulares hierárquicos, gerando diversidade através de um processo de neuro-seleção. A organização complexa de representações em animais tem paralelo com funções humanas de eventos imaginários e seu estudo contribui para uma concepção de continuidade evolucionária dos mecanismos de percepção e memória entre animais e humanos.Stimuli present in the "causal texture" of the organism-environment relation are not simply specified by physical characteristics externally defined, but as part of a processing. The several ways of stimuli processing which control the behavior of organisms evolve external stimuli and also internal representations of these stimuli and their relations. The notion of representation is related to the processing of information coded by the organism and the analysis of their own transformations. Pavlovian conditioning studies show that animals are able to operate complex representations of inter-event relations. The associative and combinatory properties of neural representation produce a mechanism of activation of hierarchical celular assembly, generating diversity by a neuroseletion processing. The

  20. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Arce, Héctor G

    2014-01-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimeter wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimeter wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution ...